Archive for the ‘C.G. Jung’ Category

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 96

September 22, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

156 That would be to create a permanent state of dissociation, a
split between the individual and the collective psyche. On the one side we should have the differentiated modern ego, and on the other a sort of negroid culture, a very primitive state of affairs. We should have, in fact, what actually exists-a veneer of civilization over a dark-skinned brute; and the cleavage would be clearly demonstrated before our eyes. But such a dissociation requires immediate synthesis and the development of what has remained undeveloped.

那将是要创造一个永久的解离的状态,个人与无意识心灵的分裂。在一方面,我们应该拥有差异化的现代的自我。另一方面,一种黑人的文化,一种原始的事物的状态。事实上,我们应该拥有实际上存在的东西—文明的装饰外表。盖在黑皮肤的野蛮人身上。这个分裂将会清楚地被展示在我们的眼前。但是,这样的解离要求当下的综合,以及发展那些始终没有被发展的东西。

There must be a union of the two parts; for, failing that, there is no doubt how the matter would be de¬cided: the primitive man would inevitably lapse back into re¬pression. But that union is possible only where a still valid and therefore living religion exists, which allows the primitive man adequate means of expression through a richly developed sym¬bolism. In other words, in its dogmas and rites, this religion must possess a mode of thinking and acting that harks back to the most primitive level. Such is the case in Catholicism, and this is its special advantage as well as its greatest danger.

这两个部分一定要有一个结合。因为,当结合失败时,无可置疑地,事情将会如何被决定:原始的人必然会倒退进入压抑。但是,那个结合是可能,仅有存在著依旧有效,因此具有活力的宗教的地方。这个宗教容下原始的人拥有足够的表达的工具,通过丰富发展的象征主义。换句话说,在宗教的教条与仪式里,宗教必须拥有一个思维与行为的模式。这些思想与行为回溯到最原始的层次。这就是天主教的情况。这就是天主教的特别的优势,以及它的最大的危险。

157 Before we go into this new question of a possible union, let
us return to the dream from which we started. This whole dis¬cussion has given us a wider understanding of the dream, and particularly of one essential part of it-the feeling of fear. This fear is a primitive dread of the contents of the collective uncon¬scious. As we have seen, the patient identifies herself with Mrs. X, thereby showing that she also has some relation to the myste¬rious artist. It proved that the doctor was identified with the artist, and further we saw that on the subjective level I became an image for the figure of the magician in the collective uncon¬scious.

在我们探讨可能的结合的这个新的问题之前,让我们回到我们开始谈论的这个梦。整个的讨论给予我们更加宽广地理解这个梦。特别是梦的一个重要的部分:恐惧的感觉。这个恐惧是原始人的恐惧集体无意识的内容。我们已经看出,病人自己认同X夫人。因此,病人显示,她也拥有某个关系,跟这个神秘的艺术家。这证明,医生被认同为艺术家。更进一步,我们看见,在主观的层次,我变成魔法师的人物的意象,在集体无意识里。

6 Cf. “Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious,” pars. 74ff.
97

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
All this is covered in the dream by the symbol of the crab, which walks backwards. The crab is the living content of the unconscious, and it cannot be exhausted or made ineffective by analysis on the objective level. We can, however, separate the mythological or collective psychic contents from the objects of consciousness, and consolidate them as psychological realities outside the individual psyche. Through the act of cognition we “posit” the reality of the archetypes, or, more precisely, we pos¬tulate the psychic existence of such contents on a cognitive basis. It must emphatically be stated that it is not just a question of cognitive contents, but of transubjective, largely autonomous psychic systems which on that account are only very condition-ally under the control of the conscious mind and for the most part escape it altogether.

所有这一切被涵盖在螃蟹的象征里, 螃蟹往后行走。螃蟹是无意识的活生生的内容。客观层次的精神分析无法穷尽它的涵义或让它没有效力。可是,我们能够分开神话或集体的心灵的内容,跟意识到客体,并且将它们团结,作为心灵的现实,外在于个人的心灵。通过认知的行动,我们“假设”原型的现实。或者,更加确实地说,我们假设这些内容具有心灵的存在,在认知的基础上。我们必须强调地陈述:问题并不仅是认知的内容,而是跨越主观性的内容,主要是具有自主权的心灵的系统。因为那个缘故,具有自主权的心灵的内容仅是有条件地受到意识心灵的控制。它们大部分也一块逃避意识心灵的控制。

So long as the collective unconscious and the individual psyche are coupled together without being differentiated, no progress can be made; or, to speak in terms of the dream, the boundary cannot be crossed. If, despite that, the dreamer makes ready to cross the border-line, the unconscious becomes acti-vated, seizes her, and holds her fast. The dream and its material characterize the collective unconscious partly as a lower animal that lives hidden in the depths of the water, and partly as a dan¬gerous disease that can be cured only by a timely operation. To what extent this characterization is apt has already been seen.

只要集体无意识与个人的心灵结合一块,没有被差异化,就没有任何的进展形成。或者,用梦的术语来说,这个边界无法被跨越。假如,尽管是那样,作梦者准备要跨越这个边界线,无意识变成被触动起来,捉住她,然后紧紧地抱着她。梦与梦的材料表现集体无意识的特性,部分是作为低等的动物,隐藏地生活在水的深处,部分作为危险的疾病,仅能够凭借及时的手术,才能够被治疗。这个特性合宜到什么程度,已经被看成。

As we have said, the animal symbol points specifically to the extra¬human, the transpersonal; for the contents of the collective un¬conscious are not only the residues of archaic, specifically human modes of functioning, but also the residues of functions from man’s animal ancestry, whose duration in time was infinitely greater than the relatively brief epoch of specifically human existence.

如同我们已经说过,动物的象征明确地指向特殊的人,这个跨越个人的人,集体无意识的内容的人,并不仅是过时的残留物。明确地说,它们不但是是人类的功能的模式,而且是从人的动物的祖先的残留物。祖先存在的时间的期间,比起明确是人类的存在的比较短暂的时代,无限地更加长久。

7 In his philosophical dissertation on Leibniz’s theory of the unconscious (Das Unbewusste bei Leibniz in Beziehung zu modernen Theorien), Canz has used the engram theory of R. W. Semon to explain the collective unconscious. The concept of the collective unconscious advanced by me coincides only at certain points with Semon’s concept of the phylogenetic mneme. Cf. Semon, Die Mneme als erhaltendes Prinzip im Wechsel des organischen Geschehens (1904); trans. by L. Simon as The Mneme.
98

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS

These residues, or “engrams,” as Semon calls them,7 are extremely liable, when activated, not only to retard the pace of development, but actually to force it into regression until the store of energy that activated the unconscious has been used up. But the energy becomes serviceable again by being brought into play through man’s conscious attitude towards the collective un¬conscious. The religions have established this cycle of energy in a concrete way by means of ritual communion with the gods.

这西残余物,或“记忆痕迹”,如同西门称呼它们。当它们被触动时,它们不但极端地容易迟缓发展的步调,而且实际上容易强迫发展进入倒退,直到触动无意识的能源的储存已经被耗尽。但是,能源变得再次可以服务,凭借被运作,通过人的意识的态度,朝向集体的无意识。宗教已经证实能源的这个循环,用具体的方式,凭借仪式跟众神沟通。

This method, however, is too much at variance with our intel¬lectual morality, and has moreover been too radically sup¬planted by Christianity, for us to accept it as an ideal, or even possible, solution of the problem. If on the other hand we take the figures of the unconscious as collective psychic phenomena or functions, this hypothesis in no way violates our intellectual conscience. It offers a rationally acceptable solution, and at the same time a possible method of effecting a settlement with the activated residues of our racial history. This settlement makes the crossing of previous boundaries altogether feasible and is therefore appropriately called the transcendent function. It is synonymous with progressive devc!opment towards a new atti¬tude.

可是,这个方法跟我们的知识点道德太过于背离。而且,这个方法已经被基督教强烈地取代。为了让我们接纳作为一种理想,或甚至是难题的可能的解决。假如另一方面,我们接纳无意识的人物,作为是集体的心灵的现象或功能,这个假设丝毫没有违背知识的良心。它提供理性能够接纳的解决,同时接纳一个可能的方法,跟我们的种族的历史的被触动的残渣达成妥协。这个妥协让先前的各个边界的跨越成为完全可行。并且因此合宜地被称为是“超验的功能”。它更朝向新的态度的进展的发展是同义词。

160 The parallel with the hero-myth is very striking. More often
than not the typical struggle of the hero with the monster (the unconscious content) takes place beside the water, perhaps at a ford. This is the case particularly in the Redskin myths with which Longfellow’s Hiawatha has made us familiar. In the deci¬sive battle the hero is, like] onah, invariably swallowed by the monster, as Frobenius has shown8 with a wealth of detail.

英雄神话的对比是非常有趣的。经常,英雄跟怪物的典型的奋斗(无意识的内容),发生在水的旁边,或许在渡口。在雷斯金的神话里,特别是这个情况。朗费罗的“希瓦萨”让我们对这个神话耳熟能详。在决定性的战斗里,像奥那这样的英雄,必然是被怪物吞没。如同弗洛边尼斯曾经用许多细节显示的。

But, once inside the monster, the hero begins to settle accounts with the creature in his own way, while it swims eastwards with him towards the rising sun. He cuts off a portion of the viscera, the heart for instance, or some essential organ by virtue of which the monster lives (i.e., the valuable energy that activates the uncon¬Kious). Thus he kills the monster, which then drifts to land, where the hero, new-born through the transcendent function (the “night sea journey,” as Frobenius calls it), steps forth, sometimes in the company of all those whom the monster has previously devoured. In this manner the normal state of things is restored, since the unconscious, robbed of its energy, no longer occupies the dominant position. Thus the myth graphi¬8 Frobenius, Das Zeitalter des Sonnengottes.
ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
cally describes the problem which also engages our patient.9

但是,一旦在怪物里面,英雄开始用他自己的方式,跟怪物达成妥协。当怪物带着它游泳朝向东边,朝向上升的太阳。他切割掉他的内脏的一部分,譬如,心脏。或某个基本的器官。凭借这个基本的器官,怪物活着( 也就是,触动无意识的宝贵的来源)。因此,他杀死怪物,这怪无因此漂浮到岸边。在那里,经由超验的功能,英雄重新诞生(‘夜晚的海洋之旅“如同弗洛边尼斯称呼它,)步走出来,有时被怪物先前吞没的那些人们伴随。以这种方式,事情的正常状态被恢复,因为无意识被剥夺掉它的能源,不再佔据优势的位置。因此,神话生动地描述也让我们的病人著迷的难题。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 94

September 21, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology

分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

151 There is nothing for it but to recognize the irrational as a
necessary, because ever-present, psychological function, and to take its contents not as concrete realities-that would be a regres¬sion!-but as psychic realities, real because they work. The col¬lective unconscious, being the repository of man’s experience and at the same time the prior condition of this experience, is an image of the world which has taken aeons to form. In this image certain features, the archetypes or dominants, have crystallized out in the course of time.

