Archive for the ‘C.G. Jung’ Category

荣格:玛哪人格

December 18, 2015

第四章
THE MANA-PERSONALITY
玛哪食粮-人格
374 My initial material for the discussion that now follows is
taken from cases where the condition that was presented in the previous chapter as the immediate goal has been achieved, namely the conquest of the anima as an autonomous complex, and her transformation into a function of relationship between the conscious and the unconscious.

我最初讨论的材料,现在随之而来的是从这些个案获得。在这些个案里,在先前的章节被呈现,作为是立即的目标的条件,已经被完成。也就是说,对阿尼玛的征服,作为具有自主权的情结,以及阿尼玛转化成为意识与无意识之间的关系的功能。

With the attainment of this goal it becomes possible to disengage the ego from all its en¬tanglements with collectivity and the collective unconscious. Through this process the anima forfeits the daemonic power of an autonomous complex; she can no longer exercise the power of possession, since she is depotentiated.

随着这个目标的获得,要将自我跟所有它跟集体与集体无意识的纠缠里脱离出来,就成为可能。通过这个过程,阿尼玛伪装具有自主权的情结的恶魔的力量。她不再运用着魔的力量,因为她被废除潜力。

She is no longer the guardian of treasures unknown; no longer Kundry, daemonic Messenger of the Grail, half divine and half animal; no longer is the soul to be called “Mistress,” but a psychological function of an intuitive nature, akin to what the primitives mean when they say, “He has gone into the forest to talk with the spirits” or “My snake spoke with me” or, in the mythological language of in¬fancy, “A little bird told me.”

她不再是未知财宝的监护人;不再是肯得力,圣杯的恶魔般的信使,一半是神性,一半是动物,她不再是应该被称为“情妇”的灵魂。而是直觉的天性的心理的功能,类似原始民族的意义,当他们说,「他已经进入森林,跟精灵谈话」,或「我的蛇跟我谈话」,或用婴孩的神话的语言,「一只小鸟告诉我」。

375 Those of my r:eaders who know Rider Haggard’s description
of “She-who-must-be-obeyed” will surely recall the magical power of this personality. “She” is a mana-personality, a being full of some occult and bewitching quality (mana), endowed with magical knowledge and power. All these attributes natu¬rally have their source in the naIve projection of an unconscious self-knowledge which, expressed in less poetic terms, would run somewhat as follows: “I recognize that there is some psychic fac¬tor active in me which eludes my conscious will in the most in¬credible manner.

我的那些读者,他们知道哈加得的描述“必须被服从的她”,将确实回想起这个人格的魔术般的力量。“她”是玛哪食粮-人格,充满某个奥秘与令人著魔的特质的人物。所有这些属性当然拥有它们的来源,在无意识的自性的知识的天真的投射。当她们用比较不那么诗意的方式表达,她们将运作如下:「我体认出,有某种的心灵的因素活跃在我身上,这个因素匪夷所思地并非我的意识的意志所能控制。」

227

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

It can put extraordinary ideas into my head, induce in me unwanted and unwelcome moods and emotions, lead me to astonishing actions for which I can accept no respon¬sibility, upset my relations with other people in a very irritating way, etc.

这个因素能够将特殊的观念放进我的脑袋,在我身上引起不被渴望,不受欢迎的心情与情感,引导我从事令人惊奇的行动。对于这个令人惊奇的活动,我无法接受任何的责任。这个因素扰乱到我跟其他人们的关系,用非常令人懊恼的方式,等等。

I feel powerless against this fact and, what is worse, I am in love with it, so that all I can do is marvel.” (Poets often call this the “artistic temperament,” un poetical folk excuse themselves in other ways.)

我感觉没有力量对抗这个事实。更加糟糕的的是,我爱上它。这样,我所能够做的事情就是惊奇。(诗人经常称这个为“艺术家的性情”,没有诗意的人们则是用其它方式,替他们找遁词。

376 Now when the anima loses her mana, what becomes of it?
Clearly the man who has mastered the anima acquires her mana, in accordance with the primitive belief that when a man kills the mana-person he assimilates his mana into his own body.

现在,当阿尼玛丧失她的玛哪食粮,它会发生什么事? 显而易见地,掌控阿尼玛的这个人,获得她的玛哪食粮,以符合原始人的信仰:当一个人杀死玛哪食粮的人,他吸收他的玛哪食粮进入他自己的身体。

377 Well then: who is it that has integrated the anima? Obvi-
ously the conscious ego, and therefore the ego has taken over the mana. Thus the ego becomes a mana-personality.

呵呵,到底是谁融合这个阿尼玛?显而易见地,是意识的自我。因此,自我接管玛哪食粮。因此,自我变成是玛哪食粮的人格。

但是,

But the mana¬personality is a dominant of the collective unconscious, the well¬known archetype of the mighty man in the form of hero, chief, magician, medicine-man, saint, the ruler of men and spirits, the friend of God.

但是,玛哪食粮的人格是集体无意识的支配者,伟大人物的著名的原型,以英雄,酋长,魔法师,巫医,圣人,人与精灵的统治者,上帝的朋友的方式。

378 This masculine collective figure who now rises out of the
dark background and takes possession of the conscious personal¬ity entails a psychic danger of a subtle nature, for by inflating the conscious mind it can destroy everything that was gained by coming to terms with the anima. It is therefore of no little prac¬tical importance to know that in the hierarchy of the unconscious the anima occupies the lowest rank, only one of many pos¬sible figures, and that her subjection constellates another collec¬tive figure which now takes over her mana. Actually it is the figure of the magician, as I will call it for short, who attracts the man a to himself, i.e., the autonomous valency of the anima. Only in so far as I unconsciously identify with his figure can I imagine that I myself possess the anima’s mana. But I will infal¬libly do so under these circumstances.

男性的集体人物现在从黑暗的背景产生,然后拥有意识到人格。他涵盖微妙的特性的心灵的危险。因为凭借膨胀意识的心灵,它能够毁灭每一样被获得的东西,由于跟阿尼玛互相妥协。它因此具有相当实用的重要性,假如我们知的,在无意识的阶层,阿尼玛占据最低的地位。仅是许多可能的人物之中的一位。阿尼玛的臣服汇集另外一个集体的人物。这个人物现在接管她的玛哪食粮。实际上,这是魔术家的人物,如同我简短地称呼它。这位魔术家将会吸引这个玛哪到他自己身上。这是阿尼玛的具有自主权的价值。仅有当我无意识地认同他的人物,我才能够想像我自己拥有阿尼玛的玛哪。但是,我将毫无错误地这样做,在这些情况之下。

379 The figure of the magician has a no less dangerous equiva-
lent in women: a sublime, matriarchal figure, the Great Mother, the All-Merciful, who understands everything, forgives every¬thing, who always acts for the best, living only for others, and never seeking her own interests, the discoverer of the great love, just as the magician is the mouthpiece of the ultimate truth. And just as the great love is never appreciated, so the great wis¬dom is never understood. Neither, of course, can stand the sight of the other.

魔术家的人物在女人身上,拥有一个同样危险的相等物。一个崇高的婚姻的人物,伟大的母亲,仁慈心肠者,她理解一切事情,原谅一切事情,她总是表现最好行为,仅是我别人而活,从来没有寻求她自己的兴趣,她是伟大的爱的发现者。正如魔术家是最终的真理的代言人。正如伟大的爱从来没有被赏识,伟大的智慧也从来没有被理解。当然,伟大的爱与伟大的智慧无法忍受互相目睹。

380 Here is cause for serious misunderstanding, for without a
doubt it is a question of inflation. The ego has appropriated 228

381
382

THE MANA-PERSONALITY
something that does not belong to it. But how has it appropri¬ated the mana? If it was really the ego that conquered the anima, then the mana does indeed belong to it, and it would be correct to conclude that one has become important. But why does not this importance, the mana, work upon others? That would surely be an essential criterion! It does not work because one has not in fact become important, but has merely become adulter¬ated with an archetype, another unconscious figure. Hence we must conclude that the ego never conquered the anima at all and therefore has not acquired the mana. All that has happened is a new adulteration, this time with a figure of the same sex corresponding to the father-imago, and possessed of even greater power.

在此是严重误解的原因。因为假如无可置疑地,这是自我膨胀的问题。自我已经占有某件并不属于它的东西。但是自我如何占有玛哪食粮?那么玛哪食粮确实是属于自我。那是正确的,假如我们的结论是:我们已经成为重要。但是,为什么这个重要,这个玛哪没有运作在别人身上?那确实是一个基本的标准!玛哪没有运作,确实不是因为我们事实上没有变得重要,而是我们仅是变得跟一种原型混杂,跟另外一个无意识的人物混杂。因此,我们必须下结论:自我从来没有征服阿尼玛,因此,自我从来没有获得阿尼玛。所有曾经发生的事情,是新的混杂。这次是跟相同性别的人物的混杂。它对应于父亲的意象,并且拥有更大的力量。
From the power that binds all creatures none is free Except the man who wins self-mastery! 1
无人能免除约束所有动物的力量,
除了赢得自我掌控的人
Thus he becomes a superman, superior to all powers, a demigod at the very least. “I and the Father are one”-this mighty avowal in all its awful ambiguity is born of just such a psychological moment.

因此,他成为超人,比起所有的力量还优秀,至少是半神性的人。「我与天父成为一体—这个伟大的宣誓,尽管含混模糊,就是诞生于如此心灵的时刻。」

In the face of this, our pitiably limited ego, if it has but a spark of self-knowledge, can only draw back and rapidly drop all pretence of power and importance. It was a delusion: the conscious mind has not become master of the unconscious, and the anima has forfeited her tyrannical power only to the extent that the ego was able to come to terms with the unconscious. This accommodation, however, was not a victory of the con¬scious over the unconscious, but the establishment of a balance of power between the two worlds.

面对这个时刻,我们有限得可怜的自我,即使它具有仅是认识自性的火花,自我仅能够缩回,然后迅速地抛弃权力与重要性的伪装。那个伪装是个幻觉:意识的心灵还没有成为无意识的掌控者。仅有当自我能够跟无意识达成妥协,阿尼玛才算是已经放弃她的暴君的权力。可是,这个包容并不是意识战胜无意识。而是建立权力的平衡,在两个世界之间。

Hence the “magician” could take possession of the ego only because the ego dreamed of victory over the anima. That dream was an encroachment, and every encroachment of the ego is followed by an encroachment from the unconscious:

因此,这位“魔术家”能够拥有自我,仅是因为自我梦想战胜阿尼玛。那个梦想是一种侵犯。而自我的每次的侵犯后面都跟随着从无意识的侵犯。
Changing shape from hour to hour I employ my savage power.2

每个时刻改变形状,
我运用我的野性的权力。

1 Goethe, “Die Geheimnis~e: Ein Fragment,” 1ine~ 191-9%.
2 Faust, trans. by Louis MacNeice, p. 282 (Part 11, Act V), modified.
229

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS Consequently, if the ego drops its claim to victory, possession by the magician ceases automatically. But what happens to the mana? Who or what becomes mana when even the magician can no longer work magic? So far we only know that neither the conscious nor the unconscious has mana, for it is certain that when the ego makes no claim to power there is no possession, that is to say, the unconscious too loses its ascendency. In this situation the inana must have fallen to something that is both conscious and unconscious, or else neither. This something is the desired “mid-point” of the personality, that ineffable some¬thing betwixt the opposites, or else that which unites them, or the result of conflict, or the product of energic tension: the com¬ing to birth of personality, a profoundly individual step for¬ward, the next stage.

结果,假如自我抛掉它对战胜的宣称,被魔术家的拥有就会自动地停止。但是,这个玛哪食粮会发生什么事?阿尼玛会成为谁?或会成为什么?当即使谁魔术家都不再能够运用魔术?迄今,我们仅是知道,无论是意识,或是无意识,它们都没有拥有阿尼玛?因为确定的是,当自我并没有宣称要有权力时,拥有就不存在。换句话说,无意识也丧失它的优越性。在这个情况,玛哪食粮一定是已经掉入某件既是意识,又是无意识的东西。或者,两者都没有。这个某件东西就是人格的被渴望的“中间点”。那是无情的某件东西,处于对立力量的中间。或者是统合它们的东西,或是冲突的结果,或是能源的紧张的产物:人格的诞生,是深刻的个人前进的一步,下一个阶段。

383 I do not expect the reader to have followed this rapid survey
of the whole problem in all its parts. He may regard it as a kind of preliminary statement leading up to the more closely rea¬soned analysis which now follows.

我并不期待读者钜细无遗地遵循这整个难题的迅速审视。读者可能将它视为是一种初级的陈述,将会导致跟随而来的更加合理一致的分析。

384 The starting-point of our problem is the condition which re-
sults when the unconscious contents that are the efficient cause of the animus and anima phenomenon have become sufficiently assimilated to the conscious mind. This can best be represented in the following way: the unconscious contents are, in the first instance, things belonging to the personal sphere, similar per¬haps to the fantasy of the male patient quoted above. Subse¬quently, fantasies from the impersonal unconscious develop, containing essentially collective symbols more or less similar to the vision of my woman patient.

我们的难题的出发点就是结果的情况,当无意识的内容已经充分地被吸收到意识的心灵。因为无意识的内容是阿尼玛斯与阿尼玛的现象的有效的原因。这用以下的方式,最能够被代表:无意识的内容,在第一个情况,是属于个人的范围的事情。或许类似于以上引述的男性病人的幻想。随意,从非个人的无意识的幻想开始发展,包含基本上是集体的象征,相当类似于我的女病人的幻景。

These fantasies are not so wild and unregulated as a naive intelligence might think; they pur¬sue definite, unconscious lines of direction which converge upon a definite goal. We could therefore most fittingly describe these later series of fantasies as processes of initiation, since these form the closest analogy. All primitive groups and tribes that are in any way organized have their rites of initiation, often very highly developed, which play an extraordinarily important part in their social and religious life.3 Through these ceremonies boys are made men, and girls women. The Kavirondos stigma¬tize those who do not submit to circumcision and excision as “animals.” This shows that the initiation ceremonies are a magical means of leading man from the animal state to the human state.
lllag¬3 Cf. Webster, primitive Secret Societies (1908).

这些幻想并不是如天真的聪明人所以为,是狂乱而没有规范。他们追寻明确的,无意识的方向脉络。 这些方向脉络汇集朝向一个明确的目标。我们因此最为合适地描述这些后来系列的幻想,作为是成年礼的过程。因为它们形成最靠近的类比。所有的原始的团体与部落,都拥有他们的成年礼的仪式。经常说高度被发展。它们扮演特殊重要的角色,在他们的社会与宗教的生活。通过这些典礼,男孩成为成年人,女孩成为女人。卡危洛罗道斯人认为那些人们是有污点的,假如他们并没接受割包皮与切阴蒂的仪式,作为是“动物”。这显示,成年礼是魔术的工具,引导人们从动物的状态,到成为人的状态。
23°

THE MANA-PERSONALlTY
They are clearly transformation mysteries of the greatest spiritual significance. Very often the initiands are subjected to excruciating treatment, and at the same time the tribal myster¬ies are imparted to them, the laws and hierarchy of the tribe on the one hand, and on the other the cosmogonic and mythical doctrines. Initiations have survived among all cultures. In Greece the ancient Eleusinian mysteries were preserved, it seems, right into the seventh century of our era. Rome was flooded with mystery religions. Of these Christianity was one, and even in its present form it still preserves the old initiation ceremonies, somewhat faded and degenerated, in the rites of baptism, confirmation, and communion. Hence nobody is in a position to deny the enormous historical importance of initia¬tions.

它们显而易见是具有最伟大的精神的意义的转化的神秘。经常,参加成年礼的人们被隶属于严苛的对待,同时,部落的神秘被传授给他们。一方面,这是部落的这些法则与阶层。另一方面,这是宇宙起源与神秘的信条。成年礼曾经存活于所有的文化里。在希腊,古代的阿留西尼人的神秘被保存下来,似乎,一直到我们的时代的第七世纪。罗马泛滥着各种的神秘的宗教。基督教是这些宗教的其中一个。即使在它目前的形式,基督教依旧保留古老的成年礼的仪式,虽然有点褪色与退化,在洗礼的仪式里,坚信礼,与见证礼。因此,没有人拥有这个立场来否认,成年礼具有巨大的历史的重要性。

385 Modern men have absolutely nothing to compare with this
(consider the testimonies of the ancients in regard to the Eleu¬sinian mysteries). Freemasonry, l’ Eglise gnostique de la France} legendary Rosicrucians, theosophy, and so forth are all feeble substitutes for something that were better marked up in red let¬ters on the historical casualty list. The fact is that the whole symbolism of initiation rises up, clear and unmistakable, in the unconscious contents.

假如我们考虑到,关于阿留西尼人的神秘,古代人的那些证词。现代人们绝对没有拥有任何可以跟这个相提并论的东西。同理教,玫瑰经教派,神秘教派,等等,都是某件东西的微弱的替代品。在历史的伤亡的名单,它们被用红色字母标记。

The objection that this is antiquated su¬perstition and altogether unscientific is about as intelligent as remarking, in the presence of a cholera epidemic, that it is merely an infectious disease and exceedingly unhygienic. The point is not-I cannot be too emphatic about this-whether the initiation symbols are objective truths, but whether these un¬conscious contents are or are not the equivalents of initiation practices, and whether they do or do not influence the human psyche. Nor is it a question of whether they are desirable or not. It is enough that they exist and that they work.

有人反对说,这是古代的迷信,完全不合乎科学。这种反对的合理性,就像是面临霍乱瘟疫时,侃侃而谈说,那是流行疾病,极端不卫生。重点并不是—对于这点,我无论如何强调也不过分—成年礼的象征是客观的真理与非,重点是,这些无意识的内容是或不是成年礼的实践的相等物。它们影响或没有影响人类的心灵。问题也不是它们是否被渴望与否。他们存在,它们发挥效用,这就足够了。

386 Since it is not possible in this connection to put before the
reader in detail these sometimes very lengthy sequences of im¬ages, I trust he will be content with the few examples already given and, for the rest, accept my statement that they are logi¬cally constructed, purposive sequences. I must own that I use the word “purposive” with some hesitation. This word needs to be used cautiously and with reserve. For in mental cases we come across dream-sequences, and in neurotics fantasy- sequences, which run on in themselves with no apparent aim or purpose.

关于这点,因为不可能在读者面前,详细提出这些有时相的冗长的系列的意象。我相信读者将会满意于已经被举出的少数的例子。其余的部分,请读者接受我的陈述,它们按照逻辑被建构,具有目的的系列。我必须承认,我使用“有目的”这个字词,有点犹豫。这个字词需要谨慎而且保留地被使用。因为在精神的个案里,我们遭遇梦的系列。在神经症,幻想的系列。它们在自己本身运作,并没有明显的目标或目的。
231

‘tHE RELAT10NS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

The young man whose suicide fantasy I gave above was in a fair way to produce a string of aimless fantasies, unless he could learn to take an active part and to intervene consciously. Only thus could there be orientation to a goal. From one point of view the unconscious is a purely natural process without de¬sign, but from another it has that potential directedness which is characteristic of all energy processes. When the conscious mind participates actively and experiences each stage of the process, or at least understands it intuitively, then the next image always starts off on the higher level that has been won, and purposive¬ness develops.

我以上给予的年轻人的自杀的幻想,很合理会产生一连串的无目的地幻想。除非他能够学会主动参与,并且意识地介入。仅有这样,才能够有到达目标的定向。从某个观点,无意识是一个纯粹自然的没有设计的过程。但是,从另外一个观点,它具有那种潜力的引导,那是所有的能源的过程的特征。当意识的心灵主动参与,并且经验这个过程的每个阶段。或至少直觉地理解它。那么,下一个意象总是在已经被赢得的较高的层次开始。然后具有目的感地发展。

387 The immediate goal of the analysis of the unconscious,
therefore, is to reach a state where the unconscious contents no longer remain unconscious and no longer express themselves in¬directly as animus and anima phenomena; that is to say, a state in which animus and anima become functions of relationship to the unconscious. So long as they are not this, they are autono¬mous complexes, disturbing factors that break through the con¬scious control and act like true “disturbers of the peace.” Be¬cause this is such a well-known fact my term “complex,” as used in this sense, has passed into common speech.

无意识的精神分析的当下的目标,因此是要到达一个状态。在那个状态,无意识的内容不再保持是无意识,也不再间接地表达它们自己,作为是阿尼玛斯与阿尼玛的现象。换句话说,在这一个状态,阿尼玛斯与阿尼玛变成是跟无意识的关系的功能。只有它们并不是这个功能,它们就是具有自主权的情结,扰乱的因素突破意识的控制,并且行动,像个真实的和平的“扰乱者”。因为这是如此众所周知的事实,我的术语“情结”,被用在这个意义,已经成为通俗的言说。

The more “com¬plexes” a man has, the more he is possessed; and when we try to form a picture of the personality which expresses itself through his complexes we must admit that it resembles nothing so much as an hysterical woman-i.e., the animal But if such a man makes himself conscious of his unconscious contents, as they appear firstly in the factual contents of his personal unconscious, and then in the fantasies of the collective unconscious, he will get to the roots of his complexes, and in this way rid himself of his possession. With that the anima phenomenon comes to a stop.

一个人拥有更多的“情结”,他就越被著魔。当我们尝试形成人格的画面。这个人格表达它自己,通过他的情结。我们必须承认,它最类似的东西,莫过于癔症的女人,譬如,动物。但是,假如一个人让他自己知道他的个人的无意识,然后在集体无意识的幻想里,他将会到达他的情结的根源。用这个方式,他替自己摆脱掉他的著魔。随着摆脱著魔,阿尼玛的现象就逐渐停止。

388 That superior power, however, which caused the possession
-for what I cannot shake off must in some sense be superior to me-should, logically, disappear with the anima. One should then be “complex-free,” psychologically house-trained, so to speak. Nothing more should happen that is not sanctioned by the ego, and when the ego wants something, nothing should be capable of interfering. The ego would thus be assured of an im¬pregnable position, the steadfastness of a superman or the sub¬limity of a perfect sage. Both figures are ideal images: Napoleon on the one hand, Lao-tzu on the other.

可是,引起著魔的那个较为优秀的力量—因为我无法摆脱的东西,在某个意义上,必须比我优秀—在逻辑上,应该是会随着阿尼玛消失。我们因此应该“免除-情结”,心理上接受在家训练。凡是没有被自我认可的东西,就不应该发生。当自我想要某件东西时,没有任何东西能够干涉。自我因此将会确定具有免除被攻击的立场,超人的坚定,或是完美圣者的崇高。两个人物都是理想的形象:一方面是拿破仑,另一方面是老子。
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THE MANA-PERSONALITY
Both are consistent with the idea of “the extraordinarily potent,” which is the term that Lehmann, in his celebrated monograph,4 uses for his definition of mana. I therefore call such a personality simply the mana-personality. It corresponds to a dominant of the collective un¬conscious, to an archetype which has taken shape in the human psyche through untold ages of just that kind of experience. Primitive man does not analyse and does not work out why an¬other is superior to him. If another is cleverer and stronger than he, then he has mana, he is possessed of a stronger power; and by the same token he can lose this power, perhaps because someone has walked over him in his sleep, or stepped on his shadow.

两者都是一贯的,跟”特殊的潜力的观念。这是雷曼使用的术语,在他的著名的论文,作为他对于玛哪食粮的定义。我因此称每一位这样的人格,仅是“玛哪食粮人格”。它对应于集体无意识的支配因素,对应于在人类的心灵已经成型的原型,通过无数的年代的仅是那种的经验。原始民族并没有分析,也没有理解,为什么另外一个人格比他优秀。假如另外一个人格比他更加聪明,更加强壮,那么他拥有玛哪食粮。他拥有更加强壮的力量。同样地,他能够丧失这个力量,或是因为某个人曾经在他睡觉时,从他上面走过,或是踩踏他的阴影。

389 Historically, the mana-personality evolves into the hero and
the godlike being,5 whose earthly form is the priest. How very much the doctor is still mana is the whole plaint of the analyst! But in so far as the ego apparently draws to itself the power belonging to the anima, the ego does become a mana-personal¬ity. This development is an almost regular phenomenon.

从历史上看,这个玛哪-人格进化成为英雄,以及类似神性的人。他们的人间的形态就是僧侣。医生有多少程度是玛哪人格,那是精神分析为了惋叹不已!但是因为自我显而易见将属于阿尼玛的力量归属他自己,自我确实变成玛哪-人格。这个发展几乎是规律的现象。

I have never yet seen a fairly advanced development of this kind where at least a temporary identification with the archetype of the mana-personaJity did not take place. It is the most natural thing in the world that this should happen, for not only does one ex¬pect it oneself, but everybody else expects it too.

我从来没有看见过一个诸如其类的非常进步的发展。在那里,至少,暂时地认同玛哪-人格的原型,并没有发生。这是世界上最自然的事情,这种事情应该发生。因为我们不但自己期望它,而且每位其他的人也期望它。

One can scarcely help admiring oneself a little for having seen more deeply into things than others, and the others have such an urge to find a tangible hero somewhere, or a superior wise man, a leader and father, some undisputed authority, that they build temples to little tin gods with the greatest promptitude and burn incense upon the altars.

我们几乎忍不住地稍微崇拜我们自己,因为我们已经比起别人更加深刻地看见事。其余的人们渴望想要在某个地方,找到一位具体的英雄,或是一位比较优秀的聪明的人,一位领导者与父亲,某个无可争议的权威。所以,他们非常迅速地建造庙宇,给小型的铝制的众神像,并且在祭坛上,点燃香火。

This is not just the lamentable stupidity of idolaters incapable of judging for themselves, but a natural psychological law which says that what has once been will always be in the future. And so it will be, unless conscious¬ness puts an end to the naIve concretization of primordial im-ages. I do not know whether it is desirable that consciousness should alter the eternal laws; I only know that occasionally it does alter them, and that this measure is a vital necessity for some people-which, however, does not always prevent these same people from setting themselves up on the father’s throne and making the old rule come true. It is indeed hard to see how one can escape the sovereign power of the primordial images.

这不仅是崇拜偶像者的令人哀叹的愚蠢,他们不能够独立从事判断。但是,这是一个自然的心理的法则说:曾经一度存在的东西,将总是在未来。它将总是在未来,除非意识结束这种天真的具体表现原始的意象。我并不知道,它是否被渴望,意识竟然改变这些永恒的法则。我仅是知道,偶然,意识确实改变永恒的法则。这个衡量至关紧要,对于某些人们。可是,这些人们并未总是阻止这些相同的人们,不要在父亲的王位上建立他们自己,并且不让古老法则成为真实。我们确实很困难看出,我们如何能够逃避这个原初的意象的统辖的力量。

4 Lehmann, Mana (1922).
5 According to popular belief, the Most Christian King could cure epilepsy with his mana by the laying on of hands.
233

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

390 Actually I do not believe it can be escaped. One can only
alter one’s attitude and thus save oneself from naively falling into an archetype and being forced to act a part at the expense of one’s humanity. Possession by an archetype turns a man into a flat collective figure, a mask behind which he can no longer de¬velop as a human being, but becomes increasingly stunted. One must therefore beware of the danger of falling victim to the dominant of the mana-personality. The danger lies not only in oneself becoming a father-mask, but in being overpowered by this mask when worn by another. Master and pupil are in the same boat in this respect.

实际上,我并不相信,它能够被逃避。我们仅能够改变我们的态度,因此,拯救我们自己不要天真地掉入一种原型,不要被迫扮演一个角色,而牺牲人性作为代价。被某个原型著魔,会将一个人转换成为一个扁平的集体的人物,在这样一个面具背后,他不再发展,作为一个人。而是变成越来越低劣。我们因此必须小心这个危险:成为玛哪-人格的支配者的受害者。这个危险不但在于自己变成父亲-面具,而且在于我们会被这个面具压倒,当这个面具被另外一个人所戴时。老师与学生在这方面,是命运相同。

391 The dissolution of the anima means that we have gained in-
sight into the driving forces of the unconscious, but not that we have made these forces ineffective. They can attack us at any time in new form. And they will infallibly do so if the conscious attitude has a flaw in it. It’s a question of might against might. If the ego presumes to wield power over the unconscious, the un¬conscious reacts with a subtle attack, deploying the dominant of the mana-personality, whose enormous prestige casts a spell over the ego. Against this the only defence is full confession of one’s ‘weakness in face of the powers of the unconscious. By opposing no force to the unconscious we do not provoke it to attack.

阿尼玛的瓦解意味著,我们已经获得洞见,对无意识的驱动的力量。但是并不意味着,我们已经让这些力量没有效力。他们能够随时攻击我们,以新的形态。他们没有错误地这样做,假如无意识的态度本身具有暇疵。问题是:强权对抗强权。假如自我胆敢运用力量控制无意识,无意识会反应,用微妙的攻击,运用玛哪-人格的这个支配者。它的巨大的威望对于自我投下魔力。对抗这个魔力,唯一的防卫是充分坦白自己的弱点,当面临无意识的力量。凭借不对无意识反对任何力量,我们才不会引起它攻击。

392 It may sound rather comical to the reader if I speak of the
unconscious in this personal way. I hope I shall not arouse the prejudice that I regard the unconscious as something personal. The unconscious consists of natural processes that lie outside the sphere of the human personality.

读者听起来,可能相当滑稽,假如我谈论无意识,用这个私人的方式。我希望我将不会引起这个偏见:我将无意识视为是某件个人的东西。无意识在于自然的过程,横展在人的人格的范围之外。

Only our conscious mind is “personal.” Therefore when I speak of “provoking” the uncon¬scious I do not mean that it is offended and-like the gods of old-rises up to smite the offender in jealous anger or revenge. What I mean is more like an error in psychic diet which upsets the equilibrium of my digestion. The unconscious reacts auto¬matically like my stomach which, in a manner of speaking, wreaks its revenge upon me.

仅有我们的意思是“个人”的。因此,当我谈论“触发“无意识,我并没有意味著,它被冒犯—像古老的众神一样—它产生是为了要用妒忌的愤怒或报复,打击冒犯者。我的意思更像是心灵饮食的错误,因为它扰乱我的消化的平衡。无意识自动地反应行动,就像是我的胃。以言说的方式,我的胃对我发表它的报复。

When I presume to have power over the unconscious, that is like a dietary solecism, an unseemly attitude which in the interests of one’s own well-being were bet¬ter avoided. My unpoetical comparison is, if anything, far too mild in view of the far-reaching and devastating moral effects of a disordered unconscious. In this regard it would be more fitting to speak of the wrath of offended gods.

当我假定对于无意识拥有权力时,那就像饮食的笨拙行为,以不合宜的态度。为了我们自己的幸福的利益,它们最好被避免。我的欠缺诗意的比较,未免太过于温和,假如从深远而毁灭性的道德的影响,对于失序的无意识。关于这一点,那将是更加的适合,假如我们谈论被冒犯的众神的愤怒。
234

THE MAN A-PERSONALITY

393 In differentiating the ego from the archetype of the mana-
personality one is now forced, exactly as in the case of the anima, to make conscious those contents which are specific of the mana¬personality. Historically, the mana-personality is always in pos¬session of the secret name, or of some esoteric knowledge, or has the prerogative of a special way of acting-quod licet Jovi, non licet bovi-in a word, it has an individual distinction.

当我们区别自我跟玛哪人格的原型的不同 我们现在被迫,确实在阿尼玛的情况,要让那些内容知道,玛哪人格的那些明确的内容。从历史而言,玛哪人格总是拥有秘密的名字,或是拥有奥秘的知识,或是拥有特别方式的特权:acting-quod licet Jovi, non licet bov(乔比被容许,未必每个人都容许)—总之,它拥有个人的区别。

Conscious realization of the contents composing it means, for the man, the second and real liberation from the father, and, for the woman, liberation from the mother, and with it comes the first genuine sense of his or her true individuality. This part of the process corresponds exactly to the aim of the concretistic primitive initi¬ations up to and including baptism, namely, severance from the “carnal” (or animal) parents, and rebirth in novam infantiam, into a condition of immortality and spiritual childhood, as formulated by certain mystery religions of the ancient world, among them Christianity.

对于这男人,组成这个区别的内容,在意识的实现,意味着第二次与真实地从父亲解放。对于女人,意味着从母亲解放。随着解放而来,是第一次真诚的他或她的个体性的感觉。这个过程的这个部分确实对应于具体的原始民族的成年礼的目标,甚至包含洗礼。换句话说,跟“具体化身”或动物的父亲脱离。婴孩般的重生进入永生与精神的童年的情况。如同古代世界的某些神秘的宗教所阐述,其中包含基督教。

394 It is now quite possible that, instead of identifying with the
man a-personality, one will concretize it as an extramundane “Father in Heaven,” complete with the attribute of absoluteness -something that many people seem very prone to do.

现在,这是完全可能的,非但没有认同玛哪-人格,我们将会具体表现它,作为是非世俗的“天上的父亲”,再加上绝对化的属性—这些很多人们倾向于做的事情。

This would be tantamount to giving the unconscious a supremacy that was just as absolute (if one’s faith could be pushed that far!), so that all value would flow over to that side.6 The logi¬cal result is that the only thing left behind here is a miserable, inferior, worthless, and sinful little heap of humanity. This so¬lution, as we know, has become an historical world view.

这将是相等于是给予无意识一个同样是绝对的崇高地位,(假如一个人的信仰能够被逼迫到那个程度!)这样,所有的价值将会流动到那一边。逻辑的结果是,在此唯一被剩余下来的东西,将是一个悲惨,没有价值,而且有原罪的一点人性。我们知道,这种解决已经变成是历史的世界观。

6 “Absolute” means “cut off,” “detached.” To assert that God is absolute amounts to placing him outside all connection with mankind. Man cannot affect him, or he man. Such a God would be of no consequence at all. We can in fairness only speak of a God who is relative to man, as man is to God. The Christian idea of God as a “father in Heaven” puts God’s relativity in exquisite form. Quite apart from the fact that a man can know even less about God than an ant can know of the contents of the British Museum, this urge to regard God as “abso¬lute” derives solely from the fear that God might become “psychological.” This would naturally be dangerous. An absolute God, on the other hand, does not concern us in the least, whereas a “psychological” God would be real. This kind of God could reach man. The Church seems to be a magical instrument for protecting man against this eventuality, since it is written: “It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.”
235

395
396

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
As I am moving here on psychological ground only, and feel no in-clination whatever to dictate my eternal truths to the world at large, I must observe, by way of criticizing this solution, that if I shift all the highest values over to the side of the unconscious, thus converting it into a summum bonum, I am then placed in the unfortunate position of having to discover a devil of equal weight and dimensions who could act as the psychological counterbalance to my summum bonum. Under no circum-stances, however, will my modesty allow me to identify myself with the devil. That would be altogether too presumptuous and would, moreover, bring me into unbearable conflict with my highest values. Nor, with my moral deficit, can I possibly afford it.

因为我在此仅是在心理学的领域移动,并且没有感觉有任何倾向,要将我的永恒的真理,指示给一般的世界。我必须观察,凭借批评这个解决方法,假如我转移所有最高的价值,转移到无意识的这边,那么我会将它转移成为是是“最崇高的善”。我因此被放置在不幸的立场,我必须发现一位同等份量,同等维度的恶魔。他能够行为,依照心理的反-平衡,跟我的“最崇高的善”。可是,无论如何,我的谦虚将不会容许我认同于这个恶魔。那将是过度逾越,而且,将会将我带人无法忍受的冲突,跟我最高的价值。即使用我的道德的借贷,我也不可能供应得起。

On psychological grounds, therefore, I would recommend that no God be constructed out of the archetype of the mana-personality. In other words, he must not be concretized, for only thus can I avoid projecting my values and non-values into God and Devil, and only thus can I preserve my human dignity, my specific gravity, which I need so much if I am not to become the unresisting shuttlecock of unconscious forces. In his dealings with the visible world, a man must certainly be mad to suppose that he is master of this world. Here we follow, quite naturally, the principle of non-resistance to all superior forces, up to a cer¬tain individual limit, beyond which the most peaceful citizen becomes a bloody revolutionary.