对于它,没有别的办法,除了就是体认这个非理性,作为是必要性。因为永远存在,心理的功能,接纳它的内容,不是做为具体的现实,那将会是倒退—而是当作心理的现实。它们是真实的,因为它们运作得通。集体无意识是人的经验的贮藏室,同时也是这个经验的早先的情况。集体无意识是世界的意象,它花费永恒纪元才形成。在这个意象里,某些的特征,原型,或统治的东西,随着时间过去,已经成为具体。

They are the ruling powers, the gods, images of the dominant laws and principles, and of typical, regu¬larly occurring events in the soul’s cycle of experience.s In so far as these images are more or less .faithful replicas of psychic events, their archetypes, that is, their general characteristics which have been emphasized through the accumulation of simi¬lar experiences, also correspond to certain general characteristics of the ph ysical world. Archetypal images can therefore be taken metaphorically, as intuitive concepts for physical phenomena. For instance, aether) the primordial breath or soul-substance, is a concept found all over the world, and energy) or magical power, is an intuitive idea that is equally widespread.

它们是统治的权力,众神,统治的法则与原则的意象,是典型的,规律地发生的事件,在灵魂的经验的循环里。因为这些意象相当忠实地复制心灵的事件,他们的原型,换句话说,他们的一般的特征曾经被强调,经由类似经验的累积,他们也对应于物理世界的某些一般的特征。原型的意象因此能够用隐喻方式来看待。作为直觉的观念,对于物理的现象。譬如,“以太”,灵魂-物质的原初的呼吸,这是全世界都被发现的观念。“能源”,活魔法的力量,是一个直觉的观念,同他广泛流传。

152 On account of their affinity with physical phenomena,4 the
archetypes usually appear in projection; and, because projec¬tions are unconscious, they appear on persons in the immediate environment, mostly in the form of abnormal over- or under¬valuations which provoke misunderstandings, quarrels, fanati¬cisms, and follies of every description. Thus we say, “He makes a god of so-and-so,” or, “So-and-so is Mr. X’s bete noire.” In this way, too, there grow up modern myth-formations, Le., fantastic rumours, suspicions, prejudices.

因为它们跟物理现象的亲密关系,原型通常出现在投射里。因为投射是无意识,它们出现在个人身上,在当下的环境,大部分是以不正常的形式,过分高估,或过分低估,都会引起误解,争吵,狂热行为,与各色各样的愚蠢行为。“他成为某某人的上帝”,或“某某人是X夫人的讨厌的人“。以这种方式,现代的神话-形态成长出来,譬如,幻想的谣言,怀疑,偏见。

The archetypes are therefore exceedingly important things with a powerful effect, meriting our closest attention. They must not be suppressed out of hand, but must be very carefully weighed and considered, if only because of the danger of psychic infection they carry with them.

这些原型因此过分地重要的事情,具有强烈的影响,获得我们最密切的注意。它们一定不要无法控制地被压抑,而是必须要仔细的衡量与考虑。即使仅是因为它们与之俱来的心灵的传染的危险。

S As indicated earlier (par. 109), the archetypes may be regarded as the effect and deposit of experiences that have already taken place, but equally they appear a& the factors which cause such experiences.
4 Cf. “The Structure of the Psyche,” pars. 325ff•
95

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
Since they usually occur as projections, and since these only at¬tach themselves where there is a suitable hook, their evaluation and assessment is no light matter. Thus, when somebody pro¬jects the devil upon his neighbour, he does so because this person has something about him which makes the attachment of such an image possible. But this is not to say that the man is on that account a devil; on the contrary, he may be a particularly good fellow, but antipathetic to the maker of the projection, so that a “devilish” (i.e., dividing) effect arises between them.

因为他们通常发生作为投射,因为这些投射仅是联接它们自己,在有合适的挂钩的地方。对于它们的评估与估价并不是容易的事情。因此,当某个人投射恶魔在他的邻居身上,他这样做,确实是因为他的个人身上具有某件让这样的意象的联接成为可能。但是,这并不是要说,因为这个缘故,这个人就是恶魔。相反地,他可能是一位特殊的好人。但是对于投射的制造者对立反感。所以,一个“恶魔”(分裂)的影响,出现在它们之间。
Nor need the projector necessarily be a devil, although he has to recognize that he has something just as devilish in himself, and has only stumbled upon it by projecting it. But that does not make him a devil; indeed he may be just as decent as the other man. The appearance of the devil in such a case simply means that the two people are at present incompatible: for which reason the uncon¬scious forces them apart and keeps them away from each other. The devil is a variant of the “shadow” archetype, i.e., of the dangerous aspect of the unrecognized dark half of the personal¬ity.

投射者也未必就是一位恶魔。虽然他必须体认:在他身上,他拥有某件东西,作为恶魔的东西。并且仅有在投射它时,他才已经遭遇到它。但是,那并没有让他成为恶魔,的确,他可能同样地正当,跟另一个人一样。在这个个案里,恶魔的外表仅是意味着,这两个人目前是不相和谐的。因为这个理由,无意识强迫它们分开。并且保持它们互相离开。恶魔是“阴影原型”的一个变数。也就是,人格的没有被体认的黑暗的一半的危险的层面。

One of the archetypes that is almost invariably met with in the projection of unconscious collective contents is the “magic demon” with mysterious powers. A good example of this is Gus¬tav Meyrink’s Golem) also the Tibetan wizard in the same au¬thor’s Fledermiiuse) who unleashes world war by magic. N atu¬rally Meyrink learned nothing of this from me; he brought it independently out of his unconscious by clothing in words and imagery a feeling not unlike the one which my patient had pro¬jected upon me. The magician type also figures in Zarathustra) while in Faust he is the actual hero.

其中一个原型几乎一成不变地在无意识的集体内容的投射里被遭遇到。那就是“魔术的恶魔”,具有神秘的力量。关于这个原型的一个好例子是梅林克的“假人”,在相同作者的弗列得米斯,也是西藏的巫师,他凭借魔法开启战争。当然,梅林克并不是从我这里学习到任何东西。他独立地从他的无意识将这个东西带出来。凭借用文字与意象装饰一种感觉,相当类似我的病人投射到我身上的感觉。魔法师的类型也是尼采的“札拉图斯特拉“的人物。而在”浮士德“那里,他说实际的英雄。

The image of this demon forms one of the lowest and most ancient stages in the conception of God. It is the type of primi¬tive tribal sorcerer or medicine-man, a peculiarly gifted person¬ality endowed with magical power.5 This figure often appears as dark-skinned and of mongoloid type, and then it represents a negative and possibly dangerous aspect. Sometimes it can hardly be distinguished, if at all, from the shadow; but the more the magical note predominates, the easier it is to make the distinc¬tion, and this is not without relevance in so far as the demon can also have a very positive aspect as the “wise old man.” 6

这个恶魔的意象形成其中一个最低,最古老的阶段,在上帝的观念里。就是这种的原初的部落的召魂师或药师,一个特殊天赋的人格,被秉赋著魔法的力量。这个人物经常出现,作为黑皮肤,属于蒙古人种。因此,它代表一个负面而且可能的危险的层面。有时,它几乎无法被区别,跟阴影。但是,随着魔法的调子更加佔优势,从事这个区别就越加地容易。其中并非没有关联。因为恶魔也能够拥有一个非常积极的层面。作为“智慧老人“。
5 The idea of the medicine-man who communes with spirits and wields magical powers is so deeply ingrained in many primitives that they even believe “doc¬tors” are to be found among animals. Thus the Achomawi of northern Califor• nia speak of ordinary coyotes and of “doctor” coyotes.
96

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS

155 The recognition of the archetypes takes us a long step for-
wards. The magical or daemonic effect emanating from our neighbour disappears when the mysterious feeling is traced back to a definite entity in the collective unconscious. But now we have an entirely new task before us: the question of how the ego is to come to terms with this psychological non-ego. Can we rest content with establishing the real existence of the archetypes, and simply let things take care of themselves?

原型的这个体认带领我们向前迈进一大步。从邻居散发出来的魔法或恶魔的影响会消失,当神秘的感觉被追溯回答明确的实体,在集体无意识那里。但是,现在,我们拥有完全新的工作,在我们面前:自我如何能够更心灵的非自我互相妥协的这个问题。我们能够满足于建立原型的真实的存在,然后就仅是让事情自然发展吗?

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 92

September 19, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

46 This remark throws an explanatory light on what has hap-
pened: I have taken the place of the friend. The friend has been overcome. The ice of the repression is broken and the patient has entered a new phase of life without knowing it. Now I know that all that was painful and bad in her relation with her friend will devolve upon me, as well as all the good, but it will be in violent conflict with the mysterious x which the patient has never been able to master. A new phase of the transference has started, although it does not as yet clearly reveal the nature of the x that has been projected upon me.
4
这个谈论对于曾经发生的事情,给予解释性的启明。我已经取代这位朋友。朋友已经被克服。压抑的冰已经破解,病人已经进入一个新的生命的时期,自己却不知道它。现在,我知道,所有的令人痛苦而不好的关系,在她跟她的朋友的关系,将会传递到我身上,以及那些美好的东西。但是它将会处于猛烈的冲突,跟这个神秘的x。病人从来没有掌控的x。移情的新的时期已经开始。虽然它尚没有清楚地显示已经被投射到我身上的这个x的特性。

7 One thing is certain: if the patient gets stuck in this form
of transference, the most troublesome misunderstandings lie ahead, for she will be bound to treat me as she treated her friend
92

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
-in other words, the x will be continually in the air giving rise to misunderstandings. It will inevitably turn out that she will see the demon in me, since she cannot accept it in herself. All insoluble conflicts come about in this fashion. And an insoluble conflict means bringing life to a standstill.

有一件事情是确定: 假如病人被卡陷在移情的这个形式,最麻烦的误解隐藏在前头。因为她将会被迫对待我,如同她对待她的朋友。换句话说,这个x将会继续出现在幻想里,产生误解。结果无可避免地将会是,她将会看见我身上的这个恶魔。因为她无法接受它,在她自己身上。所有无法被解救的冲突以这种方式发生。一个无法解决的冲突意味着,让生命停顿下来。

148 Or another possibility: the patient could use her old defence
mechanism against this new difficulty and could simply ignore the point of obscurity. That is to say, she could begin repressing again, instead of keeping things conscious, which is the necessary and obvious demand of the whole method. But nothing would be gained by this; on the contrary, the x now threatens from the unconscious, and that is far more unpleasant.