因此,根据心理学的理由,我将推荐:从玛哪-人格的原型,上帝不应该被建构出来。换句话说,上帝一定不要被具体表现。因为仅有这样,我才能够避免投射我的价值与非-价值,进入上帝与魔鬼身上。仅有这样,我才能保持我的人的尊严,我的明确的地心引力。我如此地需要它们,假如我不想要成为无法抗拒的无意识的力量的羽毛球。当一个人在处理可看得见的世界时,他一定是疯狂,他才会假设:他是世界的主人。在此,我们跟随,相当自然地,非抗拒的原则,对于所有的较优秀的力量。一直到某个个人的限制。超越这个限制,即使是最和平的市民也变成是流血的革命份子。

Our bowing down before law and order is a commendable example of what our general atti-tude to the collective unconscious should be. (“Render unto Caesar. … “) Thus far our obeisance would not be too diffi-cult. But there are other factors in the world to which our con-science does not give unqualified assent-and yet we bow to them. Why? Because in practice it is more expedient than the reverse. Similarly there are factors in the unconscious with re-gard to which we must be worldly-wise (“Resist not eviL” “Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteous-ness.” “The children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light.” Ergo: “Be ye therefore wise as ser¬pents and harmless as doves.”)

我们的遵循法则与秩序是可称赞的例子,这是我们的一般对于集体无意识的态度应该的样子。(凯撒的归因凯撒)。迄今,我们的服从将是不会太过于困难。但是,世界上还有其他因素,我们的良心不会给予无条件的认同—可是,我们还是屈从它们。为什么?因为实际上,屈从比起反抗是更加方便。同样地,在无意识,有一些因素,关于这些因素,我们必须要有世俗的智慧。(”识时务者为俊杰”, “好汉别擋人财路“,”园滑者腾达,坚守原则者不得志”),如艾苟所说:”“学习蛇般狡猾,鸽子般无害“。

The mana-personality is on one side a being of superior wis¬dom, on the other a being of superior will. By making conscious the contents that underlie this personality, we find ourselves obliged to face the fact that we have learnt more and want more than other people. This uncomfortable kinship with the gods, as we know, struck so deep into poor Angelus Silesius’ bones that it sent him flying out of his super-Protestantism, past the precari¬ous halfway house of the Lutherans, back to the nethermost womb of the dark Mother-unfortunately very much to the det¬riment of his lyrical gifts and the health of his nerves.

玛哪-人格在一方面是优秀智慧的人物;另一方面,他说优秀意志1的人物。凭借让作为人格基础的内容被知道,我们发现我们自己被迫面对这个事实:我们比起别人已经学习更多,而且想要的更多。这个不幸的跟众神做亲属,我们知道,会让可怜的安吉拉 西列席思如此刻骨铭心,以致这让他从超级-基督教脱离出来,穿越恶魔们的不稳定的中途之家,回到黑暗的大地之母的阴间子宫。结果,让他的抒情的天赋与神经的健康大受损害。

236

397
398

THE MANA-PERSONALITY
And yet Christ, and Paul after him, wrestled with these same problems, as a number of clues still make evident. Meister Eck-hart, Goethe in his Faust, Nietzsche in his Zamthustm, have again brought this problem somewhat closer to us. Goethe and Nietzsche try to solve it by the idea of mastery, the former through the figure of the magician and ruthless man of will who makes a pact with the devil, the latter through the masterman and supreme sage who knows neither God nor devil. With Nie-tzsche man stands alone, as he himself did, neurotic, financially dependent, godless, and worldless.

可是,追随他之后的耶稣基督,圣保罗,则是博斗这些相同的难题,如同许多的线索依旧表明的。欧克哈得,歌德在他的“浮士德”“尼采在他的“扎拉哲思特拉”, 都再次地尝试要解决这个难题。,凭借掌控的观念。前者通过魔法师的人物,与意志的无情的人,他跟恶魔订下盟约,后者通过智慧大师与崇高的圣贤,他既不知道上帝,也不知道恶魔。对于尼采,人是单独站立,如同他自己所为,神经症,财政上依赖,没有神,没有世界。

This is no ideal for a real man who has a family to support and taxes to pay. Nothing can argue the reality of the world out of existence, there is no miraculous way round it. Similarly, nothing can argue the effects of the un¬conscious out of existence. Or can the neurotic philosopher prove to us that he has no neurosis? He cannot prove it even to himself.’ Therefore we stand with our soul suspended between formidable influences from within and from without, and some-how we must be fair to both. This we can do only after the meas-ure of our individual capacities. Hence we must bethink our-selves not so much of what we “ought” to do as of what we can and must do.

这并不是现实的人的理想。因为他有家庭要供养,有税金要偿付。世界的现实的存在,是无可争议的事实。没有什么奇迹的方式可以绕过他。同样地,无意识的影响的存在,也是无可争议的。难道神经症的哲学家能够跟我们证明,他并没有神经症吗?他甚至无法跟他自己证明。因此,我们站立,灵魂却悬置在可怕的影响,来自内部与来自外部。用某种方法,我们必须公平处理两者。我们能够这样做,仅有经过我们的个人的能够的衡量。因此,我们必须三思而后行,不是思维我们“应该“怎么做,而是思维我们”能够“以及”必须“做什么。

Thus the dissolution of the mana-personality through con-scious assimilation of its contents leads us, by a natural route, back to ourselves as an actual, living something, poised between two world-pictures and their darkly discerned potencies. This “something” is strange to us and yet so near, wholly ourselves and yet unknowable, a virtual centre of so mysterious a constitu-tion that it can claim anything-kinship with beasts and gods, with crystals and with stars-without moving us to wonder, without even exciting our disapprobation. This “something” claims all that and more, and having nothing in our hands that could fairly be opposed to these claims, it is surely wiser to listen to this voice.

因此,玛哪-人格的瓦解,经由吸收它的内容会引导我们,经由自然的途径,回到我们自己,作为一个实际的活生生的东西,平衡于两个的世界-画面之间,以及它们的黑暗中被区别的潜力。这个“某件东西“对于我们是奇怪的,可是又如此靠近,完全就是我们,可是,又无法被知道。这一个虚拟的中心,是如此神秘的构造,以致于它能够宣称任何事情—包括跟野兽与众神是亲属,跟水晶球与星球是亲属是亲属。但是,它又没有感动我们去惊奇,甚至没有激发我们的遣责。这个“某件东西”宣称那一切,而且更多。由于我们手边并没有拥有任何东西能够公平地反对这些宣称,倾听这个声音确实是比较明智之举。

237、

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
399 I have called this centre the self. Intellectually the self is no
more than a psychological concept, a construct that serves to ex¬press an unknowable essence which we cannot grasp as such, since by definition it transcends our powers of comprehension. It might equally well be called the “God within us.” The begin¬nings of our whole psychic life seem to be inextricably rooted in this point, and all our highest and ultimate purposes seem to be striving towards it. This paradox is unavoidable, as always, when we try to define something that lies beyond the bourn of our understanding.

我曾经称这个中心为自性。从知识层面言,自性仅是一个心理的观念,一个建构,用来表达无法被知道的本质。我们无法理解这个本质的本身。因为定义上,它超越我们的理解的力量。自性很有理由同样被称为“我们内在的上帝”。我们整个的心灵的生活的开始,似乎无可摆脱地根源于这一点。所有我们的最高与最后的目的,似乎是朝向它而追寻。这个悖论是无可避免的,如同经常那样,当我们尝试定义某件超越我们的理解的范围的东西。

400 I hope it has become sufficiently clear to the attentive reader
that the self has as much to do with the ego as the sun with the earth. They are not interchangeable. Nor does it imply a deifica¬tion of man or a dethronement of God. What is beyond our un¬derstanding is in any case beyond its reach. When, therefore, we make use of the concept of a God we are simply formulating a definite psychological fact, namely the independence and sover¬eignty of certain psychic contents which express themselves by their power to thwart our will, to obsess our consciousness and to influence our moods and actions.

我希望它已经变得充分地清楚,对于专注的读者,自性跟自我有密切的关系,如同太阳跟地球。它们是无法互相交换。它也没有暗示人的成为神,或上帝被废黜。超越我们的理解力的东西,无论如何,就是我们的理解力无法理解。因此,当我们使用上帝的这个观念,我们仅是阐述一个明确的心理的事实。换句话说,某些心灵的内容的独立与统治。它们表达它们自己,凭借它们的力量,阻碍我们的意志,著魔我们的意识,并且影响我们的心情与行动。

We may be outraged at the idea of an inexplicable mood, a nervous disorder, or an uncon¬trollable vice being, so to speak, a manifestation of God. But it would be an irreparable loss for religious experience if such things, perhaps even evil things, were artificially segregated from the sum of autonomous psychic contents. It is an apotro¬paic euphemism7 to dispose of these things with a “nothing but” explanation. In that way they are merely repressed, and as a rule only an apparent advantage is gained, a new twist given to illusion.

我们可能感到愤怒,想到不可思议的心情,神经症的失序,或无法控制的邪恶的存在。也就是说,上帝的展示。但是,这将是无可弥补的损失,对于宗教的经验。假如这些事情,或许即使是邪恶的事情,用人为方式,跟具有自主权的心灵的众多内容分离开来。这是一种幸运的委婉语,为了摆脱这些仅是解释的东西。用那个方式,他们仅是感到沮丧。通常,仅是表面的利益被获得,耽溺幻觉的新的变种。

The personality is not enriched by it, only impover¬ished and smothered. What seems evil, or at least meaningless and valueless to contemporary experience and knowledge, might on a higher level of experience and knowledge appear as the source of the best-everything depending, naturally, on the use one makes of one’s seven devils. To explain them as mean¬ingless robs the personality of its proper shadow, and with this it loses its form. The living form needs deep shadow if it is to appear plastic. Without shadow it remains a two-dimensional phantom, a more or less well brought-up child.

这个人格并没有因为它而变得丰富。仅是变得贫瘠而闷窒。对于当代人的经验与知识,
看起来邪恶的东西,或至少看起来是没有意义与没有价值的东西,在更高的经验与知识的层次,似乎是最佳的一切的来源,它们自然地依靠我们解释我们的七个恶魔的用途。为了解释它们,作为是无意义,让人格丧尸它的适当的阴影。随着这个丧失,它丧失它的形式。活生生的形式需要深度的阴影,假如它想要看起来有弹性。假如没有阴影,它始终是两个维度的魅影。类型被良好教育的小孩。
238

THE MANA-PERSONALITY

4°1 Here I am alluding to a problem that is far more significant
than these few simple words would seem to suggest: mankind is, in essentials, psychologically still in a state of childhood-a stage that cannot be skipped. The vast majority needs authority, guid¬ance, law. This fact cannot be overlooked. The Pauline over¬coming of the law falls only to the man who knows how to put his soul in the place of conscience. Very few are capable of this (“Many are called, but few are chosen”). And these few tread this path only from inner necessity, not to say suffering, for it is sharp as the edge of a razor.

在此,我正提的一个更加重要的难题,比丘这些少数的简单的字词表面所暗示的:在本质上,人类的心理依旧处于小孩的状态。并且无法被跳跃过。广大的俗众需要权威,引导,法律。这个事实无法被忽略。保罗教派克服法律,仅是知道如何将他的灵魂取代良心的人才做得到。很少人能够这样做。(“许多人被召唤,但是少数人被选择”)。这些少数的人踏上这个途径,仅是由于内心的需要,遑论的痛苦的需要。因为它像剃刀一样的锐利。

4°2 The conception of God as an autonomous psychic content
makes God into a moral problem-and that, admittedly, is very uncomfortable. But if this problem does not exist, God is not real, for nowhere can he touch our lives. He is then either an historical and intellectual bogey or a philosophical sentimental¬ity.

上帝的观念,作为具有自主权的心灵的内容,让上帝成为是道德的难题 .我们承认,这个难题是非常令人不舒服.但是,假如这个难题并不存在,上帝并非真实,因为上帝根本就没有碰触我们的生活.上帝要就是一个历史的知识的邪恶的精神,要不就是哲学的情绪化表现.

4°3 If we leave the idea of “divinity” quite out of account and
speak only of “autonomous contents,” we maintain a position that is intellectually and empirically correct, but we silence a note which, psychologically, should not be missing.

假如我们完全不考虑”神性”的观念,然后仅是谈论”自主权的内容”,我们主张一个立场:保持知识与经验的独立.但是我们让一个在心理上不应该被漏掉的注意保持沉默.

By using the concept of a divine being we give apt expression to the peculiar way in which we experience the workings of these autonomous contents: We could also use the term “daemonic,” provided that this does not imply that we are still holding up our sleeves some concretized God who conforms exactly to our wishes and ideas. Our intellectual conjuring tricks do not help us to make a real¬ity of the God we desire, any more than the world accommodates itself to our expectations. Therefore, by affixing the attribute “divine” to the workings of autonomous contents, we are admit¬ting their relatively superior force. And it is this superior force which has at all times constrained men to ponder the inconceiv¬able, and even to impose the greatest sufferings upon themselves in order to give these workings their due. It is a force as real as hunger and the fear of death.

凭借使用神性的存在的观念,我们给予合宜的解释,给这个特殊的方式.用这个方式,我们经验这些具有自主权的内容的运作.我们也能够使用这个术语”恶魔”,只要这个术语没有暗示着:我们依旧保有某个具体化的上帝.他确实符合我们的愿望与观念.我们的知识的召唤的技俩并没有帮助我们将我们欲望的上帝成为现实.正如世界并没有接纳我们的期望.因此,凭借合并”神性”的属性,到具有自主权的内容的运作. 我们正在承认:它们的比较优秀的力量.就是这个比较优秀的力量,自始至终,
约束人们要沉思这个无法被构想的东西,甚至赋加最大的痛苦在他们自己身上,为了给予这些运作他们应得的东西.这一个力量跟饥饿与对应死亡的恐惧一样的真实.
4°4 The self could be characterized as a kind of compensation of
the conflict between inside and outside. This formulation would not be unfitting, since the self has somewhat the character of a result, of a goal attained, something that has come to pass very gradually and is experienced with much travail. So too the self is our life’s goal, for it is the completest expression of that fateful combination we call individuality, the full flowering not only of the single individual, but of the group, in which each adds his portion to the whole.

自性能够被表现特征,作为是一种内部与外部之间的冲突的补偿.这种阐释将不会不适合.因为自性拥有内容的特性,拥有获得目标的特性。这个某件东西非常逐渐地发生,并且勤奋地被经验到。所以,自性就是我们的生活的目标,因为自性是最完整的表达,对于我们所谓的个体化的那个命定的组合。不但是独异性的个人,也是团体的盛放花朵。在团体里,每一个独异性个人增加他的部分给整体。

239

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
405 Sensing the self as something irrational, as an indefinable ex-
istent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subjected, but merely attached, and about which it revolves very much as the earth revolves round the sun-thus we come to the goal of indi¬viduation. I use the word “sensing” in order to indicate the ap¬perceptive character of the relation between ego and self. In this relation nothing is knowable, because we can say nothing about the contents of the self. The ego is the only content of the self that we do know.

理解自性作为某件非理性的东西,作为是无法被定义的存在,自我对于这个存在,既不是对立,也不是隶属。而仅是附著。关于这个无法被定义的存在,它经常环绕,如同地球环绕太阳。因此,我们到达个体化的目标。我使用“理解”这个字词,为了指示自我与自性之间的关系,具有非统觉的特性。

The individuated ego senses itself as the object of an unknown and supraordinate subject. It seems to me that our psychological inquiry must come to a stop here, for the idea of a self is itself a transcendental postulate which, although justi¬fiable psychologically, does not allow of scientific proof. This step beyond science is an unconditional requirement of the psy¬chological development I have sought to depict, because with-out this postulate I could give no adequate formulation of the psychic processes that occur empirically. At the very least, there¬fore, the self can claim the value of an hypothesis analogous to that of the structure of the atom. And even though we should once again be enmeshed in an image, it is none the less power¬fully alive, and its interpretation quite exceeds my powers. I have no doubt at all that it is an image, but one in which we are contained.

个体化的自我理解它自己,作为是一个未知而早先注定的主体。我觉得,我们的心理学的研究在此必须停顿一下。因为自性的观念本身是一个超验的假设。虽然从心理学来说,它能自园其说,它并没有容许提出科学的证据。超越科学的这个步骤,是我曾经尝试描述的心理学的发展的无条件的要求。

406 I am deeply conscious that in this essay I have made no ordi-
nary demands on the understanding of my reader. Though I have done my utmost to smooth the path of understanding, there is one great difficulty which I could not eliminate, namely the fact that the experiences which form the basis of my discussion are unknown to most people and are bound to seem strange.

我深深知道,在这篇论文,我对于我的读者的理解力的要求,是特殊的。虽然我已经尽我全力要让理解的途径顺畅。还是有一个巨大的困难,我无法减少。换句话说,形成我的讨论的基础的这些经验,对于大部分的人们是前所未闻,因此注定听起来古怪。

Consequently I cannot expect my readers to follow all my conclusions. Although every author naturally prefers to be understood by his public, yet the interpretation of my observa¬tions is of less moment to me than the disclosure of a wide field of experience, at present hardly explored, which it is the aim of this book to bring within reach of many. In this field, hitherto so
dark, it seems to me that there lie the answers to many rid¬dles which the psychology of consciousness has never even ap¬proached. I would not pretend to have formulated these answers with any degree of finality. I shall, therefore, be well satisfied if my essay may be counted as a tentative attempt at an answer.

结果,我无法期望我的读者遵循我所有的结论。虽然每位作者天性上都喜欢被大众理解。可是,我的观察的解释,并不那么重要,对于我,比起揭露对广大的经验。在目前,它几乎没有被人探索。这就是本书的目的,要将它带给大多数的人们知道。在这个领域,它迄今是黑暗领域。我觉得,对于许的谜团的解答就在那里。意识的心理学甚至还没有接近那里。我将不假装已经获得最后结论,对于这些回答的阐述。我因此将非常满意,假如我的论文可能被认为是试验性的企图,要获得答案。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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荣格:差异化技术

December 12, 2015

III
THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN THE EGO AND
THE FIGURES OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
自我与无意识的人物之间的差异化的技术
341 I owe it to the reader to give him a detailed example of the
specific activity of animus and anima. Unfortunately this mate¬rial is so enormous and demands so much explanation of sym¬bols that I cannot include such an account within the compass of this essay. I have, however, published some of these products with all their symbolical associations in a separate work,1 and to this I must refer the reader. In that book I said nothing about the animus, because at that time this function was still unknown to me.

我归功于读者,要给予他详细的举例阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯的明确的活动。不幸地,这个材料是如此巨大,并且要求如此多的解释象征,以致于我无法包括这样的描述,在这篇论文的范围里面。可是,我曾经出版一些的这些产物,以及它们的象征的联想,在一本分开的著作。我必须跟读者提到这个。在那本书,我根本没有说到阿尼玛。因为在当时,我还不知道这个功能。

Nevertheless, if I advise a woman patient to associate her unconscious contents, she will always produce the same kind of fantasy. The masculine hero figure who almost unfailingly ap¬pears is the animus, and the succession of fantasy-experiences demonstrates the gradual transformation and dissolution of the autonomous complex.

可是,假如我劝告女性病人联想她的无意识的内容。她将会总是产生相同种类的幻想。几乎一定会出现的男性的英雄人物,就是阿尼玛斯。幻想的经验纷至沓来,证明这个具有自主权的情结的逐渐转化与瓦解。

342 This transformation is the aim of the analysis of the uncon-
scious. If there is no transformation, it means that the determin¬ing influence of the unconscious is unabated, and that it will in some cases persist in maintaining neurotic symptoms in spite of all our analysis and all our understanding.

转化是无意识的精神分析的目标。假如没有转化,这意味着,无意识的作为决定的影响不曾稍减。在某些的个案,它将持续维持神经症的征状,尽管我们所有的分析与所有我们的理解。

Alternatively, a com¬pulsive transference will take hold, which is just as bad as a neu¬rosis. Obviously in such cases no amount of suggestion, good will, and purely reductive understanding has helped to break the power of the unconscious. This is not to say-once again I would like to emphasize this point very clearly-that all psycho¬therapeutic methods are, by and large, useless. I merely want to stress the fact that there are not a few cases where the doctor has to make up his mind to deal fundamentally with the uncon¬scious, to come to a real settlement with it. This is of course something very different from interpretation.

代替地,强迫性的移情将会掌控。这跟神经症一样的糟糕。显而易见地,在这些的情况,无论再多的暗示,善意,与纯粹还原的理解,都没有帮助,为了破解无意识的力量。这并不是说—我再次想要非常清楚地强调这一点—所有精神分析的治疗方法,大体上,是没有用的。我仅是想要强调这个事实,在有一些的个案,医生必须下定他的决心,从基本上处理无意识,确实地跟无意识达成和解。当然,会有某件跟解释不同等的东西。
212

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION
In the latter case it is taken for granted that the doctor knows beforehand, so as to be able to interpret. But in the case of a real settlement it is not a question of interpretation: it is a question of releasing uncon¬scious processes and letting them come into the conscious mind in the form of fantasies. We can try our hand at interpreting these fantasies if we like. In many cases it may be quite impor¬tant for the patient to have some idea of the meaning of the fantasies produced. But it is of vital importance that he should experience them to the full and, in so far as intellectual under-standing belongs to the totality of experience, also understand them. Yet I would not give priority to understanding.

这后者的情况,这被视为理所当然,医生应该事先知道,为了要能够解释。但是在真实和解的情况,问题并不是解释。问题是要释放无意识的过程,然后让无意识的这些过程进入意识的心灵,用幻想的形式。我们能够尝试解释这些幻想,假如我们想要的话。在许多个案,这可能相当重要,让病人稍微知道被产生的幻想的意义。但是,至关紧要的是,病人应该彻底地经验它们并且理解它们。因为知识的理解属于经验的整体性。可是,我并没有给理解这个优先顺序。

Naturally the doctor must be able to assist the patient in his understand¬ing, but, since he will not and indeed cannot understand every¬thing, the doctor should assiduously guard against clever feats of interpretation. For the important thing is not to interpret and understand the fantasies, but primarily to experience them. Alfred Kubin has given a very good description of the uncon¬scious in his book Die andere Seite)’ that is, he has described what he, as an artist, experienced of the unconscious.

当然,医生必须要能够帮助病人从事他的理解。但是,因为病人不愿意理解,与确实无法理解一切事情。医生应该小心翼翼地防卫灵巧的解释的技巧。因为重要的事情并不是要解释,与理解幻想。而是主要要经验幻想。库斌曾经给予无意识很好的描述,在他的书“Die andere Seite”。在书里,他曾经描述,作为艺术家,他曾经经验的无意识。

It is an artistic experience which, in the deeper meaning of human ex-peripnce, is incomplete. I would like to recommend an attentive reading of this book to everybody who is interested in these questions. He will then discover the incbmpleteness I speak of: the vision is experienced artistically, but not humanly. By “hu¬man” experience I mean that the person of the author should not just be included passively in the vision, but that he should face the figures of the vision actively and reactively, with full consciousness. I would level the same criticism at the authoress of the fantasies dealt with in the book mentioned above; she, too, merely stands opposite the fantasies forming themselves out of the unconscious, perceiving them, or at best passively endur¬ing them. But a real settlement with the unconscious demands a firmly opposed conscious standpoint.

这是一个并不完整的艺术的经验,在人类的经验的更加深刻的意义。我想要推荐专注阅读这本书,给予每一位对这些问题感到兴趣的人。他因此将会发现我谈论到的这个不完整: 这个幻景从艺术层面被经验到,而不是从人性的层面。所谓“人类的”经验,我的意思是,作者的这个人不应该仅是被动地被包含在幻景里。代替的,他应该面对幻景里的各个人物,主动而反应地,带着充分的意识。我将相同的批评朝向以上被提到的这本书,被处理的各种幻想的女作者。她也仅是站立在幻想的对面,这些幻想从无意识出来形成它们自己。但是,跟无意识的真实的和解,要求坚决地对立的意识的观点

343 I will try to explain what I mean by an example. One of my
patients had the following fantasy: He sees his fiancee running down the road towards the river. It is winter) and the river is frozen. She runs out on the ice) and he follows her. She goes right out) and then the ice breaks) a dark fissure appears) and he is afraid she is going to jump in. And that is what happens: she jumps into the crack) and he watches her sadly.

我将设法解释我的意思,用一个例子。我的一位病人拥有以下的幻想:他看见他的未婚妻跑下道路,朝向河流。那是冬天,河流冰冻。她在冰地上跑着,他跟随着她。她一直跑着,然后冰地破裂。出现黑暗的破裂。他害怕她将会跳下去。那就是所发生的事情: 她跳进那个破裂。他悲伤地观看她。
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344

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
This fragment, although torn out of its context, clearly shows the attitude of the conscious mind: it perceives and pas-sively endures, the fantasy-image is merely seen and felt, it is two¬ dimensional, as it were, because the patient is not sufficiently in-volved. Therefore the fantasy remains a flat image, concrete and agitating perhaps, but unreal, like a dream.

这个片断,虽然是从它的文本撕裂出来,清楚地显示意识的心灵的态度:意识感知并且被动地忍受,幻想的意象仅是被看见,被感觉。幻想的意象是所谓的两个维度。因为病人并没有充分地牵涉。因此,幻想始终是平面的幻想,或许具体而令人激动。但是不真实,如同梦一般。

This unreality comes from the fact that he himself is not playing an active part. If the fantasy happened in reality, he would not be at a loss for some means to prevent his fiancee from committing suicide. He could, for instance, easily overtake her and restrain her bodily from jumping into the crack. Were he to act in reality as he acted in the fantasy, he would obviously be paralysed, either with horror, or because of the unconscious thought that he really has no objection to her committing suicide.

这个非真实来自这个事实:他自己并没有扮演主动的角色。假如幻想发生在现实,他将不会感到茫然,找不到方法来阻止未婚妻不要自杀。譬如,他能够轻易地追赶上她,控制她的身体不要跳跃进入裂口。假如他在现实採取行动,如同他在幻想里,他将会明显地感到麻痹。一方面,由于恐惧;另一方面,因为无意识的想法,他确实并不反对她的自杀。

The fact that he remains passive in the fantasy merely expresses his attitude to the activity of the unconscious in general: he is fascinated and stupefied by it. In reality he suffers from all sorts of depressive ideas and convictions; he thinks he is no good, that he has some hopeless hereditary taint, that his brain is degenerating, etc. These negative feelings are so many auto-suggestions which he accepts without argument. Intellectually, he can understand them perfectly and recognize them as untrue, but nevertheless the feelings persist.
在幻想里,他始终是被动的这个事实,仅是表达他的态度,对于一般的无意识的活动: 他对它感到著迷与麻痹。在现实里,他遭受各种的沮丧的想法与信念。他认为他一无是处,他拥有一些没有希望的遗传的习性,他的脑逐渐恶化,等等。这些负面的感觉,是如此众多的自动的暗示。他接受这些暗示,没有争论。在知识方面,他能够完全地理解它们,并且体认它们,作为并不真实,但是感觉仍然持续存在。

They cannot be attacked by the intellect be¬cause they have no intellectual or rational basis; they are rooted in an unconscious, irrational fantasy-life which is not amenable to conscious criticism. In these cases the unconscious must be given an opportunity to produce its fantasies, and the above fragment is just such a product of unconscious fantasy activity. Since the case was one of psychogenic depression, the depression itself was due to fantasies of whose existence the patient was to¬tally unconscious. In genuine melancholia, extreme exhaustion, poisoning, etc., the situation would be reversed: the patient has such fantasies because he is in a depressed condition. But in a case of psychogenic depression he is depressed because he has such fantasies.

它们无法受到知识的攻击,因为它们并没有知识或理性的基础。它们根源于无意识,非理性的幻想的生活。它无法被意识的批评所修正。在这些个案里,无意识必须被给予机会来产生它的幻想。以上的片断,仅是无意识的幻想的活动的产物。因为这个情况是心理原因的沮丧的其中一个产物,沮丧的本身是由于这些幻想。病人完全不知道这些幻想的存在。在真实的忧郁症者,极端的心力交瘁,中毒,等等,这个情况会倒转过来。病人拥有这些幻想,因为他处于感到沮丧的情况。但是,在心理原因的沮丧的个案,他感到沮丧,是因为他拥有这样的幻想。

My patient was a very clever young man who had been intellectually enlightened as to the cause of his neurosis by a lengthy analysis. However, intellectual understanding made no difference to his depression. In cases of this sort the doctor should spare himself the useless trouble of delving still further into the causality; for, when a more or less exhaustive under-standing is of no avail, the discovery of yet another little bit of causality will be of no avail either.

我的病人是一位非常聪明的年轻人。他在知识方面曾经受到启蒙,关于他的神经症的原因,经过一段漫长的精神分析。可是,知识的理解对于他的沮丧并没有帮助。在这种的个案里,医生应该替他自己省免这个无用的费心,更进一步地探索因果律。因为当相当穷尽一切都理解都没有用的时候,另外一个小小的因果律的发现,将也是没有用的。

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345
346
347

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION
The unconscious has simply gained an unassailable ascendency; it wields an attractive force that can invalidate all conscious contents-in other words, it can withdraw libido from the conscious world and thereby produce a “depression,” an abaissement du niveau mental (Janet). But as a result of this we must, according to the law of energy, expect an accumulation of value-i.e., libido-in the unconscious.

无意识仅是获得无法被攻击的提升。它发挥迷人的力量,能够让所有的意识的内容成为无效—换句话说,它能够将力比多从意识到世界撤退下来,因此产生“沮丧”(精神力量的消减)詹尼的术语。但是,由于这个的结果,我们必须依照能源的法则,期望价值的累积,譬如,力比多,累积在无意识。

‘‘’‘’‘

Libido can never be apprehended except in a definite form; that is to say, it is identical with fantasy-images. And we can only release it from the grip of the unconscious by bringing up the corresponding fantasy-images. That is why, in a case like this, we give the unconscious a chance to bring its fantasies to the sur-face. This is how the foregoing fragment was produced. It is a single episode from a long and very intricate series of fantasy-images, corresponding to the quota of energy that was lost to the conscious mind and its contents.

力比多永远无法被预期,除了用明确的形式。换句话说,力比多认同于幻想的意象。我们仅能够释放力比多,从无意识的掌控里,凭借将对应的幻想的意象显示出来。那就是,在像这样的个案,我们给予无意识一个机会,将它的幻想带到表面。这就是前述的片断被产生的方式。这是从漫长而复杂的系列的幻想的意象的轶事,它对应于丧失于意识的心灵与其内容的能源的配额。

The patient’s conscious world has become cold, empty, and grey; but his unconscious is acti-vated, powerful, and rich. It is characteristic of the nature of the unconscious psyche that it is sufficient unto itself and knows no human considerations. Once a thing has fallen into the uncon-scious it is retained there, regardless of whether the conscious mind suffers or not. The latter can hunger and freeze, while everything in the unconscious becomes verdant and blossoms.

病人的意识的世界将会变得寒冷,空虚,与灰色。但是,他的无意识被触动起来,强大而丰富。它是无意识的心灵的特性的特征,它自给自足,并且不知道任何的人的考虑。一旦一件东西掉入无意识里,它就被保留在那里。无论意识到心灵遭受痛苦与否。后者能够饥饿与冰冻。而无意识的每样东西都变成丰富与开花。

So at least it appears at first. But when we look deeper, we find that this unconcern of the unconscious has a meaning, in-deed a purpose and a goal. There are psychic goals that lie be¬yond the conscious goals; in fact, they may even be inimical to them. But we find that the unconscious has an inimical or ruth¬less bearing towards the conscious only when the latter adopts a false or pretentious attitude.

所以,至少,它起初看起来是这样。但是,当我们更加深入观看,我们发现,无意识的这个无动于衷具有意义,确实具有目的与目标。有些心灵的目标在于意识的目标之外。事实上,这些目标可能对它们并不友善,或是怀着残酷,对待意识,仅有当后者採用虚假与伪装的态度。

The conscious attitude of my patient is so one-sidedly intel¬lectual and rational that nature herself rises up against him and annihilates his whole world of conscious values. But he cannot de-intellectualize himself and make himself dependent on an¬other function, e.g., feeling, for the very simple reason that he has not got it. The unconscious has it. Therefore we have no alternative but to hand Over the leadership to the unconscious
and give it the opportunity of becoming a conscious content in the form of fantasies.

我的病人的意识的态度是如此的单边地知识与理性,以致于自然自己就会起来反对他,并且消灭他的意识到价值的整体的世界。但是,他无法替他自己解除知识,并让他自己依靠另外一个功能,例如,感觉。理由很简单,他还没有获得它。无意识获得它。 因此,我们没有别的选择,除了就是将领导权递交给无意识。然后,给予无意识这个机会,以幻想的形式,成为意识的内容。
215

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
If, formerly, my patient clung to his intel¬lectual world and defended himself with rationalizations against what he regarded as his illness, he must now yield himself up to it entirely, and when a fit of depression comes upon him, he must no longer force himself to some kind of work in order to forget, but must accept his depression and give it a hearing.

假如,先前,我的病人紧捉住他的知识的世界,并且辩护他自己,用理性来对抗他认为是他的疾病的东西。他现在必须完全屈服于他。当一阵的沮丧侵袭他,他一定不再强迫他自己从事某种工作,为了遗忘。但是必须接受他的沮丧,然后倾听它。

348 Now this is the direct opposite of succumbing to a mood,
which is so typical of neurosis. It is no weakness, no spineless surrender, but a hard achievement, the essence of which consists in keeping your objectivity despite the temptations of the mood, and in making the mood your object, instead of allowing it to become in you the dominating subject. So the patient must try to get his mood to speak to him; his mood must tell him all about itself and show him through what kind of fantastic analo¬gies it is expressing itself.

现在,这就是屈服于心情的直接的对立。这是神经症者的典型。它并不是弱点,并不是没有脊椎骨的投降。而是坚强的成就。这个成就的本质在于保持你的客观性,尽管心情的诱惑。当你将你的心情成为你的客体,而不是让它成为你身上的作为决定的主体。
所以,病人必须尝试要他的心情跟他言说。他的心情必须告诉他,所有关于它自己的一切,然后显示给他看,凭借它正在表达它自己的某种的幻想的类比。

349 The foregoing fragment is a bit of visualized mood. If he had
not suceeded in keeping his objectivity in relation to his mood, he would have had, in place of the fantasy-image, only a crip¬pling sense that everything was going to the devil, that he was incurable, ete. But because he gave his mood a chance to express itself in an image, he succeeded in converting at least a small sum of libido, of unconscious creative energy in eidetic form, into a conscious content and thus withdrawing it from the sphere of the unconscious.

前述的片段是被拟想的心情的片断。假如他当时没有成功地保持他的客观性,跟他的心情的关系,他本来会拥有仅是一个令人挫折的感觉,每样事情都糟糕透顶,他是无可救药,等等,而不是幻想的意象。但是因为他给予他的心情一个机会表达它自己,使用意象,他成功地至少转移一小部分的力比多,无意识的创造的能源,以视觉影像的方式

350 But this effort is not enough, for the fantasy, to be com-
pletely experienced, demands not just perception and passivity, but active participation. The patient would comply with this de¬mand if he conducted himself in the fantasy as he would doubt¬less conduct himself in reality. He would never remain an idle spectator while his fiancee tried to drown herself; he would leap up and stop her. This should also happen in the fantasy.

但是这个努力并不足够,因为幻想,为了要完全被经验到,要求不仅是感知与被动,而且要求主动的参与。病人将会同意这个要求,假如他用幻想来表现他自己。如同他将会无可置疑地、在现实里表现他自己。他将永远不会保持是一个懒散的观众,当他的未婚妻尝试淹死自己。他将会跳跃起来阻止他。这也应该发生在幻想里。

If he succeeds in behaving in the fantasy as he would behave in a simi¬lar situation in reality, he would prove that he was taking the fantasy seriously, i.e., assigning absolute reality value to the un¬conscious. In this way he would have won a victory over his one¬sided intellectualism and, indirectly, would have asserted the validity of the irrational standpoint of the unconscious.

假如他成功地在幻想里行为,如同他将会在现实里的类似情况行为,他将会证明,他正在将这个幻想认真看待。指定绝对的现实,给无意识。用这个方式,他本来会赢得胜利,胜过他的单边的知识主义。然后间接地,他本来会主张无意识的非理性的观点的正确性。
216

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION

351 That would be the complete experience of the unconscious demanded of him. But one must not underestimate what that actually means: your whole world is menaced by fantastic irreal¬ity. It is almost insuperably difficult to forget, even for a mo¬ment, that all this is only fantasy, a figment of the imagination that must strike one as altogether arbitrary and artificial. How can one assert that anything of this kind is “real” and take it seriously?

那将是对他要求的无意识的完整的经验。但是,我们一定不要低估那个经验的实质的意义:你整个的世界受到幻想的非现实的威胁。那几乎无法克服的困难,要忘记,即使暂时忘记,所有这一切都是幻想,想像的虚拟之物,它给予我们的印象,作为完全的任意与人为。我们如何能够主张,诸如其类的事情是“真实”,然后认真地看待它?

352 We can hardly be expected to believe in a sort of double life,
in which we conduct ourselves on one plane as modest average citizens, while on another we have unbelievable adventures and perform heroic deeds. In other words, we must not concretize our fantasies. But there is in man a strange propensity to do just this, and all his aversion to fantasy and his critical depreciation of the unconscious come solely from the deep-rooted fear of this tendency.

我们几乎无法被期望要相信一种双重的生活。在这个双重的生活里,我们在某个层面的行为,作为是谦虚的一般的市民。而在另外一个层面,我们拥有匪夷所思的冒险,并且执行英雄般的行为。换句话说,我们一定不要实现我们的幻想。但是,在人身上,有一个奇异的习性,就是要这样做。所有他对于幻想的厌恶,与他批评地贬低无意识,仅是来自根深蒂固的恐惧这个倾向。

Concretization and the fear of it are both primitive su¬perstitions, but they still survive in the liveliest form among so¬called enlightened people. In his civic life a man may follow the trade of a shoemaker, but as the member of a sect he puts on the dignity of an archangel. To all appearances he is a small trades¬man, but among the freemasons he is a mysterious grandee. An¬other sits all day in his office; at evening, in his circle, he is a reincarnation of Julius Caesar, fallible as a man, but in his offi¬cial capacity infallible. These are all unintentional concretiza¬tions.

对于这个倾向的具体实现与恐惧,两者都是原始的迷信。但是,它们依旧以最生动的形式,存活于所谓的开明的人们。在他的文明的生活,一个人可能遵循鞋匠的行业,但是,作为是教派的成员,他摆上天使长的尊严。从外表看来,他是微不足道的商人,但是在兄弟会里,他是一位神秘的的贵族。还有另外一位,整他坐在办公室里,晚上,在他的圈子里,他是凯撒大帝的具体化身。作为一个人,他可能犯错,但是就他的官方的能力而言,他绝无错误。这些都是没有意图的具体实现。

353 As against this, the scientific credo of our time has developed
a superstitious phobia about fantasy. But the real is what works. And the fantasies of the unconscious work, there can be no doubt about that. Even the cleverest philosopher can be the vic¬tim of a thoroughly idiotic agoraphobia. Our famous scientific reality does not afford us the slightest protection against the so¬called irreality of the unconscious.

对照这个,我们这个时代对于科学的信念已经发展一种迷信的恐惧,关于幻想。但是,真实界就是运作的东西。无意识到幻想运作得通。关于这点,这是无可置疑的。即使是最聪明的哲学家有时也会是彻底白痴般的公共场合恐惧症的受害者。我们的著名的科学的现实并没有供应我们丝毫的保护,对抗所谓的无意识的非现实。

Something works behind the veil of fantastic images, whether we give this something a good name or a bad. It is something real, and for this reason its mani¬festations must be taken seriously. But first the tendency to con-cretization must be overcome; in other words, we must not take the fantasies literally when we approach the question of inter¬preting them.

某件东西运作在幻想的意象的面纱的背后。无论我们给予这个某件东西一个好的名字或坏的名字。它是某件真实的东西。因为这个理由,它的展示必须被认真地看待。但是,首先,想要具体实现的这个倾向必须被克服。换句话说,我们一定不要将幻想实质看待,当我们探他解释它们的问题。

217

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS the
While we are in the grip of the actual experience, the fantasies cannot be taken literally enough. But when it comes to understanding them, we must on no account mistake semblance, the fantasy-image ,,~ such, for the operative proc¬ess underlying it. The semblance is not the thing itself, but only its expression.

当我们处于实际经验的掌控,幻想越是用实质看待越好。但是当提到理解它们时,我们绝对不要误解类似物,幻想的意象的本身,误当著是作为幻想的基础的运作的过程。这个类似物并非是事情的本身。而仅是它的表达。

354 Thus my patient is not experiencing the suicide scene “on
another plane” (though in every other respect it is just as con¬crete as a real suicide); he experiences something real which looks like a suicide. The two opposing “realities,” the world of the conscious and the world of the unconscious, do not quarrel for supremacy, but each makes the other relative. That the real¬ity of the unconscious is very relative indeed will presumably arouse no violent contradiction; but that the reality of the con¬scious world could be doubted will be accepted with less alac¬rity. And yet both “realities” are psychic experience, psychic semblances painted on an inscrutably dark back-cloth. To the critical intelligence, nothing is left of absolute reality.

因此,我的病人并没有正在经验自杀的场景,“在另外一个层面”。(虽然在每个其他方面,这是同样的具体,如他真实的自杀)。他经验某件看起来像是自杀的真实的东西。这两个对立的“现实”,意识的世界与无意识的世界,并没有争吵要获得优胜。但是,每一个世界都让另外一个世界成为相对。无意识的现实确实是非常相对,在假设上,并不会引强烈的矛盾。但是,意识的世界的现实能够受到怀疑,将会比较不那么渴望地被接受。可是,两个“现实”都是心灵的经验,心灵的类似物,被印刷在模糊地黑暗的背景的画布上。对于具有批判智慧的人,绝对的现实,并没有剩余任何东西。

355 Of the essence of things, of absolute being, we know nothing.
But we experience various effects: from “outside” by way of the senses, from “inside” by way of fantasy. We would never think of asserting that the colour “green” had an independent exist¬ence; similarly we ought never to imagine that a fantasy¬experience exists in and for itself, and is therefore to be taken quite literally. It is an expression, an appearance standing for something unknown but real. The fantasy-fragment I have men¬tioned coincides in time with a wave of depression and despera¬tion, and this event finds expression in the fantasy.

关于事情的本质,绝对存在的本质,我们一无所知。但是,我们经验各种的影响:从“外面”,经由各种感官,从“内面”,经由幻想。我们将永远不会想到主张:“绿”的颜色拥有独立的存在。同样地,我们永远不应该想像,一个幻想的经验存在于本身或独立存在。幻想的经验因此应该被相当实际地看待。幻想经验是代表某件未知,但却是真实的东西的一个表达,一个表象。我已经提到的幻想的片断,在时间上,巧合于沮丧或绝望的浪潮。这个事件在幻想里获得表达。

The patient really does have a fiancee; for him she represents the one emo¬tiona llink with the world. Snap that link, and it would be the end of his relation to the world. This would be an altogether hopeless aspect. But his fiancee is also a symbol for his anima, that is, for his relation to the unconscious. Hence the fantasy simultaneously expresses the fact that, without any hindrance on his part, his anima is disappearing again into the unconscious. This aspect shows that once again his mood is stronger than he is. It throws everything to the winds, while he looks on without lifting a hand. But he could easily step in and arrest the an1ma.

这位病人确实拥有一位未婚妻。对于他而言,未婚妻代表情感上跟世界的联接。假如将这个联接中断,那将是他跟世界的关系的结束。那将是完全的没有希望的层面。但是他的未婚妻也是他的阿尼玛的象征。换句话说,作为他跟无意识的关系的象征。因此,这个幻想同时表达这个事实:假如没有他这方面的任何阻碍,他的阿尼玛会再次逐渐消失进入无意识。这个层面显示:再次,他的心情比他的存在更加强烈。他的心情将每件事情听由命运播弄。另一方面,他在旁观看,没有出手帮助。但是,他本来能够轻易地介入 并且阻止阿尼玛。

356 I give preference to this latter aspect, because the patient is
an introvert whose life-relationship is ruled by inner facts. Were he an extravert, I would have to give preference to the first as¬pect, because for the extravert life is governed primarily by his relation to human beings.

我给予偏爱,对于这个后者的层面。因为病人是一位内倾的人,他的生活的关系,受到内部的事实的统辖。假如他是一位外倾的人,我本来会必须给予偏爱,给第一个层面。因为对于外倾的人,生活主要是受到他跟人的关系所统辖。
218

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION
He might in the trough of a mood do away with his fiancee and himself too, whereas the introvert harms himself most when he casts off his relation to the anima, i.e., to the object within.

他在心情的泥泞里,可能废除他的未婚妻与他自己本身。在另一方面,这位内倾的人将会伤害他自己,当他抛弃他跟他的阿尼玛的关系,譬如,跟内部的客体的关系。

357 So my patient’s fantasy clearly reveals the negative move-
ment of the unconscious, a tendency to recoil from the conscious world so energetically that it sucks away the libido from con¬sciousness and leaves the latter empty. But, by making the fantasy conscious, we stop this process from happening unconsciously. If the patient were himself to participate actively in the way de¬scribed above, he would possess himself of the libido invested in the fantasy, and would thus gain added influence over the un¬conscIOUS.

所以,我的病人的幻想清楚地显示无意识的负面的动作,如此精力充沛地从意识的世界退缩下来的倾向,以致于它从意识吸干力比多,然后让意识成为空无。但是,凭借让幻想成为意识,我们阻止这个过程,不要无意识地发生。假如病人自己想要主动地参与以上被描述的方式,他将会拥有被投注于幻想的力比多,他因此将会获得被补充的影响,对于无意识。

358 Continual conscious realization of unconscious fantasies, to-
gether with active participation in the fantastic events, has, as I have witnessed in a very large number of cases, the effect firstly of extending the conscious horizon by the inclusion of numer¬ous unconscious contents; secondly of gradually diminishing the dominant influence of the unconscious; and thirdly of bringing about a change of personality.

无意识的幻想的继续在意识层面实现,再加上积极的参与幻想的事件,如同我在许多的个案里见证到的,具有的影响,首先就是延伸意识的视阔,凭借包含许多的无意识的内容。其次就是逐渐的减少无意识的支配的影响。第三是,包含导致人格的改变。

359 This change of personality is naturally not an alteration of
the original hereditary disposition, but rather a transformation of the general attitude. Those sharp cleavages and antagonisms between conscious and unconscious, such as we see so clearly in the endless conflicts of neurotic natures, nearly always rest on a noticeable one-sidedness of the conscious attitude, which gives absolute precedence to one or two functions, while the others are unjustly thru,,>t into the background. Conscious realization and experience of fantasies assimilates the unconscious inferior functions to the conscious mind-a process which is naturally not without far-reaching effects on the conscious attitude.

人格的改变当然并不是原初的遗传的性情的轮替。相反地,它是一般的态度的转化。那些明显的分裂与敌意,存在于意识与无意识之间,譬如,我们如此清楚地看见,在神经症者的天性的无穷尽的冲突里。它们几乎总是依靠意识的态度的显著的单边性。这个意识态度给予绝对的优先性,给其中一两个功能。另一方面,其余的功能并不公正地被抛弃进入背景。幻想在意识层面的实践与经验,吸收无意识的低劣的功能,到意识的心灵—这一个过程当然并非每有深远的影响,对于意识的态度。

360 For the moment I will refrain from discussing the nature of
this change of personality, since I only want to emphasize the fact that an important change does take place. I have called this change, which is the aim of our analysis of the unconscious, the transcendent function. This remarkable capacity of the human psyche for change, expressed in the transcendent function, is the principal object of late medieval alchemical philosophy, where it was expressed in terms of alchemical symbolism. Herbert Sil¬berer, in his very able book Problems of Mysticism and Its Sym-bolism) has already pointed out the psychological content of al-chemy.

目前,我将节制不去讨论人格改变的特性。因为我仅是想要强调这个事实:重要的改变确实发生。无曾经称这种改变,为超验的功能。因为那是我们对于无意识的精神分析的目的。人类心灵具有改变的明显的能力,在超验的功能里被表达出来。它是中世纪晚期的炼金术哲学的主要的目标。在那里,它被表达,用炼金术的象征主义。赫伯特 西贝瑞,在他的精炼的书“神秘主义的难题与其象征主义”,已经指出炼金术的心理的内容。

363
361
362

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

It would be an unpardonable error to accept the current view and reduce these “alchymical” strivings to a mere matter of alembics and melting-pots. This side certainly existed; it repre¬sented the tentative beginnings of exact chemistry. But alchemy also had a spiritual side which must not be underestimated and whose psychological value has not yet been sufficiently appreci¬ated: there was an “alchymical” philosophy, the groping precur-sor of the most modern psychology. The secret of alchemy was in fact the transcendent function, the transformation of personality through the blending and fusion of the noble with the base components, of the differentiated with the inferior functions, of the conscious with the unconscious.

这将是不可原谅的错误,假如我们接受目前的观点,并且将这些“炼金术”的奋斗,化减成为仅是高脚杯与溶炉。这一面确实是存在,它代表确实的化学的试验的开始。但是,炼金术也拥有精神的一面,一定不要被低估。它的心理的价值还没有充分地被赏识。“炼金术”的哲学确实存在,他们是现代心理学的模索前进的先驱者。炼金术的秘密事实上是超验的功能。人格的转化,通过高贵成分与卑下成分,被差异化的功能跟低劣的功能,意识与无意识的融合与混合。

But, just as the beginnings of scientific chemistry were hope¬lessly distorted and confused by fantastic conceits and whimsi¬calities, so alchemical philosophy, hampered by the inevitable concretizations of the still crude and undifferentiated intellect, never advanced to any clear psychological formulation, despite the fact that the liveliest intuition of profound truths kept the medieval thinker passionately attached to the problems of al-chemy. No one who has undergone the process of assimilating the unconscious will deny that it gripped his very vitals and changed him.

但是,正如科学的化学的开始,没有希望地受到幻想的自负与奇思异想所扭曲与混淆。炼金术哲学,受到无可避免的具体表现,对于这个依旧是粗测没有差异化的知识的阻碍,它从来没有前进到任何清楚的心理学的阐述。尽管这个事实:深奥真理的这个最生动的直觉让中世纪的思想家狂热地探索炼金术的难题。凡是曾经经历无意识的吸收的过程的人,没有人会否认,它掌握他的生命,并且改变他。

I would not blame my reader at all if he shakes his head
dubiously at this point, being quite unable to imagine how such a quantite negligeable as the footling fantasy given above could ever have the slightest influence on anybody. I admit at once that in considering the transcendent function and the extraordinary influence attributed to it, the fragment we have quoted is any¬thing but illuminating. But it is-and here I must appeal to the benevolent understanding of my reader-exceedingly difficult to give any examples, because every example has the unfortunate characteristic of being impressive and significant only to the in¬dividual concerned. Therefore I always advise my patients not to cherish the naive belief that what is of the greatest significance to them personally also has objective significance.

我根本不愿意责备读者,假如他在这个时候怀疑地摇摇头。
因为他不能够想像这样一个“受到忽略的特质”,作为以上被给予的愚蠢的幻想,如何可能具有丝毫的影响,对于任何人。我立即承认,当我们考虑这个超验的功能,与被归属于它的特殊的影响,我们曾经引述的片断,绝非具有启发性。但是,这确实是非常困难,要给出任何例子—我必须诉诸于读者的宽容的理解。因为每个例子都具有不幸的特性:仅有对相关的个人,才显得生动而重要。因此,我总是劝告我的病人不要怀抱这个天真的信仰:对于他们个人而言,是非常重要的东西,也具有客观的价值。

The vast majority of people are quite incapable of putting themselves individually into the mind of another. This is indeed a singularly rare art, and, truth to tell, it does not take us very far. Even the man whom we think we know best and who assures us himself that we understand him through and through is at bottom a stranger to us.

大多数的人们完全不能够以个人的立场想像另外一个人的心灵。这确实是独特而罕见的艺术。它对于我们的帮助并不大。即使是我们认为我们最熟悉的那个人,他让我们安心,我们彻底地理解他。追根究底,他对于我们是位陌生人。

220

364
365

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION
He is different. The most we can do, and the best, is to have at least some inkling of his otherness, to respect it, and to guard against the outrageous stupidity of wish-ing to interpret it.

他与人不同。我们充其量所能做的,就是至少对于他的另外一面略有所知,然后尊重他的另外一面,并且警戒着不要犯下重大的愚蠢错误,希望去解释他。

I can, therefore, produce nothing convincing, nothing that would convince the reader as it convinces the man whose deep-est experience it is. We must simply believe it by reason of its analogy with our own experience. Ultimately, when all else fails, the end-result is plain beyond a doubt: the perceptible change of personality. With these reservations in mind, I would like to present the reader with another fantasy-fragment, this time from a woman. The difference from the previous example leaps to the eye: here the experience is total, the observer takes an active part and thus makes the process her own. The material in this case is very extensive, culminating in a profound trans-formation of personality. The fragment comes from a late phase of personal development and is an organic part of a long and continuous series of transformations which have as their goal the attainment of the mid-point of the personality.

我因此没有产生任何足以说服的东西。没有任何东西将会说服读者,如同它说服那个人,因为那是他的最深刻的经验。最后,当所有其他方法都失效,最后的结果是无可怀疑的明白:人格的可以被感知的改变。我在心里怀着这些保留,我想要呈现给读者,用另外一个幻想的片断。这次是来自一位女人。跟先前的例子的差异跃上眼前:在此的经验是完整的。观察者主动地参与,因此让这个过程成为是她自己的过程。在这个个案的材料非常广泛,在人格的深刻的转化达到高潮。这个片断来自个人发展的晚期,是漫长而连续的转化的系列的有机体的部分。这些转化拥有人格的中介点的获得,作为他们的目标。

‘’

It may not be immediately apparent what is meant by a “mid-point of the personality.” I will therefore try to outline this problem in a few words. If we picture the conscious mind, with the ego as its centre, as being opposed to the unconscious, and if we now add to our mental picture the process of assimilat-ing the unconscious, we can think of this assimilation as a kind of approximation of conscious and unconscious, where the centre of the total personality no longer coincides with the ego, but with a point midway between the conscious and the uncon-scious.

“人格的中介点”是什么意思,可能不是马上显而易见。我将因此尝试描绘这个难题的轮廓,用简短几个字。假如我描绘意识的心灵,以自我作为它的中心,作为跟无意识的对立。假如我们现在补充我们的精神的画面 用吸收无意识的过程,我们能够将这个吸收,视为是意识与无意识的一种靠近。在那里,完整的人格的中心不再巧合于自我,而且具有一个中途的点,处于意识与无意识之间。

This would be the point of new equilibrium, a new cen¬tering of the total personality, a virtual centre which, on ac-count of its focal position between conscious and unconscious, ensures for the personality a new and more solid foundation. I freely admit that visualizations of this kind are no more than the clumsy attempts of the unskilled mind to give expression to in-expressible, and well-nigh indescribable, psychological facts. I could say the same thing in the words of St. Paul : “Yet not I live, but Christ liveth in me.”

这将是新的平衡的点,完整人格的新的中心,一个虚拟的中心。因为它的焦点的立场,处于意识与无意识之间。它替人格保证一个新的而且更加确实的基础。我自由地承认,对于这种的拟想仅是没有技巧的心灵的笨拙的企图,要给予表达,对于这些无法表达,几乎无法被描述的心理的事实。我能够说相同的事情,用圣保罗的话语:「可是,并不是我活著,而是基督活在我的身上。」
221

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

Or I might invoke Lao-tzu and appropriate his concept of Tao, the Middle Way and creative centre of all things. In all these the same thing is meant. Speaking as a psychologist with a scientific conscience, I must say at once that these things are psychic factors of undeniable power; they are not the inventions of an idle mind, but definite psychic events obeying definite laws and having their legitimate causes and effects, which can be found among the most widely differing peoples and races today, as thousands of years ago. I have no theory as to what constitutes the nature of these processes. One would first have to know what constitutes the nature of the psyche. I am content simply to state the facts.

或者,我可以引用老子的话,并且赏识他对于道的观念,中庸之道,与万物的创造的中心。在所有这一切里,相同的意思被表达。作为一位心理学家的言说,具有科学的良心。我必须立刻说,这些事情都是无可否认的力量的心灵的因素。它们并不是懒惰的心灵的杜撰,而是明确的心灵的事件,服从明确的法则,并且拥有他们的合法的原因与影响。这些原因与影响能够被找到,在今天的分散各地的不同的民族与种族。如同好几千年前。我没有理论,关于是什么形成这些的程序的特性。我们首先必须知道,是什么形成心灵的特性。我仅是满足于陈述这些事情。

366 Coming now to our example: it concerns a fantasy of in-
tensely visual character, something which in the language of the ancients would be called a “vision.” Not a “vision seen in a dream,” but a vision perceived by intense concentration on the background of consciousness, a technique that is perfected only after long practice.2 Told in her own words, this is what the patient saw:

我现在谈到我们的例子:它关系到强烈视觉的人物的幻想,在古代人的语言里,这件事情被称为是“幻象”。不是在梦里被看见的“幻象”,而是被强烈的专注感知的幻象,在意识的黑板上。这一个技术只有经过漫长的练习之后,才被改进。用她自己的话语来说,这就是病人所看见的东西:

“I climbed the mountain and came to a place where I saw
seven red stones in front of me) seven on either side) and seven behind me. I stood in the middle of this quadrangle. The stones were flat like steps. I tried to lift the four stones nearest me. In doing so I discovered that these stones were the pedestals of four statues of gods buried upside down in the earth. I dug them up and arranged them about me so that I was standing in the mid¬dle of them. Suddenly they leaned towards one another until their heads touched) forming something like a tent over me. I myself fell to the ground and said) ‘Fall upon me if you must! I am tired.’ Then I saw that beyond) encircling the four gods) a ring of flame had formed. After a time I got up from the ground and overthrew the statues of the gods. Where they fell) four trees shot up. A t that blue flames leapt up from the ring of fire and began to burn the foliage of the trees. Seeing this I said) ‘This must stop. I must go into the fire myself so that the leaves shall not be burned.’ Then I stepped into the fire. The trees vanished and the fiery ring drew together to one immense blue flame that carried me up from the earth.”

“我爬上山,来到一个地方。在那里,我看见七块红色石头在我面前。左右两边各七块石头,在我背后有七块石头。我站立在这个四方形的中间。石头像台阶一样地平坦。我尝试举起最靠近我的四块石头。当我这样做时,我发现,这些石头是四座神的雕像的塑像,颠倒地被埋在地里。我挖掘它们出来,然后安排它们在我四周。这样,我正站立在他们的中间。突然地,他们互相倾靠起来。直到他们的头碰触一块,形成某件像是在我上方的帐篷。我自己倒在地上,然后说:「假如你们必须倾倒,就倾倒在我身上吧!我精疲力尽!」然后,我看见,有四位天神环绕天际,形成火焰的环圈。过一阵子,我从地上站立起来,推倒众神的雕像。在他们倾倒的地方,四棵树矗立出来。看见那个景象,蓝色的火焰从火的环圈跳跃出来,然后开始燃烧树的叶子。当我看见这个景象,我说:「这必须停止。我自己必须走进火里,这样,这些叶子才不会被燃烧。」然后,我走进火里。树木就消失,烈火的环圈聚集一块,成为一个巨大的蓝色的火焰。这个火焰带着我脱离地球。

367 Here the vision ended. Unfortunately I cannot see how I can
make conclusively clear to the reader the extraordinarily inter- esting meaning of this vision.

在此,幻象结束。不幸地,我无法看见我如何能够让读者彻底的明白这个幻象的这个特别有趣的意义。

2 [This technique is elsewhere called “active imagination.” Cf. “The Transcend¬ent Function,” pars. l66ff., and Mysterium Coniunctionis, pars. 706 and 749ff• -EDlTORS.]
222

368
369

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION
The fragment is an excerpt from a long sequence, and one would have to explain everything that happened before and afterwards, in order to grasp the signifi¬cance of the picture. At all events the unprejudiced reader will recognize at once the idea of a “mid-point” that is reached by a kind of climb (mountaineering, effort, struggle, etc.). He will also recognize without difficulty the famous medieval conun¬drum of the squaring of the circle, which belongs to the field of alchemy.

这个片断是从一段长的系列的摘要。我们本来必须解释之前之后发生的一切,为了要理解这个画面的意义。无论如何,不带有偏见的的读者将会立即体会到,“中间点”的观念,它凭借攀爬而抵达(爬山,努力,奋斗,等等)。他将也毫无困难地会体认出这个著名的中世纪的困难的难题:将园形弄成四方形。这属于炼金术的领域。

Here it takes its rightful place as a symbol of individ¬uation. The total personality is indicated by the four cardinal points, the four gods, i.e., the four functions which give bearings in psychic space, and also by the circle enclosing the whole. Overcoming the four gods who threaten to smother the individ¬ual signifies liberation from identification with the four func¬tions, a fourfold nirdvandva (“free from opposites”) followed by an approximation to the circle, to undivided wholeness. This in its turn leads to further exaltation.

在此,它需要它的合适的位置,作为个体化的象征。完整的人格被指示,被四个主要的点,四个神,等等,这四个功能,在心灵的空间,给予关联。而且,凭借园圈封闭整体。克服这四个神,他们威胁要闷死个人。这意味着解放,从认同这四个功能解放。这是四重的免除对立。后面,跟随着接近园圈,接近没有被分裂的整体。轮过来,这导致更进一步的提升。

I must content myself with these hints. Anyone who takes the trouble to reflect upon the matter will be able to form a rough idea of how the transformation of personality proceeds. Through her active participation the patient merges herself in the unconscious processes, and she gains possession of them by allowing them to possess her. In this way she joins the conscious to the unconscious. The result is ascension in the flame, trans¬mutation in the alchemical heat, the genesis of the “subtle spirit.” That is the transcendent function born of the union of opposites.

我必须满足于这些暗示。任何愿意费心来思维这个事情的人,将能够形成一个粗略的观念:人格的转化如何进行。凭借她的主动的参与,病人融合她自己于无意识的过程。她获得拥有它们,凭借让它们能够拥有她。用这个方式,她将意识跟无意识联接。结果是火焰的上扬,在炼金术的热量里。“微妙精神”的起源。那就是超验的功能,从对立力量的结合里产生。

I must recall at this point a serious misunderstanding to which my readers often succumb, and doctors most commonly. They invariably assume, for reasons unknown, that I never write about anything except my method of treatment. This is far from being the case. I write about psychology. I must there¬fore expressly emphasize that my method of treatment does not consist in causing my patients to indulge in strange fantasies for the purpose of changing their personality, and other nonsense of that kind. I merely put it on record that there are certain cases where such a development occurs, not because I force anyone to it, but because it springs from inner necessity.

在这个时候,我必须提醒我的读者与医生,最普遍经常承受的一个严重的误解。他们一成不变地认为,因为未知的理由,我从来没有书写到任何除了我的治疗方法以外的东西。情况根本就不是这样。我书写关于心理学。我因此必须生动地强调:我的治疗的方法并不是在于引起我的病人耽溺于奇异的幻想,为了改变他们的人格。,以及其他诸如其类的无稽之谈。我仅是将它记录下来,有某些的情况,这样的发展会发生。并不是因为我强迫任何人这样做,而是因为它起源于内在的必要性。

For many of my patients these things are and must remain double Dutch. In¬deed, even if it were possible for them to tread this path, it would be a disastrously wrong turning, and I would be the first to hold them back. The way of the transcendent function is an individual destiny.

对于许多我的病人,这些事情都是双重,而且必须是双重地各走各的。的确,即使这是可能的,让他们追踪这个途径。那将是一个灾难式的错误的转弯。我将是第一位要阻止他们。超验功能的途径是个人的命运。

223

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

But on no account should one imagine that this way is equivalent to the life of a psychic anchorite, to aliena¬tion from the world. Quite the contrary, for such a way is possi¬ble and profitable only when the specific worldly tasks which these individuals set themselves are carried out in reality. Fanta¬sies are no substitute for living; they are fruits of the spirit which fall to him who pays his tribute to life. The shirker expe¬riences nothing but his own morbid fear, and it yields him no meaning.

但是,无论如何,我们都不应该想像,这个方法相等于是心灵的隐士的生活,跟世界疏离。恰恰相反地,因为这样的方法是可能的,有利益的,只有当这些个人指定给他们自己的明确的世俗的工作,在现实里被实现。幻想并不是生活的替换品。幻想是精神的成果。这些精神的成果掉落于尊重生活的人的身上。逃避生活的人仅能经验到他自己的病态的恐惧。这种恐惧不会给他产生任何的意义。

Nor will this way ever be known to the man who has found his way back to Mother Church. There is no doubt that the mysterium magnum is hidden in her forms, and in these he can live his life sensibly. Finally, the normal man will never be burdened, either, with this knowledge, for he is everlastingly content with the little that lies within his reach. Wherefore I entreat my reader to understand that I write about things which actually happen, and am not propounding methods of treat¬ment.

这个方法也将永远不会那个人所知,因为他已经找到回到教会之母的途径。无可置疑地,神秘主义被隐藏在她的形式里。在这些形式里,他能够合理地过着他的生活。最后,正常的人将永远不会对这个知识觉得是负担。因为他永远满足于他能够掌握的那点东西。虽然我恳求我的读者理解,我书写确实发生的事情。我并不是在提倡治疗的方法。

37° These two examples of fantasy represent the positive activity
of anima and animus. To the degree that the patient takes an active part, the personified figure of anima or animus will disap¬pear. It becomes the function of relationship between conscious and unconscious.

这两个幻想的例子代表阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯的正面的活动。随著病人主动地参与,阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯的人格化的人物将会消失。它变成是意识与无意识之间的关系的功能。

But when the unconscious contents-these same fantasies-are not “realized,” they give rise to a negative activity and personification, i.e., to the autonomy of animus and anima. Psychic abnormalities then develop, states of possession ranging in degree from ordinary moods and “ideas” to psy¬choses. All these states are characterized by one and the same fact that an unknown “something” has taken possession of a smaller or greater portion of the psyche and asserts its hateful and harm¬ful existence undeterred by all our insight, reason, and energy, thereby proclaiming the power of the unconscious over the con¬scious mind, the sovereign power of possession. In this state the possessed part of the psyche generally develops an animus or anima psychology. The woman’s incubus consists of a host of masculine demons; the man’s succubus is a vampire.

但是,当无意识的内容—这些相同的幻想—并没有被实现,它们产生负面的活动与人格表现。譬如,产生阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯的自主权。心灵的异常因此发展,拥有的状态范围不一,从普通的心情与“观念”,到精神病都有。所有这些状态的特征是同一个事实:一个未知的“某件东西”已经占有心灵的更小或更大的部分。并且主张它的令人讨厌与伤害的存在,没有受的我们所有的洞察力,理性,与能源的阻止。它们因此宣称具有无意识的力量,胜过意识的心灵。它们拥有统辖的权力。在这个状态,心灵的被拥有的部分发展阿尼玛斯,或阿尼玛的心理学。女人的男性恶魔就包含许的的男性的恶魔。男性的女性恶魔就是吸血鬼。

!l71 This particular concept of a soul which, according to the
conscious attitude, either exists by itself or disappears in a func¬
tion, has, as anyone can see, not the remotest connection with the Christian concept of the soul.

依照意识的态度,灵魂的特殊的观念,要就是存在于本身,要不就是消失于功能。如同任何人都能看出,灵魂的特殊的观念,跟基督教的灵魂的观念,并没有丝毫的关系。

224

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION

372 The second fantasy is a typical example of the kind of con-
tent produced by the collective unconscious. Although the form is entirely subjective and individual, the substance is none the less collective, being composed of universal images and ideas common to the generality of men, components, therefore, by which the individual is assimilated to the rest of mankind. If these contents remain unconscious, the individual is, in them, unconsciously commingled with other individuals-in other words, he is not differentiated, not individuated.

第二个幻想是集体无意识产生的那种内容的典型例子。虽然这个形式完全主观与个人,这个物质仍然是集体。因为它由普世的意象与观念组成,那是通俗的人们所共有的意象与观念。
因此,凭借这些成分,个人被吸收到其余的人类。假如这些内容始终是无意识,个人在它们身上,会无意识地跟其他的个人融合。换句话说,他并没有被差异化,并没有被个体化。

373 Here one may ask, perhaps, why it is so desirable that a man
should be individuated. Not only is it desirable, it is absolutely indispensable because, through his contamination with others, he falls into situations and commits actions which bring him into disharmony with himself. From all states of unconscious contamination and non-differentiation there is begotten a com¬pulsion to be and to act in a way contrary to one’s own nature. Accordingly a man can neither be at one with himself nor accept responsibility for himself.

在此,我们可能会问,为什么它如此被渴望,以致一个人竟然要被个体化。它不但是被渴望,它绝对是无可免除的。因为通过跟别人的污染,他掉落进入各种情境,并且从事一些跟他自己不相和谐的行动。从无意识的污染与没有差异化的所有的状态,一个强迫症被产生,想要成为,想要行动,用跟自己的天性相反的方式。因此,一个人既无法跟他自己保持一致,又无法接受对他自己的责任。

He feels himself to be in a degrading, unfree, unethical condition. But the disharmony with himself is precisely the neurotic and intolerable condition from which he seeks to be delivered, and deliverance from this condition will come only when he can be and act as he feels is conformable with his true self.

他感觉自己处于退化,不自由,不伦恋的情况。但是,跟他自己的不和谐,确实是神经症与不可容忍的情况。他尝试要从这个情况被解脱出来,然后脱离这个情况将会来临,只有当他能够成为而且能够行动,依照他的感觉。他才能跟他真实的自性相一致。

People have a feeling for these things, dim and uncertain at first, but growing ever stronger and clearer with progressive development. When a man can say of his states and actions, “As I am, s’o I act,” he can be at one with himself, even though it be difficult, and he can accept responsibility for him¬self even though he struggle against it. We must recognize that nothing is more difficult to bear with than oneself.

人们对于这些事情会有感觉,起初始模糊而且不确定,但是随着逐渐的发展,变得越来越强烈,越来越清楚。当一个人能够说到他自己的状态与行动,「我行动,依照我生命的本质。」他能够跟他自己相一致,即使非常困难。他能够接受对于自己的责任,即使他奋斗对抗它。我们必须体认,要跟自己和谐相处确实是最困难不过的事情。

You sought the heaviest burden, and found yourself,” says Nie¬tzsche.) Yet even this most difficult of achievements becomes pos¬sible if we can distinguish ourselves from the unconscious con¬tents. The introvert discovers these contents in himself, the extravert finds them projected upon human objects. In both cases the unconscious contents are the cause of blinding illusions which falsify ourselves and our relations to our fellow men, mak¬ing both unreal. For these reasons individuation
.is indispensable for certain people, not only as a therapeutic necessity, but as a high ideal, an idea of the best we can do

「你们寻求最沉重的负担,然后你们发现就是你们自己,」尼采说。可是,即使最困难的成就也是成为可能,假如我们能够区别我们自己跟无意识的内容。内倾型的人发现这些内容在他自己身上。外倾型的人发现这些内容被投射在人类的客体上。无论哪一种情况,无意识的内容都是令人目盲的幻觉的原因。这些幻觉让我们自己与我们跟同胞的关系成为虚假,让两者都成为不真实。因为这些理由,个体化对于某些人们是无可避免的。不但是作为必要的治疗,而且作为崇高的理想,我们能够做到的最佳的理念。
225

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND’ THE UNCONSCIOUS

Nor should I omit to remark that it is at the same time the primitive Christian ideal of the Kingdom of Heaven which “is within you.” The idea at the bottom of this ideal is that right action comes from right thinking, and that there is no cure and no improving of the world that does not begin with the individual himself. To put the matter drastically: the man who is pauper or parasite will never solve the social question.

我也不应该忽略没有谈论到,个体化同时也是原始的基督教的天上王国的理想。那个天上王国就在你的内心深处。在这个理想的底端的观念是,正当的行动来自正当的思维。对于世界的治疗或对于世界的改进,都是从个人自己开始。说得更加激烈些:贫困或寄生的人将永远无法解决社会的问题。

荣格:个体化

December 1, 2015

PART TWO
INDIVIDUA TION
第二部分
个体化
I
THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
无意识的功能
266 There is a destination, a possible goal, beyond the alterna-
tive stages dealt with in our last chapter. That is the way of in¬dividuation. Individuation means becoming an “in-dividual,” and, in so far as “individuality” embraces our innermost, last, and incomparable uniqueness, it also implies becoming one’s own self. We could therefore translate individuation as “coming to selfhood” or “self-realization.”