或许,另外一个可能是:病人能够使用她的防卫机制,来对抗新的困难,并且仅是忽略模糊暧昧的时刻。换句话说,她能够开始再次压抑。而不是让事情被意识到。这是整个方法的必要而且是明显的要求。但是,没有一样东西将会被这个方法获得。相反地,这个x现在威胁从无意识那里。那是更加令人不愉快。

149 Whenever such an unacceptable content appears, we must
consider carefully whether it is a personal quality at all. “Magi¬cian” and “demon” may well represent qualities whose very names make it instantly clear that these are not human and per¬sonal qualities but mythological ones. Magician and demon are mythological figures which express the unknown, “inhuman” feeling that swept over the patient. They are attributes not in any sense applicable to a human personality, although, as intui¬tive judgments not subjected to closer criticism, they are con¬stantly being projected upon our fellow men, to the very great detriment of human relations.

每当这样的无法被接受的内容出现,我们必须仔细考虑到,它是否是一个个人的特质。“魔法师”与“恶魔”很有可能代表那些名称当下清楚的特质。它们并不是人类与个人的特质,而是神话的特质。魔法师与恶魔是神话的人物。这些神话表达病人身上充裕的这个未知,“非人类”的感觉。它们作为并不是可以运用到人类的可能性的属性,虽然,作为直觉的判断,并没有隶属于更加仔细的批判。它们不断地被投射到我们的同胞身上,结果多人的关系产生严重的伤害。

15° These attributes always indicate that contents of the trans-
personal or collective unconscious are being projected. Personal memories cannot account for “demons,” or for “wicked magi¬cians,” although everyone has, of course, at one time or another heard or read of these things. We have all heard of rattlesnakes, but we do not call a lizard or a blindworm a rattlesnake and display the corresponding emotions merely because we have been startled by the rustling of a lizard or a blindworm. Simi¬larly, We do not call one of our fellows a demon unless there really is something demonic in his effect upon us.

这些属性总是指示著,移情或集体无意识的内容正在被投射。个人的记忆无法解释“恶魔”,或解释“邪恶的魔法师”。虽然每个人当然在某个时刻曾经听过或阅读过这些事情。我们大家都听过响尾蛇,但是我们并没有称蜥蜴或无脚蜥蜴,为响尾蛇,然若展示对应的情感,仅因为我们曾经被蜥蜴或无脚蜥蜴的沙沙声惊吓到。同样的,我们并没有称我们的其中一位同伴为恶魔,除非在他对于我们的影响,具有某件恶魔的东西。

But if this effect were truly a part of his personal character, it would show itself everywhere, and then the man would be a demon indeed, a Sort of werewolf. But that is mythology, i.e., collective psyche, and not individual psyche. In so far as through our unconscious We have a share in the historical collective psyche, we live natu¬r~lly and unconsciously in a world of werewolves, demons, magi¬Clans, ete., for these are things which all previous ages have in-
93

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
vested with tremendous affectivity. Equally we have a share in gods and devils, saviours and criminals; but it would be absurd to attribute these potentialities of the unconscious to ourselves personally. It is therefore absolutely essential to make the sharp¬est possible demarcation between the personal and the imper¬sonal attributes of the psyche.

但是,假如这个影响确实是他的人格的特质的部分,它将会到处显示它自己。然后,这个人将确实是恶魔,一种荒野之狼。但是,那是神话,也就是,集体无意识。我们参与历史的集体的心灵。我们自然地而且无意识地生活在荒野之狼,恶魔,与魔法师的世界。因为这些都是先前时代曾经带着强烈情感投注的事情。同样地,我们参与众神与恶魔,救赎者与罪犯。但是这将是荒谬的,假如我们将无意识的这些潜力归属于我们个人自己。这因此是绝对必要,尽可能地区别这个分界线,处于个人与非个人的心灵的属性。

This is not to deny the sometimes very formidable existence of the contents of the collective un¬conscious, but only to stress that, as contents of the collective psyche, they are opposed to and different from the individual psyche. Simple-minded folk have never, of course, separated these things from their individual consciousness, because the gods and demons were not regarded as psychic projections and hence as contents of the unconscious, but as self-evident reali¬ties. Only in the age of enlightenment did people discover that the gods did not really exist, but were simply projections. Thus the gods were disposed of. But the corresponding psychological function was by no means disposed of; it lapsed into the uncon¬scious, and men were thereupon poisoned by the surplus of li¬bido that had once been laid up in the cult of divine images.

这并不是要否认集体无意识的内容的这个有时是可怕的存在。而是要强调,作为集体心灵的内容,它们对立于,也不同于个人的心灵。当然,心灵单纯的人们从来没有将这些事情跟他们的个人的意识分开。因为众神与恶魔并没有被认为是心灵的投射,因此被认为是无意识的内容。而是作为不证自明的现实。仅有在启蒙的时代,人们才发现,众神并没有确实存在。而仅是投射。因此,众神被罢黜。但是对应的心灵的功能根本就没有被罢黜。它撤退进入无意识。人们因此被力比多的过剩所中毒。这个力比多曾经累积在各种神性意象的偶像崇拜里。
The devaluation and repression of so powerful a function as the religious function naturally have serious consequences for the psychology of the individual. The unconscious is prodigiously strengthened by this reflux of libido, and, through its archaic collective contents, begins to exercise a powerful influence on the conscious mind. The period of the Enlightenment closed, as we know, with the horrors of the French Revolution.

诸如宗教的功能这样强大的功能的被贬抑价值与压抑,当然会有严重的后果,对于个人的心灵。无意识因为这个力比多的重新流动而变得巨大地增强。通过它的古老的集体的内容,无意识开始运营强烈的影响力来,对于意识的心灵。我们知道,启蒙的时期结束,由于法国大革命的恐怖。
And at the present time, too, we are once more experiencing this uprising of the unconscious destructive forces of the collective psyche. The result has been mass-murder on an unparalleled scale.2 This is precisely what the unconscious was after. Its position had been immeasurably strengthened beforehand by the rationalism of modern life, which, by depreciating everything irrational, precipitated the function of the irrational into the unconscious.

目前也是,我们再次经验到无意识的这个动乱,集体心灵的毁灭性的力量。结果曾经是集体的杀害,以史无前例的规模。这确实是无意识追求的东西。它的立场事先曾经无法测量地被强化,被现代生活的理性主义。凭借贬抑每一样非理性的东西,理性主义将非理性的功能投掷进入无意识。

But once this function finds itself in the unconscious, it works unceasing havoc, like an incurable disease whose focus cannot be eradicated because it is invisible. Individual and nation alike are then compelled to live the irrational in their own lives, even devoting their loftiest ideals and their best wits to expressing its madness in the most perfect form. We see the same thing in 2 Written in 1916; superfluous to remark that it is still true today [1943]•
94

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS miniature in our patient, who fled from a course of life that seemed to her irrational-Mrs. X-only to act it out in patholog¬ical form, and with the greatest sacrifices, in her relations with her friend.

但是,一旦这个功能发现它自己处于无意识,它造成不停的破坏。就像是无法治疗的疾病的焦点,无法被抹除,因为它是看不见的。个人与国际同样都是被迫生活于非理性当中,在他们自己的生活里。他们甚至专注他们的崇高的理想与他们最好的机智,来表达它的疯狂,用最完美的形式。我们看见相同的事情,在我们病人的缩影里。她逃离生命的过程,那个过程她觉得是非理性的—X夫人。结果,她扮演这个非理性,用病态的方式,然后带着重大的牺性,在她跟朋友的关系。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 90

September 19, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型
We are now faced with the task of raising to the subjective level the phenomena which have so far been understood on the objective level. For this purpose we must detach them from the object and take them as symbolical exponents of the patient’s subjective complexes. If we try to interpret the figure of Mrs. X on the subjective level, we must regard it as the personification of a part-soul, or rather of a certain aspect of the dreamer.

我们现在面临这个工作,将这些现象提升到主体的层面。迄今,这些现象在客体的层面被理解。为了这个目的,我们必须将这些现象跟客体隔离开来。并且将它们当作是病人的主体的情结的象征的指数。假如我们尝试解释X夫人的人物,在主体的层面,我们必须将它视为是部分-灵活的具体化身。或者说,是作梦者的某个层面的具体化身。

Mrs. X then becomes an image of what the patient would like to be, and yet fears to be. She represents, as it were, a partial picture of the patient’s future character. The fascinating artist cannot so easily be raised to the subjective level, because the unconscious artistic capacity lying dormant in the patient is already taken up by Mrs. X. It would, however, be correct to say that the artist is the image of the patient’s masculinity which is not consciously realized and therefore lies in the unconscious. 1 This is true in the sense that the patient does in fact delude herself in this mat¬ter. In her own eyes she is quite remarkably fragile, sensitive, and feminine, and not in the least masculine. She was therefore indignantly amazed when I pointed out her masculine traits. But the strange, fascinating element is out of keeping with these traits. It seems to be entirely lacking to them. Yet it must be hiding somewhere, since she produced this feeling out of herself.

X夫人因此变成是病人的一种意象:病人想要成为,却又害怕成为的的人物。她代表所谓的病人的未来的人格的部分的画面。这位令人著迷的艺术家无法如此容易地被提升到主体的层面。因为无意识的艺术家的能力潜藏于病人身上,已经被X夫人所接纳。可是,这将是正确的,假如我们说,艺术家就是病人的阳刚男性的意象。病人的阳刚男性并没有意识地被实践,因此,潜藏在无意识里。这是真实的,因为病人事实上在这个事情欺骗她自己。在她自己的眼光里,她很明显是脆弱的,敏感的,与女性化。她根本就不阳刚男性。她因此感到愤怒地大吃一惊,当我指出她的阳刚男性的特征。表面看起来,阳刚男性的特征是完全欠缺的。可是,它一定隐藏在某个地方。因为她从她自己身上产生这种感觉。

Whenever such an element is not to be found in the dreamer himself, experience tells us that it is always projected. But upon whom? Is it still attached to the artist? He has long since disap-peared from the patient’s purview and cannot very well have taken the projection with him, since it lies anchored in the un-
1 I have called this masculine element in woman the animus and the correspond-ing feminine element in man the anima. See infra, pars. 296-340; also Emma Jung, “On the。Nature of the Animus.”
90

143
144
145

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS conscious of the patient, and moreover she had no personal rela¬tion with this man despite his fascination. For her he was more a figure of fantasy. No, a projection of this kind is always topical, that is, somewhere there must be somebody upon whom this content is projected, otherwise she would be palpably aware of it in herself.

每当这样的元素无法被找到,在作梦者他自己身上。精神分析经验告诉我们,那总是被投射。但是,投射到谁的身上?它仍然跟艺术家联接一块吗?他长久以来就已经从病人的视野里消失,不可能清楚地跟他作这样的投射。因为它锚定地藏在病人的无意识里。而且,她跟这个人并没有个人的关系,尽管他具有吸引力。对于她,他更是一个幻想的人物。不,这种的投射总是表面的。换句话说,在某个地方,一定有某个人,这个内容被投射。否则她会具体知道它,在她自身身上。

At this point we come back to the objective level, for with¬out it we cannot locate the projection. The patient does not know any man who means anything special to her, apart from myself; and as her doctor I mean a good deal. Presumably there-fore this content is projected on to me, though I had certainly noticed nothing of the sort. But these subtler contents never ap-pear on the surface; they always come to light outside the con-sulting hour.

在这个时刻,我们回到客体的层面。因为假如没有它,我们无法定位这个投射。病人并不认识任何对她具有特别意义的男人,除了我自己之外。作为她的医生,我具有重大意义。因此,假定这个内容被投射到我身上,虽然我确实并没有注意到任何这样的东西。但是,这些更加微妙的内容从来没有出现在表面。它们总是在看诊时间的外面才令人恍然醒悟。

I therefore asked her cautiously, “Tell me, how do I seem to you when you are not with me? Am I just the same?” She said, “When I am with you, you are quite pleasant, but when I am by myself, or have not seen you for some time, the picture I have of you changes in a remarkable way. Sometimes you seem quite idealized, and then again different.” Here she hesitated, and I prompted her: “In what way different?” Then she said, “Sometimes you seem rather dangerous, sinister, like an evil magician or a demon. I don’t know how I ever get such ideas-you are not a bit like that.”

我因此小心翼翼地询问她,「请你告诉我,当你没有跟我在一块时,你觉得我怎样?我仅是同样的人吗?」她说,「当我跟你在一块时,你是相当令人愉快。但是,当我单独一人时,或有段时间,我没有看见你时,我对于你的画面显著地改变。有时,你似乎完全被理想化。因此不同。在此,她犹豫一下,我引导她说:「在哪方面不同?」然后,她说,「你有时似乎相当危险,古怪,就像邪恶的魔法师,或恶魔。我不知道我如何表达这些观念—你差不多就是那样。」

So the content was fixed on me as part of the transference, and that is why it was missing from her psychic inventory. Here we recognize another important fact: I was contaminated (iden-tified) with the artist, so in her unconscious fantasy she natu-rally plays the role of Mrs. X with me. I could easily prove this to her with the help of the material-sexual fantasies-previously brought to light. But I myself am then the obstacle, the crab that prevents her from getting across. If, in this particular case, we were to confine ourselves to the objective level, the position would be very tricky. What would be the good of my explaining, “But I am not this artist in any sense, I am not in the least sinis-ter, nor am I an evil magician!” That would leave the patient quite cold, for she knows that just as well as I do. The projection continues as before, and I really am the obstacle to her further progress.

所以,这个内容被专注在我的身上,作为部分的移情。那是为什么它从心灵的目录里失落。在此,我们体认出另外一个重要的事实:我跟这位艺术家污染(认同)一块。所以,在她的无意识的幻想里,她自然跟我扮演X夫人的角色。我能够很容易地对她证明这个,凭借先前被揭露出来的性幻想的这些材料的帮助。但是,我自己是当时的这个阻碍。我是那只螃蟹,阻止她不能跨越过。假如,在这个特殊的情况,我们想要限定我们自己在客体的层面,这个立场将是非常诡谲。我的解释有什么益处呢?「但是,我并不是任何意义的艺术家。我根本就不古怪,我也不是邪恶的魔法师!」病人对我的话完全无动于衷。因为她跟我一样清楚。这个投射继续像以前一样。我确实就是这个阻碍,对于她的更进一步的进展。

It is at this point that many a treatment comes to a standstill.
There is no way of getting out of the toils of the unconscious,
91

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
except for the doctor to raise himself to the subjective level and to acknowledge himself as an image. But an image of what? Here lies the greatest difficulty of all. “Well now,” the doctor will say, “an image of something in the unconscious of the pa¬tient.” Whereupon she will say, “What, so I am a man, and a sinister, fascinating man at that, a wicked magician or demon? Not on your life! I cannot accept that, it’s all nonsense. I’d sooner believe this of you!”

就在这个时刻,很多的治疗会停顿下来。我们不可能逃脱无意识的劳苦工作。除了医生要提升他自己到主体的层面,并且承认自己,作为一个意象。但是什么的意象?在此,就是一切最困难的地方。「呵呵,现在,」医生将会说:「在病人的无意识里,某件东西的意象。」然后,她将会说:「我是一位男性,而且还是一位古怪而迷人的男性。那作为邪恶的魔法师或恶魔,是啥意思?绝不可能如此!我无法接受,那纯然是无意义的。我宁可相信,你才是那样!」

She is right: it is preposterous to transfer such things to her. She cannot accept being turned into a demon any more than the doctor can. Her eyes flash, an evil expression creeps into her face, the gleam of an unknown resist¬ance never seen before. I am suddenly faced by the possibility of a painful misunderstanding. What is it? Disappointed love? Does she feel offended, depreciated? In her glance there lurks something of the beast of prey, something really demoniacal. Is she a demon after all? Or am I the beast of prey, the demon, and is this a terrified victim sitting before me, trying to defend her¬self with the brute strength of despair against my wicked spells?

她说得没错:这是荒谬的,假如我们将那些事情转换给她。她无法接受被转换成为一位恶魔,如同医生无法接受。她的眼睛闪亮起来,邪恶的表情出现在她的脸孔,那是以前从未被见过的一个未知的抗拒的闪光。我突然面临被痛苦误解的可能性。那是什么?失望的爱情吗?她难道感觉受到冒犯?被贬抑?在她的眼光里,潜藏着某件猎食的野兽,这个恶魔。这是一个可怕的受害者坐在我的面前吗?她尝试要防卫她自己,用绝对的残酷的力量,对抗我的邪恶的魔法魅力?

All this must surely be nonsense-fantastic delusion. What have I touched? What new chord is vibrating? Yet it is only a passing moment. The expression on the patient’s face clears, and she says, as though relieved, “It is queer, but just now I had a feel¬ing you had touched the point I could never get over in relation to my friend. It’s a horrible feeling, something inhuman, evil, cruel. I simply cannot describe how queer this feeling is. It makes me hate and despise my friend when it comes, although I struggle against it with all my might.”

所有这一切一定都是无意义-幻想的欺骗。我已经碰触到什么?有什么新的共鸣在迴响?可是,这仅是一个瞬间的时刻。病人脸孔上的表情开朗起来。她如释重负地说:「这个古怪,但是刚才,我有一种感觉,你碰触到这个点,我无法跨越的这个点,在跟我的朋友的关系。这是一个可怕的感觉,有某件非人性的东西,邪恶,残酷。我就是无法描述,这种感觉是多么的古怪。它让我恨并且轻视我的朋友,当这种感觉来临时。虽然我奋斗对抗它,用完一切都力量。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 综合方法 87

September 18, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格
VI
THE SYNTHETIC OR CONSTRUCTIVE METHOD
第六章:综合或建设性方法

135 But the patient had drawn quite a different conclusion from
the fate of Mrs. X. She had taken the latter’s sudden grave illness and early death as the punishment of fate for the gay life which, without admitting it, the patient had always envied. When Mrs. X died, the patient made a very long moral face which concealed an all-too-human malicious satisfaction. To punish herself for this, she continually used the example of Mrs. X to scare herself away from life and all further development, and burdened her¬self with the misery of an unsatisfying friendship. Naturally this whole sequence of events had never been clear to her, other¬wise she would never have acted as she did. The rightness of this surmise was easily verified from the material.

但是,病人已经获得完全不同的结论,从X夫人的命运。她接受后者的严重的疾病与早期死亡,作为是命运的处罚,因为这个快乐的生活。虽然不承认,病人总是羡慕X夫人的快乐的生活。当X夫人死亡时,病人长期摆出道德的脸孔。这个道德的脸孔隐藏太过人性的恶意的满足。为了惩罚她自己,因为这个,她继续使用X夫人的教训,来吓阻她自己脱离生活,以及更进一步的发展,并且给予自己痛苦的负担,因为不满足的友谊。当然,整个系列的事件,她从来没有清楚过。否则她本来不会像那样的行为。这个推测的正确根据材料,很容易被验证。

136 The story of this identification by no means ends here. The
patient subsequently emphasized that Mrs. X possessed a not in-considerable artistic capacity which developed only after her husband’s death and then led to her friendship with the artist. This fact seems to be one of the essential reasons for the identifi¬cation, if we remember that the patient had remarked what a strong and peculiarly fascinating impression the artist had made upon her. A fascination of this kind is never exercised exclu¬sively by one person upon another; it is always a phenomenon of relationship, which requires two people in so far as the person fascinated necessarily has a corresponding disposition. But the disposition must be unconscious, or no fascination will take place. Fascination is a compulsive phenomenon in the sense that it lacks a conscious motive; it is not a voluntary process, but something that rises up from the unconscious and forcibly ob¬trudes itself upon the conscious mind.

这个认同的故事根本就没有在这里结束。病人随后强调,X夫人拥有一个相当充分的艺术的才能。仅有当她的丈夫的死亡之后,并且导致她跟这位艺术家的友谊,这个艺术的才能才开始发展。这个事实似乎是作为认同的其中一个理由。假如我们记得,病人曾经谈论艺术家曾经留给她的是印象是多么的强烈而特殊的迷人。这种的迷人从来没有专属某个人运用过。那总是关系的现象。这个现象要求两个人们,因为被著迷的这个人必然拥有对应的性情。但是,这个性情一定是无意识的性情,否则没有著迷会发生。著迷是一个强迫性地现象,因为它欠缺意识的动机。著迷并不是自愿的过程。而是某件从无意识诞生出来的东西。并且冲闯到意识的心灵。

137 It must therefore be assumed that the patient has an uncon-
87

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
scious disposition similar to that of the artist. Accordingly she is also identified with a man.7 We recall the analysis of the dream, where we met an allusion to the “masculine” foot. And in fact the patient does play a masculine role with her friend; she is the active one who always sets the tone, who bosses her friend and sometimes actually forces her to do something she alone wants. Her friend is distinctly feminine, even in external appearance, while the patient is clearly of a somewhat masculine type. Her voice too is strong and deeper than her friend’s. Mrs. X is de-scribed as a very feminine woman, comparable to her friend, so the patient thinks, in gentleness and affectionateness. This gives us another clue: in relation.to her friend, the patient obviously plays the same role that the artist played with Mrs. X. Thus she unconsciously completes her identification with Mrs. X and her lover, and thus, in spite of all, she gives expression to the frivo¬lous streak in her which she had so anxiously repressed. But she is not living it consciously, she is rather the plaything of this unconscious tendency; in other words, she is possessed by it, and has become the unconscious exponent of her complex.