有一个目的地,一个可能的目标,超越上一章,我们处理的轮换的阶段。那是个体化的方式。个体化意味着称为一个“个人”。因为“个体性”包含我们最内部,最后,跟无与伦比的独异性,个体化也暗示着成为我们自己的自性。 我们因此将个体化翻译成为“回到自性”或“实践-自性”。

267 The possibilities of development discussed in the preceding
chapters were, at bottom, alienations of the self, ways of divest¬ing the self of its reality in favour of an external role or in fa¬vour of an imagined meaning. In the former case the self retires into the background and gives place to social recognition; in the latter, to the auto-suggestive meaning of a primordial image.

在前述的章节讨论的发展的可能,追根究底,是自性的替换。
用这些方式,将自性剥除它的现实,以赞同外在的角色,或赞同被想像的意义。在前者,自性隐退到背景,然后让位给社会的体认。在后者,自性让位给原初的意象的自动-暗示的意义。

In both cases the collective has the upper hand. Self-alienation in favour of the collective corresponds to a social ideal; it even passes for social duty and virtue, although it can also be misused for egotistical purposes. Egoists are called “selfish,” but this, nat¬urally, has nothing to do with the concept of “self” as I am using it here.

在两种情况,集体意识占优势。自性被异化,以赞同集体意识,符合社会的理想。它甚至被认为是社会的责任与品德。虽然它也能够被误用,充当自我中心的目的。自我主义被称为“自私”,但是,这当然没有丝毫关系,跟“自性”的观念,依照我在这里使用的。

On the other hand, self-realization seems to stand in op¬position to self-alienation. This misunderstanding is quite gen¬eral, because we do not sufficiently distinguish between individ¬ualism and individuation. Individualism means deliberately stressing and giving prominence to some supposed peculiarity rather than to collective considerations and obligations.

另一方面,实践-自性似乎跟自性被异化处于对立状态。这个误解是相当普遍,因为我们并没有充分区别个人主义与个体化。个人主义意味着刻意强调并且给予优先性,对于某个被认为的特殊性,而不是给予集体的考虑与义务。

But in¬dividuation means precisely the better and more complete ful-
filment of the collective qualities of the human being, since ade¬quate consideration of the peculiarity of the individual is more conducive to a better social performance than when the pecul¬iarity is neglected or suppressed.

但是个体化意味着,人类的集体的特质的更好,而且更加完整的实现。因为充分地考虑到个人的特殊性,会导致更好的社会的成绩,比起当特殊性被忽略或压制。

173

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
The idiosyncrasy of an individ¬ual is not to be understood as any strangeness in his substance or in his components, but rather as a unique combination, or grad¬ual differentiation, of functions and faculties which in them¬selves are universal. Every human face has a nose, two eyes, ete., but these universal factors are variable, and it is this variability which makes individual peculiarities possible. Individuation, therefore, can only mean a process of psychological development that fulfils the individual qualities given; in other words, it is a process by which a man becomes the definite, unique being he in fact is. In so doing he does not become “selfish” in the ordi¬nary sense of the word, but is merely fulfilling the peculiarity of his nature, and this, as we have said, is vastly different from ego¬tism or individualism.

个人的怪癖不应该被理解,作为任何奇异的东西,在他的物质或在他的成分里。相反地,而是作为独异的组合,或逐渐的差异化,对于在他们自己身上,属于普世性的功能与能力的组合或逐渐差异化。每个人的脸孔拥有一个鼻子,两个眼睛,等等。但是这些普世的因素是具有变数的。就是这个变数让个人的特殊性成为可能。因此,个体化仅能意味著心理发展的过程,它实践被给予的个人的特殊性。换句话说,凭借这个体化的过程,一个人成为明确的独异性的生命实存,他事实上具有这样的生命实存。当他这样做时,他并没有成为普通用法的“自私”。而仅仅是实践他的天性的特殊性。如同我们已经说过,这是跟自我中心或个人主义是大相迳庭的。

~68 Now in so far as the human individual, as a living unit, is
composed of purely universal factors, he is wholly collective and therefore in no sense opposed to collectivity. Hence the individ¬ualistic emphasis on one’s own peculiarity is a contradiction of this basic fact of the living being. Individuation, on the other hand, aims at a living co-operation of all factors. But since the universal factors always appear only in individual form, a full consideration of them will also produce an individual effect, and one which cannot be surpassed by anything else, least of all by individualism.

现在,因为作为活生生的单位,个人由纯粹的普世的因素组成。他完全是集体,因此跟集体意识丝毫没有处于对立。因此,个体化的强调一个人自己的特殊性,是违背这位活生生的人的这个基本的事实。另一方面,个体化目标朝着作为各种因素的活生生的合作。但是,因为普世的因素总是仅以个体的形式出现,充分地考虑它们也将产生一个个人的效果。这个个人的效果无法被任何其他东西超越,个体化尤其没有被超越。

269 The aim of individuation is nothing less than to divest the
self of the false wrappings of the persona on the one hand, and of the suggestive power of primordial images on the other. From what has been said in the previous chapters it should be suffi¬ciently clear what the persona means psychologically. But when we turn to the other side, namely to the influence of the collec¬tive unconscious, we find we are moving in a dark interior world that is vastly more difficult to understand than the psychology of the persona, ,vhich is accessible to everyone. Everyone knows what is meant bv “putting on official airs” or “playing a social role.”

个体化的目标实实在在就是,一方面,将自性剥除掉人格面具的虚假的装扮;另一方面,并剥除掉原初的意象的暗示的力量。从前面几个章节曾经说过的,这应该是充分地清楚,人格面具在心理所意味的东西。但是,当我们转向另外一边,也就是,转向集体无意识的影响。我们发现我们正在移动,朝向黑暗的内部的世界。这个黑暗的内部的世界是极端地难以理解,比起人人可以接近的人格面具的心理学。众所周知,“官方人物的装模作样”或“扮演社会角色”是啥意思。

Through the persona a man tries to appear as this or that, or he hides behind a mask, or he may even build up a definite persona as a barricade. So the problem of the persona should present no great intellectual difficulties.

通过人格面具,一个人尝试出现,作为这个或那个角色。或是他隐藏在面具背后。或是他甚至累积明确的人格面具,作为是堡垒。所以,人格面具的难题,应该不会呈现太大的知识的困难。

174

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

270 It is, however, another thing to describe, in a way that can be
generally understood, those subtle inner processes which invade the conscious mind with such suggestive force. Perhaps we can best portray these influences with the help of examples of men¬tal illness, creative inspiration, and religious conversion.

可是,这是另外一回事,当我们要决定那些微妙的内部的过程,用通常能够被理解的方式。那些微妙的内部的过程侵犯到意识的心灵,用如此暗示的力量。或许,我们最善于描绘这些影响,假如我们凭借精神疾病的人们,创造性的启发,与改变宗教信仰者的案例作为帮助。

A most excellent account-taken from life, so to speak-of such an inner transformation is to be found in H. G. Wells’ Christina Alber¬ta’s Father.a Changes of a similar kind are described in Leon Daudet’s eminently readable L’Heredo. A wide range of mate¬rial is contained in William James’ Varieties of Religious Expe¬rience.

在威尔斯的“阿布拿塔的父亲”,我们能够找一个非常优秀的描述,也就是,关于这样的内部的转化。类似种类的改变被描述,在利昂 都德的通俗读物“希瑞德”。广泛的材料被包含在威廉 詹姆斯的“宗教经验杂谈”。

Although in many cases of this kind there are certain external factors which either directly condition the change, or at least provide the occasion for it, yet it is not always the case that the external factor offers a sufficient explanation of these changes of personality. We must recognize the fact that they can also arise from subjective inner causes, opinions, convictions, where external stimuli play no part at all, or a very insignificant one. In pathological changes of personality this can even be said to be the rule.

虽然在这种的许多个案里,有某些的外在的因,若不是直接地制约这个改变,就是至少供应改变的场合。可是,未必总是这个情况,外在的因素提供充分的解释,对于人格的这些改变。我们必须承认这个事实:他们也能够起源于主体的内部的原因,意见,信念。在那里,外在的刺激根本没有扮演角色。或是仅扮演不重要的角色。在人格的病理的改变,这甚至能够被说成是常规。

The cases of psychosis that present a clear and simple reaction to some overwh~lming outside event belong to the exceptions. Hence, for psychiatry, the essential aetiological factor is the inherited or acquired pathological disposition. The same is probably true of most creative intuitions, for we are hardly likely to suppose a purely causal connection between the falling apple and Newton’s theory of gravitation.

精神病的个案呈现清楚而单纯的反应,多余某个压倒性的外边的事件。这些精神病的个案属于例外。因此,对于精神分裂症,这个基本的病因的因素就是这个被继承或被获得的病理的性情。就大部的分创造性的直觉而言,相同的事情可能是真实的。因为我们几乎不可能假设有一个纯粹的因果的关联,在掉落的苹果与牛顿的地心引力的理论。

Similarly all religious conversions that cannot be traced back directly to sug¬gestion and contagious example rest upon independent interior processes culminating in a change of personality. As a rule these processes have the peculiarity of being subliminal, i.e., uncon¬scious, in the first place and of reaching consciousness only grad¬ually. The moment of irruption can, however, be very sudden, so that consciousness is instantaneously flooded with extremely strange and apparently quite unsuspected contents.

同样地,所有的宗教的改变,无法直接被追踪到暗示。传染的例子依靠独立的内部的过程,在人格的改变里达到高潮。通常,这些过程拥有成为升华的特殊性,譬如,首先是成为无意识的特性,其次,才仅是逐渐地到达意识的特性。可是,发作的时刻有时是很突然的。这样,意识瞬间泛滥着极端奇怪而表面上完全无可怀疑的内容。

That is how it looks to the layman and even to the person concerned, but the experienced observer knows that psychological events are never sudden. In reality the irruption has been preparing for many years, often for half a lifetime, and already in childhood all sorts of remarkable signs could have been detected which, in more or less symbolic fashion, hinted at abnormal future developments.

那就是对于外行人看起来的样子,甚至对于相关的这个人。但是,有经验的观察者知道,心理的事件从来就不是突然的。事实上,这个发作已经酝酿好几年了。经常是酝酿大半生。在童年时期,已经有各色各样的明显的迹象,本来能够被觉察出来。用相当象征的方式,在异常的未来的发展里被暗示出来。

a [Concerning the origin of this novel in a conversation between Wells and lung. cf. Bennet, What lung Really Said, p. 93.-EDITORS.]
175

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
I am reminded, for instance, of a mental case who refused all nourishment and created quite extraordinary difficulties in con¬nection with nasal feeding. In fact an anaesthetic was necessary before the tube could be inserted. The patient was able in some remarkable way to swallow his tongue by pressing it back into the throat, a fact that was quite new and unknown to me at the time. In a lucid interval I obtained the following history from the man. As a boy he had often revolved in his mind the idea of how he could take his life, even if every conceivable measure were employed to prevent him.

譬如,我想起一个精神病的个案。他拒绝所有的滋养,并且引起相当特殊的困难,关于鼻腔的餵食。事实上,麻醉是必要的,这样管子才能够被插入。病人以相当明显的方式能够吞下他的舌头,将舌头压到喉咙里面。在当时,这对于我是相当新颖而未曾听过的一个事实。间隔一段清楚的期间,我获得这个人的以下的历史。当他男孩时,他经常在他的心里萦绕这个想法:他如何能够拿掉他的生命,即使每个可以构想的措施都被运用来阻止他。

He first tried to do it by holding his breath, until he found that by the time he was in a semi¬conscious state he had already begun to breathe again. So he gave up these attempts and thought: perhaps it would work if he refused food. This fantasy satisfied him until he discovered that food could be poured into him through the nasal cavity. He therefore considered how this entrance might be closed, and thus it was that he hit upon the idea of pressing his tongue back¬wards. At first he was unsuccessful, and so he began a regular training, until at last he succeeded in swallowing his tongue in much the same way as sometimes happens accidentally during anaesthesia, evidently in his case by artificially relaxing the mus¬cles at the root of the tongue.

他首先尝试凭借摒住呼吸来做它。直到他发现,在他处于半-意识的状态时,他已经开始又再呼吸。所以,他放弃这些企图,并且认为,假如他拒绝食物,或许行得通。他满足于这个幻想,直到他发现,食物能够被注入他的身体,经验鼻腔的洞口。他因此考虑到,这个入口如何能够被封闭。因此,他突然想到这个点子:将他的舌头压退回去。起初,他并没有成功。所以,他开始规律地训练。直到最后,他成功地吞下他的舌头,就像有时意外发生的事情,在麻醉时。显而易见地,在他的个案,他人为地松开舌头的根本的肌肉。

:71 In this strange manner the boy paved the way for his future
psychosis. After the second attack he became incurably insane. This is• only one example among many others, but it suffices to show how the subsequent, apparently sudden irruption of alien contents is really not sudden at all, but is rather the result of an unconscious development that has been going on for years.

用这个奇异的方式,这位男孩替他的未来的精神病铺路。在第二次疾病发作后,他变成无可治疗地疯狂。这是众多的例子当中的唯一的一个。但是它足够显示,外来的内容的随后的表面上突然的发作,确实一点儿也不突然。相反地,它是无意识发展的结果,已经进行好几年了。

l72 The great question now is: in what do these unconscious
processes consist? And how are they constituted? Naturally, so long as they are unconscious, nothing can be said about them. But sometimes they manifest themselves, partly through symp¬toms, partly through actions, opinions, affects, fantasies, and dreams. Aided by such observational material we can draw indi¬rect conclusions as to the momentary state and constitution of the unconscious processes and their development. We should not, however, labour under the illusion that we have now dis- covered the real nature of the unconscious processes. We never succeed in getting further than the hypothetical “as if.”

现在,这个大问题是:这些无意识由什么组成?它们如何被组成?当然,只要它们是无意识,关于它们,我们无法说出任何东西。但是有时,它们展示它们自己,部分通过症状,部分通过行动,意见,情感,幻想,与梦。由于受的这些观察的材料的帮助,我们能够获得间接的结论,关于无意识的过程与发展的暂时的状态与组成结构。可是,我们不应该努力工作,带着这个幻觉:我们现在已经发现无意识的过程的真实特性。我们永远不会成功地更加地深入,除了就是假设的“好像”。
176

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
273 “No mortal mind can plumb the depths of nature”-nor
even the depths of the unconscious. We do know, however, that the unconscious never rests. It seems to be always at work, for even when asleep we dream. There are many people who de¬clare that they never dream, but the probability is that they simply do not remember their dreams. It is significant that peo¬ple who talk in their sleep mostly have no recollection either of the dream which started them talking, or even of the fact that they dreamed at all. Not a day passes but we make some slip of the tongue, or something slips our memory which at other times we know perfectly well, or we are seized by a mood whose cause we cannot trace, etc. These things are all symptoms of some con¬sistent unconscious activity which becomes directly visible at night in dreams, but only occasionally breaks through the inhi¬bitions imposed by our daytime consciousness.

自然的深度,非凡夫的心灵所能探测,遑论无意识的深度。可是,我们确实知道,无意识从来没有休息。无意识似乎总是在运作当中。因为即使当我们睡觉时,我们也在作梦。有许人们宣称,他们从来没有作梦。但是很可能是,他们仅是不记得他们的梦。重要的是,在睡觉中谈话的人们,大部分并没有记得让他们谈话的那个梦,或甚至不记得这个事实:他们做过梦。每一天过去,我们总是会有些口误,或某件事情从我们的记忆溜掉。还有些时刻,我们清楚地知道这个记忆,或我们著迷于某个情绪变化。这个情绪变化的原因,我们无法追踪,等等。这些东西都是某个一贯性的无意识的活动的症状。它们在夜晚的梦里直接可以看见。但是仅1偶然地突破压抑,由我们的白天的意识赋加的压抑。

274 So far as our present experience goes, we can lay it down that
the unconscious processes stand in a compensatory relation to the conscious mind. I expressly use the word “compensatory” and not the word “contrary” because conscious and unconscious are not necessarily in opposition to one another, but comple¬ment one another to form a totality, which is the self. According to this definition the self is a quantity that is supraordinate to the conscious ego. It embraces not only the conscious but also the unconscious psyche, and is therefore, so to speak, a personal-ity which we also are.

就我们目前的经验而言,我们能够确定地说,无意识的过程跟意识的心灵处于互补的关系。我生动地使用这个字词“互补地”,而不是“相反地”。因为意识与无意识未必是处于互相对立的状态。而是互相辅助,为了形成完整性。那就是“自性”。依照这个定义,自性是一个数量,早先存在于意识的自我的数量。自性不但包含意识,而且包含无意识的心灵。因此,自性可以说是我们生命实存的人格。

It is easy enough to think of ourselves as possessing part-souls. Thus we can, for instance, see ourselves as a persona without too much difficulty. But it transcends our powers of imagination to form a clear picture of what we are as a self, for in this operation the part would have to comprehend the whole. There is little hope of our ever being able to reach even approximate consciousness of the self, since however much We may make conscious there will always exist an indeterminate and indeterminable amount of unconscious material which be¬longs to the totality of the self. Hence the self will always remain a supraordinate quantity.

我们足够容易将我们自己视为是拥有部分-灵魂。因此,譬如,我们能够没有太大的困难,看待我们自己,作为是一个人格面具。但是这个人格面具超越我们的想像的力量,为了形成一个清楚的画面,对我我们的生命实存,作为自性。因为在这个运作里,部分灵魂将必须理解整体性。我们几乎没有什么希望能够到达大约地理解这个自性。因为我们如努人让意识知道,总是存在着未被决定,无法被决定的无意识的材料的数量。它们属于自性的整体。因此,自性将总是早先存在于数量。

275 The unconscious processes that compensate the conscious
ego contain all those elements that are necessary for the self¬177
of the psyche as a whole. On the personal level, these are the not consciously recognized personal motives which ap¬pear in dreams, or the meanings of daily situations which we have overlooked, or conclusions we have failed to draw, or affects we hav~ not permitted, or criticisms we have spared our¬selves.

补偿意识的无意识的自我的过程,包含所有那些元素,对于自性,作为整体的心灵,是必要的元素。那些元素意识地组成我们忽略的日常的情境,或我们没有获得的结论。或是我们没有容许的情感,或我们让自己省免的批评。

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS regulation But the more we become conscious of ourselves through self-knowledge, and act accordingly, the more the layer of the personal unconscious that is superimposed on the collective un¬conscious will be diminished. In this way there arises a con¬sciousness which is no longer imprisoned in the petty, oversensi¬tive, personal world of the ego, but participates freely in the wider world of objective interests.

但是,我们越是知道我们自己,通过认识自性,然后採取行动。被超级赋加在个人的无意识的层面,就越加地被减少。用这个方式,就产生一个意识,不再被囚禁于狭窄的过度敏感的个人的自我的世界,而是自由地参与更加广泛的客观利益的世界。

This widened consciousness is no longer that touchy, egotistical bundle of personal wishes, fears, hopes, and ambitions which always has to be compensated or corrected by unconscious counter-tendencies; instead, it is a function of relationship to the world of objects, bringing the individual into absolute, binding, and indissoluble communion with the world at large. The complications arising at this stage are no longer egotistic wish-conflicts, but difficulties that con¬cern others as much as oneself.

被扩宽的意识不再是那个敏感,自我中心的那堆个人的愿望,恐惧,希望,与企图心。它们总是必须被补偿或改造,被无意识的相反的倾向。代替地,这是跟客体的世界的关系的功能,将个人带进绝对的联结,以及无法解决的沟通,跟一般的世界。从这个阶段产生的併发症,不再是自我中心的愿望—冲突。而是跟别人,也跟自己息息相关的各种困难。

At this stage it is fundamentally a question of collective problems, which have activated the collec¬tive unconscious because they require collective rather than per¬sonal compensation. We can now see that the unconscious pro¬duces contents which are valid not only for the person concerned, but for others as well, in fact for a great many people and pos-sibly f0r all.

在这个阶段,基本上的问题是集体的难题。它们触动集体无意识,因为它们要求集体,而不是个人的补偿。我们现在看见,无意识产生的一些内容是有效的,不但对于相关的个人,而且对于别人。事实上,对于许多的人们,可能对于所有的人们。

276 The Elgonyi, natives of the Elgon forests, of central Africa,
explained to me that there are two kinds of dreams: the ordi¬nary dream of the little man, and the “big vision” that only the great man has, e.g., the medicine-man or chief. Little dreams are of no account, but if a man has a “big dream” he summons the whole tribe in order to tell it to everybody.

非州中部的阿甘森林的阿甘尼伊土著,跟我解释,有两种的梦:小人物的普通的梦,跟仅有伟大的人,如巫医或酋长,才拥有的幻景”。缈小的梦是微不足道。但是,假如一个人拥有“伟的的梦”,他召唤整个的部落,为了将梦告诉每个人。

277 How is a man to know whether his dream is a “big” or a
“little” one? He knows it by an instinctive feeling of signifi¬cance. He feels so overwhelmed by the impression it makes that he would never think of keeping the dream to himself. He has to tell it, on the psychologically correct assumption that it is of general significance. Even with us the collective dream has a feeling of importance about it that impels communication. It springs from a conflict of relationship and must therefore be built into our conscious relations, because it compensates these and not just some inner personal quirk.

一个人如何能够知道,他的梦是“伟大”或“缈小“?他知道它,凭借本能的感觉重要感。他感觉被这个重要感的印象压倒,以致于他将不会想到将这个梦据为己有。他必须告诉这个梦。根据心理上是正确的假设:这个梦具有普遍的重要性。即使对于我们,集体的梦拥有一种关于它的重要的感觉,驱使沟通。它起源于关系的冲突,因此,必须被建造成为我们的意识的关系。因为它补偿这些关系,并且不仅是某个内在的个人的习性。

178

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

278 The processes of the collective unconscious are concerned
not only with the more or less personal relations of an individ¬ual to his family or to a wider social group, but with his relations to society and to the human community in general. The more general and impersonal the condition that releases the uncon¬scious reaction, the more significant, bizarre, and overwhelming will be the compensatory manifestation. It impels not just pri¬vate communication, but drives people to revelations and con¬fessions, and even to a dramatic representation of their fantasies.

跟集体无意识的过程息息相关的,不仅是个人跟他的家庭的相当个人的关系,而且跟更加广泛的社会团体,跟一般的人的社会。释放无意识的反应的情况,更加一般性与非个人,补偿的证明越加是重要,古怪与压倒。它不但驱使私人的沟通,而且驱使人们获得启示与坦白,甚至驱使人们获得他们的幻想的戏剧性的再现表象。

279 I will explain by an example how the unconscious manages
to compensate relationships. A somewhat arrogant gentleman once came to me for treatment. He ran a business in partnership with his younger brother. Relations between the two brothers were very strained, and this was one of the essential causes of my patient’s neurosis. From the information he gave me, the real reason for the tension was not altogether clear. He had all kinds of criticisms to make of his brother, whose gifts he certainly did not show in a very favourable light. The brother frequently came into his dreams, always in the role of a Bisma\rck, N apo¬leon, or Julius Caesar. His house looked like the Vatican or Yil¬diz Kiosk. My patient’s unconscious evidently had the need to exalt the rank of the younger brother. From this I concluded that he was setting himself too high and his brother too low. The further course of analysis entirely justified this inference.

我将以一个例子解释,无意识如何成功地补偿关系。一位相当傲慢的绅士有一次前来找我就诊。他跟他的弟弟合股经营一家生意。两个兄弟之间的关系非常紧张。这是我的病人的神经症的基本原因之一。从他给予我的资讯,紧张的真正原因并不完全清楚。他对他的兄弟做各种的批评。他的兄弟的天赋并没有显示有利的观点。兄弟经常进入他的梦,总是以俾斯麦,拿破仑,或凯撒大帝的角色。他的房屋看起来像是梵帝岡,或土耳其宫殿。我的病人的无意识显然拥有这个必要性,要提升年轻弟弟的地位。从这里,我下结论:他正在将他自己提升太高,将他的弟弟贬得太低。精神分析的更进一步原因完整证实这个推测。

280 Another patient, a young woman who clung to her mother
in an extremely sentimental way, always had very sinister dreams about her. She appeared in the dreams as a witch, as a ghost, as a pursuing demon. The mother had spoilt her beyond all reason and had so blinded her by tenderness that the daugh¬ter had no conscious idea of her mother’s harmful influence. Hence the compensatory criticism exercised by the unconscious.

另外一位病人,一位年轻女士紧捉住她的母亲,以一个极端情感的方式,她总是拥有一个古怪的关于母亲的梦。她在梦里出现,作为女巫,作为追逐的恶魔。母亲已经破坏她,非理性所能形容,并且对她爱护有加,让她茫然。女儿无法意识到她的母亲的有害的影响。因此,无意识运作补偿的批评。

281 I myself once happened to put too low a value on a patient,
both intellectually and morally. In a dream I saw a castle perched on a high cliff, and on the topmost tower was a balcony, and there sat my patient. I did not hesitate to tell her this dream at once, naturally with the best results.

我自己有一次恰好过分低估一位病人,在知识与道德方面。在梦里,我看见一个城堡,座落在高的悬崖。在楼塔的顶端有一个阳台。我的病人坐在那里。我立即毫不犹豫地告诉他这个梦。当然,结果非常好。

285
286
THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS the case

282 We all know how apt we are to make fools of ourselves in
front of the very people we have unjustly underrated. Naturally 179
the case can also be reversed, as once happened to a friend of mine. While still a callow student he had written to Virchow, the pathologist, craving an audience with “His Excellency.” When, quaking with fear, he presented himself and tried to give his name, he blurted out, “My name is Virchow.”

我们都知道,我们多么容易愚弄我们自己,就在我们不公正地低估那些人们的前面。当然,这个情况能够被倒转。如同我的朋友发生的事情。当他还是没有经验的学生时,他曾经写信给维州,这位病理学家,渴望“他的阁下’ 作为他的听众。当他恐惧激动地,他出现并且尝试报出他的名字,他模糊喊出,“我的名字是维州。”

Whereupon His Excellency, smiling mischievously, said, “Ah! So your name is Virchow too?” The feeling of his own nullity was evidently too much for the unconscious of my friend, and in consequence it instantly prompted him to present himself as equal to Vir¬chow in grandeur.

这是,这位阁下恶意地微笑着说:“你的名字也是维州?“。他自己的微不足道的感觉显然太过强烈,不适合于我的朋友的无意识。结果,它立即激发他介绍他自己,作为是跟伟大的维州相等。

283 In these more personal relations there is of course no need
for any very collective compensations. On the other hand, the figures employed by the unconscious in our first case are of a definitely collective nature: they are universally recognized he¬roes.

在这些更加是个人的关系,当然并没有需要从事任何集体的补偿。在另一方面,在我们第一个个案被运用的人物,属于明确的集体的特性:它们是普世被体认的英雄。

Here there are two possible interpretations: either my pa¬tient’s younger brother is a man of acknowledged and far¬reaching collective importance, or my patient is overestimating his own importance not merely in relation to his brother but in relation to everybody else as well. For the first assumption there was no support at all, while for the second there was the evi¬dence of one’s own eyes. Since the man’s extreme arrogance affected not only himself, but a far wider social group, the com¬pensation availed itself of a collective image.

在此,有两个可能的解释:要就是我的病人的弟弟,是一位被承认与具有深远的重要性的人。要不然就是,我的病人正在过分高估他自己的重要性,不仅跟他的弟弟的关系,而且跟每一位其他的人的关系。对于第一个假设,并没有任何的支持,对于另外一个假设,拥有自己的眼光的证据。因为这个人的极端的高傲,不仅伪装他自己,而且伪装更加广泛的社会的团体。这个补偿利用集体的意象。

284 The same is true of the second case. The “witch” is a collec-
tive image; hence we must conclude that the blind dependence of the y.oung woman applied as much to the wider social group as it did to her mother personally. This was indeed the case, in so far as she was still living in an exclusively infantile world, where the world was identical with her parents.

相同的道理就第二个个案也是一样。“女巫”是一个集体的意象。因此,我们必须做结论:年轻女人的盲目的依靠,同样可以运用到更加广泛的社会团体,如同它运用到她的个人的母亲。这确实是这个情况,因为她依旧还生活在专属婴孩的世界。在那里,世界跟她的父母亲认同。

These examples deal with relations within the personal orbit. There are, how¬ever, impersonal relations which occasionally need unconscious compensation. In such cases collective images appear with a more or less mythological character.

这些例子处理跟个人的轨道的关系。可是,有些非个人的关系,有时需要无意识的补偿。在这些情况,集体意象出现,具有相当神话的特性。

Moral, philosophical, and religious problems are, on account of their universal validity, the most likely to call for mythological compensation. In the aforementioned novel by H. G. Wells we find a classical type of compensation: Mr. Preemby, a midget personality, discovers that he is really a reincarnation of Sargon, King of Kings. Hap¬pily, the genius of the author rescues poor old Sargon from path¬ological absurdity, and even gives the reader a chance to appre-
ciate the tragic and eternal meaning in this lamentable affray.

道德,哲学,与宗教的难题,因为它们具有普世的正确,它们最有可能要求神话的补偿。在前述的威尔斯的小说,我们找到一个古典的补偿的类型: 普瑞比先生,具有渺小的人格,发现到,他确实是萨冈,王中之王的具体化身。快乐地,作者的天份将这个可怜的老萨冈,从病理的荒谬拯救出来。甚至给予读者,赏识悲剧与永恒的意义,在这个令人哀悼的争吵。

180

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
Mr. Preemby, a complete nonentity, recognizes himself as the point of intersection of all ages past and future. This knowledge is not too dearly bought at the cost of a little madness, provided that Preemby is not in the end devoured by that monster of a
primordial image-which is in fact what nearly happens to him.

普瑞比先生,是完全的非实体,他体认他自己,作为是从古至今,跟未来的交会点。这个知识的得来付出不太高昂的代价,那就是
稍微有点疯狂。只要普瑞比最后并没有被原始意象的怪物吞没。这事实上是他几乎发生的事情。

The universal problem of evil and sin is another aspect of
our impersonal relations to the world. Almost more than any other, therefore, this problem produces collective compensa¬tions. One of my patients, aged sixteen, had as the initial symp¬tom of a severe compulsion neurosis the following dream: He is walking along an unfamiliar street. It is dark) and he hears steps coming behind him. With a feeling of fear he quickens his pace. The footsteps come nearer) and his fear increases. He begins to run. But the footsteps seem to be overtaking him. Finally he turns round) and there he sees the devil. In deathly terror he leaps into the air and hangs there suspended. This dream was repeated twice, a sign of its special urgency.

邪恶与原罪的普世的难题,是非个人的跟世界的关系的另一个层面。因此,几乎超过任何其他层面,这个难题产生集体的补偿。我的其中一位病人,16岁,拥有严重的强迫神经症的症状,用以下的梦: 他正在沿着不熟悉的街道行走。天很黑,他听见背后有脚步声。带着恐惧的感觉,他加快他的脚步。脚步越来越近,他的恐惧增加。他开始跑步。但是脚步似乎追赶他。最后,他转过头,他看见这个恶魔。惊骇万分地,他跳跃到空中,然后悬挂在空中。这个梦被重复两次,它具有特别的迫切性的迹象。

It is a notorious fact that the compulsion neuroses, by reason of their meticulousness and ceremonial punctilio, not only have the surface appearance of a moral problem but are indeed brim¬full of inhuman beastliness and ruthless evil, against the inte¬gration of which the very delicately organized personality puts up a desperate struggle.

这是一个恶名昭彰的事实:强迫性的神经症者,凭借他们的讲究细节,与仪式的规范。他们不但拥有道德难题的表面表象,而且确实充满着非人类的残酷的邪恶的野性。精致组织的人格,竖立起拼命的奋斗,对抗残酷的人格的合并。

This explains why so many things have to be performed in ceremonially “correct” style, as though to counteract the evil hovering in the background. After this dream the neurosis started, and its essential feature was that the patient had, as he put it, to keep himself in a “provisional” or “uncontaminated” state of purity. For this purpose he either severed or made “invalid” all contact with the world and with everything that reminded him of the transitoriness of human existence, by means of lunatic formalities, scrupulous cleansing ceremonies, and the anxious observance of innumerable rules and regulations of an unbelievable complexity. Even before the patient had any suspicion of the hellish existence that lay before him, the dream showed him that if he wanted to come down to earth again there would have to be a pact with evil.

这解释为什么如此多的东西必须被执行,用仪式方面“正确”的风格,好像为了反抗邪恶萦绕在背景。经过这个梦后,神经症开始,它的早期的特征,如同病人自己表达它,病人必须保持他自己处于“暂时”或“没有被污染”的纯净的状态。为了这个目的,他要就是跟这个世界的接触分离,要不就是让世界的接触成为无效。跟每一样会让他想起人类存在的短暂,凭借疯狂的正式仪式,费心清理的各种仪式,并且焦虑地遵守无数的规则,与匪夷所思的复杂的规定。即使在病人怀疑展开他面前的这个恶魔的存在之前,这个梦跟他显示:假如他想要再次回到现实,他将必须跟恶魔订合约。

~87 Elsewhere I have described a dream that illustrates the com-
pensation of a religious problem in a young theological student.l 1
involved in all sorts of difficulties of belief, a not un¬common occurrence in the man of today. In his dream he was the pupil of the “white magician,” who, however, was dressed in black.

在别的地方,我曾经描述一个梦,解释宗教的难题的补偿,在一位年轻的神学院的学生身上。在各种各样的信仰的困难。在今天的人们,这也是常见的事情。可是,在他的梦里,“白人魔法师”的学生却穿着黑色的衣服。
“Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious,” par. 71•

181

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

After having instructed him up to a certain point, the white magician told him that they now needed the “black magi¬cian.” The black magician appeared, but clad in a white robe. He declared that he had found the keys of paradise, but needed the wisdom of the white magician in order to understand how to use them. This dream obviously contains the problem of oppo¬sites which, as we know, has found in Taoist philosophy a solu¬tion very different from the views prevailing in the West. The figures employed by the dream are impersonal collective images corresponding to the nature of the impersonal religious prob¬lem. In contrast to the Christian view, the dream stresses the relativity of good and evil in a way that immediately calls to mind the Taoist symbol of Yin and Yang.

经过教导他,到达某个时刻,这位白人魔法师告诉他,他们现在需要“黑人魔法师”。黑人魔法师出现,但是穿着白人的衣袍。他宣称:他已经找到天堂的钥匙。但是需要白人魔法师的智慧。为了理解如何使用它们。这个梦显而易见1包含对立力量的难题。我们知道,对立力量的难题,在道家哲学,曾经找到一个解答,非常不同于西方流行的观点。梦所运用的人物,是非个的宗教的难题。跟基督教的观点对照之下,这个梦强调善与恶的相对性,它的方式立即让人想起阴与阳的道家的象征•。

288 We should certainly not conclude from these compensations
that, as the conscious mind becomes more deeply engrossed in universal problems, the unconscious will bring forth corre¬spondingly far-reaching compensations. There is what one might call a legitimate and an illegitimate interest in imper¬sonal problems. Excursions of this kind are legitimate only when they arise from the deepest and truest needs of the indi¬vidual; illegitimate when they are either mere intellectual curi¬osity or a flight from unpleasant reality. In the latter case the uncot;lscious produces all too human and purely personal com¬pensations, whose manifest aim is to bring the conscious mind back to ordinary reality.

根据这些补偿,我们确实不应该下结论说:随着无意识心灵变得更加专注于普世的难题,无意识将会因此导致深远的补偿。这里存在着我们所谓的合法与不合法的利益,在非个人的难题。这样的远足是合法的,仅有当它们起源于个人最深与最真实的需求。它们是不合法的,当它们仅是知识的好奇心,或仅是逃避不愉快的现实。在后者的情况,无意识产生太过人性与纯粹个人的补偿。它们的明显的目标是要将意识的心灵带回普通的现实。

People who go illegitimately mooning after the infinite often have absurdly banal dreams which en¬deavour to damp down their ebullience. Thus, from the nature of the compensation, we can at once draw conclusions as to the seriousness and rightness of the conscious strivings.

不合法地前往沉香永恒的人们,经常拥有陈腐得荒谬的梦。这些梦企图淹没他们的激情。因此,从补偿的天性,我们能够立即获得结论,关于意识的奋斗的严肃与正确性。

289 There are certainly not a few people who are afraid to admit
that the unconscious could ever have “big” ideas. They will ob¬ject, “But do you really believe that the unconscious is capable of offering anything like a constructive criticism of our Western mentality?” Of course, if we take the problem intellectually and impute rational intentions to the unconscious, the thing be¬comes absurd. But it would never do to foist our conscious psy¬chology upon the unconscious.

确实有许多人们害怕承认,无意识能够具有“伟大”的观念。他们反对说:「但是,你确实相信,无意识能够提供任何像是建设性的批评,对于我们西方人的精神?」当然,假如我们以知识看待这个难题,然后灌输理性的意图给无意识,这件事情就变得荒谬。但是这将是行不通的,假如我们将我们的意识的心理学强迫进入无意识。

Its mentality is an instinctive one; it has no differentiated functions, and it does not “think” as we understand “thinking.” It simply creates an image that an¬swers to the conscious situation.

无意识的心灵上本能的心灵;它没有差异化的功能。它没有“思维”,如同我们理解的“思维”。它仅是创造一个意象,回应意识情况的意象。

182

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
This image contains as much thought as feeling, and is anything rather than a product of ra¬tionalistic reflection. Such an image would be better described as an artist’s vision. We tend to forget that a problem like the one which underlies the dream last mentioned cannot, even to the conscious mind of the dreamer, be an intellectual problem, but is profoundly emotional. For a moral man the ethical prob¬lem is a passionate question which has its roots in the deepest instinctual processes as well as in his most idealistic aspirations.

这个意象包含思维与感觉。这个意象绝非是理性的反思的产物。这样的意象最好是被描述作为艺术家的幻景。我们倾向于忘回家,像这样的难题,作为上次被提到的梦的基础,即使对于作梦者的意识的心灵,不可能是知识的难题,而是深度情绪的难题。对于一个道德的人,伦理的难题是一个激情的问题,它根源于最深的本能的过程,以及根源于他最理想的渴望。

The problem for him is devastatingly real. It is not surprising, therefore, that the answer likewise springs from the depths of his nature. The fact that everyone thinks his psychology is the meas¬ure of all things, and, if he also happens to be a fool, will inevi¬tably think that such a problem is beneath his notice, should not trouble the psychologist in the least, for he has to take things objectively, as he finds them, without twisting them to fit his subjective suppositions. The richer and more capacious natures may legitimately be gripped by an impersonal problem, and to the extent that this is so, their unconscious can answer in the same style. And just as the conscious mind can put the question, “Why is there this frightful conflict between good and evil?,” so the unconscious can reply, “Look closer! Each needs the other. The best, just because it is the best, holds the seed of evil, and there is nothing so bad but good can come of it.”

对于他的难题是强烈地真实。因此,这并不令人惊奇,这个答案同样起源于他的天性的深处。每个人思维他的心理学的这个事实,就是一切事情的衡量。假如他也刚好是一位傻瓜,他必然会认为,这样的难题是不值得他的注意,根本就不应该让心理学家感到费心。因为他必须客观地看待事情,当他发现这些难题,但是并没有将它们扭曲,以符合他的主观的假设。非个人的难题合法所掌握的天性,越是丰富与任性,甚至事实就是如此,他们的无意识越是用相同的方式来回答。正如意识的心灵能够提出问题,「为什么善与恶之间会有如此令人害怕的冲突?」无意识能够回答说:「请你更加仔细观看!每一个都需要另外一个。即使是最好的东西,也拥有邪恶的种种,仅是因为它是最好。一件事情,无论如何之坏,它总是会产生善的事情。

29° It might then dawn on the dreamer that the apparently in-
soluble conflict is, perhaps, a prejudice, a frame of mind condi¬tioned by time and place. The seemingly complex dream-image might easily reveal itself as plain, instinctive common sense, as the tiny germ of a rational idea, which a maturer mind could just as well have thought consciously. At all events Chinese phi¬losophy thought of it ages ago.

作梦者可能恍然大悟,这个表面上无法解决的冲突,或许是一个偏见,一个心灵的框架,受到时间与地方的制约。这个看起来复杂的梦的意象,作为是理性观念的小小的种子,假如他是一位更加成熟心灵的人,他本来同样能够从意识构想出来。无论如何,中国的哲学很久以前,就已经想到它。

The singularly apt, plastic config¬uration of thought is the prerogative of that primitive, natural spirit which is alive in all of us and is only obscured by a one¬sided conscious development. If we consider the unconscious compensations from this angle, we might justifiably be accused of judging the unconscious too much from the conscious stand¬point. And indeed, in pursuing these reflections, I have always started from the view that the unconscious simply reacts to the
conscious contents, albeit in a very significant way, but that it lacks initiative.

思想的异常地灵活,弹匣的融合,就是原始的自然的精神的特权。这个自然精神在我们每个人身上都存活着,除非被单边的意识的发展所模糊。假如我们从这个角度来考虑无意识的补偿,我们可能很有理由被控诉太过于用意识的观点来判断事情。的确,当我追寻这些反思时,我总是从这个观点开始:无意识的反应,仅是针对意识的内容,虽然用非常重要的方式,但是它欠缺创意。

183

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
It is, however, far from my intention to give the impression that the unconscious is merely reactive in all cases. On the contrary, there is a host of experiences which seem to prove that the unconscious is not only spontaneous but can ac¬tually take the lead. There are innumerable cases of people who lingered on in a pettifogging unconsciousness, only to become neurotic in the end. Thanks to the neurosis contrived by the unconscious, they are shaken out of their apathy, and this in spite of their own laziness and often desperate resistance.

可是,我绝对没有这个意图,要给予这个印象:无意识仅是在所有的情况里才反应。相反地,有许多的经验似乎证明:无意识不但是自动自发,而且能够作为引导。有无数人们的个案,一直留连,保持琐碎的无意识。结果,他们最后成为神经症者。由于被无意识设计的神经症,他们被动摇,摆脱他们的冷漠。尽管他们的懒惰,尽管他们经常绝望地抗拒。

291 Yet it would, in my view, be wrong to suppose that in such
cases the unconscious is working to a deliberate and concerted plan and is striving to realize certain definite ends. I have found nothing to support this assumption. The driving force, so far as it is possible for us to grasp it, seems to be in essence only an urge towards self-realization. If it were a matter of some general teleological plan, then all individuals who enjoy a surplus of un¬consciousness would necessarily be driven towards higher con¬sciousness by an irresistible urge.

可是,依我的观点,这将是错误的,假如我们认为,在这些情况,无意识正在运作,针对一个刻意而一致的计划。并且正在奋斗,为了实现某个明确的目的。我找不到任何东西来支持这个假设。这个驱动的力量,似乎本质上仅是朝向自我实现的渴望,就我们可能理解它而言。假如问题是某个一般的目的论的计划,那么所有享受过剩的无意识的个人,将必然会被驱使朝向更高的意识,被无法抗拒的渴望。

That is plainly not the case. There are vast masses of the population who, despite their no¬torious unconsciousness, never get anywhere near a neurosis. The few who are smitten by such a fate are really persons of the “higher” type who, for one reason or another, have remained too long on a primitive level. Their nature does not in the long run tolerate persistence in what is for them an unnatural torpor.

很明显,情况并不是这样。有很多的人们,尽管他们的恶名昭著的无意识,从来没有到达靠近神经症以外的地方。有些被命运咬啮的人们,他们确实是“更高”种类的人们。因为某个理由,他们始终保持在原初的层次太久。他们的天性最后并没有容忍持续停留在对他们而言是不自然的麻痹的状态。

As a result of their narrow conscious outlook and their cramped existence they save energy; bit by bit it accumulates in the un¬conscious and finally explodes in the form of a more or less acute neurosis. This simple mechanism does not necessarily conceal a “plan.” A perfectly understandable urge towards self-realization would provide a quite satisfactory explanation. We could also speak of a retarded maturation of the personality.

由于他们的狭窄的意识的外观,与他们的扭曲的存在的结果,他们节省能源。最后爆炸,用相当强烈的神经症的方式。这个简单的机械结构,并未必隐藏一个“计划”。一个非常可以理解的渴望,朝向自我实现,将会供应一个相当令人满意的解释。我们也谈论道人格的迟缓的成熟。

292 Since it is highly probable that we are still a long way from
the summit of absolute consciousness, presumably everyone is capable of wider consciousness, and we may assume accordingly that the unconscious processes are constantly supplying us with contents which, if consciously recognized, would extend the range of consciousness. Looked at in this way, the unconscious appears as a field of experience of unlimited extent. If it were merely reactive to the conscious mind, we might aptly call it a psychic mirror-world.

很有可能地,我们拒离绝对意识的山顶,还依旧有一段长距离。我们假定每个人都都能够具有更加广泛的意识。我们因此假定,无意识的过程不断地供应我们内容。这些内容假如被体认的话,将会延伸意识的范围。假如用这个方式观看这些内容,无意识似乎是无限范围的经验的领域。假如无意识仅是对于意识心灵的反应,我们可能轻易地称它为心灵的镜子世界。

184

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
In that case, the real source of all contents and activities would lie in the conscious mind, and there would be absolutely nothing in the unconscious except the distorted reflections of conscious contents. The creative process would be shut up in the conscious mind, and anything new would be nothing but conscious invention or cleverness. The empirical facts give the lie to this. Every creative man knows that spon¬taneity is the very essence of creative thought. Because the unconscious is not just a reactive mirror-reflection, but an in¬dependent, productive activity, its realm of experience is a self¬contained world, having its own reality, of which we can only say that it affects us as we affect it-precisely what we say about our experience of the outer world. And just as material objects are the constituent elements of this world, so psychic factors constitute the objects of that other world.

在那个情况,所有的内容与活动的来源将会在于意识的心灵。将绝对没有任何东西在无意识里,除了被扭曲的反映意识的内容。创造的过程将会被关闭,在意识的心灵。任何新的东西将仅是意识的发明,或灵巧表现。试验性的事实显示情况并非如此。每个创造的人都知道,自动自发就是创造的思想的本质。因为无意识并不仅是反动的镜子-反应。而是独立,产生的动作,它的经验的领域是包容自己的世界,拥有它自己的现实。关于这个现实,我们仅能说,它影响我们,如同我们影响它—确实是我们所说的内容,关于我们在这个外在世界的经验。正如材料的客体是这个世界的形成的元素。心灵的因素组成那里另外的世界的客体。

293 The idea of psychic objectivity is by no means a new discov-
ery. It is in fact one of the earliest and most universal acquisi¬tions of humanity: it is nothing less than the conviction as to the concrete existence of a spirit-world. The spirit-world was cer¬tainly never an invention in the sense that fire-boring was an invention; it was far rather the experience, the conscious accept¬ance of a reality in no way inferior to that of the material world.

心灵的客体的观念,绝非是新的发现。事实上,它是最早与最普世的人类的获得的东西。那实实在在就是信念,关于精神世界的具体的存在。精神世界确实从来不是发明,如同钻木取火是发明。相反地,这个经验,意识的接受现实,比起物质世界的现实,丝毫不逊。

I doubt whether primitives exist anywhere who are not ac¬quainted with magical influence or a magical substance. (“Mag¬ical” is simply another word for “psychic.”) It would also ap¬pear that practically all primitives are aware of the existence of spirits.2 “Spirit” is a psychic fact. Just as we distinguish our own bodiliness from bodies that are strange to us, so primitives-if they have any notion of “souls” at all-distinguish between their own souls and the spirits, which are felt as strange and as “not belonging.”

我怀疑,原始人们是否存在任何地方,他们对于魔兽的物质的魔术的影响并不熟稔。(魔术仅是“心灵”的另一个字)。这也是显而易见地,几乎所有的原始人们都知道精神的存在。“精神”是心理的事实。正如我们区别我们自己的身体,跟我们陌生的身体。原始人们区别他们自己的灵魂与精神—假如他们拥有“灵魂”的任何观念—这些灵魂与精神都被感觉是奇怪,作为“并不属于”。

They are objects of outward perception, whereas their own soul (or one of several souls where a plurality is as¬sumed), though believed to be essentially akin to the spirits, is not usually an object of so-called sensible perception. After death the soul (or one of the plurality of souls) becomes a spirit which survives the dead man, and often it shows a marked dete- rioration of character that partly contradicts the notion of per¬sonal immortality.

它们是外在感官的客体。虽然他们自己的灵魂(或其中一个灵魂,在那里,多数的灵魂被假设),虽然它被相信基本上类似精神。它通常使用所谓的理性感知的客体。在死亡之后,灵魂(或多数灵魂的其中一个),变成精神。它比死人活得长久。经常它显示人格的明显的恶化,这个人格部分抵触个人的永恒的观念。
2 In cases of reports to the contrary, it must always be borne in mind that the fear of spirits is sometimes so great that people will actually deny that there are any spirits to fear. I have come across this myself among the dwellers on Mount Elgon.
185

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

The Bataks,3 of Sumatra, go so far as to assert that the people who were good in this life turn into malign and dangerous spirits. Nearly everything that the primitives say about the tricks which the spirits play on the living, and the general picture they give of the revenants) corresponds down to the last detail with the phenomena established by spiritualistic experience. And just as the communications from the “Beyond” can be seen to be the activities of broken-off bits of the psyche, so these primitive spirits are manifestations of unconscious com¬plexes.4

苏马特拉的巴塔克人甚至过分地主张:在这一生善良的人们,转变成为恶意而危险的精神。关于这些诡计,精神玩弄活生生的人们,以及他们给出的画面,关于死人回转,原始人们所说的东西,几乎每一样,都详细地对应于这些观念,被精神经验建立的现象。正如从“超验世界”的沟通,能够被视为是心灵的断裂的碎片的这些活动。这些原始的精神都是展示无意识的情结的展示。

The importance that modern psychology attaches to the “parental complex” is a direct continuation of primitive man’s experience of the dangerous power of the ancestral spirits. Even the error of judgment which leads him unthinkingly to assume that the spirits are realities of the external world is carried on in our assumption (which is only partially correct) that the real parents are responsible for the parental complex. In the old trauma theory of Freudian psychoanalysis, and in other quarters as well, this assumption even passed for a scientific explanation. (It was in order to avoid this confusion that I advocated the term “parental imago.” 5)

现代心理学依附于“父母的情结”,这个重要性是直接地延续原始人的经验,对于祖先的精神的危险的力量的经验。即使是判断的错误,不经思索地引导他假设:精神上外在世界的现实。这个判断的错误被执行,在我们的假设(仅是部分正确的假设),真实的父母亲要负责父母的情结。在弗洛伊德的精神分析的古老的创伤的理论,以及其他的部门,这个假设甚至被认为是科学的解释。(那是为了避免这个混淆,我主张“父母意象”的这个术语)。

294 The simple soul is of course quite unaware of the fact that
his nearest relations, who exercise immediate influence over him, create in him an image which is only partly a replica of themselves, while its other part is compounded of elements de¬riv~d from himself.

单纯的灵魂当然完全不知道这个事实:他的最亲近的亲属,他们对于他运用当下的影响,在他身上创造一个意象。这个意象仅是部分复制他们自己。它的其他部分,则是由从他自己得了的元素组成。

The imago is built up of parental influences plus the specific reactions of the child; it is therefore an image that reflects the object with very considerable qualifications. Naturally, the simple soul believes that his parents are as he sees them. The image is unconsciously projected, and when the par¬ents die, the projected image goes on working as though it were a spirit existing on its own. he primitive then speaks of pa¬rental spirits who return by night (revenants), while the mod¬ern man calls it a father or mother complex.

这个意象被建造,由父母的影响被建造,加上小孩的明确的反应。它因此是这个意象,反应具有相当的特质的客体。当然,单纯的灵魂相信:他的父母的本质如同他看见他们。这个意象无意识地被投射。当父母亲死亡时,被投射的意象继续运转,好像它是一个独立存在的精神。原始人因此谈论父母亲的精神。他们在夜间回来。现代的人们则是称它为父亲或母亲情结。

3 Warnecke, Die Religion der Batak (1909).
4 CL “The Psychological Foundations of Belief in Spirits.”
5 [This term was taken up by psychoanalysis, but in analytical psychology it has been largely replaced by “primordial image of the parent” or “parental archetype. “-EDITORS.]
186

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

295 The more limited a man’s field of consciousness is, the more numerous the psychic contents (imagos) which meet him as quasi-external apparitions, either in the form of spirits, or as magical potencies projected upon living people (magicians, witches, etc.). At a rather higher stage of development, where the idea of the soul already exists, not all the imagos continue to be projected (where this happens, even trees and stones talk), but one or the other complex has come near enough to con¬sciOllsness to be felt as no longer strange, but as somehow “be¬longing.”

人的意识的领域越是受到限制,心灵的内容的数量越是多。心灵的内容跟他会面,作为伪-外在的魅影。要就是以精神的形式,或是以魔法的潜力,被投射在活人身上(魔法师,巫师,等等)。在发展的更高阶段。在那里,灵魂的观念已经存在1,并不是所有的意象都继续被投射(在那里,这种事情发生,即使树木与石头都会说话),但是某个情结,都足够靠近意识,为了被感觉,作为不再是陌生,而是作为“归属”的东西。
Nevertheless, the feeling that it “belongs” is not at first sufficiently strong for the complex to be sensed as a subjec¬tive content of consciousness. It remains in a sort of no man’s land between conscious and unconscious, in the half-shadow, in part belonging or akin to the conscious subject, in part an au-tonomous being, and meeting consciousness as such. At all events it is not necessarily obedient to the subject’s intentions, it may even be of a higher order, more often than not a source of inspiration or warning, or of “supernatural” information.

可是,这个情结“归属”,起床并不是足够强壮,为了让情结被理解,作为是意识的主体的内容。它始终保留在某种的无人的领域,处于意识与无意识之间。处于半阴影,部分归属于,或是类似意识的主体。部分是具有自主权的存在,作为这样的存在,跟意识相会。无论如何,它未必是服从于主体的意图。它甚至可能是属于更高的层次,往往是灵感或是警告的来源,或是“超自然”的资讯的来源。

Psy¬chologically such a content could be explained as a partly auton¬omous complex that is not yet fully integrated. The archaic souls, the ba and ka of the Egyptians, are complexes of this kind. At a still higher level, and particularly among the civilized peo¬ples of the West, this complex is invariably of the feminine gen¬der-anima and a fact for which deeper and cogent rea¬sons are not lacking.

心理学而言,这样的内容能够被解释,作为是部分具有自主的情结,这个情结还没有被融合。旧时的灵魂,埃及人的bu与ka,都是属于这种的情结。在更高的层面,特别是西方的文明的人们当中,这个情结一成不变地上属于女性的性别—阿尼玛。对于这一个事实,更加深入 ,更加具有份量的理由,并不欠缺。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

荣格:超验的功能

November 27, 2015

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION 1
超验的功能
Prefatory Note
This essay was written in 1916. Recently it was discovered by stu¬dents of the C. G . .lung Institute, Zurich, and was brought out in a private edition in its first, provisional form, in an ‘English transla¬tion. In order to prepare it for publication, I have worked over the manuscript, while preserving the main trend of thought and the un¬avoidable limitedness of its horizon. After forty-two years, the prob¬lem has lost nothing of its topicality, though its presentation is still in need of extensive improvement, as anyone can see who knows the material.
这篇论文在1916年被写成。最近,苏黎世,荣格研究所的学生发现它。以私人的版本被出版,照它的第一次的暂时的形式,作为英译本。为了准备让它出版。我曾经修正原稿。虽然我保存它思想的倾向与它的视阔的无法避免的有限性。经过42年,这个难题并没有丧失它的主题。虽然它的呈现依旧还需要广泛的修正。如同任何人都会看出,是谁知道这个材料。

The essay may therefore stand, with all its imperfections, as an historical document. It may give the reader some idea of the efforts of understanding which were needed for the first attempts at a syn¬thetic view of the psychic process in analytical treatment. As its basic argument is still valid today, it may stimulate the reader to a broader and deeper understanding of the problem. This problem is identical with the universal question: How does one come to terms in practice with the unconscious?

尽管它的不完美,这篇论文因此充当是历史的文件。它可能给予读者努力要理解的观念。这些理解的努力是需要的,因为这是首次的企图,要综合地理解心灵的过程,在精神分析的治疗里。因为它的基本的论点今天依旧有效。它可能激发读者更加广泛,更加深入地理解这个难题。这个难题认同普世的问题:我们如何跟无意识达成妥协?

1 [Written in 1916 under the title “Die Transzendente Funktion,” the ms. lay in Professor Jung’s files until 1953. First published in 1957 by the Students Associa¬tion, C. G. Jung Institute, Zurich, in an English translation by A. R. Pope. The German original. considerably revised by the author. was published in Geist lJnd Werk … %Urn 75. Geburtstag van Dr. Daniel Brady (Zurich, 1958), together with a prefatory note of more general import specially written for that volume. The author has partially rewritten the note for publication here. The present transla¬tion is based on the revised German version, and Mr. Pope’s translation has been consulted.-EDlTORS.]
67

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
This is the question posed by the philosophy of India, and par¬ticularly by Buddhism and Zen. Indirectly, it is the fundamental question, in practice, of all religions and all philosophies. For the unconscious is not this thing or that; it is the Unknown as it immedi¬ately affects us.

这是印度哲学提出的这个问题,特别是佛教与禅宗。间接地,这是所有的宗教与所有的哲学,实践时的基本的问题。因为无意识并不是这个东西,或那个东西。无意识是未知者,因为它立即影响我们。

The method of “active imagination,” hereinafter described, is the most important auxiliary for the production of those contents of the unconscious which lie, as it were, immediately below the thres¬hold of consciousness and, when intensified, are the most likely to irrupt spontaneously into the conscious mind. The method, there¬fore, is not without its dangers and should, if possible, not be em¬ployed except under expert supervision.

因此而被描述的“积极想像”的方法,是最重要的辅助,对于无意识的那些内容的产生。也就是说,立即隐藏在意识的门槛底下的的无意识。当它被强化时,是最有可能自动自发地爆发进入意识的心灵。因此,这个方法,并不是没有它的危险。假如可能的话,这个方法不应该被使用,除了在专家的监督之下。

One of the lesser dangers is that the procedure may not lead to any positive result, since it easily passes over into the so-called “free association” of Freud, whereupon the patient gets caught in the sterile circle of his own complexes, from which he is .in any case unable to escape. A further danger, in itself harmless, is that, though authentic contents may be produced, the patient evinces an exclusively aesthetic interest in them and con¬sequently remains stuck in an all-enveloping phantasmagoria, so that once more nothing is gained. The meaning and value of these fan¬tasies are revealed only through their integration into the personality as a whole-that is to say, at the moment when one is confronted not only with what they mean but also with their moral demands.

其中一个次要的危险是,这个程序可能不会导致任何的积极的结果。因为它很容易被传递成为弗洛伊德的所谓的“自由联想”。在“自由联想”里,病人被套陷于他自己的各种情结的贫瘠的圈子里。更加深入的危险,本身是无害的。虽然它的真诚的内容可能被产生,病人逃避对于它们的专属美学的興趣,并且结果,始终被卡陷在涵盖一切的巨大幻影里。所以,再一次,并没有任何东西被获得。这些幻见的意义与价值,被显示出来,仅是凭借体它们的融合进入整体的人格里。换句话说,就在当我们不但面临它们的意义,而且面临它们的道德的要求。

Finally, a third danger-and this may in certain circumstances be a very serious matter-is that the subliminal contents already possess such a high energy charge that, when afforded an outlet by active imagination, they may overpower the conscious mind and take pos¬session of the personality. This. gives rise to a condition which¬temporarily, at least-cannot easily be distinguished from schizo¬phrenia, and may even lead to a genuine “psychotic interval.” The method of active imagination, therefore, is not a plaything for chil¬dren. The prevailing undervaluation of the unconscious adds con¬siderably to the dangers of this method. On the other hand, there can be no doubt that it is an invaluable auxiliary for the psycho¬therapist.

最后,第三个危险。在某些的情况,这可能是一个非常严肃的事情。第三个危险是,升华的内容已经形成如此高的能源负荷量。当它被积极想像给予一个出口,它们可能压倒意识的心灵,并且拥有人格。这会产生一个情况。这个情况暂时,至少不容易跟精神分裂症区别出来。甚至可能导致真诚的“精神病的间隔期间”。因此,积极想像的方法,并不是儿戏之物。目前流行对于无意识的低估,对这个方法的危险,更是雪上加霜。在另一方面,无可置疑地,对于精神病的治疗师,这是个宝贵的辅助之物。

C. G. J.
KiisnachtJ July I958 / September I959
68

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION
1111 There is nothing mysterious or metaphysical about the term
“transcendent function.” It means a psychological function com-parable in its way to a mathematical function of the same name, which is a function of real and imaginary numbers. The psy-chological “transcendent function” arises from the union of conscious and unconscious contents.

关于“超验的功能”,没有什么神秘或形上学之处。“超验的功能”意味著心理的功能,它的方式可类比相同名称的数学的功能。这个数学的功能是实在而想像的数字的功能。心理学的“超验的功能”起源于意识与无意识的内容的统合。

132 Experience in analytical psychology has amply shown that
the conscious and the unconscious seldom agree as to their con¬tents and their tendencies. This lack of parallelism is not just accidental or purposeless, but is due to the fact that the uncon¬scious behaves in a compensatory or complementary manner towards the conscious. We can also put it the other way round and say that the conscious behaves in a complementary manner towards the unconscious. The reasons for this relationship are:

分析心理学的经验充分显示,意识与无意识很少同意一致,关于他们的内容与它们的倾向。相提并论的这个欠缺并不仅是偶然,或没有目的。而是由于这个事实:无意识的行为,是以补偿或辅助的方式,朝向意识。我们也能够将它倒转过来,并且说,意识的行为,是以辅助的方式,朝向无意识。这个关系的理由是:

(1) Consciousness possesses a threshold intensity which its contents must have attained, so that all elements that are too weak remain in the unconscious.

意识拥有一个门槛的张力,意识的内容一定已经获得这个门槛的张力。这样,所有太过于微弱的元素,始终留在无意识里。

(2) Consciousness, because of its directed functions, exercises an inhibition (which Freud calls censorship) on all incompatible material, with the result that it sinks into the unconscious.

因为它的被引导的功能,意识运用一种压抑(弗洛伊德称之为审查),施加在所有不和谐的材料。结果是:意识沉落进入无意识。

(3) Consciousness constitutes the momentary,process of ad-aptation; .•. •whereas the unconscious contains not only all the forgotten material of the individual’s own past, but all the in¬herited behaviour traces constituting the structure of the mind.

意识构成适应的暂时的过程。而无意识包含不但是所有被个人自己的过去遗忘的材料,而且包含所有的被遗传的行为的痕迹,它们组成心灵的结构。

(4) The unconscious contains all the fantasy combinations which have not yet attained the threshold intensity, but which in the course of time and under suitable conditions will enter the light of consciousness.

无意识包含所有的幻见的组合,这些组合还没有获得门槛的张力。但是随著时间过去,在合适的情况之下。所有的幻想的组合将会进入意识的光辉里。

133 This readily explains the complementary attitude of the
unconscious towards the conscious.

这迅速地解释无意识朝向意识的辅助的态度。

134 The definiteness and directedness of the conscious mind are
qualities that have been acquired relatively late in the history of the human race, and are for instance largely lacking among primitives today. These qualities are often impaired in the neurotic patient, who differs from the normal person in that his threshold of consciousness gets shifted more easily; in other words, the partition between conscious and unconscious is much more permeable. The psychotic, on the other hand; is under the direct influence of the unconscious.

意识心灵的明确性与方向感,是已经被获得的特质,在人类种族的历史的比较晚晴。譬如,在今天的原始种族,主要是欠缺明确性与方向感。这些特质经常受到伤害,在神经症的病人身上。神经症病人遭受正常人的痛苦,因为他的意识的门槛更加容易被转移。换句话说,在意识与无意识之间的间隔,更加被渗透。另一方面,精神病者则是在无意识的直接的影响之下。

135
69

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE

The definiteness and directedness of the conscious mind are extremely important acquisitions which humanity has bought at a very heavy sacrifice, and which in turn have rendered hu¬manity the highest service. Without them science, technology, and civilization would be impossible, for they all presuppose the reliable continuity and directedness of the conscious process. For the statesman, doctor, and engineer as well as for the simplest labourer, these qualities are absolutely indispensable. We may say in general that social worthlessness increases to the degree that these qualities are impaired by the unconscious. Great artists and others distinguished by creative gifts are, of course, exceptions to this rule. The very advantage that such individuals enjoy consists precisely in the permeability of the partition separating the conscious and the unconscious. But, for those professions and social activities which require just this continuity and reliability, these exceptional human beings are as a rule of little value.

意识心灵的明确性与方向感是极端重要的获得之物。人类曾经耗费重大的牺性,才买到的重要的获得之物。然后轮到它们提供人类最崇高的服务。假如没有它们,科学,科技,与文明将是不可能的。因为它们都预先假设意识的过程,具有这个可靠的连续性与方向感。对于政治家,医生,与工程师,以及对于纯朴的劳工,这些特质绝对是无可避免的。我们通常说,社会的没有价值感,随着这些特质的受到无意识的伤害而增加。伟大的艺术家与其他凭借创造的天赋而显著的人们,当然是这个常规的例外。这些个人享受的利益,确实主要是在于分开意识与无意识的间隔的可渗透性。但是,对于那些专业与社会的活动,它们仅是要求这个连续性与可靠性。这些特别的人类,通常并没有多大的价值。

136 It is therefore understandable, and even necessary, that in
each individual the psychic process should be as stable and definite as possible, since the exigencies of life demand it. But this im’olves a certain disadvantage: the quality of directedness makes for the inhibition or exclusion of all those psychic ele¬ments which appear to be, or really are, incompatible with it, ie., likely to bias the intended direction to suit their purpose and so lead to an undesired goal. But how do we know that the concurrent psychic material is “incompatible”? We know it by an act of judgment which determines the direction of the path that is chosen and desired.
因此,这是可以理解的,甚至是必要的。在每个个人身上,心灵的过程应该尽可能地稳的与明确。因为生命的迫切性要求它。但是这牵涉到某个不利:方向感的品质朝向压抑或排除所有那些心灵的元素。表面上,或实际上跟它格格不入的心灵的元素。譬如,很可能让这个意图的方向产生偏见,以适应他们的目的,因此,导致一个并不被欲望的目标。但是,我们如何知道,这个同时发生的心灵的材料是“不相和谐”?我们知道它,凭借判断的行动。这个判断的行动决定被选择,被欲望的途径的方向。

This judgment is partial and preju¬diced, since it chooses one particular possibility at the cost of all the others. The judgment in its turn is always based on experience, i.e., on what is already known. As a rule it is never based on what is new, what is still unknown, and what under certain conditions might considerably enrich the directed proc¬ess. It is evident that it cannot be, for the very reason that the unconscious contents are excluded from consciousness.

这个判断是部分,而且具有偏见。因为它选择一个特殊的可能,牺牲所有其他的可能。然后轮到这个判断总是以经验作为基础。譬如,以已经被知道的东西作为基础。通常,它从来没有以新的东西作为基础,以依旧未被知道的东西,以在某些的情况里,可能会丰富被引导方向的过程作为基础。显而易见地,它不可能是这样。理由是,无意识的内容从意识里被排除出来。

137 Through such acts of judgment the directed process neces-
sarily becomes one-sided, even though the rational judgment may appear many-sided and unprejudiced. The very rationality of the judgment may even be the worst prejudice, since we call reasonable what appears reasonable to us. What appears to us unreasonable is therefore doomed to be excluded because of its
70

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION
irrational character. It may really be irrational, but may equally well merely appear irrational without actually being so when seen from another standpoint.

凭借判断的这些行动,被引导方向的过程必然会成为是单边,即使理性的判断可能看起来是许多边与没有偏见。判断的理性化甚至可能是最糟糕的偏见。因为我们称我们看起来是合理的东西,为合理。我们看起来是不合理的东西,因此注定会被排除,因为它的非理性的特性。它可能确实是非理性的,但是它同样很有理由仅是外表是非理性。但是实际上,从另外一个观点来看,它实际上并没有非理性。

138 One-sidedness is an unavoidable and necessary characteristic
of the directed process, for direction implies one-sidedness. It is an advantage and a drawback at the same time. Even when no outwardly visible drawback seems to be present, there is always an equally pronounced counter-position in the unconscious, unless it happens to be the ideal case where all the psychic components are tending in one and the same direction. This possibility cannot be disputed in theory, but in practice it very rarely happens. The counter-position in the unconscious is not dangerous so long as it .does not possess any high energy-value. But if the tension increases as a result of too great one-sidedness, the counter-tendency breaks through into consciousness, usually just at the moment when it is most important to maintain the conscious direction. Thus the speaker makes a slip of the tongue just when he particularly wishes not to say anything stupid. This moment is critical because it possesses a high energy ten¬sion which, when the unconscious is already charged, may easily “spark” and release the unconscious content.

单边性是被引导的过程的一个无可避免而且必要的特性。因为方向感暗示单边性。它既是利用,又是挫折。甚至,当没有外在的可看见的挫折似乎存在时,还是总是有一个同被宣告的反对-立场,在无意识里。除非,它恰好就是理想的情况。当所有的心灵的成分倾向于朝相同的方向。这个可能性无法用理论来争辩。但是实际上,它很少发生。无意识的反对-立场并不危险,只要它没有拥有高度的能源的价值。但是,假如这个紧张增加,由于太过强烈的单边性的结果。反对的倾向会突破进入意识,通常就是这个时刻,要维持意识的方向是非常重要的时刻。因此,言说者会有口误,正当他特别愿望不要说出任何愚蠢的事情。这个时刻是非常重要的,因为它拥有高度能源的紧张。当无意识已经被负荷,它可能“触发”并且释放无意识的内容。

139 Civilized life today demands concentrated, directed con-
scious functioning, and this entails the risk of a considerable dissociation from the unconscious. The further we are able to remove ourselves from the unconscious through directed func¬tioning, the more readily a powerful counter-position can build up in the unconscious, and when this breaks out it may have disagreeable consequences.

今天的文明生活要求专注的被引导的意识的功能。这涵盖这个冒险:跟无意识解离的冒险。我们越是能够将自己从无意识移除越远,通过被引导的功能,一个反动的离场越是迅速地累积起来。当发生这样的状况时,那可能拥有不和谐的结果。

14° Analysis has given us a profound insight into the importance
of unconscious influences, and we have learnt so much from this for our practical life that we deem it unwise to expect an elimination or standstill of the unconscious after the so-called completion of the treatment. Many patients, obscurely recogniz¬ing this state of affairs, have great difficulty in deciding to give up the analysis, although both they and the analyst find the feeling of dependency irksome. Often they are afraid to risk standing on their own feet, because they know from experience that the unconscious can intervene again and again in their lives in a disturbing and apparently unpredictable manner.

精神分析给予我们深刻的内省,洞察到无意识的影响的重要性。我们从这里学习众多,作为我们的生活,以致我们认人这是不明智的,期望无意识的减少或停滞,经过所谓的知疗的完成。许多病人,模糊地体认事情的这个状态,他们遭遇许多困难,当他们要决的放弃精神分析。虽然他们与分析家发现依靠的感觉是乏味的。经常,他们是害怕独立行事的冒险。因为他们根据经验知道,无意识能够一再地介入他们的生活,用一个令人困扰与明显无法被预测的方式。

141
71

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE

It was formerly assumed that patients were ready to copewith normal life as soon as they had acquired enough practical self-knowledge to understand their own dreams. Experience has shown, however, that even professional analysts, who might be expected to have mastered the art of dream interpretation, often capitulate before their own dreams and have to call in the help of a colleague. If even one who purports to be an expert in the method proves unable to interpret his own dre~ms satis-factorily, how much less can this be expected of the patient. Freud’s hope that the unconscious could be “exhausted” has not be’en fulfilled. Dream-life and intrusions from the unconscious continue-m utatis m utan dis-unim peded.