因此,我们必须假设,病人拥有无意识的性情,类似于艺术家的性情。因此,她也是认为一位男人。我们回忆起梦的精神分析1,在那里,我们遇见提到“男性”的脚的指称。事实上,病人确实扮演男性的角色,对于她的朋友。她是活跃的角色,总是安排这个色调。她对她的朋友颐指气使,有时总是强迫她做某件只有她想要做的事情。她的朋友很明显是女性,即使在外在的表象。而病人显然属于一个相当男性的类型。X夫人被描述作为非常女性的女人,可类比她的朋友。病人这样认为,非常温柔而情感地。这给有我们另外一个线索:在跟她的朋友的关系,病人显而易见地,扮演相同的角色,类似艺术家对X夫人扮演的角色。因此,她无意识地完全她跟X夫人与情人的认同。因此,尽管这一切,她给予表达在她身上的这个放荡的性情,她以前曾经如此焦虑地压抑这个性情。但是,她并没有意识地过着这样的生活。相反地,她是无意识的倾向的玩物。换句话说,她被这个性强著迷,她已经成为她的情结的无意识的主张者。

138 We now know very much more about the crab: it contains
the inner psychology of this untamed bit of libido. The uncon¬scious identifications keep drawing her down further and fur¬ther. They have this power because, being unconscious, they are not open to insight or correction. The crab is therefore the sym¬bol for the unconscious contents. These contents are always try¬ing to draw the patient back into her relations with her friend. (The crab walks backwards.) But the connection with her friend is synonymous with disease, for through it she became neurotic.

我们现在更加清楚知道,关于螃蟹:螃蟹包含这块没有被驯服的力比多多内部心理学。无意识的认同继续将她拖拉越来越远。无意识的认同拥有这个力量,因为性质上是无意识,这些认同并没有公开看见与改正。螃蟹因此是无意识的内容的象征。这些内容总是尝试将病人拉回进人跟她的朋友的关系。(螃蟹往后行走)。但是跟她的朋友的联想则是跟疾病的是同义字。因为通过它,她成为神经症者。

139 Strictly speaking, all this really belongs to the analysis on the
objective level. But we must not forget that we came into posses¬sion of this knowledge only by making use of the subjective level, which thus proves to be an important heuristic principle. For practical purposes we might rest content with the results so far reached; but we have to satisfy the demands of theory: not all the associations have yet been evaluated, nor has the significance of the choice of symbol yet been sufficiently explained.

严格地说,所有这一切确实属于主体层次的精神分析。但是,我们一定不要忘记,我们逐渐拥有这个知识,仅是凭借利用主体的层面。这个主体层面因此证明是一个重演的解释的原则。为了实用的目的,我们可能满足于迄今获得的这些结果。但是,我们必须满足理论的要求:并不是所有的联想都已经被评估。象征的选择的意义也没有被充分地解释。

140 We shall now take up the patient’s remark that the crab lay
7 I am not overlooking Ihe fact that the deeper reason for her identification with the artist lies in a certain creative aptitude on the part of the patient.
88

THE SYNTHETIC OR CONSTRUCTIVE METHOD

hidden in the water and that she did not see it at first. Nor did she see, at first, the unconscious relations which we have just discussed; they too lay hidden in the water. The river is the ob¬stacle that prevents her from crossing to the other side. It is pre¬cisely these unconscious relations, binding her to her friend, that prevented her. The unconscious was the obstacle. Thus the water signifies the unconscious, or rather, the state of uncon¬sciousness, of concealment; for the crab too is something uncon-scious, in fact it is the dynamic content that lies concealed in its depths.

我们现在将探讨病人的谈论:螃蟹隐藏在水里,她起初并没有看见它。起初,她也没有看见我们刚刚讨论过的无意识的关系,无意识的关系也隐藏在水里。河流是这个阻碍,阻止她不能跨越到彼岸。确实就是这些无意识的关系,或者说,无意识的状态,隐藏的状态,因为螃蟹也是某件无意识的东西。事实上,螃蟹是动力的内容,隐藏在无意识深处。

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Collected 7 综合方法 85

September 17, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格
VI
THE SYNTHETIC OR CONSTRUCTIVE METHOD
第六章:综合或建设性方法

The synthetic (constructive) interpretation:
132 The patient is unconscious of the fact that the obstacle to be
overcome lies in herself: namely, a boundary-line that is difficult to cross and hinders further progress. Nevertheless it is possible to pass the barrier. But a special and unexpected danger looms up just at this moment-something “animal” (non-human or subhuman), which moves backwards and downwards, threaten¬ing to drag with it the whole personality of the dreamer. This danger is like a deadly disease that begins in some secret place and is incurable (overpowering). The patient imagines that her friend is hindering her and trying to drag her down. So long as she believes this, she must go on trying to “uplift” her friend, educate and improve her; she has to make futile and senselessly idealistic efforts to stop herself from being dragged down. Natu¬rally her friend makes similar efforts too, for she is in the same pass as the patient. So the two keep jumping at each other like fighting cocks, each trying to get the upper hand.

综合(建设)的解释
病人并不知道这个事实:应该被克服的阻碍就在于她自己。换句话说,一个很困难跨越的边界,这个边界阻碍更进一步的进展。可是,通过这个阻碍是可能的.但是,一个特别而出乎意料的危险隐约出现,就在某件“动物”的东西(非-人类或次-人类), 它往后与往下移动,威胁要将作梦者的整个的人格随着拖拉下去。这个危险就像是致命的疾病,在某个秘密的地方开始,并且是无法被治疗(压倒性)。病人想像,她的朋友正在阻碍她,并且尝试将她拖拉下来。只要她相信这个,她就必须继续尝试“提升”她的朋友,教育并且改进她。她必须从事徒劳而没有意义的理想的努力,为了阻止她自己不要被拖拉下去。当然,她的朋友也从事类似的努力。因为她跟病人处于相同的处境。所以,这两个人继续像斗鸡一样,互相攻击。每一个人都尝试佔上风。

And the higher the pitch the one screws herself up to, the fiercer become the self-torments of the other. Why? Because each thinks the fault lies in the other, in the object. Interpretation on the sub¬jective level brings release from this folly; for the dream shows the patient that she has something in herself which prevents her from crossing the boundary, i.e., from getting out of one situa¬tion or attitude into another.

其中一位越是将她自己连系一块投掷得越高,另外一位的自我-折磨就越加猛烈。为什么?因为我们认为这个过错在于另外一位,在于这个客体。在主体的层面的解释从这个愚蠢里带来解放,因为这个梦显示病人,她在她自己身上拥有某件东西,阻止她不要跨越边界。也就是,阻止她不要逃脱某个情境或态度,进入另外一个情境或态度。

The interpretation of a change of place as a change of attitude is corroborated by forms of speech in certain primitive languages, where, for example, “I am think¬ing of going” is expressed as “I am at the place of (on the point of) going.” To make the language of dreams intelligible we need numerous parallels from the psychology of primitive and historical symbolism, because dreams spring essentially from the unconscious, which contains remnants of the functional possibil¬ities of all preceding epochs of evolution. A classical example of this is the “Crossing of the Great Water” in the oracles of the I ehing.

位置的改变的解释,作为态度的改变,获得某些的原始的语言里,言说的各种形式的合作。譬如,「我正在想要去、、、」被表达作为「我处于或正要去的位置、、、」。为了让梦的语言可以理解,我们需要无数的并列的东西,从原始与历史的象征主义的心理学。因为梦基本上是从无意识出来。无意识则是包含进化的一切先前的时代的功能的可能性的残余物。关于这点的经典的例子是「利涉大川」,在” 易经“的预言里。

6 Cf. “On Psychological Understanding,” Elsewhere I have called this procedure the “hermeneutic” method; cf. infra, pars. 493fI.
85

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
133 Obviously, everything now depends on what is meant by the
crab. We know in the first place that it is something connected with the friend (since the patient associates it with her friend), and also something connected with her mother. Whether mother and friend really have this quality is irrelevant so far as the patient is concerned. The situation can be changed only by the patient changing herself.

显而易见地,每样东西现在都依靠螃蟹是什么意义而定。我们现在首先知道,螃蟹是某将跟这位朋友联想一块的东西(因为病人将螃蟹跟朋友联想一块)。而且也跟她的母亲联想一块的东西。就病人而言,母亲与朋友是否确实拥有这个特质,并无关紧要。仅有凭借病人改变她自己,这个情境才能够被改1.

Nothing can be changed in the mother, for she is dead. And the friend cannot be nagged into changing. If she wants to change, that is her own affair. The fact that the quality in question is connected with the mother points to something infantile. What, then, is there in common in the patient’s relation to her mother and to her friend? The common factor is a violent, sentimental demand for love, so impassioned that she feels herself overwhelmed.

在母亲身上,没有任何东西能够被改变。因为她已经死了。朋友则是无论如何唠叨,也无法改变。假如她想要改变,那是她自己的事情。受到质疑的这个特质跟母亲有关联的这个事实,指向某件婴孩的东西。那么,在病人跟她的母亲的关系与跟她的朋友的关系,有什么共同的东西呢?共同的因素是强烈而多情地要求爱。这个爱的要求如此激情,以致于她感觉她自己被压倒。

This demand has the charac¬ter of an overpowering infantile craving which, as we know, is blind. So we are dealing with an undisciplined, undifferenti-ated, and not yet humanized part of the libido which still pos¬sesses the compulsive character of an instinct, a part still un¬tamed by domestication. For such a part some kind of animal is an entirely appropriate symbol. But why should the animal be a crab? The patient associates it with cancer, of which disease Mrs. X died at about the same age as that now reached by the patient herself. So there may be a hint of identification with Mrs. X. We must therefore follow this up. The patient relates the following facts about her: Mrs. X was widowed early; she was very merry and full of life; she had a series of adventures with men, and one in particular with an extremely gifted artist whom the patient knew personally and who always impressed her as remarkably fascinating and strange.

爱的这个要求具有压倒性的婴孩的渴望的特性。我们知道,这个压倒的婴孩的渴望是盲目的。所以,我们正在处理一个没有纪律,没有差异化,而且还没有成为人性化的力比多的部分。这个力比多依旧拥有本能的强迫性的特性,依旧还没有被文化豢养驯服的部分。对于这样的部分,某种的“动物性”是一个完全合适的象征。但是,为什么这只动物竟然是螃蟹呢?病人将螃蟹跟癌症联想一块(crab与cancer在德文具歧义性)。X夫人罹患癌症,死亡时的年纪,跟病人自己现在到达的年纪相仿。所以,可能会有暗示认同于X夫人。我们因此可以推论这个。病人描述以下关于她的事情。X夫人早期守寡。她非常快乐而且充满生命。她拥有一系列的冒险跟男人。特别有一位是病人自己认识到具有天才的艺术家。这位艺术家总是让他印象深刻,作为是非常迷人而且奇怪。

134 An identification can occur only on the basis of some unreal-
ized, i.e., unconscious, similarity. Now in what way is our pa¬tient similar to Mrs. X? Here I was able to remind the patient of a series of earlier fantasies and dreams which had plainly shown that she too had a frivolous streak in her, and one which she always anxiously repressed, because she feared this dimly appre¬hended tendency in herself might betray her into leading an im¬moral life. With this we have made a further important contri¬bution towards understanding the “animal” element; for once more we come upon the same untamed, instinctual craving, but this time directed towards men.