先前,我们假定,病人准备要处理正常的生活,当他们已经获得足够的实践的自性-知识,为了理解他们自己的梦想。可是,我们根据经验知道,即使是专业的精神分析家,他们被期望已经掌控梦的解释的技艺,他们经常束手无策于他们自己的梦,并且必须召唤同事的帮忙。假如被认为是这个方法的专家,都没有能力令人满意地解释他自己的梦,对于病人,那就更没有什么奢望。 弗洛伊德的希望,无意识能够被“穷尽理解”,并没有被实现。梦与无意识的闯入继续排山倒海而来。

142 There is a widespread prejudice that analysis is something
like a “cure,” to which one submits for a time and is then dis¬charged healed. That is a layman’s error left over from the early days of psychoanalysis. Analytical treatment could be described as a readjustment of psychological attitude achieved with the help of the doctor. Naturally this newly won attitude, which is better suited to the inner and outer conditions, can last a con¬siderable time, but there are very few cases where a single “cure” is permanently successful

有一个广泛的偏见;精神分析是某件像是治疗的东西。我们有一阵子,接受这种治疗,因此被疗愈出院。那是外行人的错误,从精神分析的早期遗留下来。精神分析的治疗能够被描述,作为重新调整心理的态度,凭借医生而获得。当然,这个刚刚被赢得的态度,比较能够适合内在与外在的情况。能够维持相当长久的时间。但是,单一的“治疗”是永久的成功,这样的个案是很少的。

It is true that medical optimism has never stinted itself of publicity and has always been able to report definitive cures. We must, however, not let ourselves be deceived by the all-t0
o-human attitude of the practitioner. but should always remember that the life of the unconscious goes on and continually produces problematical situations. There is no need for pessimism; we have seen too many excellent results achieved with good luck and honest work for that. But this need not prevent us from recognizing that analysis is no once¬and-for-all “cure”; it is no more, at first, than a more or less thorough readjustment. There is no change that is uncondi¬tionally valid over a long period of time. Life has always to be tackled anew.

的确,医学的乐观主义从来没有不引起大众注意,并且总是能够报导明确的治疗。可是,我们一定不要让自己被欺骗,被执业医师的太过于人性的态度欺骗。相反地,我们应该总是记住:无意识的生活继续下去,并且继续产生问题重重的情况。没有悲观主义的需要。我们曾经看见太多的优秀的结果,非常幸运地,而且诚实工作地被获得。但是,这并不需要阻止我们不去体会出,精神分析并没有一劳永逸地被“治疗”。起初,它仅是相当彻地被调整。没有任何改变是无条件地有效漫长的时间。生命总是必须重新被克服。

There are, of course, extremely durable collec¬tive attitudes which permit the solution of typical conflicts. A collective attitude enables the individual to fit into society without friction, since it acts upon him like any other condition of life. But the patient’s difficulty consists precisely in the fact that his individual problem cannot be fitted without friction into a collective norm; it requires the solution of an individual conflict if the whole of his personality is to remain viable. No rational solution can do justice to this task, and there is abso-
72

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION
lutelyno collective norm that could replace an individual solu¬tion without loss.
当然,会有极端耐久度集体的态度容许典型的冲突的解决。集体的态度让个人能够适应进入社会,而没有冲突。因为它依靠他来行动,就像任何其他的生活的情况。但是,病人的困难确实是在于这个事实:个人的难题无法没有冲突地被调适成为集体的名称。它要求个人的冲突的解决,假如他的人格的整体想要保持行得通。对于这项工作,任何理性的解决都无法彻底。绝对没有一个集体名称能够取代个人的解决,而没有丧失。

143 The new attitude gained in the course of analysis tends
sooner or later to become inadequate in one way or another, and necessarily so, because the constant flow of life again and again demands fresh adaptation. Adaptation is never achieved once and for all. One might certainly demand of analysis that it should enable the patient to gain new orientations in later life, too, without undue difficulty. And expe’rience shows that this is true up to a point. We often find that patients who have gone through a thorough analysis have considerably less difficulty with new adjustments later on.

在精神分析的过程被获得的这个新的态度,倾向于迟早会变成不足够,用某种的方式,而且必然是不足够。因为生命的经常的流动一再地要求新鲜的调适。 调适从来没有一劳永逸地被获得。我们确实可能要求精神分析应该让病人能够获得新的方向,在以后的生活,而没有过分的困难。经验告诉我们,这到达某个时刻是真实的。我们经常发现,曾经经历彻底的精神分析的病人,遭遇较少的困难,对于后来的调适。

Nevertheless, these difficulties prove to be fairly frequent and may at times be really trouble¬some. That is why even patients who have had a thorough analy¬sis often turn to their old analyst for help at some later period. In the light of medical practice in general there is nothing very unusual about this, but it does contradict a certain misplaced enthusiasm on the part of the therapist as well as the view that analysis constitutes a unique “cure.” In the last resort it is highly improbable that there could ever be a therapy that got rid of all difficulties. Man needs difficulties; they are necessary for health. What concerns us here is only an excessive amount of them.

可是,这些困难证明是相当频繁,有时,可能确实引起麻烦。那就是为什么即使是曾经做过彻底的精神分析的病人,经常求助于他们的有经验的分析家帮忙,在某个后来的时期。从一般的医学实践的观点,关于这点,并没有任何不寻常之处。但是,它确实抵触某个误置位置的热忱,在治疗师方面,以及这个观念:精神分析组成一个独特的“治疗”。最后,这会变得非常不可能,要找到一个排除一切困难的治疗方法。人需要困难,困难对于健康是必要的。我们在此关心的事情是,仅是困难的数量过于庞大。

144 The basic question for the therapist is not how to get rid of
the momentary difficulty, but how future difficulties may be successfully countered. The question is: what kind of menta] and moral attitude is it necessary to have towards the disturbing influences of the unconscious, and how can it be conveyed to the patient?

对于治疗师,基本的问题并不是如何排除暂时的困难,而是未来的困难可能如何成功地被应付。这个问题是:必须要拥有什么种类的精神与道德的态度,对待无意识的这个令人困扰的影响?以及它如何被传达给病人?

人格面具3

November 17, 2015

NEGATIVE ATTEMPTS TO FREE THE INDIVIDUALITY
b. Identification with the Collective Psyche
认同集体无意识
The second way leads to identification with the collective
psyche. This would amount to an acceptance of inflation, but now exalted into a system. That is to say, one would be the for¬tunate possessor of the great truth which was only waiting to be discovered, of the eschatological knowledge which spells the healing of the nations. This attitude is not necessarily megalo¬mania in direct form, but in the milder and more familiar form of prophetic inspiration and desire for martyrdom. For weak¬minded persons, who as often as not possess more than their fair share of ambition, vanity, and misplaced naivete, the danger of yielding to this temptation is very great.

第二个方法导致认同集体心灵。这将是等于接受自我膨胀。但是现在,被提升成为系统。换句话说,我们将是这个伟大真理的拥有者,仅是等待被发现的伟大的真理,属于天启的知识,暗示着各个国家的治疗。这个态度并未必是自大狂的直接的形式。而是以温和,而且更加熟悉的预言的启发以及作为烈士的欲望的形式。对人心灵软弱的人们,他们经常拥有的仅是份内的企图心,虚荣心,与摆错位置的天真,屈服于这个诱惑的危险非常大。

Access to the collective psyche means a renewal of life for the individual, no matter whether this renewal is felt as pleasant or unpleasant. Everybody would like to hold fast to this renewal: one man because it en¬hances his life-feeling, another because it promises a rich harvest of knowledge, a third because he has discovered the key that will transform his whole life. Therefore all those who do not wish to deprive themselves of the great treasures that lie buried in the collective psyche will strive by every means possible to maintain their newly won connection with the primal source of life.7 Identification would seem to be the shortest road to this, for the dissolution of the persona in the collective psyche positively in¬vites one to wed oneself with the abyss and blot out all memory in its embrace. This piece of mysticism is innate in all better men as the “longing for the mother,” the nostalgia for the Source from which we came.

接近集体心灵意味著生命的新生,对于个人而言。无论这个新生被感觉是愉快或是不愉快。每个人都想要紧紧掌握这个新生:某个人是因为新生强化他的生命的感觉,另外一个人是因为它承诺给予丰富的知识的收获,第三者则是因为他发现将会转化他的整个的生命的钥匙。因此,所有那些并没有希望剥夺自己的伟大的财宝的人们,那些财宝被埋藏在集体心灵里。他们将会奋斗,凭借一切可能的方法,为了维持他们刚刚获得的关联,跟生命的原初的来源。认同似乎就是最短的捷径,到达这里。因为人格面具的瓦解,在集体心灵里,正面地邀请我们跟这个深渊结合,然后抹除掉深渊所掌握的一切记忆。这个神秘主义与生俱有地存在于所有较佳的人们,作为是“对母亲的渴望”,对于他们来自的来源的怀旧。

261 As I have shown in my book on libido, there lie at the root of
the regressive longing, which Freud conceives as “infantile fixa¬tion” or the “incest wish,” a specific value and a specific need which are made explicit in myths. It is precisely the strongest and best among men, the heroes, who give way to their regressive longing and purposely expose themselves to the danger of being devoured by the monster of the maternal abyss.

如同我在探讨力比多的书里所显示,在退行的渴望的根源里隐藏著力比多。弗洛伊德构想这个退行的渴望,作为是“婴孩的固著”,或是“乱伦的愿望”。这一个明确的价值与明确的需要,在神话里明确被表达。确实就是这个最强壮,最优秀的人们,英雄人物,他们屈服于他们的退行的渴望。然后刻意地暴露他们自己,于被吞没的危险当中,被母亲深夜的怪物吞没。

169

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
But if a man is a hero, he is a hero because, in the final reckoning, he did not let the monster devour him, but subdued it, not once but many times. Victory over the collective psyche alone yields the true value-the capture of the hoard, the invincible weapon, the magic talisman, or whatever it be that the myth deems most de¬sirable. Anyone who identifies with the collective psyche-or, in mythological terms, lets himself be devoured by the monster-and vanishes in it, attains the treasure that the dragon guards, but he does so in spite of himself and to his own greatest harm.
但是假如一个人是位英雄,他是一位英雄,因为在他最后的估算,他并没有让他的怪物吞没他,而是征服他的怪物。不仅一次,而且是好几次。光是战胜集体心灵的胜利,就产生真实的价值。或是任何神话认为是最被欲望的东西。任何认同于集体心灵的人,用神话的术语来说,他会让他自己被怪物吞没,然后消失在怪物里面。获得这个财宝,龙守卫著的财宝。但是,他这样做,奋不顾身,结果造成自己受伤惨重。

262 Probably no one who was conscious of the absurdity of this
identification would have the courage to make a principle of it. But the danger is that very many people lack the necessary hu¬mour, or else it fails them at this particular juncture; they are seized by a sort of pathos, everything seems pregnant with mean¬ing, and all effective self-criticism is checked. I would not deny in general the existence of genuine prophets, but in the name of caution I would begin by doubting each individual case; for it is far too serious a matter for us lightly to accept a man as a genu¬ine prophet. Every respectable prophet strives manfully against the unconscious pretensions of his role. When therefore a prophet” appears at a moment’s notice, we would be better ad¬vised to contemplate a possible psychic disequilibrium.

可能,知道这种认同的人们,没有一位会有勇气将它定为原则。但是危险是,很多的人们欠缺这个必要的性情,或者,这个性情在这个特殊的时刻,让他们功败垂成。他们被笼罩于一股哀怜之情。每一样东西都孕育着意义,所有的有效的自我-批评都被审查。我将不否认,通常会有真诚的预言家的存在。但是以谨慎的名义,我将开始,凭借怀疑每一个个人的案例。因为这是太过严肃的一件事,我们无法轻易地接受一个人,作为是真诚的预言家。每一位可尊敬的预言家,勇敢地奋斗,反抗他的角色,作为无意识的伪装。假如我们沉思可能的心灵的不平衡,可能较为明智之举。

263 But besides the possibility of becoming a prophet, there is
another alluring joy, subtler and apparently more legitimate: the joy of becoming a prophet’s disciple. This, for the vast ma¬jority of people, is an altogether ideal technique. Its advantages are: the odium dignitatis) the superhuman responsibility of the prophet, turns into the so much sweeter otium indignitatis. The disciple is unworthy; modestly he sits at the Master’s feet and guards against having ideas of his own. Mental laziness becomes a virtue; one can at least bask in the sun of a semidivine being. He can enjoy the archaism and infantilism of his unconscious fantasies without loss to himself, for all responsibility is laid at the Master’s door. Through his deification of the Master, the disciple, apparently without noticing it, waxes in stature; more¬over, does he not possess the great truth-not his own discovery, of course, but received straight from the Master’s hands? Natu¬rally the disciples always stick together, not out of love, but for the very understandable purpose of effortlessly confirming their own convictions by engendering an air of collective agreement.

但是,除了成为预言家的可能性之外,还有另外一个诱人的享乐,比较微妙,但是明显地更加合理:成为预言家的门徒。对于大多数的人们而言,这是一个完全理性的技术。它的利益是:预言家的超人的责任,转变成为如此更加甜蜜的退休的休闲。门徒是无足轻重,谦虚地,他端坐在大师的脚边,并且警卫著不要有属于自己的观念。精神的懒散成为是一种品德。我们至少能够沐浴于半神性的阳光里。他能够享受属于他的无意识的幻想的旧时回忆与婴孩主义。但是他并没有迷失自己。因为所有的责任都被放置在大师的门边。凭借将大师奉为神性,门徒很明显并没有注意到这件事,他的身形消隐。而且,他难道没有拥有他自己的伟大的真理吗?当然,并不是他自己发现的真理,而是直接从大师的手中获得的真理?当然,门徒总是聚集一块,不是由于爱,而是为了这个可以理解的目的,不费力气地证实他们自己的信念,凭借产生集体一致1气氛。

17°

NEGATIVE ATTEMPTS TO FREE THE INDIVIDUALITY
264 Now this is an identification with the collective psyche that
seems altogether more commendable: somebody else has the honour of being a prophet, but also the dangerous responsibil¬ity. For one’s own part, one is a mere disciple, but nonetheless a joint guardian of the great treasure which the Master has found. One feels the full dignity and burden of such a position, deem¬ing it a solemn duty and a moral necessity to revile others not of a like mind, to enrol proselytes and to hold up a light to the Gentiles, exactly as though one were the prophet oneself. And these people, who creep about behind an apparently modest persona, are the very ones who, when inflated by identification with the collective psyche, suddenly burst upon the world scene. For, just as the prophet is a primordial image from the collective psyche, so also is the disciple of the prophet.

现在,这个认同于集体心灵,似乎完全更加可被赞赏:某个其他的人拥有这个荣幸,成为预言家。但是也有危险的责任。就我们自己而言,我们仅是一位门徒,但是仍然是大师发现的伟大的财宝的共同守护者。我们感觉这个充分的尊严,与如此的地位的负担。他认为这是一个严肃的责任与道德的必要性,要抨击没有具有相同心灵的别人,登记为改变信仰者,然后举起灯光,照亮非犹太人。确实好像我们自己就是预言家。这些人们,在谦虚的人格面具背后鬼鬼祟祟。当他们由于认同集体心灵而自我膨胀,他们突然闯进世界的场景。因为,正如预言家是从集体心灵的原初的意象,预言家的门徒,也是心灵的原初的意象。

265 In both cases inflation is brought about by the collective un-
conscious, and the independence of the individuality suffers in¬jury. But since by no means all individualities have the strength to be independent, the disciple-fantasy is perhaps the best they can accomplish. The gratifications of the accompanying infla¬tion at least do something to make up for the loss of spiritual freedom. Nor should we underestimate the fact that the life of a real or imagined prophet is full of sorrows, disappointments, and privations, so that the hosanna-shouting band of disciples has the value of a compensation. All this is so humanly under¬standable that it would be a matter for astonishment if it led to any further destination whatever.

在这两个情况,自我膨胀被集体无意识导致。个体性的独立遭受伤害的痛苦。但是,因为所有的个体性决非拥有独立的力量,门徒-幻想或许就是他能够完成的最佳表现。伴随而来的自我膨胀的满足,至少有助于补偿精神自由的丧失。我们也不应该低估这个事实:一位真实或被想像的预言家的生活,充满了悲伤,失望,与被剥夺。所以,门徒的欢呼崇拜具有补偿的价值。所有这一切,在人性方面是可以理解的。假如它导致任何更进一步的目标,那将会令人大吃一惊。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

人格面具 2

November 15, 2015

IV
第四章
NEGATIVE ATTEMPTS TO FREE THE INDIVIDUALITY FROM THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE
负面的企图,想要替个体性,从集体无意识解放
a. Regressive Restoration of the Persona
人格面具的退行的恢复
254 A collapse of the conscious attitude is no small matter. It
always feels like the end of the world, as though everything had tumbled back into original chaos. One feels delivered up, disori¬ented, like a rudderless ship that is abandoned to the moods of the elements. So at least it seems. In reality, however, one has fallen back upon the collective unconscious, which now takes over the leadership. We could multiply examples of cases where, at the critical moment, a “saving” thought, a vision, an “inner voice,” came with an irresistible power of conviction and gave life a new direction.

意识态度的崩塌可不是小事情。它让人总是感觉像是世界的末日。好像每样东西都崩塌成为原初的混乱。我们感觉被解脱,被解离,就像是一只没有舵的船只,任由自然元素的播弄。所以,至少,看起来是这个样子。可是,现实上,我们跌回到集体无意识。现在,集体无意识接管领导权。我们能够举出许多个案的例子。在那里,在关键的时刻,一个“拯救”的思想,一个“内部”的声音,带着无法抗拒的信念的力量前来,给予生命新的方向。

Probably we could mention just as many cases where the collapse meant a catastrophe that destroyed life, for at such moments morbid ideas are also liable to take root, or ideals wither away, which is no less disastrous. In the one case some psychic oddity develops, or a psychosis; in the other, a state of disorientation and demoralization. But once the unconscious contents break through into consciousness, filling it with their uncanny power of conviction, the question arises of how the in¬dividual will react. Will he be overpowered by these contents? Will he credulously accept them? Or will he reject them? (I am disregarding the ideal reaction, namely critical understanding.)

可能,我们能够提到同样多的个案。在那里,崩塌意味著毁灭生命的灾难。因为在这一样的时刻,病态的观念也容易生根。或是理想枯萎掉。这也是同样是灾难。在前者的个案,心灵的古怪性发展,或是在另外一个个案,精神病发作,那是迷失方向与士气瓦解的状态。但是一旦无意识的内容,突破进入无意识,充满对于无意识的信念的奥秘的力量,就产生这个问题:个人要如何反应?他将会被这些内容压倒吗?他将会轻信地接纳它们吗?或是,他将排斥它们?(我正在忽略理想的反应,也就是,批判的理解)。

The first case signifies paranoia or schizophrenia; the second may either become an eccentric with a taste for prophecy, or he may revert to an infantile attitude and be cut off from human society; the third signifies the regressive restoration of the per¬sona. This formulation sounds very technical, and the reader may justifiably suppose that it has something to do with a complicated psychic reaction such as can be observed in the course of analytical treatment. It would, however, be a mistake to think that cases of this kind make their appearance only in analytical treatment.

第一个个案意味着偏执狂,或精神分裂症。第二个个案可能要就是变成怪癖者,具有预言的喜好,要不就是他可能转向婴孩的态度,然后跟人类的社会隔离。第三个个案意味着“人格面具的退行的恢复”。这种说明听起来非常专业术语,读者可能很有理由认为,它跟复杂的心灵的反应有某些的关系。譬如,在精神分析的治疗的过程,能够被观察到的东西。可是,这将是个错误,假如我们认为,这种的个案仅是在精神分析的治疗里出现它们的面貌。

163

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

The process can be observed just as well, and often better, in other situations of life, namely “in all those careers where there has been some violent and destructive intervention of fate. Everyone, presumably, has suffered adverse turns of for¬tune, but mostly they are wounds that heal and leave no crip¬pling mark. But here we are concerned with experiences that are destructive, that can smash a man completely or at least crip¬ple him for good. Let us take as an example a businessman who takes too great a risk and consequently becomes bankrupt.

这个过程同样能够被观察,经常更加清楚地被观察,在生活的其他情况。也就是,“在所有那些生涯里,在那里,命运相当猛烈而且摧毁性地介入”。每个人都认为是曾经遭受命运的逆向的翻转。但是大部分,它们都是痊愈而且没有留下瘫痪标记的伤痕。但是在此,我们关注的是那些具有毁灭性的经验。这些经验会完全摧毁一个人,或是至少永远地瘫痪他。让我们以一位生意人作例子。他做生意过分冒险,结果终告破产。

If he does not allow himself to be discouraged by this depressing ex-perience, but, un dismayed, keeps his former daring, perhaps with a little salutary caution added, his wound will be healed without permanent injury. But if, on the other hand, he goes to pieces, abjures all further risks, and laboriously tries to patch up his social reputation within the confines of a much more limited personality, doing inferior work with the mentality of a scared child, in a post far below him, then, technically speaking, he will have restored his persona in a regressive way. He will as a result of his fright have slipped back to an earlier phase of his person¬ality; he will have demeaned himself, pretending that he is as he was before the crucial experience, though utterly unable even to think of repeating such a risk. Formerly perhaps he wanted more than he could accomplish; now he does not even dare to attempt what he has it in him to do.

假如他没有让他自己被这个令人沮丧的经验丧失勇气。代替的,他不要心灰意冷,他保持他先前的大胆,或许稍微补充一点令人尊敬的谨慎,他的创伤将会痊愈,没有留下永久的伤害。但是,假如另一方面,他尝试弥补他的社会的名声,在更加有限的人格的范围里面,做劣等的工作,用受的惊吓的小孩的精神,处于有降他身份的职位。那么专业术语来说,他将会恢复他的人格面具,以一个退行的方式。由于他害怕的结果,他将会重新滑落回到他的人格的早先的时期。他将会贬低他自己,伪装他的生命本质,如同在危机时刻之前的模样。虽然他完全不能够去思维到重复这样的冒险。先前,他或许会想要完成超过自己能力的工作;现在,他甚至不敢企图要做他能力所及的工作。

55 Such experiences occur in every walk of life and in every
possible form, hence in psychological treatment also. Here again it is a question of widening the personality, of taking a risk on one’s circumstances or on one’s nature. What the critical experi¬ence is in actual treatment can be seen from the case of our phi¬losophy student: it is the transference. As I have already indi¬cated, it is possible for the patient to slip over the reef of the transference unconsciously, in which case it does not become an experience and nothing fundamental happens.

这样的经验发生在各行各业,以各种可能的方式。因此,也发生在心理学的治疗里。而且,问题是要扩宽人格,针对自己的环境,或自己的天性,採取冒险。在实际治疗时的危机经验的本质,能够被看出来,根据我们哲学系学生的个案,那就是移情。如同我曾经指示过,病人很有可能无意识地滑越过移情的礁岩。在那个情况,移情并没有成为经验,而且也没有任何基本的事情会发生。

The doctor, for the sake of mere convenience, might well wish for such patients. But if they are intelligent, the patients soon discover the exist¬ence of this problem for themselves. If then the doctor, as in the above case, is exalted into the father-lover and consequently has a flood of demands let loose against him, he must perforce think out ways and means of parrying the onslaught, without himself getting drawn into the maelstrom and without injury to the pa¬tient. A violent rupture of the transference may bring on a com¬plete relapse, or worse; so the problem must be handled with great tact and foresight. Another possibility is the pious hope that “in time” the “nonsense” will stop of its own accord. Cer¬tainly everything stops in time, but it may be an unconscionably long time, and the difficulties may be so unbearable for both sides that one might as well give up the idea of time as a healing factor at once.

为了仅是方便缘故,医生很有理由愿望这样的病人。但是,假如病人足够聪明,他们自己不久就发现这个难题的存在。假如医生,如同在以上的个案里,被提升到父亲-情人的地位,随后涌出的许多要求对他处处不利,他必然会想出各种方法与工具,避开这样的攻击,不要让他自己被捲人这个大的漩涡,不要让病人遭受伤害。移情的猛烈的断裂可能会导致完全的重新发作,或者,更加恶化。所以,这个难题必须异常技巧而又有先见之明地处理。另外一个可能是这个虔诚的希望:“时间到时”,这些“无聊的的事情”将会自动自发地停止。的确,每件事情时间到时都会停止,但是,那个时间可能是无意识地漫长。对于两边,这些困难可能如此无法忍受,以致我们很有理由放弃这个想法:让时间同时充当治疗的因素。

256 A far better instrument for “combatting” the transference
would seem to be offered by the Freudian theory of neurosis. The dependence of the patient is explained as an infantile sex¬ual demand that takes the place of a rational application of sex-
. uality. Similar advantages are offered by the Adlerian theory,1 which explains the transference as an infantile power-aim, and as a “security measure.” Both theories fit the neurotic mentality so neatly that every case of neurosis can be explained by both theories at once.2 This highly remarkable fact, which any un¬prejudiced observer is bound to corroborate, can only rest on the circumstance that Freud’s “infantile eroticism” and Adler’s “power drive” are one and the same thing, regardless of the clash of opinions between the two schools. It is simply a frag¬ment of uncontrolled, and at first uncontrollable, primordial in¬stinct that comes to light in the phenomenon of transference. The archaic fantasy-forms that gradually reach the surface of consciousness are only a further proof of this.

弗洛伊德对于神经症的理论,似乎提供一个更好的工具,来“博斗”移情。病人的依赖性被解释作为是婴孩的性的要求,取代性的理性的运用。类似的利益被阿德勒的理论提供。阿德勒理论解释移情,作为是婴孩的权力的目标,譬如“安全措施”。两种理论都如此清楚地适合神经症的精神状态,所以,神经症的每个个案都能够被解释,同时用两个解释。这个高度引人注意的事情,任何没有偏见的观察者一定都会建构,它仅能依靠这个情况:弗洛伊德的婴孩的性爱主义,与阿德勒的“权力冲动”,都是同样的东西,无论这两派之间,意见的冲突是多么大。那仅是无法控制的原始的本能的片断,起初无法被控制。在移情的现象里,这个无法控制的原始的本能真相大白。逐渐到达意识的表面的旧时的幻想与形式,仅是更进一步证明这个、、、

257 We can try both theories to make the patient see how infan-
tile, impossible, and absurd his demands are, and perhaps in the end he will actually come to his senses again. My patient, how¬ever, was not the only one who did not do this. True enough, the doctor can always save his face with these theories and extri¬cate himself from a painful situation more or less humanely.

我们尝试两个理论,为了让病人看出,他的要求是多么的幼稚,不可能,与荒谬。或许,最后,他将会实际上再次恢复他的理智。可是,我的病人并不是第一位没有恢复他的理智的人。的确,医生总是拯救他的面子,使用这些理论,然后让他自己挣脱一个令人痛苦的情况,相当合乎人性地。

There are indeed patients with whom it is, or seems to be, unre¬warding to go to greater lengths; but there are also cases where these procedures cause senseless psychic injury. In the case of my student I dimly felt something of the sort, and I therefore abandoned my rationalistic attempts in order-with ill-concealed mistrust-to give nature a chance to correct what seemed to me to be her own foolishness. As already mentioned, this taught me something extraordinarily important, namely the existence of an unconscious self-regulation.

的确,有些个案不值得,或似乎不值得,如此详细探讨。但是,也有些个案,这些程序引起没有意义的心灵的伤害。在我的学生的个案,我模糊地感觉到某件类似的东西。我因此放弃我的理性的企图—不信任溢于言表—为了给予自然一个机会来改正我觉得是她自己的愚蠢。如同已经被提到的,这教导我某件特殊重要的东西。换句话说,无意识的自我-规范的存在。

2 Cf. supra, pars. 44ff., for an example of such a case.
165

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
Not only can the unconscious “wish,” it can also cancel its own wishes. This realization, of such immense importance for the integrity of the personality, must remain sealed to anyone who cannot get over the idea that it is simply a question of infantilism. He will turn round on the threshold of this realization and tell himself: “It was all non¬sense of course. I am a crazy visionary! The best thing to do would be to bury the unconscious or throw it overboard with all its works.”

无意识不但能够“愿望”,无意识也能够取消它自己的愿望。这个体会,对于人格的尊严具有如此巨大的重要性。这个体会必须保持不让任何人知道,假如他无法理解这个观念:那仅是婴孩主义的问题。他将会在这个体会的门槛转身,然后告诉他自己:「当然,那都是无稽之谈。我是一位多么疯狂的幻想家!最好的事情就是将无意识埋葬,或是将无意识的一切运作,随着抛下大海。“
The meaning and purpose he so eagerly desired he will see only as infantile maunderings. He will understand that his longing was absurd; he learns to be tolerant with himself, resigned. What can he do? Rather than face the conflict he will turn back and, as best he can, regressively restore his shattered persona, discounting all those hopes and expectations that had blossomed under the transference. He will become smaller, more limited, more rationalistic than he was before. One could not say that this result would be an unqualified misfortune in all cases, for there are all too many who, on account of their notori¬ous ineptitude, thrive better in a rationalistic system than in freedom. Freedom is one of the more difficult things. Those who can stomach this way out can say with Faust:

这个意义与目标,他如此地渴望,以致于他仅是看见,作为是婴孩的无目的漫游。他将理解,他的渴望是荒谬的,他学会对他自己包容,顺服。他能够怎么做呢?他非但没有面对这个冲突,他将会转过头,尽他可能地,退行地恢复他被摧毁的人格面具,贬低所有那些希望与期望,在移情之下曾经盛放的希望与期望。他将会变得更加渺小,更加受到限制,更加理性化,比起他以前的样子。我们无法说,无论什么情况,这个结果将是不应该遭遇的不幸。因为有太多的人们,因为他们恶名昭彰的无能为力,他们在理性的系统里较能张罗,比起在自由里。自由是一件更加困难的事情。那些能够承受这个解脱之道的人们,能够跟随浮士德这样说:

This earthly circle I know well enough. Towards the Beyond the view has been cut off; Fool-who directs that way his dazzled eye, Contrives himself a double in the sky!
Let him look round him here, not stray beyond; To a sound man this world must needs respond. To roam into eternity is vain!
What he perceives, he can attain.
Thus let him walk along his earthlong day; Though phantoms haunt him, let him go his way.3

这个大地的圈子,我甚为熟稔。
朝向超验的景象已经被阻隔;
傻瓜—他用那个方式引导他目眩的眼光,
构想他自己在天上有一个本尊!
让他环顾这里周遭,不要迷失于超验世界
对于一位健全的人,这个世界必要回应,
漫游进入永恒是徒劳!
他所感觉的东西,他能够获得。
因此,让他沿着他的世间的日子前行,
虽然萦绕他的魅影重重,任他前行。

258 Such a solution would be perfect if a man were really able to
shake off the unconscious, drain it of its energy and render it inactive. But experience shows that the unconscious can be de
prived of its energy only in part: it remains continually active, for it not only contains but is itself the source of the libido from which the psychic elements flow.

这样的解决将是完美的,假如一个人确实能够摆脱掉无意识,耗尽无意识的能源,并且让无意识动弹不得。但是,我们根据经验知道,无意识仅有部分能够被解除它的能源;无意识始终继续的保存活跃。因为无意识不但包含力比多的来源,无意识本身就是力比多。心灵的元素就是从力比多流露出来。

¬3 Faust, trans. by Louis MacNeice, p. 283 (Part 11, Act V).
166

NEGATIVE ATTEMpTS TO FREE THE INDIVIDUALITY
It is therefore a delusion to think that by some kind of magical theory or method the uncon¬scious can be finally emptied of libido and thus, as it were, elim¬inated. One may for a while play with this delusion, but the day comes when one is forced to say with Faust:

因此,这是一个幻觉,假如我们认为,凭借某种的魔法的理论或方法,无意识最后能够被掏空力比多,因此,所谓的能够被减少。我们有一阵子,都在玩弄这个幻觉,但是这个日子会来临,当我们被迫跟随浮士德这样说:

But now such spectredom so throngs the air
That none knows how to dodge it, none knows where. Though one day greet us with a rational gleam,
The night entangles us in webs of dream.
We come back happy from the fields of spring¬
And a bird croaks. Croaks what? Some evil thing. Enmeshed in superstition night and morn,
It forms and shows itself and comes to warn.
And we, so scared, stand without friend or kin,
And the door creaks-and nobody comes in.4

但是现在,这样的魅影,如此充塞空中,
以致无人知道如何逃避它,无人知道何方,
虽然白天以理性的光辉欢迎我们
在夜晚,我们被纠缠于梦的网络,
我们从春天的原野,快乐地回来—
乌鸦哀鸣,哀鸣什么?某件不祥之事,
纠缠于迷信里,夜晚或清晨,
它现身,并显示自己,前来警告,
我们如此惊恐,没有朋友或亲属伴随
门吱吱响,没有人进入。

Nobody, of his own free will, can strip the unconscious of its effective power. At best, one can merely deceive oneself on this point. For, as Goethe says:

没有人,出之于他自己的自由意志,能够替无意识剥除掉它的有效的力量。针对这一点,充其量,我们仅能够欺骗自己。因为,如同歌德所说:

Unheard by the outward ear
In the heart I whisper fear;
Changing shape from hour to hour
I employ my savage power.5

没有让外倾的耳朵听见,
在内心,我窃窃私语恐惧;
每个时刻,形状都在改变
我运用我的野性的力量。

Only one thing is effective against the unconscious, and that is hard outer necessity. (Those with rather more knowledge of the unconscious will see behind the outer necessity the same fac~ which once gazed at them from within.) An inner necessity can change into an outer one, and so long as the outer necessity is real, and not just faked, psychic problems remain more or less ineffective. This is why Mephisto offers Faust, who is sick of the “madness of magic,” the following advice:
对抗无意识,仅有一件东西是有效的。那就是坚强外表的必要性。(对于无意识的知识更加丰富的人们,将会看见在坚强的外在必要性背后的那个相同的脸孔,曾经从内在凝视他的相同的脸孔。)内在的必要性能够改变成为外在的必要性。只要外在的必要性是真实的,不仅仅是虚构,心灵的难题始终是非常没有效果。这就是为什么浮士德厌倦于“魔法的疯狂“时,魔鬼梅非斯特提供给浮士德以下的劝告。

4 Ibid., p. 281 (Part 11, Act V).
5 Ibid., p. 282 (Part 11, Act V), modified.
167

260
THE RE:LATIONS BE:TW~E:N THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS Pack

Right. There is one way that needs
No money, no physician, and no witch.
Pack up your things and get back to the land
And there begin to dig and ditch;
Keep to the narrow round, confine your mind, And live on fodder of the simplest kind,
A beast among the beasts; and don’t forget
To use your own dung on the crops you set! 6

没错。有一个方法不需要
金钱,医生,或巫师。
打包你的行囊,回到故土
就在那里挖掘犁沟
保持在狭窄的周围,限制你的心灵,
然后依靠朴实的那些草料维生
如同野兽一般。但是不要忘记
使用你自己的粪便,滋养你播种的穀物

It is a well-known fact that the “simple life” cannot be faked, and therefore the unproblematical existence of a poor man, who really is delivered over to fate, cannot be bought by such cheap imitations. Only the man who lives such a life not as a mere possibility, but is actually driven to it by the necessity of his own nature, will blindly pass over the problem of his soul, since he lacks the capacity to grasp it. But once he has seen the Faustian problem, the escape into the “simple life” is closed for ever. There is of course nothing to stop him from taking a two-room cottage in the country, or from pottering about in a garden and eating raw turnips. But his soul laughs at the deception. Only what is really oneself has the power to heal.

这是众所周知的事实。这种“淡泊的生活“无法被虚构。因此,贫穷的人的没有难题的生存。贫穷的人确实被递交给命运,他无法被便宜的模仿所购买。这样的人过著淡泊生活,不是作为是可能,而且实际上受到他自己的天性的驱使来过这样的生活。仅有这样的人才会盲目地忽略他的灵魂的难题。因为他欠缺理解它的这个能力。但是当他一旦看见弗洛伊德的难题,逃避进入“淡泊”的生活,就永远被关闭了。当然,并没有任何东西阻止他驻居在乡下的两个房间的茅屋里。或是阻止他不能在花园里弄东弄西,与吃野生的郁金香花。但是,他的灵魂会嘲笑这个欺骗。仅有确实是属于自己的人,才具有治疗的力量。

!59 The regressive restoration of the persona is a possible course
only for the man who owes the critical failure of his life to his own inflatedness. With diminished personality, he turns back to the measure he can fill. But in every other case resignation and self-belittlement are an evasion, which in the long run can be kept up only at the cost of neurotic sickliness. From the con¬scious point of view of the person concerned, his condition does not 109k like an evasion at all, but seems to be due to the impos¬sibility of coping with the problem. Usually he is a lonely figure, with little or nothing to help him in our present-day culture. Even psychology has only purely reductive interpretations to offer, since it inevitably underlines the archaic and infantile character of these transitional states and makes them unaccept¬able to him. The fact that a medical theory may also serve the purpose of enabling the doctor to pull his own head more or less elegantly out of the noose does not occur to him. That is pre¬cisely why these reductive theories fit the essence of neurosis so beautifully-because they are of such great service to the doctor.

人格面具的退行的恢复,仅有针对这样的人,才是可能的途径。他将他生活的严重的失败,归咎于他自己的自我膨胀。带着被减少的人格,他回转到他能够填补的程度。但是在每一个其他的个案,顺服与自我-贬抑是一种讨避。追根究底,仅有耗费神经症的疾病作为代价,这个自我膨胀才能够被维持。从相关的这个人的意识的观点,他的情况根本就不像是逃避。而是似乎由于不可能处理这个难题。通常,他是一位孤独的人物,在我们当前时代的文化,几乎没有什么东西可以帮助他。即使是心理学也仅能提供纯粹的还原的解释。因为心理学无可避免会强调这些转移的状态的旧时与婴孩的特性。并且让这些转移的状态无法被他接受。医学的理论也可能充当这个目的:让医生能够相当优雅地从这个牛角尖挣脱出来。医生并没有想到这个事实。那确实是为什么这些还原的理论,如此漂亮地配合神经症者的本质。因为他们对于医生的贡献是如此巨大。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

从移情到互为主体性

November 14, 2015

FROM PSYCHOLOGY TO INTERSUBJECTIVITY
从心理学到互为主体性

Lacan’s first extensive protocol on the topic of transference, his 1951
‘Intervention on Transference’, took off from yet another trenchant
critique of mainstream psychoanalysis. Now the unfortunate bugbear
was called Daniel Lagache, an analyst who unlike many of Lacan’s future
adversaries was more drawn to the scientific ideals of academic
psychology than the therapeutic ambitions of ego-psychology.15

拉康的首次的广泛的模式,探讨移情的主题,他在1961年的“论移情的介入’, 出发点是从另外一个猛烈的批判主流的精神分析。现在,这位不幸的怪物被称为丹尼尔 拉噶奇。这位精神分析家不像许多拉康的未来的敌人,他被吸引到学院派的科学的理想,而不是自我-心理学的治疗的企图心。

Echoing a criticism by Maurice Benassy on the encyclopaedic position
paper on transference Lagache had prepared for a 1951 conference, Lacan
developed a vehement rebuttal of Lagache’s explanation of the repetitive
nature of transference via the so-called Zeigarnik effect.16

拉康回应本拿西从百科全书的立场探讨移情的批评,那是拉噶奇替1951年准备的论文。拉康发展猛烈的反驳,针对拉噶奇的解释移情的重复的特性,经由所谓的哲噶米克的效应。

According to
this effect, originally described in 1927 by Bela Zeigarnik, an associate of
the cognitive learning theorist Kurt Lewin, incomplete tasks are more likely
to stay in people’s minds than properly resolved ones.17

依照这个效应,哲噶米克在1927年最初描述的效应。他哲噶米克斯认知学习的理论家科克 列文的助理:没有完成的工作,更加有可能保持在人们的心里,比起合适被解决的工作。

Taking his lead
from a book by Maslow and Mittelmann (1951[1941]:66), Lagache had
claimed that it is easy to put Zeigarnik’s incomplete tasks on a par with the
unresolved infantile conflicts and the thwarted wishes in the mental life of
neurotics, which could elucidate the spring of Freud’s unconscious
repetition compulsion and its ruling over the analysand’s transference.18

拉噶奇从马斯洛与米腾曼的书作为开始,他宣称:我们很容易将哲噶米克的“没有完成的工作,能够相提并论,跟没有被解决的婴孩的冲突,以及遭受挫折的愿望,在神经者的精神生活里。这个宣称可以用来阐释弗洛伊德的无意识的重复的冲动的泉源,以及无意识的重复的冲动对于分析者的移情的统辖。

In his reply, Lacan followed Benassy’s argument that instead of
repetition and transference being determined by the Zeigarnik effect,
matters might very well be the other way round, the Zeigarnik effect
depending on the nature of the transference between the experimenter
and the participants.

在他的回应里,拉康遵循本拿西的论点:重复与移情并没有受的哲噶米克的效应所决定。事情很有可能恰恰相反。哲噶米克的效应依靠处于试验者与参与者之间的移情的特性。

Whereas Benassy had illustrated his point in
reference to the conditions of psychometric testing, Lacan applied it
directly to the psychoanalytic setting, saying that ‘it proceeds entirely in
this relationship of subject to subject, which means that it preserves a
dimension which is irreducible to all psychology considered as the
objectification of certain properties of the individual’ (Lacan
1982a[1951]:62). All individual reactions, Lacan posited, are governed
by the primacy of an intersubjective relationship, which implies that
transference can only be explained through the dialectical process
between the analysand and the analyst.19

虽然本拿西说明他的观的,提的心理量尺的测试的条件。拉康则是将它直接运用到精神分析的背景。拉康并且说,「心理量尺的测试的进行,完全是在主体与主体之间的关系里。这意味着,它保存一个无法被化简的维度,无法被化简成为是被认为是客体化的所有的心理学,个人的某些属性被客体化。拉康提出,所有的个人的反应动作,受到互为主体性的关系的原初地位所统辖。这暗示着,移情能够被解释,仅是凭借分析者与分析家之间的辩证的过程。

So how does the analyst play a part in the emergence of the analysand’s
transference? Three years before his ‘Intervention on Transference’, in
‘Aggressivity in Psychoanalysis’, Lacan had implicitly espoused Freud’s
recommendation that the analyst ‘should be opaque to his patients and,
like a mirror, should show them nothing but what is shown to him’ (Freud
1912e:118). Lacan emphasized that the analyst’s attitude of general
impassibility is exactly what facilitates the beneficial reactivation of
unconscious ‘archaic images’ in the analysand (Lacan 1977d[1948]: 13–
15).

所以,分析家如何扮演一个角色,在分析者的移情的出现?在“论移情的介入”的前三年,在“精神分析的侵凌性”,拉康曾经含蓄地说明弗洛伊德的建议:「分析家应该对他的病人保持模糊。就像是一面镜子,分析家应该跟病人显示,仅是被显示给他的东西。」拉康强调,分析家对于通常无法跨越的态度,确实就是让分析者身上,无意识的“旧时的意象”,方便从事有利的重新触动的因素。

He even embraced Melanie Klein’s theory of the paranoiac’s projection
of bad internal objects onto the outside world, in order to argue that the
opaque psychoanalyst induces a state of controlled paranoia in the
analysand (ibid.: 15).

他甚至接受米兰 克来恩的理论:妄想症者的投射坏的内部的客体,到外在的世界。为了主张,模糊嗳昧的精神分析家在分析者身上,引导出受控制的妄想症的状态。

Whilst Lacan’s account of transference in this early
paper did not attain the high level of sophistication characteristic of his
later work, its central message that the analyst’s controlled inertia within
the treatment determines the analysand’s transference would resound for
years to come.20 Furthermore, Lacan maintained that when the analysand’s
transference turns into an unmanageable aggressive tension, the analyst is
as much responsible for these deleterious developments as for the initial
emergence of transference.

在这篇早期的论文,拉康描述移情,并没有获得他晚期著作的精致的特性。它的主心的讯息是:在治疗内部,分析家的受控制的惰性,分析者的移情将会迴响在未来的好几年。而且,拉康主张,当分析者的移情转变成为一个无法管理的侵凌性的紧张,分析家负同样的责任,对于这个巧妙的发展,如同负责移情的惰性的出现。

These negative reactions only occur when an
analyst exchanges his ‘pure mirror of an unruffled surface’ (ibid.: 15) for
admonitions curtailing the analysand’s wishes or interventions saturated
with good advice (presumably with the best of philanthropic intentions).
In his ‘Intervention on Transference’, Lacan took advantage of Freud’s
trouble with Dora to illustrate how the girl’s negative transference had
indeed taken shape in accordance with Freud’s own clinical conduct,
confirming the assertion that transference follows a dialectics of
intersubjectivity:

这些负面的反应动作会发生,仅是当分析家用他的“纯粹的反映安详的表面”,交换这些预警,缩短分析者的愿望的预警•或是充满善意劝告的介入(被假定是带着最善意的慈善的意图)。在他的“论移情的介入“,拉康利用弗洛伊德的朵拉个案的困扰,来阐述这位女孩的负面的移情,确实是遵照弗洛伊德的自己的临床的行为而成形。拉康证实这个主张:移情遵循互为主体性的辩证法。

[T]he case of Dora, because of what it stands for in the experience
of transference when this experience was still new…[was] the first
case in which Freud recognised that the analyst played his part…
I will be attempting to define in terms of pure dialectics the
transference, which we call negative on the part of the subject as
being the operation of the analyst who interprets it.
(Lacan 1982a[1951]:64–65)

因为朵拉的个案所代表的东西,在移情的经验里,当这个经验当时还是新出现。它是第一个个案,弗洛伊德在那里体认:分析家扮演他的角色、、、我将企图用纯粹的辩证法的术语,来定义移情。我们称为负面的移情,在主体这方面,作为是解释它的分析及的运作。

Restructuring Freud’s entire case around a series of dialectical reversals
and subsequent developments of subjective truth, Lacan ascribed Dora’s
negative transference, which triggered her departure, to Freud’s failure
to implement one crucial reversal. Freud had refrained from showing to
Dora that she was not interested in Mrs K because the woman was her
closest rival, but because she incarnated the mystery of femininity.21 Put
differently, Lacan could only see one reason behind Freud’s downfall:
Mr K must have inspired in the young girl that he could not understand
her love for Mrs K. At the time, Lacan designated Freud’s fixation as
countertransference, ‘the sum total of the prejudices, passions and
difficulties of the analyst, or even of his insufficient information, at any
given moment of the dialectical process’ (ibid.: 71).22
the father of psychoanalysis had been so fixated on the love he believed

当拉康重新建构弗洛伊德的整个的个案,环绕一系列的辩证法的逆转,与主体的真理的随后的发展,他将朵拉的负面的移情归咎于弗洛伊德没有运作一个关键的逆转,因为这个负面的移情触发朵拉的离去。弗洛伊德自我节制,没有对朵拉显露:她对K夫人感到興趣,不是因为那个女人是她最靠近的情敌,而且因为她具体表现女性的神秘。换句话说,拉康仅是看见弗洛伊德的掉落情网的一个理由:K先生当时一定曾经在这位女孩身上启发,他无法理解她对K夫人的爱。在当时,拉康指明弗洛伊德的固著,作为是反-移情,「分析家的各种偏见,激情与困难的总数,或甚至是分析家的不充足的资讯的总数,在这个辩证法的过程的任何特定的时刻」。弗洛伊德作为精神分析之父对于他相信的爱,曾经是如此固著。

He concluded accordingly that ‘transference does not arise from any mysterious property
of affectivity’, but always reflects the analyst’s own position (ibid.: 71).
Having situated transference firmly within psychoanalytic
intersubjectivity, Lacan probed deeper into the phenomenology of
transference with the goal of formulating a more fundamental set of
alternatives than the classic Freudian opposition between an
advantageous, mild positive transference and its infelicitous (erotic or
aggressive) counterpart. The upshot was a clear theoretical distinction
between imaginary and symbolic transference, each incorporating all
possible shades of the entire affective spectrum.

拉康因此下结论:「移情并非产生于情感的任何的神秘的属性。代替的,移情总是反映出分析者自己的立场」。当拉康将移情坚固地定位在精神分析的互为主体性的内部,他更加深入地探索移情的现象,目标朝着阐述一个更加基本的替代选择,比起古典的弗洛伊德的对立,处于有利的,温和的,正面的移情,与不利的侵凌性的负面移情。结局是清楚的理论的区别,想像与象征的移情。每一种都合并整个的情感的光谱的一切可能的色度。

In Seminar I Lacan tabulated symbolic transference as the efficacious
side of the coin, identifying it quite simply with the act of full speech:
‘Each time a man speaks to another in an authentic and full manner,
there is, in the true sense, transference, symbolic transference—something
takes place which changes the nature of the two beings present’ (Lacan
1988b[1953–54]:109).

在第一研讨班,拉康塑造象征的移情,作为是硬币的有效的一面,将它仅是认同于充分言说的行为。「每次一个人跟另外一个人言说,以真诚而充实的方式,就真实的意义而言,就存在着移情,象征的移情—某件东西发生,改变这俩个在场的人物的天性」。

On this symbolic plane, transference operates as
the motor of analysis and it can take either the form of love or hate, and
quite possibly a mixture of both.23 To corroborate the idea that transference
is inextricably linked with the symbolic structure of language, he referred
to Freud’s description of ‘the fact of transference’ in the final chapter of
The Interpretation of Dreams, where he had associated it with the
transmission of energy from an unconscious representation to a
preconscious day’s residue (Freud 1900a:562–563).24 Here, Lacan
stipulated, Freud had explained how transference takes place when a
forbidden unconscious discourse takes hold of a more accessible,
preconscious discourse in order to express itself (Lacan 1988b[1953–
54]:247).

在象征的层面,移情运作,作为精力分析的马达。它要就是採用爱的形式,要不就是採用恨的形式。相当可能的是,採有爱与恨两这混合。为了建构这个观念:移情无法挣脱地跟语言的象征结构息息相关,拉康参照弗洛伊德的描述“移情的事实”,在“梦的解释的最后的章节”。在那里,弗洛伊德将移情跟精力的传递联想一块,从无意识的再现,到前意识的白天的残渣。在此,拉康提出旦书:无意识的辞说掌控更加可以靠近,前意识的辞说,为了表达它自己。

What Lacan dubbed ‘imaginary transference’ coincides with the type
of transference Freud had encountered as an obstacle to the treatment,
with the proviso that Lacan put its dialectical rather than its affective
qualities centre stage. Analysands who are under the spell of an imaginary
transference only approach their analyst as an alter ego, an other who
presents a mirror image of themselves.

拉康所谓的“想像的移情”,巧合于弗洛伊德曾经遭遇的移情的类型,作为是治疗的阻碍。有一个旦书是:拉康将移情的辩证的移情,而不是想像的移情,作为中心的舞台。受到想像的移情的影响之下的分析者,接近分析家,仅是作为他我,一位他者,呈现他们自己的镜子影像。

The love analysands experience
on this plane is strictly narcissistic. Not tolerating the other’s difference,
they only bring into relief those features which the other has in common
with themselves. Likewise, imaginary hate is not oriented towards
breaking a mutually agreed contract, but towards continuous rivalry,
competition and jealousy. Lacan contemplated the analysand’s projection
of archaic infantile images onto the analyst as a standard example of this
imaginary transference.

在这个层面,分析家经验到的爱严格来说是自恋的。他们并没有容忍他者的差异,他们仅是突显他者拥有跟他们自己共同的那些特征。同样地,想像的恨并没有被定向朝向违背互相被同意的契约,而是朝向继续的敌意,競争与妒忌。拉康沉思分析者的投射旧时的婴孩的意象,到分析家身上。作为是想像的移情的标准的例子。
And for all its prevalence within ego-psychology,
he considered it detrimental to the continuation of psychoanalysis:
To bring into play the illusory projection of any one of the subject’s
fundamental relations with the analytic partner, or again the object
relation, the relation between transference and counter-transference,
all this, remaining as it does within a two body psychology, is
inadequate.
(ibid.: 261)25

尽管在自我-心理学的内部,移情的胜行,拉康则是将移情认为是有伤害的,对于精神分析的继续。光是这样运作是不足够的:运作主体跟分析家作为伴侣的基本的关系的任何关系的幻想的投射,移情与反移情之间的关系,所有这一切关系,因为它始终保持在两个身体的心理学。

This claim is of course quite remarkable in light of Lacan’s previous
assessment of the transference in ‘Aggressivity in Psychoanalysis’. For
what had originally appeared as the essence of transference, namely the
reactualization of archaic images, now emerged as its evil underside—a
clinical avenue to be avoided rather than cleared.

这个宣称当然相当引人注意,从拉康的先前的评估移情,在“精神分析的侵凌性”。因为原先出现作为移情的本质,也就是,旧时的意象的重新触动,现在出现,作为它的邪恶的底层—这一个临床的途径应该被避免,而不是被清除。

The second nuance Lacan added to his initial picture of transference
relates to the power of analytic intersubjectivity for eliciting the
analysand’s reactions.

拉康增加第二次细微差别,到移情的这个最初的画面。他将移情跟精神分析的互为主体性的力量牵扯一块,作为召唤分析者的反应动作。

To the extent that transference operates according
to the criteria of full and empty speech, it is difficult to see how analysts,
simply by virtue of their acting as dark mirrors, would actually evoke
these responses. Lacan was forced to conclude from his own restructuring
of the transference phenomenon that ‘the dimension of transference exists
from the start, implicitly, well before analysis begins, before this
concubinage, which analysis is, triggers it’ (ibid.: 271). This perspective
was of course in keeping with Freud’s explanation of transference in the
Dora case—an inevitable necessity brought to light by the circumstances
of psychoanalytic treatment (Freud 1905e[1901]:116–117) —but it also
revived the spectre of the neurotic’s predisposition and the spontaneous
appearance of transference.

随着移情的运作,依照充分言说与空洞言说的标准,我们很困难看出,分析家如何实际上召唤这些反应,仅是凭借他们的行动,作为黑暗的镜子。拉康被迫下结论,根据他自己的重新架构移情现象:移情的维度从开始就存在,含蓄地存在,就在精神分析开始之前,就在这个非婚交媾之前,这就是精神分析的本质,精神分析触发它。这个观点当然符合弗洛伊德对于移情的解释,在朵拉的个案。一个无可避免的必要性,由精神分析的治疗的环境启明。但是它也重新复活神经症者的性情的魅影,与移情自动自发地出现。

Therefore Lacan hastened to specify that if
there is a ‘readiness to the transference’ in the patient ‘it is solely by
virtue of his placing himself in the position of acknowledging himself in
speech, and searching out his truth to the end, the end which is there, in
the analyst’ (Lacan 1988b[1953–54]:277–278).26 Although not
diminished, the analyst’s responsibility was consequently restricted to
the emergence of the analysand’s transference along one of the axes of
the symbolic-imaginary divide.27

因此,拉康匆匆指明:假如在病人身上,移情准备出现,那仅是凭借他将他自己放置在这个立场:用言说承认自己,并且彻底地寻找出他的真理,在分析家身上,存在在那里的目标。分析家的责任虽然没有被减少,结果却是被限制于分析者的移情的出现,沿着象征与想像的分界线的其中一个枢纽。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

荣格:人格面具

November 12, 2015

III
THE PERSONA AS A SEGMENT OF THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE
人格面具作为集体无意识的部分
243 In this chapter we come to a problem which, if overlooked, is
liable to cause the greatest confusion. It will be remembered that in the analysis of the personal unconscious the first things to be added to consciousness are the personal contents, and I sug¬gested that these contents, which have been repressed but are capable of becoming conscious, should be called the personal un¬conscious. I also showed that to annex the deeper layers of the unconscious, which I have called the collective unconscious) pro¬duces an enlargement of the personality leading to the state of inflation. This state is reached by simply continuing the analyti¬cal work, as in the case of the young woman discussed above. By continuing the analysis we add to the personal consciousness cer¬tain fundamental, general, and impersonal characteristics of hu¬manity, thereby bringing about the inflation1 I have just de-
1 Th’is phenomenon, which results from the extension of consciousness, is in no sense specific to analytical treatment. It occurs whenever people are overpowered by knowledge or by some new realization. “Knowledge puffeth up,” Paul writes to the Corinthians, for the new knowledge had turned the heads of many, as in¬deed constantly happens. The inflation has nothing to do with the kind of knowledge, but simply and solely with the fact that any new knowledge can so seize hold of a weak head that he no longer sees and hears anything else. He is hypnotized by it, and instantly believes he has solved the riddle of the universe. But that is equivalent to almighty self-conceit. This process is such a general reaction that, in Genesis 2:17, eating of the tree of knowledge is represented as a deadly sin. It may not be immediately apparent why greater consciousness fol¬lowed by self-conceit should be such a dangerous thing. Genesis represents the act of becoming conscious as a taboo infringement. as though knowledge meant that a sacrosanct barrier had been impiously overstepped. I think that Genesis is right in so far as every step towards greater consciousness is a kind of Prome¬thean guilt: through knowledge, the gods are as it were robbed of their fire, that is, something that was the property of the unconscious powers is torn out of its natural context and subordinated to the whims of the conscious mind. The
156

THE PERSONA AS A SEGMENT OF THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE scribed, which might be regarded as one of the unpleasant con¬sequences of becoming fully conscious.

在这个章节,我们面临一个难题。这个难题假如被忽略,很容易引起极大的混乱。我们将记住,在个人的无意识的分析里,首先能够被增加到意识层面的是个人的内容。我建议,这些已经被压抑,却能够被意识知道的内容,应该被称为是“个人无意识”。我也显示,合并更加深层的无意识,我所谓的集体无意识,会产生人格的扩大。这种人格的扩大会导致自我膨胀的状态。光是凭借精神分析,这个状态就会被到达。如同在上面讨论的年轻女子的个案里。凭借继续精神分析,我们将某些基本,一般,与非个人的人类的特性,增加到个人的意识里。这会导致我刚刚描述的自我膨胀。这种自我膨胀可能会被认为是完全被意识知道时的令人不愉快的结果之一。

244 From this point of view the conscious personality is a more or
less arbitrary segment of the collective psyche. It consists in a sum of psychic facts that are felt to be personal. The attribute “personal” means: pertaining exclusively to this particular per¬son. A consciousness that is purely personal stresses its proprie¬tary and original right to its contents with a certain anxiety, and in this way seeks to create a whole. But all those contents that refuse to fit into this whole are either overlooked and forgotten or repressed and denied. This is one way of educating oneself, but it is too arbitrary and too much of a violation. Far too much of our common humanity has to be sacrificed in the interests of an ideal image into which one tries to mould oneself. Hence these purely “personal” people are always very sensitive, for something may easily happen that will bring into consciousness an unwelcome portion of their real (“individual”) character.

从这个观点,意识的人格是集体无意识的相当任意的部分。它的组成是心灵事实的总和。这些心灵事实被感觉是个人的心灵事实。“个人”的这个属性意味著:专门归属于这个特殊的人。纯粹是个人的意识,强调它拥有财产与原先的权利,对于它的内容,带有某种的焦虑。以这种方式,它尝试创造一个整体。但是所有那些拒绝适应到这个整体的内容,要就是被忽略与忘记,要不就是被压抑与被否认。这是一个教育自己的方法。但是这个方法太过于任意性,太过于违背心灵事实。我们尝试替自己塑造一个理想的意象。为了这个理想的意象的利益,我们的共同人性的太多的部分必须被牺牲。因此,这些纯粹的“个人”的人们,总是非常敏感,对于这些牺性的共同人性的部分。因为很容易发生某件事情,就会让意识知道,他们具有一个并不受欢迎的部分,是他们的真实的(个人)的特性。

245 This arbitrary segment of collective psyche-often fashioned
with considerable pains-I have called the persona. The term persona is really a very appropriate expression for this, for origi¬nally it meant the mask once worn by actors to indicate the role they played. If we endeavour to draw a precise distinction be¬tween what psychic material should be considered personal, and what impersonal, we soon find ourselves in the greatest di• lemma, for by definition we have to say of the persona’s contents what we have said of the impersonal unconscious, namely, that it is collective. It is only because the persona represents a more or less arbitrary and fortuitous segment of the collective psyche that we can make the mistake of regarding it in toto as some¬thing individual. It is, as its name implies, only a mask of the collective psyche, a mask that feigns individuality) making others and oneself believe that one is individual, whereas one is simply acting a role through which the collective psyche speaks.

集体心灵的任意性部分,我称之为“人格面具”,通常是费尽心力才塑造而成。“人格面具”的这个术语确实是一个非常合适的表达集体心灵的任意性部分。因为它原先的意义是演员所戴的“面具”,为了指示他们扮演的角色。假如我们尝试获得明确的区别,在应该被认为是个人的心灵的材料,与应该被认为是非个人的心灵材料之间的区别。我们不久就发现我们自己处于进退维谷当中。因为定义上,我们必须将我们曾经说到的非个人的无意识,说成就是人格面具的内容。欢句话说,人格面具是集体无意识。仅是因为人格面具代表集体心灵的相当任意性与偶然性的部分时,我们才会犯上这个错误,错误地将完整的集体心灵,视为是某件个人的东西。顾名思义,人格面具仅是集体心灵的面具。这一个人格面具伪装成为个人,让别人与自己相信:我是个人,虽然我仅是扮演一个角色。通过这个角色,集体的心灵言说。

an who has usurped the new knowledge suffers, however, a transformation or enlargement of consciousness, which no longer resembles that of his fellow men. He has raised himself above the human level of his age (“ye shall become like unto God”), but in so doing has alienated himself from humanity. The pain of this loneliness is the vengeance of the gods, for never again can he return to mankind. He is, as the myth says, chained to the lonely cliffs of the Caucasus, forsaken of God and man.
157

TH::f: RELATiONS nETWEEN TH:E EGO AND Tt-lE UNCONSCIOUS
146 When we analyse the persona we strip off the mask, and dis-
cover that what seemed to be individual is at bottom collective; in other words, that the persona was only a mask of the collec¬tive psyche. Fundamentally the persona is nothing real: it is a compromise between individual and society as to what a man should appear to be. He takes a name, earns a title, exercises a function, he is this or that. In a certain sense all this is real, yet in relation to the essential individuality of the person concerned it is only a secondary reality, a compromise formation, in mak¬ing which others often have a greater share than he. The per¬sona is a semblance, a two-dimensional reality, to give it a nick¬name.

当我们分析这个人格面具时,我们剥除掉这个面具,然后发现,表面似乎是个人心灵,骨子里却是集体心灵。换句话说,人格面具仅是集体心灵的面具。基本上,人格面具并非是真实的东西:人格面具仅是个人与社会之间的一种妥协,关于一个人应该显现怎么的样子。他取一个名字,获得一个头衔,运用一个功能,他是这个,他是那个。从某个意义来说,所有这一切都是真实。可是,就相关的个人的基本的个体性而言,人格面具仅是一个次要的现实,一个妥协的形成。从事这个妥协的形成时,别的人经常比他具有更多的参与。人格面具是一个类似物,给它取一个绰号,“二维度的现实”。

!47 It would be wrong to leave the matter as it stands without
at the same time recognizing that there is, after all, something individual in the peculiar choice and delineation of the persona, and that despite the exclusive identity of the ego-consciousness with the persona the unconscious self, one’s real individuality, is always present and makes itself felt indirectly if not directly. Although the ego-consciousness is at first identical with the per-sona-that compromise role in which we parade before the community-yet the unconscious self can never be repressed to the point of extinction. Its influence is chiefly manifest in the special nature of the contrasting and compensating contents of the unconscious.

这将是错误的,假如我们将事情保持目前的状态,而没有同时体认到, 毕竟还是有某件个人的东西,在人格面具的特殊选择与描绘里。尽管自我意识专门地认同于人格面具, 无意识的自性,也就是一个人的真实的个体性,总是出现,并且让它自己间接地被感觉到,虽然并不是直接被感觉到。虽然自我意识起初认同与人格面具—那个作为妥协的角色。以那个角色,我们展示在社会的面前。可是,无意识的自性永远没有办法被压抑到销声匿迹的程度。无意识的自性的影响主要被展示在这个特别的特性:无意识具有作为对照与补偿的内容。

The purely personal attitude of the conscious mind evokes reactions on the part of the unconscious, and these, together with personal repressions, contain the seeds of individ¬ual development in the guise of collective fantasies. Through the analysis of the personal unconscious, the conscious mind be¬comes suffused with collective material which brings with it the elements of individuality. I am well aware that this conclusion must be almost unintelligible to anyone not familiar with my views and technique, and particularly so to those who habitually regard the unconscious from the standpoint of Freudian theory. But if the reader will recall my example of the philosophy stu¬dent, he can form a rough idea of what I mean. At the beginning of the treatment the patient was quite unconscious of the fact that her relation to her father was a fixation, and that she was therefore seeking a man like her father, whom she could then meet with her intellect. This in itself would not have been a mistake if her intellect had not had that peculiarly protesting character such as is unfortunately often encountered in intellec¬tual women.

意识心灵的这个纯粹个人的态度,会引起反动抗拒,在无意识的这方面。这些反动抗拒,再加上个人的压抑,就包含个人的发展的种种,以集体的幻想作为伪装。通过个人的意识的分析,意识的心灵变成充满了集体的材料。这个集体材料随之带来个体化的元素。我清楚知道,这个结论一定是匪夷所思,对于任何不熟悉我的观点与精神分析技术的人而言。特别是习惯于用弗洛伊德的理论的观点,来看待无意识的人们。但是假如读者愿意回想一下我举的哲学系学生的例子,对于我的意思,他能够建构粗略的观念。在治疗的开始,病人完全不知道这个事实:她跟她的父亲的关系是一种固著。她因此寻找一位像是她的父亲的人物。这个人物在知识能力,能够跟她匹配。这个关系的本身本来不会是错误,假如她的知识能力当时不是那么具有特殊的抗议的性质。譬如,在知识份子的女人身上,很不幸地经常遭遇到的特殊抗议的性质。
158

THE PERSONA AS A SEGMENT OF THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE
Such an intellect is always trying to point out mistakes in others; it is pre-eminently critical, with a dis¬agreeably personal undertone, yet it always wants to be consid¬ered objective. This invariably makes a man bad-tempered, par¬ticularly if, as so often happens, the criticism touches on some weak spot which, in the interests of fruitful discussion, were bet¬ter avoided. But far from wishing the discussion to be fruitful, it is the unfortunate peculiarity of this feminine intellect to seek out a man’s weak spots, fasten on them, and exasperate him. This is not usually a conscious aim, but rather has the uncon¬scious purpose of forcing a man into a superior position and thus making him an object of admiration. The man does not as a rule notice that he is having the role of the hero thrust upon him; he merely finds her taunts so odious that in future he will go a long way to avoid meeting the lady. In the end the only man who can stand her is the one who gives in at the start, and therefore has nothing wonderful about him.
这样的知识份子总是尝试指出别人身上的错误。显而易见,这是批评性质,具有令人不愉快的个人的语气,可是,它又总是想要被认为是具有客观性。这必然会让男人脾气发作,特别是,如同经常所发生的状况,这种批评触及到某的弱点。为了让讨论具有成果的利益,对于弱点的人身攻击最后避免。但是,女性知识份子根本就不想要讨论具有成果,她具有不幸的特殊性质,就像想要寻找出男人的弱点,紧盯着这些弱点,然后激怒他。这通常并不是一个意识的目的。相反地,这具有无意识的目的,就是强迫男人进入一个比较优秀的立场,然后,让他成为的崇拜的目标。这个男人通常每有注意到,他正在扮演强迫在他身上的英雄的角色。他发现她的挑衅如此令人厌恶,以致于未来,他将会刻意迴避,避免见到这位女士。最后,唯一能够忍受这位女性知识份子的男人,就是从一开始就屈服的男人。因此,这样的男人并没有什么出奇之处。

248 My patient naturally found much to reflect upon in all this,
for she had no notion of the game she was playing. Moreover she still had to gain insight into the regular romance that had been enacted between her and her father ever since childhood. It would lead us too far to describe in detail how, from her earliest years, with unconscious sympathy, she had played upon the shadow-side of her father which her mother never saw, and how, far in advance of her years, she became her mother’s rival. All this came to light in the analysis of the personal unconscious. Since, if only for professional reasons, I could not allow myself to be irritated, I inevitably became the hero and father-lover.

我的病人当然会在这一切当中发现有许多值得反思之处。因为她并不知的她正在扮演的游戏。而且,她依旧必须获得洞察力,对于曾经被扮演过的规律的浪漫情怀,在她跟她的父亲之间,自从童年以来。这将会牵扯太远,以致我们无法详细描述,她如何从她的早年开始,就带着无意识的同情,扮演她的父亲的阴影的面向。那是她的母亲从来没有看见的。以及她如何变成熟她的母亲的情敌,在她成长之前的岁月里。在个人无意识的精神分析里,所有这一切都真相大白。因为我无可避免地就成为她的英雄与父亲兼情人。仅是为了专业的理由,我不能够让我自己被她激怒。

The transference too consisted at first of contents from the personal unconscious. My role as a hero was just a sham, and so, as it turned me into the merest phantom, she was able to play her traditional role of the supremely wise, very grown-up, all-under¬standing mother-daughter-beloved-an empty role, a persona behind which her real and authentic being, her individual self, lay hidden. Indeed, to the extent that she at first completely identified herself with her role, she was altogether unconscious of her real self. She was still in her nebulous infantile world and had not yet discovered the real world at all. But as, through pro¬gressive analysis, she became conscious of the nature of her transference, the dreams I spoke of in Chapter I began to mate¬rialize.

移情首先也是由个人无意识的内容组成。我作为英雄的角色仅是一种伪装。所以,当移情将我转变成为仅是一个魅影人物。她能够扮演她的传统的角色,超级聪明,成熟稳重,通情达理的母亲兼女儿兼情人的角色,一个空洞的角色,一个人格面具。在这个人格面具背后,她的真实与真诚的生命实存,她的个人的自性,隐藏起来。的确,当她起初完全将她自己完全认同她的角色,她完全不知道她的真实的自性。她依旧是处于朦胧的婴孩的世界,她根本就还没有发现真实的世界。但是,经历过逐渐进步的精神分析,她逐渐知道她的移情的特性,我在第一节谈论到的那些梦,开始具体成形。

159

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
They brought up bits of the collective unconscious, and that was the end of her infantile world and of all the heroics. She came to herself and to her own real potentialities. This is roughly the way things go in most cases, if the analysis is carried far enough. That the consciousness of her individuality should coincide exactly with the reactivation of an archaic god-image is not just an isolated coincidence, but a very frequent occurrence which, in my view, corresponds to an unconscious law.

这些梦显露集体无意识的片断。那就是她的婴孩的世界与所有的英雄行为的结束。她苏醒过来,恢复她自己的真实的潜力。在大部分的个案,这大约就是事情进行的方式,假如精神分析被充分贯彻。她的个体性的意识竟然确实巧合于旧时的神性-意象的重新触动。这不仅是孤立的巧合,而且是经常发生的事情。依照我的观的,经常的发生的事情符合无意识的法则。

19 After this digression, let us turn back to our earlier reflec-
tions.
)0 Once the personal repressions are lifted, the individuality
and the collective psyche begin to emerge in a coalescent state, thus releasing the hitherto repressed personal fantasies. The fan¬tasies and dreams which now appear assume a somewhat differ¬ent aspect. An infallible sign of collective images seems to be the appearance of the “cosmic” element, i.e., the images in the dream or fantasy are connected with cosmic qualities, such as temporal and spatial infinity, enormous speed and extension of movement, “astrological” associations, telluric, lunar, and solar analogies, changes in the proportions of the body, etc. The obvi¬ous occurrence of mythological and religious motifs in a dream also points to the activity of the collective unconscious. The col¬lective element is very often announced by peculiar symptoms,2 as for example by dreams where the dreamer is flying through space like a comet, or feels that he is the earth, or the sun, or a star; or else is of immense size, or dwarfishly small; or that he is dead, is in a strange place, is a stranger to himself, confused, mad, etc. Similarly, feelings of disorientation, of dizziness and the like, may appear along with symptoms of inflation.