仅有根据某种的没有被实现,譬如,无意识的类似,认同才会发生。现在,以什么方式,我们的病人跟X夫人类似呢?在此,我能够提醒病人,想到一系列的早期的幻想与梦。这些幻想与梦显示:在她身上,她也拥有一个任性的特性。她总是焦虑地想要压抑这个特性。因为她害怕在她身上,这个模糊被理解的倾向可能会背叛她,成为过著不道德的生活。随着这个特性,我们已经有更加深入的贡献,朝向理解这个“动物”的元素。因为再次,我们遭遇相同的非驯服的本能的渴望,但是这一次,被引导朝向男人。
86

THE SYNTHETIC OR CONSTRUCTIVE METI:tOD

And we have also discovered another reason why she cannot let go of her friend: she must cling to her so as not to fall victim to this other tendency, which seems to her much more dangerous. Accordingly she remains at the infantile, homosexual level, because it serves her as a de¬fence. (Experience shows that this is one of the most potent mo¬tives for clinging to unsuitable infantile relationships.) In this animal element, however, also lies her health, the germ of a fu¬ture sound personality which will not shrink from the hazards of life.

我们也已经发现另外一个理由,为什么她无法放开她的朋友。她必须紧捉住她,为了不要成为这个另外一个倾向的受害者。对于她,这个倾向似乎是更加危险的。因此,她始终处于婴孩的同性恋的层面。因为这个层面供应给她作为防卫。(经验跟我们显示,这是其中一个潜在的动机,作为紧捉著不适合的婴孩的关系。)可是,在这个动物的元素,也存在着她的健康,未来的健全的人格的种子。这个健全的人格不会从人生的危险中退缩。

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32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
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Collected 7 综合方法83

September 16, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格
VI
THE SYNTHETIC OR CONSTRUCTIVE METHOD
第六章:综合或建设性方法

Analytical (causal-reductive) interpretation:’1
128 This interpretation can be summed up in one sentence: “I
see well enough that I ought to cross the river (that is, give up relations with my friend), but I would much rather that my friend did not let me out of her clutches (i.e., embraces)¬which, as an infantile wish, means that I want Mother to draw me to her in the exuberant embrace I know so well.” The in¬compatibility of the wish lies in the strong undercurrent of ho-mosexuality, abundantly proved by the facts. The crab seizes her by the foot. The patient has large “masculine” feet, she plays the masculine role with her friend and has corresponding sexual fantasies. The foot has a notoriously phallic significance.5 Thus the over-all interpretation would be: The reason why she does not want to leave her friend is because she has repressed sexual desires for her. As these desires are morally and aesthetically in¬compatible with the tendency of the conscious personality, they are repressed and therefore more or less unconscious. Here anx¬iety corresponds to her repressed desire.

分析的解释(因果-化简)
这个解释能够被总结为一个句子:「我充分清楚地看见,我应该跨越这条河流(换句话说,放弃跟我的朋友的关系),但是,我但愿,我的朋友不要让我脱离她的掌握(也就是,拥抱)。作为一个婴孩的愿望,她的掌握意味着,我想要母亲用我如此熟悉的她的强烈的拥抱紧靠近我。这个愿望的不和谐在于这个同性恋的这个强烈的暗流,这个同性恋可以从这些事实获得证明。螃蟹捉住她的脚。病人拥有大的“男性的”脚。她扮演男性的角色,跟她的朋友,并且具有对应的性的幻想。脚具有恶名昭著的阳具的意义。因此,这个全面性的解释将会是:「为什么她并没有想要离开她的朋友,因为她曾经压抑对于她的性的欲望。因为这些欲望道德上与美学上是不和谐的,跟意识人格的倾向。它们被压抑,因此相当属于无意识。在此,焦虑对应于她的被压抑的欲望。

129 This interpretation is a severe depreciation of the patient’s
exalted ideal of friendship. To be sure, at this point in the anal¬ysis she would no longer have taken exception to such an inter¬pretation. Some time earlier certain facts had amply convinced her of her homosexual tendency, so that she could freely admit this inclination, although it was by no means agreeable to her. If, then, I had given her this interpretation at the present stage of treatment, I would have not encountered any resistance. She had already overcome the painfulness of this unwelcome tend¬ency by understanding it. But she would have said.to me, “Why are we still analysing this dream? It only reiterates what I have known for a long time.” The interpretation, in fact, tells the patient nothing new; it is therefore uninteresting and ineffec¬tive. Such an interpretation would have been impossible at the beginning of the treatment, because the unusual prudery of the patient would not under any circumstances have admitted anything of that kind.

这个解释是病人对于友谊的崇高的理想的严重的贬抑。的确,在精神分析的这个时刻,她本来不再排斥这样的解释。有时,早先的某些事实充分地说服她,具有同性恋的倾向。这样,她能够自由地承认这个倾向,虽然同性恋对于她根本就不令人愉快。因此,假如我当时给她这个解释,在治疗的目前这个阶段,我本来不会遭遇任何的抗拒。她已经克服这个不受欢迎的倾向的痛苦,凭借理解它。但是,她本来会对我说:「为什么我们依旧还在分析这个梦?这个梦仅是重复我已经知道很久的事情。」事实上,这个解释并没有告诉病人任何新东西。因此无趣而且没有效果。这样的解释本来是不可能的,在治疗的开始。因为病人的不寻常的过分谦虚无论如何本来不会承认那种事情。

4 A parallel view of the two kinds of interpretation is to be found in Herbert Silberer’s commendable book, Problems of Mysticism and Its Symbolism.
5 Aigremont (pseud. of Siegmar Baron von Schultze-Gallera), Fuss- und Schuh¬symbolik und -Erotik [1909J.
83

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
The “poison” of understanding had to be injected with extreme care, and in very small doses, until she gradually became more reasonable. Now, when the analytical or causal-reductive interpretation ceases to bring to light anything new, but only the same thing in different variations, the mo¬ment has come to look out for possible archetypal motifs. If such a motif comes clearly to the forefront, it is high time to change the interpretative procedure.

理解的这个“毒药”必须极端小心地注入。用很小的剂量,直到她逐渐地变得更加理性。现在,当分析的,或因果-化简的解释不再启蒙任何新的东西。而仅是相同的东西,在不同的变数里。这个时刻已经逐渐注意到可能的原型的母题。假如这样的一个母题清楚地呈现前面,那该死改变解释的程序的时刻了。

The causal-reductive pro¬cedure has in this particular case certain disadvantages. Firstly, it does not take accurate account of the patient’s associations, e.g., the association of “crab” with “cancer.” Secondly, the pe-culiar choice of the symbol remains unexplained. Why should the mother-friend appear as a crab? A prettier and more graphic representation would have been a water-nymph. (“Half drew she him, half sank he under,” ete.) An octopus, a dragon, a snake, or a fish would have served as well. Thirdly, the causal¬reductive procedure forgets that the dream is a subjective phe¬nomenon, and that consequently an exhaustive interpretation can never refer the crab to the friend or the mother alone, but must refer it also to the subject, the dreamer herself. The dreamer is the whole dream; she is the river, the ford, and the crab, or rather these details express conditions and tendencies in the unconscious of the subject.

因果-化简程序在这个特殊的个案拥有某些的不利。首先,它并没有正确地考虑到病人的联想。譬如,“螃蟹”crab跟癌症cancer的联想。其次,特殊地选择象征始终没有被解释。母亲-朋友为什么竟然出现作为是螃蟹?一个更加美丽,更加生动的代表本来应该是水神。(一半她抱着他,一半他沉在水中)。章鱼,龙,蛇,或是鱼,本来同样具有这样的效果。第三,因果-化简的程序忘记:梦是一个主观的现象,结果,一个全面的解释无法仅是将螃蟹跟朋友,或是母亲联接一块。而是必须将螃蟹也跟主体,作梦者联接一块。作梦者就是完整的梦。她是河流,渡口,与螃蟹。或者说,这些细节解释主体的无意识的情况与倾向。

o I have therefore introduced the following terminology: I
call every interpretation which equates the dream images with real objects an interpretation on the objective level. In contrast to this is the interpretation which refers every part of the dream and all the actors in it back to the dreamer himself. This I call interpretation on the subjective level. Interpretation on the ob¬jective level is analytic, because it breaks down the dream con¬tent into memory-complexes that refer to external situations. Interpretation on the subjective level is synthetic, because it de-taches the underlying memory-complexes from their external causes, regards them as tendencies or components of the subject, and reunites them with that subject. (In any experience I expe¬rience not merely the object but first and foremost myself, pro¬vided of course that I render myself an account of the experi¬ence.) In this case, therefore, all the contents of the dream are treated as symbols for subjective contents.

我因此介绍以下的术语:我称每个解释为“客体层次的解释”,因为这些解释将梦的意象相等于真实的客体。对照于这个解释,是将梦的每个部分与梦里的所有的行动,都回溯到作梦者自身。我称这个解释为“主体层次的解释”。客体层次的解释是分析性质,因为它分解梦的内容,成为跟外在情境有关的记忆-情结。主体层次的解释则是综合的解释。因为它将作为基础的记忆-情结,跟外在的原因隔开。将它们视为是主体的倾向,或是成份。并且将它们跟那个主体重新结合。(在任何经验里,我不但经验到客体,而且尤其重要的是经验到我自己。当然,条件是我提供我自己对于这个经验的描述。)因此,在这个情况,梦的所有的内容被处理,作为主体的内容的象征。

84

THE SYNTHETIC OR CONSTRUCTIVE METHOD
131 Thus the synthetic or constructive process of interpretation6
is interpretation on the subjective level.

因此,这个综合或是建设性的解释的过程,是主体层面的解释。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 综合方法 81

September 16, 2015

Collected 7
VI
THE SYNTHETIC OR CONSTRUCTIVE METHOD
:1 The process of coming to terms with the unconscious is a
true labour, a work which involves both action and suffering. It has been named the “transcendent function” 1 because it repre¬sents a function based on real and “imaginary,” or rational and irrational, data, thus bridging the yawning gulf between con¬scious and unconscious. It is a natural process, a manifestation of the energy that springs from the tension of opposites, and it con¬sists in a series of fantasy-occurrences which appear spontane¬ously in dreams and visions.2 The same process can also be ob¬served in the initial stages of certain forms of schizophrenia.

跟无意识达成妥协的这个过程,确实是艰辛。这件工作牵涉到行动与痛苦。它曾经被命名为“超验的功能”。因为它代表一个功能,以真实与“想像”的资料为基础的功能。或是理性与非理性的资料作为基础的功能。因此,它作为桥梁衔接意识与无意识之间的裂开的海湾。这是一个自然的过程,能源的展示。这个能源起源于对立力量的紧张。它由幻想-事件的系列组成。它们自动自发地出现在梦境与幻境里。相同的过程也能够被观察,在某些的精神分裂的形式的初期阶段。

A classical account of such a proceeding is to be found, for exam¬ple, in Gerard de Nerval’s autobiographical fragment, Aurelia. But the most important literary example is Part II of Faust. The natural process by which the opposites are united came to serve me as the model and basis for a method consisting essentially in this: everything that happens at the behest of nature, uncon¬sciously and spontaneously, is deliberately summoned forth and integrated into the conscious mind and its outlook. Failure in many cases is due precisely to the fact that they lack the mental and spiritual equipment to master the events taking place in them. Here medical help must intervene in the form of a special method of treatment.