经过这场离题。让我们回到我们早先的反思。一旦个人的压抑被撤除,个体性与集体心灵开始出现在融合的状态。因此释放出迄今被压抑的个人的幻想。现在出现的这些幻想与梦,扮演一个相当不同的面向。集体的各种意象的无误的讯号,似乎就是“宇宙”的元素的出现。换句话说,在梦里或幻想里的各种意象,跟宇宙的特质息息相关。譬如,时间与空间的无限,运动的强烈快速与范围。“天文学的联想”,大地电流,月亮与太阳的类比,身体的比例的变化,等等。在梦里,神话与宗教的母题的明显的出现,也指向集体无意识的活动。集体的因素经常由特殊的症状宣告出来。譬如,有这些梦宣告出来:在这个梦里,作梦者正在飞行,像是彗星,穿越过太空。或是,作梦者感觉他就是地球,或是太阳,或是星星。要不然就是,他的体积特别巨大,或是特别矮小。或是他死亡,在一个陌生的地方,他自己陌生的地方,迷惘,疯狂,等等。同样地,失序的感觉,晕眩的感觉,等等,可能会伴随自我膨胀的症状出现。

)l The forces that burst out of the collective psyche have a con-
fusing and blinding effect. One result of the dissolution of the persona is a release of involuntary fantasy, which is apparently nothing else than the specific activity of the collective psyche. This activity throws up contents whose existence one had never suspected before. But as the influence of the collective unconscious increases, so the conscious mind loses its power of leader¬ship. Imperceptibly it becomes the led, while an unconscious and impersonal process gradually takes control. Thus, without noticing it, the conscious personality is pushed about like a fig¬ure on a chess-board by an invisible player. It is this player who decides the game of fate, not the conscious mind and its plans. This is how the resolution of the transference, apparently so im¬possible to the conscious mind, was brought about in my earlier example.

从集体心灵突然爆发的各种力量,具有令人混乱,令人目眩的效果。人格面具的瓦解的结果是释放非自愿的幻想。这些非自愿的幻想,显而易见不是别的,实实在在就是集体心灵的明确的活动。这个活动产生我们以前从来没有怀疑是存在的内容。但是,随着集体无意识的影响的增加,意识的心灵逐渐丧失它的领导的力量。不知不觉地,意识的心灵变成是被引导者,而无意识与非个人的过程逐渐掌控一切。因此,意识的人格并没有注意到这个转变。就像祺盘上的祺子,意识的人格被推来推去,被一位隐形的下祺者。这位隐形的下祺者决定命运的祺戏,而不是意识的心灵与其计划。在我早先的例子,这就是移情的解决被达成的方式。虽然对于意识的心灵,这显而易见是非常的不可能。

2 It may not be superfluous to note that collective elements in dreams are not restricted to this stage of the analytical treatment. There are many psychological situations in which the activity of the collective unconscious can come to the surface. But this is not the place to enlarge upon these conditions.
160

THE PERSONA AS A SEGMENT OF THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE scious

252 The plunge into this process becomes unavoidable whenever
the necessity arises of overcoming an apparently insuperable difficulty. It goes without saying that this necessity does not oc¬cur in every case of neurosis, since perhaps in the majority the prime consideration is only the removal of temporary difficulties of adaptation. Certainly severe cases cannot be cured without a far-reaching change of character or of attitude. In by far the greater number, adaptation to external reality demands so much work that inner adaptation to the collective unconscious cannot be considered for a very long time. But when this inner adapta¬tion becomes a problem, a strange, irresistible attraction pro¬ceeds from the unconscious and exerts a powerful influence on the conscious direction of life.

投掷进入这个过程变成是无可避免,每当产生这个必要性:要克服明显是无法克服的困难。自不待言的是,这个必要性并没有发生在神经症者的每个个案里。因为或许在大多数的个案,主要的考虑仅是要移除暂时的适应的困难。的确,严重的个案被治疗时,总是会有深远的人格的改变或态度的改变。就大多数的神经症这的个案而言,对于外在现实的适应要求费尽心力,以致有很漫长的时间,对于集体无意识的适应无法被考虑到。但是当内心的适应成为难题时,一个奇异,无法抗拒的吸引力就从无意识前进,从事强烈的影响,对于意识的生命的方向。

The predominance of uncon¬scious influences, together with the associated disintegration of the persona and the deposition of the conscious mind from power, constitute a state of psychic disequilibrium which, in analytical treatment, is artificially induced for the therapeutic purpose of resolving a difficulty that might block further devel¬opment. There are of course innumerable obstacles that can be overcome with good advice and a little moral support, aided by goodwill and understanding on the part of the patient. Excel¬lent curative results can be obtained in this way.

无意识的影响的占优势,跟人格面具的联想的瓦解,与拥有权力的意识心灵的性情,形成心灵的不平衡的状态。在精神分析的治疗里,这个心灵的不平衡,人为地被减少。为了治疗的目的:解决可能阻碍更进一步的发展的困难。这些能够用良好劝告与一些道德支持来克服的障碍,当然然数量无限。在病人方面,它们也受的善意与理解的帮助。用这种方式,能够获得治疗的效果。

Cases are not uncommon where there is no need to breathe a word about the unconscious. But again, there are difficulties for which one can foresee no satisfactory solution. If in these cases the psychic equi¬librium is not already disturbed before treatment begins, it will certainly be upset during the analysis, and sometimes without any interference by the doctor. It often seems as though these patients had only been waiting to find a trustworthy person in order to give up and collapse. Such a loss of balance is similar in prinCIple to a psychotic disturbance; that is, it differs from the initial stages of mental illness only by the fact that it leads in the end to greater health, while the latter leads to yet greater destruction.

寻常见到的一些个案,根本就没有必要谈论到无意识。但是,仍然存在著一些困难,我们无法预见有任何令人满意的解决。假如在这些个案,心灵的平衡,并没有已经受到扰乱,在治疗开始之前。心灵的平衡确实将会被扰乱,在精神分析期间,并且有时没有医生的任何的干扰。它们经常看起来像是这些病人仅是正在等待找到一位可信任的人,为了放弃并崩溃。平衡的这种丧失,原则上,类似精神疾病。换句话说,它跟精神疾病的最初的阶段的差异,仅是根据这个事实: 平衡的丧失最后导致更大的健康。而精神疾病则是导致更大的毁灭。

161

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

It is a condition of panic, a letting go in face of appar¬ently hopeless complications.Mostly it was preceded by desper¬ate efforts to master the difficulty by force of will; then came the collapse, and the once guiding will crumbles completely. The energy thus freed disappears from consciousness and falls into the unconscious. As a matter of fact, it is at these moments that the first signs of unconscious activity appear. (I am thinking of the example of that young man who was weak in the head.) Obviously the energy that fell away from consciousness has acti¬vated the unconscious. The immediate result is a change of atti¬tude. One can easily imagine that a stronger head would have taken that vision of the stars as a healing apparition, and would have looked upon human suffering sub specie aeternitatis, in which case his senses would have been restored.3

这是惊慌的情况,面临明显无助的併发症,束手无策。大部分的情况,前导存在着绝望的努力,想要掌控这个困难,凭借意志的力量,然后逐渐崩溃。这个曾经作为引导的意志,完全崩溃了。因此被解放出来的能源,从意识消失,然后掉落到无意识。事实上,就在这些时刻,无意识的活动的最初的迹象出现。(我正想到那位头脑薄弱的年轻人的例子。显而易见地,从意识掉落的能源已经触动无意识。当下的结果是态度的转变。我们很容易想像,假如他当时是一位头脑更加强壮的人,他本来会将那些星星的幻景,视为是治疗的魅影。他本来会俯瞰人类的痛苦,从永恒的观照之下。在永恒的观照之下的情况,他的各种感觉本来会被恢复的。

53 Had this happened, an apparently insurmountable obstacle
would have been removed. Hence I regard the loss of balance as purposive, since it replaces a defective consciousness by the automatic and instinctive activity of the unconscious, which is aiming all the time at the creation of a new balance and will moreover achieve this aim, provided that the conscious mind is capable of assimilating the contents produced by the uncon¬scious, i.e., of understanding and digesting them. If the uncon¬scious simply rides roughshod over the conscious mind, a psy¬chotic condition develops. If it can neither completely prevail nor yet be understood, the result is a conflict that cripples all further advance. But with this question, namely the understand¬ing of the collective unconscious, we come to a formidable diffi¬culty which I have made the theme of my next chapter.

假如发生这种状况,无法被克服的阻碍本来会被移除的。因此,我将平衡的丧失视为是具有目的的。因为平衡的丧失取代具有缺点的意识,被无意识的自动与本能的活动取代。无意识的自动与本能的活动目标始终是朝向创造新的平衡。而且,将会获得这个目标,只要意识的心灵能够吸收无意识产生的内容。譬如,理解与消化它们的内容。假如无意识仅是霸凌意识的心灵,那将会显示精神病的状况。假如无意识既不是完全地占优势,也无法被理解,结果将是一场冲突,瘫痪所有的前进的发展。但是,就这个问题而言,也就是,对于集体无意识的理解,我们逐渐遭遇巨大的困难。我已经订好我下次的章节的主题。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

荣格:精神病内容

November 7, 2015

THE CONTENT OF THE PSYCHOSES
精神病的内容
Carl Jung 卡尔 荣格
320 Psychiatry is a stepchild of medicine. All the other branches
of medicine have one great advantage: the scientific method. In all other branches there are things that can be seen and touched, physical and chemical methods of investigation to be followed. The microscope reveals the dreaded bacillus, the surgeon’s knife halts at no anatomical difficulty and gives us glimpses into the most vital and inaccessible organs. Psychiatry, the art of healing the soul, still stands at the door, seeking in vain to weigh and measure as in the other departments of science. We have long known that we have to do with a definite organ, the brain; but only beyond the brain, beyond the anatomical substrate, do we reach what is important for us-the psyche, as indefinable as ever, still eluding all explanation, no matter how ingenious.

精神病是医学的继子。医学的所有的其他分科都拥有一个很大的优点:科学的方法。在所有其他的分科,有些东西能够被看见,被碰触到,生理或化学的研究方法能够被遵循。显微镜显示可怕的杆菌,外科医生的手术刀面对解剖,并无任何困难,并且让我们瞥见最具有生命力与无法接近的器官。精神病学,治疗灵魂的艺术,则是依旧站在门边,白费力气地尝试衡量与测量,如同在科学的其他部门。我们长久以来就知道,我们必须处理明确的器官,脑。但是仅有在超越脑之外,超越解剖的次级层面之外,我们才获得对于我们是重要的东西—心灵,像以往一样无法被定义,依旧逃避所有的解释,无论是多么聪明的解释。

321 Former ages, endowing the soul with substance and personi-
fying every incomprehensible occurrence in nature, regarded mental illness as the work of evil spirits; the patient was looked upon as one possessed, and the methods of treatment were such as befitted this conception. It is not unknown for this medieval view to find credence and expression even today. A classic example is the expulsion of the devil which was successfully per¬formed by the elder Pastor Blumhardt in the famous case of the Dittus sisters. 1 To the honour of the Middle Ages be it said that there were also early evidences of a sound rationalism.

以前的时代,赋予灵魂具有物质,并且让每一个无法被理解的自然的事件具有人格化。以前的时代将精神疾病视为是邪恶精灵的运作:病人被看待作为是被鬼魂著魔。治疗的方法是如此合适于这个观念。中世纪的观点并非不知道如何找到即使在今天的可信度与表达。古典的例子就是将恶魔驱除出去。这个驱魔出去由年长的牧师布伦哈特执行。在著名的狄塔斯姐妹的个案。中世纪的令人推崇之处,我们不妨说,它也具有健全的理性主义的证据。

Thus, in the sixteenth century at the Julius Hospital in Wiirzburg, mental patients were already being treated side by side with the physically sick, and the treatment seems to have been really humane. With the opening of the modern era and the dawn of the first scientific ideas, the original barbaric personification of unknown powers gradually disappeared; a change arose in the conception of mental disease in favour of a more philosophic moral attitude. The ancient view that every misfortune was the vengeance of offended gods returned in a new guise to suit the times. Just as physical diseases can, in many cases, be traced back to some frivolous self-injury, so mental diseases were believed to be due to some moral injury, or sin. Behind this conception, too, lurks the angry deity.

因此,在十六世纪,在维兹伯格的朱利斯医院,精神病人已经被治疗,跟生理疾病的病人并排一块。这种治疗在当时似乎确实合乎人性。随着现代的时代的开始,与科学的观念的开始,原先的野蛮的将未知的力量予以拟人化,逐渐就消失。精神疾病的观念产生改变,以赞同更加具有哲学的道德的态度。古代的观念认为,每个不幸都是众神受到冒犯产生的报复。这个古老的观点回转过来,具有新的伪装,以符合新的时代。正如在许的的个案里,生理的疾病能够被追踪,回到某个任意的自我的伤害。精神疾病也被相信是由于某个道德的伤害,或原罪。在这个观念的背后,也潜藏著愤怒的神祗。

1 Bresler, “Kulturhistorischer Beitrag zur Hysterie” (1897); Zlindel, Pfan’er J. C. Blumhardt (1880). [Also Cal”ter, Pastor Blumhardt.-EDIToRs.]
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THE CONTENT OF THE PSYCHOSES
322 Such views played a great role right up to the beginning of
the last century, especially in German psychiatry. In France, however, at about the same time, a new idea was appearing, des¬tined to sway psychiatry for a hundred years. Pinel, whose statue fittingly stands at the gateway of the Salpetriere in Paris, re¬moved the chains from the insane and thus freed them from the stigma of the criminal. In this way he gave the most effective expression to the humane and scientific conceptions of modern times. A little later Esquirol and Bayle made the discovery that certain forms of insanity ended in death after a relatively short time, and that regular changes in the brain could be demon¬strated post mortem.2 Esquirol had discovered general paralysis of the insane (or, as it was popularly called, “softening of the brain”), a disease which is always accompanied by chronic in¬flammatory shrinkage of the cerebral tissue. Thus was laid the foundation of the dogma which you will find repeated in every text-book of psychiatry: “Mental diseases are diseases of the brain.”

这些观点扮演重要的角色,一直到上个世纪的开始,特别是在德国的精神病学。可是,在法国,大约在同时,一个新的观念正在出现,注定会影响精神病学,有百年之久。皮内尔的雕像恰如其分地站立在巴黎的萨培瑞尔医院的大门。他将锁链从疯狂者身上移开开,因此解放他们,免疫罪犯的标志。用这个方式,他给予最有效的表达,对于现代的人性与科学的观念。后来,耶斯奎洛与巴尔发现到:某些疯狂的形式结果造成死亡,经过比较短暂的时期。根据死后解剖,脑部的规律的改变能够被证明。耶斯奎洛曾经发现到疯狂者的通常的麻痹)或者,如它通俗被称为是“脑部的软化”),这一个疾病总是伴随着脑细胞组织的慢性的发炎的萎缩。因此,这个信条的基础被奠定下来。你将会发现这个信条被重复,在精神病的每一本教科书上:「精神疾病就是脑的疾病」。

323 Further confirmation of this view was furnished about the
same time by the discoveries of Gall, who traced partial or com¬plete loss of the power of speech-a psychic faculty-to a lesion in the region of the lower left frontal convolution. Later this view proved to be exceedingly fruitful. Innumerable cases of extreme idiocy and other serious mental disorders were found to be caused by tumours of the brain. Towards the end of the nine¬teenth century Wernicke (recently deceased) localized the speech-centre in the left temporal lobe. This epoch-making dis¬covery raised hopes to the highest pitch. It was expected that the time was not far off when every characteristic and every psychic activity would be assigned its place in the cortical grey matter. Gradually, more and more attempts were made to trace the primary mental changes in the psychoses back to parallel changes in the brain.

这个观点的更进一步的被证实,大约同时间,由嘉尔的发现所提供。嘉尔追踪心灵的能力,也就是,言说的力量的部分或完全的丧失,回溯到左下方的前面迴旋的地区的病变。后来,这个观点证明是极端有成果的。无数的极端白痴与其他严重的精神疾病的个案,被发现是脑的肿瘤所引起。将近十九世纪的末期,温米克(最近生病了)找出言说中心的位置,在左边的脑的颞页。这个创世纪的发现,将希望提升到最高度。大家期望,在这个表皮的灰色的物质,每个具有特效,每个心灵的活动,将会被指明它的位置,这个时机为时不远了。逐渐地,越来越多的企图被从事,为了追踪精神病这的原初的精神的改变,回归到脑部的并行的改变。
2 [For these and other historic medical personages mentioned in this volume, cf. ZiIboorg and Hemy, History of Medical Psychology, index, S.V.-EDITORS.]
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THE PSYCHOGENESIS OF MENTAL DISEASE

Meynert, the famous Viennese psychiatrist, pro¬pounded a regular system in which the alteration of the blood-supply to certain areas of the cortex was to play the chief role in the origin of the psychoses. Wernicke made a similar but far more ingenious attempt at an anatomical explanation of psychic’ disturbances. One visible result of this tendency can be seen in the fact that nowadays even the smallest and most out of the way asylum has its anatomical laboratory, where cerebral sections are cut, stained, and examined under the microscope. Our numerous psychiatric journals are full of morphological con¬tributions, investigations on the path of the fibres in the brain and spinal cord, on the structure and distribution of cells in the cerebral cortex, and the various ways they are destroyed in dif-ferent mental diseases.

梅内特,这位著名的维也纳精神科医生,提出一个规律的系统。在这个系统里,血液供应给脑部的某些地区的轮替,扮演主要的角色,在精神病的起源。温米克从事类似,但是更加聪明的企图,要对心灵的疾病,用解剖学来解释。这个倾向的可看见的结果,能够被看见,根据这个事实:今天,即使是最小规模或即使是最偏远的精神病院,都拥有它的解剖的实验室。在那里,脑皮层的部分被切开,被灌上药水,被检查,在显微镜下。我们的无数的精神病学的杂志充满了形态学的投稿与研究,针对脑的组织与脊椎的途径,针对大皮质心的细胞的结构与分布,以及它们被毁灭的各种的方式,在不同的精神疾病里。

Psychiatry has been charged with gross materialism. And quite rightly, for it is on the road to putting the organ, the instrument, above the function-or rather, it has long been doing so. Function has become the appendage of its organ, the psyche an appendage of the brain. In modern psychiatry the psyche has come off very badly. While immense progress has been made in cerebral anatomy, we know practically nothing about the psyche, or even less than we did before. Modern psychiatry behaves like someone who thinks he can decipher the meaning and purpose of a building by a mineralogical analysis of its stones. Let us try to form a statistical picture of the number and types of mental patients who show any clear lesions of the brain.

精神病学已经被赋予笼统的物质主义。这是相当正确的,因为精神病学正朝着前进,将器官,工具,放置在功能之上。或者说,精神病学长久以来就是这样做。功能已经变成是它的器官的附属品,心灵就是脑的附属品。在现代的精神病学,心灵已经遭受痛苦的结果。虽然在脑的解剖,已经有了重大的进展,对于心灵,我们几乎一无所知。甚至比起以前,还更加不如。现代的精神病学行为好像某个人认为他能够解释一栋建筑物的意义与目的,凭借对于建筑物的石头,从事矿物学的分析。让我们尝试形成统计学的画面,对于精神病人的人数与种类,他们显示任何的脑的病变。

In the last four years we have admitted 1,325 mental patients to Burgholzli Mental Hospital-some 331 a year-of whom 9% suffer from constitutional psychic anomalies. By this I mean an inborn defect of the psyche. Of the 9%, about a quarter are imbeciles, congenitally feeble-minded. In them we find definite cerebral changes such as congenital microcephalus, pronounced hydrocephalus, and malformation of certain parts of the brain. The remaining three quarters of the psychopathically inferior show no trace of typical findings in the brain.

在过去四年来,我们已经收容1,325位病人,到博格尔利精神病院—平均一年331位病人。他们百分之9遭受身体体质的心灵的异常症状。我说这个的意思是,心灵的天生的缺陷。在这百分之9的病人当中,大约有四方之一是低能儿,天生的心智低落。在他们身上,我们发现明确的脑的改变,譬如,天生的畸形小头,又被称为是脑水肿病,脑的某些部分的形成不良。这个低劣的畸形小头的剩余的三个部分,并没有显示任何脑的典型发现的痕迹。

Three per cent of our patients suffer from epileptic mental disturbances. In the course of epilepsy a typical degeneration of the brain gradually sets in, which I cannot describe more closely 160

329
33°

THE CONTENT OF THE PSYCHOSES
here. The degeneration is demonstrable only in severe cases and after the illness has lasted a long time. If the attacks have been present for a relatively short time only, not more than a few

years, as a rule nothing can be discovered in the brain.

我们的病人的百分之三遭受癫痫的精神疾病的痛苦。在癫痫的过程,一个典型的脑的恶化逐渐开始。我在此要最为详细描述这个脑的典型的恶化。这个恶化仅有在严重的案例里,才能够被展示,当疾病已经延续一段漫长的时间后。假如疾病的侵袭仅是出现比较短的时间,则是仅有少数的恶化。

Seventeen per cent of our patients suffer from progressive
paralysis and senile deterioration. Both diseases present char-acteristic cerebral findings. In progressive paralysis there is regu¬larly an extensive shrinkage of the brain, so that the cerebral cortex in particular is often reduced by one half. Especially the frontal portions of the brain may be reduced to a third of the normal weight. A similar destruction occurs in senile deteriora¬tion ..

我们病人的百分之十七,遭受逐渐的麻痹与衰老的恶化。两种的疾病呈现特征的脑的发现。在逐渐的脑性麻痹,脑会规律地广泛的委缩。所以,特别是脑皮质经常被减缩到一半。特别是脑的前叶的部分,可能被减缩到正常的重量的一半。同样的毁灭发生在衰老的恶化。

Fourteen per cent of the patients admitted annually suffer from poisoning, at least 13% of the cases being due to alcohol. As a rule, in milder cases nothing can be found in the brain; only in relatively few of the more severe cases is there a slight shrinkage of the cortex. The number of these severe cases amounts to less than 1 % of the yearly cases of alcoholism.

百分之十四的病人承认每年会遭受中毒的痛苦。至少百分之十三的病人是由于酒精中毒。通常,在温和的案例,在脑部,并没有发现任何东西。仅有在比较少数的严重的案例,才有脑皮质的轻微的委缩。这些严重的案例的数目总数不到百分之一,在每年的酒精中毒的案例里。

Six per cent of the patients suffer from so-called manic-de-pressive insanity, which comprises the manias and the melan¬cholias. The essence of this disease can be understood even by the layman. Melancholia is a condition of abnormal sadness with no disturbance of intelligence and memory. Mania is the opposite, the rule being an abnormally excited state with great restlessness, but without any deeper disturbance of intelligence and memory. In this disease no morphological lesions of the brain can be demonstrated.

百分之六的病人遭受所谓的躁郁与具沮丧的疯狂。这个疯狂包括躁郁症者与忧郁症者。这个疾病的本质能够被理解,即使是外行人。忧郁症是一种不正常的悲伤的情况,并没有智力与记忆的疾病。躁郁症则是恰恰相反,通常是不正常地興奋的状态,具有强烈的不安。但是并没有任何智力与记忆的更加严重的疾病。在这个疾病,并没有脑的形态学的病变能够被展示。

Forty-five per cent of the patients suffer from the authentic and common disease known as dementia praecox. The name is a very unhappy one, for the dementia is not always precocious, nor in all cases is there dementia. Unfortunately the disease is too often incurable; even in the best cases, in recoveries where the layman would notice no abnormality, one always finds some defect in the patient’s emotional life. The clinical picture is incredibly varied; usually there is some disturbance of feeling, very often there are delusions and hallucinations. As a rule there is nothing to be found in the brain. Even in cases of the most severe type, lasting for years, an intact brain is not infrequently found post mortem. Only in a few cases are slight changes to be found, which cannot yet, however, be proved to be regular.

百分之四十五的这些病人遭受真诚而普遍的疾病,众所周知的精神分裂症。这个名称是一个很不快乐的名称。因为精神分析并不总是早发性质的。在各个案例里,也没有精神分裂。不幸地,这个疾病通常是无法被治疗。即使是在最佳的案例,在外行人并没有发现异常状况的复发里。我们总是找的某个缺陷,在病人的情感的生活里。临床的画面是难以置信地各式各样。通常会有感觉的某个困扰。经常会有幻觉与幻象。通常,在脑部,并没有发析现什么。即使在最严重的种类的个案,延续两年,死后解剖后,一个完整的脑还是经常被找到。
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THE PSYCHOGENESIS OF MENTAL DISEASE
To sum up: in round figures about a quarter of our patients show more or less extensive alterations and lesions of the brain, while three-fourths have a brain which seems to be generally unimpaired or at most exhibits changes such as afford abso-lutely no explanation of the psychological disturbance.

总而言之,在园形的图形里,大约四分之一的我们的病人显示或多或少的脑的广泛轮替与病变。四分之三的我们的病人则是拥有一个似乎通常没有受到损伤的脑。或是至多,他们展示一些改变,譬如,这些改变绝的不容许用心灵的疾病来解释。

These figures offer the best possible proof that the purely anatomical approach of modern psychiatry leads-to put it mildly-only very indirectly to the goal, which is the under-standing of the psychic disturbance. In addition, it must be remembered that the mental patients who show the most strik-ing lesions of the brain die after a relatively short time: conse-quently, the chronic inmates of the asylum, who form its real population, consist of up to 70 or 80% cases of dementia prae¬cox, that is, of patients in whom anatomical changes are prac¬tically non-existent. The way to a psychiatry of the future, which is to come to grips with the essence of the matter, is therefore clearly marked out: it can only be by way of psychology. For this reason we have entirely abandoned the anatomical approach in our Zurich Clinic and have turned to the psychological in-vestigation of mental disease. Since most of our patients suffer from dementia praecox, this disease is naturally our chief prob¬lem.

这些图形提供最佳的证据:现代的精神病学的解剖的方法,温和地说,仅是间接地导致目标。这个目标就是要理解心灵的疾病。除外,我们必须记住,显示脑的明星的病变的精神病这,在比较短的时间内死亡。结果,精神病院的这些慢性的病人,形成是精神病院的主要人口。精神分裂症的个案占据百分之70到80。 换句话说,在这些病人身上,解剖的改变几乎是不存在的。到达未来的精神分裂症的途径,是要处理这个物质的本质,这个途径因此清楚地被标示出来;那就是凭借心理学的途径。因为这个理由,我们完全地放弃解剖学的途径,在我们的苏黎世的诊所,并且诉诸于精神病的心理的研究。因为大部分的我们的病人遭受精神分裂症的痛苦,这个疾病当然是我们主要的难题。

The older clinicians paid great attention to the psycho¬logical precursors of insanity, just as the lay public still does, following a true instinct. We took up this trail and care-fully investigated the previous psychological history whenever possible. Our efforts were richly rewarded, for we found sur¬prisingly often that the illness broke out at a moment of some great emotion which, in its turn, had arisen in a more or less normal manner. We also found that in the mental disease which ensued there were a number of symptoms that could not be understood at all from the anatomical standpoint. These symp-toms immediately became comprehensible when considered from the standpoint of the individual’s previous history. Freud’s pioneering investigations into the psychology of hysteria and dreams afforded us the greatest stimulus and help in our work.

老经验的临床医生会专注注意疯狂的心理的先兆,如同外行的大众现在依旧这样做。他们遵循真实的本能。我们从事这个途径,并且尽可能小心地研究先前的心理的历史。我们的努力收获非常丰盛。因为我们经常感到惊奇地发现到,这个疾病发作在强烈情感的时刻。反过来,这个强烈的情感会以相当正常的方式产生。我们也发现到,在随之而来的精神的疾病,会有许多的症状,从解剖的观点,根本就无法被理解。当它们从个人的先前的历史的观点来考虑,这些症状立即变得可以被理解。弗洛伊德的开先锋的研究癔症与梦的心理学,供应我们的工作最强大的刺激与帮助。

A few examples of the most recent departures in psychiatry will, I think, make the subject clearer than any amount of dry theory. In order to bring home to you the difference in our con-ception I shall, in each case, first describe the medical history in the older fashion, and then give the solution characteristic of the new approach.

精神分裂症最近的研究发展的几个例子,让这个主题更加清楚,比起再多的枯燥的理论的数目。为了让你们清楚明白我们的观念的差异。我将在每个个案里,首先描述古老的方式的医学的历史。然后,给予具有新的途径的特征的解决。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

162

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 98

September 24, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

161 I must now emphasize the not unimportant fact, which must
also have struck the reader, that in the dream the collective un¬conscious appears under a very negative aspect, as something dangerous and harmful. This is because the patient has a richly developed, indeed positively luxuriant, fantasy life, possibly due to her literary gift. Her powers of fantasy are a symptom of ill¬ness in that she revels in them far too much and allows real life to slip by. Any more mythology would be exceedingly danger¬ous for her, because a great chunk of external life stands before her, still unlived. She has too little hold upon life to risk all at once a complete reversal of standpoint. The collective uncon¬scious has fallen upon her and threatens to bear her away from a reality whose demands have not been adequately met. Accord¬ingly, as the dream indicates, the collective unconscious had to be presented to her as something dangerous, otherwise she would have been only too ready to make it a refuge from the demands of life.

我现在必须强调这个并非不重要的事实,也一定曾经让读者大吃一惊的事实。在梦里,集体无意识出现,在非常负面的情况之下,作为某件危险而有害的东西。这是因为病人拥有丰富地被发展,确实是正面的豪华的幻想的生命。可能是由于她的文学的天赋。她的幻想的力量是疾病的症状,因为她相当过分地狂喜于它们,并且容许真实的生命滑溜过去。对于她,假如有更多的神话,那将是过度的危险。因为一大堆的外在的生命位在她的面前。依据还没有被生活。她对于生命的掌控太少,以致于不会突然冒著完全翻转观点的危险。集体无意识曾经攻击她,并且威胁要将她带走,脱离现实。因为现实的要求还没有被充分地满足。因此,如同梦所指示,集体无意识必须被呈现给她,作为某件危险的东西。否则她本来会非常愿意让它成为避难所,脱离生命的要求的避难所。

162 In judging a dream we must observe very carefully how the
figures are introduced. For example, the crab that personifies the unconscious is negative in that it “walks backwards” and, in addition, holds back the dreamer at the critical moment. Misled by the so-called dream mechanisms of Freudian manufacture, such as displacement, inversion, etc., people have imagined they could make themselves independent of the “facade” of the dream by supposing that the true dream-thoughts lay hidden behind it.

当我们判断一个梦时,我们必须非常仔细地观察,人物们如何被介绍。譬如,具体代表无意识的螃蟹是负面的,因为螃蟹“倒退行走”。除外,螃蟹在关键的时刻掌控作梦者。由于受到弗洛依德学派主张的所谓的梦的机制的误导,譬如,替换,逆转,等等,人们想像它们让自己独立于梦的“面向”之外。他们认为,真实的梦-思想隐藏在这个面向的背后。

As against this I have long maintained that we have no right to accuse the dream of, so to speak, a deliberate ma¬noeuvre calculated to deceive. Nature is often obscure or im¬penetrable, but she is not, like man, deceitful. We must there¬fore take it that the dream is just what it pretends to be, neither more nor less.lO If it shows something in a negative light, there is no reason for assuming that it is meant positively. The arche¬typal “danger at the ford” is so patent that one is almost tempted to take the dream as a warning.

对照之下,我长久以来曾经主张,我们没有权利控诉梦,具有所谓的刻意的操作,被估算来欺骗。自然经常是模糊或是无法贯穿。但是自然不会像人一样会欺骗。我们因此必须认为,梦仅是它伪装成为的东西。不多也不少。假如梦显示某件作为负面的观点的东西,我们没有理由假定:梦具有正面的意义。原型的“渡口的危险”是如此的特殊,以致我们几乎被引诱要将梦视为一个警告。
9 Those of my readers who have a deeper interest in the problem of opposites and its solution, as well as in the mythological activity of the unconscious, are referred to Symbols of Transformation, Psychological Types, and The Arche¬types and the Collective Unconscious. [Cf. also Mysterium Coniunctionis.¬EDITORS.]
10 Cf. “General Aspects of Dream Psychology.” 100

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
But I must discounte¬nance all such anthropomorphic interpretations. The dream it¬self wants nothing; it is a self-evident content, a plain natural fact like the sugar in the blood of a diabetic or the fever in a patient with typhus. It is only we who, if we are clever and can unriddle the signs of nature, turn it into a warning.

但是,对于所有这些人类形态的解释,我必须表示不敢苟同。梦的本身并不需要任何东西,梦是一个不证自明的内容,一个清楚的自然的事实,就像糖尿病患者的血液里的糖分一样,或是病人患伤寒时的发高烧一样。只是我们自己将梦转换成为警告,假如我们聪明并且能够解开自然的讯号的谜团。

163 But-a warning of what? Of the obvious danger that the un-
conscious might overpower the dreamer at the moment of cross¬ing. And what would being overpowered mean? An invasion by the unconscious may very easily occur at moments of critical change and decision. The bank from which she approaches the river is her situation as known to us so far. This situation has precipitated her into a neurotic deadlock, as though she had come up against an impassable obstacle. The obstacle is repre¬sented by the dream as a perfectly passable river. So things do not seem to be very serious.

但是一个关于什么的警告?关于这个明显的危险,无意识可能在跨越的时刻,掌控作梦者。被掌控将会是什么意思?受到无意识的侵犯很容易发生,就是关键改变与决定的时刻。她从岸边接近河流,这个岸边就是她的处境,迄今被我们所知道的。这个处境将她突然陷入神经症的僵局。好像她遭遇一个无法通过的阻碍。这个阻碍被梦所代表,作为是完全可以通过的河流。所以,事情看起来没有非严重。

But in the river, most unexpectedly, the crab is hiding, and this represents the real danger on ac¬count of which the river is, or appears to be, impassable. For had she only known beforehand that the dangerous crab was lurking at this particular spot, she might perhaps have ventured to cross somewhere else, or have taken other precautions. In the dream¬er’s present situation it is eminently desirable that a crossing should be made.

但是,在河流里,出乎意料之外,螃蟹隐藏著。这代表真实的危险。因为这个真实的危险,河流无法通过,或是看起来无法通透。因为假如她只要事先知道,危险的螃蟹潜藏在这个特殊的地点,她或许可能冒险跨越某个其它地方。或是她本来可能採取其他的预防措施。在作梦者的目前的处境,跨越应该被从事,显而易见是被渴望的。

The crossing means in the first place a carrying over-a transference-of the earlier situation to the doctor. That is the new feature. Were it not for the unpredictable uncon¬scious, this would not involve such a great risk. But we saw that through the transference the activity of archetypal figures is li¬able to be let loose, a fact we had not banked on. We have reck¬oned without our host, for we “forgot the gods.”

跨越首先意味着早先的处境的移情到医生。那是新的特征。假如那不是因为无法被预测的无意识,这个特征不会牵手如此大的冒险。但是,我们看见,通过这个移情,原型的人物的活动,很容易被松放。这是我们没有预先依靠的事实。我们没有考虑到我们的主人,因为我们“忘记众神”。

164 Our dreamer is not a religious person, she is “modern.” She
has forgotten the religion she was once taught, she knows noth¬ing of those moments when the gods intervene, or rather she does not know that there are age-old situations whose nature it is to stir us to the depths. One such situation is love, its passion and its danger. Love may summon forth unsuspected powers in the soul for which we had better be prepared. “Religio” in the sense of a “careful consideration” of unknown dangers and agencies-that is what is in question here. From a simple projec¬tion love may come upon her with all its fatal power, some daz¬zling illusion that might throw her life off its natural course.

我们的作梦者并不是信仰宗教的人。她是“现代人”。她曾经忘记宗教,她曾经被教导的宗教。她对那些时刻一无所知,当众神介入的时刻。或者说,她并不知道,在有限古老的情境,这些情境的特性就是要激发我们到达深渊。一个这样的情境就是爱,爱的激情与爱的危险。爱可能召唤在灵魂里没有被怀疑具有的各种力量。我们最好对这些力量要有所准备。“宗教”的意涵就是“仔细地准备”对于未知的危险与代理者。它就是在此受到质疑的东西。从一个简单的投射,爱可能降临她身上,带着爱的致命的力量。某个令人晕眩的幻觉可能将她的生命抛开,脱离它的自然的途径。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com