这样一个程序的经典的描述能够被找到,譬如,在内瓦尔的自传“奥瑞利亚”。但是,最重要的文学例子是“浮士德”的第二部分。对立力量凭借用来统合的这个自然的过程,逐渐提供我服务,作为典范与基础。因为这一个方法基本上由这个组成:发生在自然的权威要求,无意识地,而且自动自发地。这一切被刻意地召唤出来,并且被融合成为意识的心灵与它的外观。在很多个案的失败确实是由于这个事实:他们欠缺心灵与精神的装备,为了掌控发生在他们身上的这些事件。在此,医学的帮助必须介入,用治疗的特别的方法的形式。

2 As we have seen, the theories discussed at the beginning of
this book rest on an exclusively causal and reductive procedure which resolves the dream (or fantasy) into its memory compo•
1 I discovered only subsequently that the idea of the transcendent function also occurs in the higher mathematics, and is actually the name of the function of real and imaginary numbers. See also my essay “The Transcendent Function:’ 2. For an analysis of one such dream-series see Psychology and Alchemy,
80

THE SYNTHETIC OR CONSTRUCTIVE METHOD
nents and the underlying instinctual processes. I have indicated above the justification as well as the limitation of this procedure.

如同我们已经看出,在这本书的开始被讨论的这些理论,专注地依靠因果与化简的程序。它们将梦(或幻想)分解成为它的记忆的成份,与潜藏的本能的过程。我以上曾经指示这个理由,以及这个程序的限制。

It breaks down at the point where the dream symbols can no longer be reduced to personal reminiscences or aspirations, that is, when the images ot the collective unconscious begin to ap¬pear. It would be quite senseless to try to reduce these collective ideas to anything personal-not only senseless but positively harmful, as painful experience has taught me.

它在这个时刻会瓦解,在梦的象征不再能够被化简到个人的回忆或渴望。换句话说,当集体无意识的各种意象开始出现。这将是完全没有意义,假如我们尝试将这些集体的的观念,化简成为某件个人的东西,仅是没有意义但是强烈有害的个人的东西,如同痛苦的经验教导我们。
Only with much difficulty, after long hesitation and disabuse by many failures, was I able to decide to abandon the purely personalistic attitude of medical psychology in the sense indicated. I had first to come to the fundamental realization that analysis, in so far as it is re¬duction and nothing more, must necessarily be followed by syn¬thesis, and that certain kinds of psychic material mean next to nothing if simply broken down, but display a wealth of meaning if, instead of being broken down, that meaning is reinforced and extended by all the conscious means at our disposal-by the so¬called method of amplification.3

只是非常困难地,经过漫长的犹豫与许多失败的滥用,我才能够决定放弃医学的心理学的这些纯粹是个人的态度。因为它指示著,我首先必须获得这个基本的体会:因为精神分析是仅仅就是化简,不是别的。精神分析必然随后会有综合。某些种类的心灵的材料几乎没有什么意义,假如它们仅是被分解。相反地,它们展示丰富的意义,假如它们不要被分解,它们的意义会被增强与延伸,凭借我们能够使用的所有的意识的方法,凭借所谓的强化的方法。
The images or symbols of the collective unconscious yield their distinctive values only when subjected to a synthetic mode of treatment. Just as analysis breaks down the symbolical fantasy-material into its compo¬nents, so the synthetic procedure integrates it into a general and intelligible statement. The procedure is not exactly simple, so I will give an example which will help to explain the whole process.

集体无意识的意象或象征产生它们的显著的价值,仅有当它们隶属于综合的治疗的方法。正如精神分析分解象征的幻想-材料,分解成为它的成份。综合的程序融合它们成为一般与可以理解的陈述。这个程序并不确实是简单。我将举出一个例子。这个例子将会帮助解释整个的过程。

123 A woman patient, who had just reached the critical border-
line between the analysis of the personal unconscious and the emergence of contents from the collective unconscious, had the following dream: She is about to cross a wide river. There is no bridge) but she finds a ford where she can cross. She is on the point of doing so) when a large crab that lay hidden in the water seizes her by the toot and will not let her go. She wakes up in terror.

一位女病人刚刚到达关键的边缘,处于个人无意识的精神分析,与从集体无意识而来的内容的出现之间。这一位女人作了以下的梦境:她即将跨越过一条宽带河流。并没有桥梁。(但是她找到一个她能够跨越的渡口。她正要这样做)。当一只大螃蟹隐藏在水里,捉住她的脚,并且不会松开。她恐惧地醒来。

Associations:
124 River: “Forms a boundary that is difficult to get across-I
have to overcome an obstacle-probably to do with the fact that I’m progressing so slowly-I ought to reach the other side.”

联想:
河流:「组成一个困难跨越的边界—我必须克服一个阻碍—可能个这个事实有关的阻碍:我正在如此缓慢地进展—我应该到达另外一边。」

3 [For an account of amplification see “The Theory of Psychoanalysis,” pars. 326ff.-EDlTORS.]
81

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
!5 Ford: “An opportunity to cross in safety-a possible way,
otherwise the river would be too broad-in the treatment lies the possibility of surmounting the obstacle.”

渡口:「安全渡过的机会—这是一个可能的方法。否则,河流将是太过寛广,克服这个阻碍的可能性就在这个治疗里。

!6 Crab: “The crab was quite hidden in the water, I did not
see it before-cancer [German Krebs = crabJ is a terrible dis¬ease, incurable [reference to Mrs. X, who died of carcinoma J-I am afraid of this disease-the crab is an animal that walks back¬wards-and obviously wants to drag me into the river-it caught hold of me in a horrible way and I was terribly frightened-what keeps stopping me from getting across? Oh yes, I had another row with my friend [a woman].”

螃蟹:「这只螃蟹完全隐藏在水里。我没有看见它,在癌症是一个可怕的疾病之前(cancer与crab在德文krebs是双关语)。对于X夫人,癌症是无法治疗的(提到X夫人,她死于原位癌)–我害怕这个疾病—这只螃蟹是一只退行走的动物。显而易见地,它想要拉我进入河流—它以可怕的方式捉住我。我非常害怕—是什么东西一直阻止我不能跨越过去?奥,是的。我跟我的朋友(一位女人)另外争吵一次。

27 There is something peculiar about her relations with this
friend. It is a sentimental attachment, bordering on the homo¬sexual, that has lasted for years. The friend is like the patient in many ways, and equally nervy. They have marked artistic in¬terests in common. The patient is the stronger personality of the two. Because their mutual relationship is too intimate and ex¬cludes too many of the other possibilities of life, both are nervy and, despite their ideal friendship, have violent scenes due to mutual irritability. The unconscious is trying in this way to put a distance between them, but they refuse to listen.

有某件特殊的事情,关于她跟这位朋友的关系。这是一个情感的连系,迹近于同性恋,这个情感连系维持好几年。这位朋友很多方面就像病人,同样都是神经质。她们都有明显的艺术的共同的興趣。病人就是这两个人格当中比较强烈的一位。因为她们的互相的友谊太过亲密,并且排除生命的太多的其他的可能性。两位都是神经质。尽管她们的理想的友谊有关暴烈的争吵,由于互相的暴怒。无意识总是以这种方式尝试在她们中间拉开距离1.但是她们拒绝倾听。

The quarrel usually begins because one of them finds that she is still not sufficiently understood, and urges that they should speak more plainly to one another; whereupon both make enthusiastic efforts to unbosom themselves. Naturally a misunderstanding comes about in next to no time, and a worse scene than ever ensues. Faute de mieux) this quarrelling had long been for both of them a pleasure substitute which they were unwilling to re¬linquish. My patient in particular could not do without the sweet pain of being misunderstood by her best friend, although every scene “tired her to death.” She had long since realized that this friendship had become moribund, and that only false ambi¬tion led her to believe that something ideal could still be made of it. She had formerly had an exaggerated, fantastic relation to her mother and after her mother’s death had transferred her feelings to her friend.

这个争吵通常开始,因为其中一位发现,她依旧并没有充分地被理解。并且建议,她们应该更加坦率地互相谈话。虽然两个人都热忱地努力要坦诚她们的心声。当然,一个误解会发生,几乎立刻地。一个更加糟糕的争吵随之而来。别无更好选择地,这个争吵长久以来对于他们两个人,就是一个快乐的替代品。她们不愿意放弃这个快乐的替代品。我的病人特别无法免除不要这个甜蜜的痛苦,由于被她的最好的朋友的误解。虽然每次都争吵都“让她疲累不堪”。她长久以来就体会到,这个友谊已经变得濒临死亡。只有虚假的企图心引导她相信:某件理想的东西依据能够由它组成。她先前曾经有过一个被夸张的幻想的关系,跟她的母亲。在她的母亲死亡之后,她转移她的感情到她的朋友。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 个人无意识与集体无意识 73

September 15, 2015

Collected 7
V
The
Personal, and the Collective (OR TRANSPERSONAL) UNCONSCIOUS
个人无意识与集体无意识(或跨越个人无意识)

115 The transition from morning to afternoon means a reval-
uation of the earlier values. There comes the urgent need to appreciate the value of the opposite of our former ideals, to per¬ceive the error in our former convictions, to recognize the un¬truth in our former truth, and to feel how much antagonism and even hatred lay in what, until now, had passed for love. Not a few of those who are drawn into the conflict of opposites jettison everything that had previously seemed to them good and worth striving for; they try to live in complete opposition to their for¬mer ego.

从早晨转换成为下午,意味着早先价值的启示。有渴望的需求前来赏识我们先前的理想的对立的价值,感知这个错误,在我们先前的信仰,为了体认这个非真理,在我们先前的真理,以及感知多大的敌意,甚至仇恨躺在直到现在,曾经被认为是爱的东西。有一些那样的人们,被吸引进入对立力量的冲突。他们抛弃先前他们觉得是好而且值得奋斗的东西。他们尝试生活于完全的对立,跟以前的自我。

Changes of profession, divorces, religious convulsions, apostasies of every description, are the symptoms of this swing over to the opposite. The snag about a radical conversion into one’s opposite is that one’s former life suffers repression and thus produces just as unbalanced a state as existed before, when the counterparts of the conscious virtues and values were still repressed and unconscious. Just as before, perhaps, neurotic dis¬orders arose because the opposing fantasies were unconscious, so now other disorders arise through the repression of former idols. It is of course a fundamental mistake to imagine that when we see the non-value in a value or the untruth in a truth, the value or the truth ceases to exist.

职业的改变,离婚,宗教的狂热,各种各样的放弃信仰。它们都是这个摆荡到对立力量的症状。关于强烈地转换成为自己的对立面的暗礁是,我们先前的生活遭受压抑,因此产生同样的不平衡的状态,跟以前存在的状态一样。当意识到品德与价值的相对之物,依旧被压抑,而且是无意识。就像以前,或许,神经症的疾病会产生,因为对立的幻想是无意识。所以,现在其他的疾病产生,经由先前的偶像的压抑。这当然是一个基本的错误,假如我们想像,当我们看见这个非-价值,或是真理当中的非真理,这个价值或这个真理就停止存在。

It has only become relative. Every¬thing human is relative, because everything rests on an inner polarity; for everything is a phenomenon of energy. Energy nec¬essarily depends on a pre-existing polarity, without which there could be no energy. There must always be high and low, hot and cold, ete., so that the equilibrating process-which is energy¬can take place. Therefore the tendency to deny all previous val¬Ues in favour of their opposites is just as much of an exaggera¬tion as the earlier one-sidedness. And in so far as it is a question of rejecting universally accepted and indubitable values, the re¬sult is a fatal loss.
One who acts in this way empties himself out with his values, as N ietzsche has already said.

它变得成为“相对”。每一样人性的东西都是相对的,因为每一样东西都依靠内部的极端。因为每一样东西都是能源的现象。能源必然依靠一个先去-存在的极端。假如没有这个极端,就不可能有任何能源。总是必须要有高与低,热与冷,等等。所以,属于能源的这个平衡的过程才会发生。因此,这个倾向于否认所有的先驱的价值,以赞同它的对立面,同样是一种夸张,跟较早前的单面性。因为这是一个排斥普世被接受与无可置疑的价值。结果是致命的丧失。以这种方式行动的人,掏空他自己,用他的价值,如同尼采已经说过的。

75

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
116 The point is not conversion into the opposite but conserva-
tion of previous values together with recognition of their oppo¬sites. Naturally this means conflict and self-division. It is under¬standable enough that one should shrink from it, philosophically as well as morally; hence the alternative sought, more often than conversion into the opposite, is a convulsive stiffening of the previous attitude.

重点并不是转换成为对立力量,而是先前的价值的被保存,跟它们的对立力量的体认一块。当然,这意味着冲突与自性-分裂。这是足够可以被理解的,我们应该从它退缩,哲学方面,以及道德方面。因此,被寻求的这个替代选择,比起转换成为对立力量更加经常地,是先前的态度的痉挛的僵化。

It must be admitted that, in the case of elderly men, this is a phenomenon of no little merit, however disagreeable it may be: at least they do not become renegades, they remain upright, they do not fall into muddle-headedness nor yet into the mud; they are no defaulters, but are merely dead wood or, to put it more politely, pillars of the past. But the accompanying symptoms, the rigidity, the narrow-mindedness, the stand-offishness of these laudatores temporis acti are unpleas¬ant, not to say harmful; for their method of espousing a truth or any other value is so inflexible and violent that their unmanner¬line ss repels more than the truth attracts, so that the result is the opposite of the intended good.

我们必须承认,在老年人们的情况,这是一个相当重要现象, 无论它是多么令人不愉快。至少它们没有变成叛教者。他们始终是正直的。他们并没有掉入糊涂头脑。也还没有掉入泥泞。他们不再是没有行为能力者。而仅是僵化的木头,或说得委婉些,仅是过去的柱子。但是这些伴随的症状,这个僵硬,狭窄的心胸,思古之幽情,是令人不愉快的。更不用说是有害的。因为他们阐释真理或任何其他价值的方法,是如此没有弹性与暴力,以致于他们的不合社交礼貌驱走真理,而不是吸引真理。所以,结果是这个意图的善的恰恰相反。

The fundamental cause of their rigidity is fear of the problem of opposites: they have a forebod¬ing and secret dread of the “sinister brother of Medardus.” Therefore there must be only one truth and one guiding prin¬ciple of action, and that must be absolute; otherwise it affords no protection against the impending disaster, which is sensed everywhere save in themselves. But actually the most dangerous revolutionary is within ourselves, and all must realize this who wish to pass over safely into the second half of life. Certainly this means exchanging the apparent security we have so far enjoyed for a condition of insecurity, of internal division, of contradic¬tory convictions. The worst feature of all is that there appears to be no way out of this condition. Tertium non datur) says logic¬there is no middle way.

他们僵化的基本的原因是对于对立力量的恐惧与难题。他们有一个预感与秘密的恐惧梅达塔斯的“古怪”的兄弟。因此,一定仅存在一个真理与行动的一个引导原则。那必须是绝对的,否则它没有供应任何的保护,对抗逼近的灾难。这个逼近的灾难到处被感觉到,除了在它们自己身上。但是实际上,最危险的革命是在我们自身之内。凡是想要安全通过进入生命的后面一半的人们,必须体会到这一点。的确,这意味着交换明显的安全感。迄今我们享有的安全感,针对不安全的情况,内部分裂的情况,矛盾信仰的情况。这一切最糟糕的特征是,从这个情况里,似乎没有出路。那里的逻辑,没有中庸之道。

117 The practical necessities of treatment have therefore forced
us to look for ways and means that might lead out of this intoler¬able situation. Whenever a man is confronted by an apparently insurmountable obstacle, he draws back: he makes what is tech¬nically called a regression. He goes back to the times when he found himself in similar situations, and he tries to apply again the means that helped him then. But what helped in youth is of no use in age. What good did it do that American business man to return to his former position? It simply wouldn’t work.

治疗的实践上的需要因此强迫我们寻找方法与工具,可以引导脱离这个令人难以忍受的情境。每当一个人面临一个明显无法被克服的阻碍时,他撤退:他从事专业术语所谓的退转。他回到他发现他自己处于类似情境的时代。他尝试再次运用当时帮忙他的那个方法。但是在年轻时帮助他的东西,在老年时是没有用的。对于那位美国生意如回答他以前的职位,有什么益处呢?那就是行不通嘛。

So the
76

‘tHE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
regression continues right back into childhood (hence the child-ishness of many elderly neurotics) and ends up in the time be¬fore childhood. That may sound strange, but in point of fact it is not only logical but altogether possible.

所以,这个退转继续直接回到童年(因此,许多年长的神经症者的童年),并且结束于童年之前的时代。那可能听起来很奇怪。但是事实上,那不但合乎逻辑,而且完全可能。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 个人无意识与集体意识 71

September 11, 2015

Collected 7
V
The
Personal, and the Collective (OR TRANSPERSONAL) UNCONSCIOUS
个人无意识与集体无意识(或跨越个人无意识)

III Old Heraclitus, who was indeed a very great sage, discovered
the most marvellous of all psychological laws: the regulative function of opposites. He called it enantiodromia) a running contrariwise, by which he meant that sooner or later everything runs into its opposite. (Here I would remind you of the case above of the American business man, a beautiful example of en¬antiodromia.) Thus the rational attitude of culture necessarily runs into its opposite, namely the irrational devastation of cul-ture.13 We should never identify ourselves with reason, for man is not and never will be a creature of reason alone, a fact to be noted by all pedantic culture-mongers.

老赫拉克利图斯确实是一位伟大的贤人。他发现所有的心理的法则的最神奇的法则。:对立力量的规范的功能。他称它为“逆向运转”他的意思是:迟早,每样东西都会遭遇到它的对立面。(在此,我想要提醒你们以上的这个案例,关于这位美国的生意人。作为逆向运转的美丽例子。)因此,文化的理性的态度必然会遭遇它的对立面。换句话说,文化的非理性的摧毁。我们永远不会认同于理性。因为人并不是,也将永远不是仅是理性的动物。这一个事实应该被注意到,被所有的学究的文化贩卖者。

The irrational cannot be and must not be extirpated. The gods cannot and must not die. I said just now that there seems to be something, a kind of supe¬rior power, in the human psyche, and that if this is not the idea of God, then it is the “belly.” I wanted to express the fact that one or other basic instinct, or complex of ideas, will invariably concentrate upon itself the greatest sum of psychic energy and thus force the ego into its service.

非理性无法,也必然无法被消灭。众神无法死亡,也一定不要死亡。我刚才说过,似乎有某件东西,某种的优秀的力量,在人类的心灵里。假如这并不是上帝的观念,那么,它就是“肚子”。我想要表达这个事实:其中一个本能,或其中一个观念的情结,必然将会专注它自己,于心灵能源的最伟大的总数,因此强迫自我进入它的服务。

As a rule the ego is drawn into this focus of energy so powerfully that it identifies with it and thinks it desires and needs nothing further. In this way a craze develops, a monomania or possession, an acute one-sidedness which most seriously imperils the psychic equilibrium. Without doubt the capacity for such one-sidedness is the secret of success¬of a sort, for which reason our civilization assiduously strives to foster it. The passion, the piling up of energy in these monoma¬nias, is what the ancients called a “god,” and in common speech we still do the same.

通常,自我如此强烈地被吸引进入能源的这个焦点,以致它认同它,并且认为它不再欲望并且需要任何东西。用这个方式,一阵狂热发展出来,单一事物的狂热或著迷,敏锐的单面,非常严肃地危害心灵的平衡。无可置疑地,从事如此的单面事物的能力是某种成功的秘密。因为那个理由,我们的文明持续地奋斗要培养它。激情,能源的累积,在这些单一事物的狂热,是古代人们所谓的“神”。在通俗语言里,我们依旧这样称呼。

Do we not say, “He makes a god of this or that”? A man thinks that he wills and chooses, and does not no¬tice that he is already possessed, that liis interest has become the master, arrogating all power to itself. Such interests are indeed gods of a kind which, once recognized by the many, gradually form a “church” and gather a herd of believers about them.

我们难道不是说,「他让这个或那个东西成为神“?一个人认为,他意愿与选择,并且并没有注意,他已经被著迷,以致于这个興趣成为他的主人。过分集中所有的力量给它自己。这样的興趣确实是某种的众神。一旦他被众多人体认存出来,它形成一所”教堂“,并且聚集一群的信仰者在他们四周。
13 This sentence was written during the first World War. I have let it stand in its original form because it contains a truth which has been confirmed more than once in the course of history. (\Vritten in 1925.) As present events show, the confirmation did not have to wait very long. Who wants this blind destruc-tion? But we all help the daemon to our last gasp. 0 sancta simpZicitas! (Written in 1942.)
72

THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
This we then call an “organization.” It is followed by a dis¬organizing reaction which aims to drive out the devil with Beelzebub. The enantiodromia that always threatens when a movement attains to undisputed power offers no solution of the problem, for it is just as blind in its disorganization as it was in its organization.

我们称这个为“组织“。它后面跟随着一个”反组织“的反动。这个反动目标是要驱除这个苍蝇王道恶魔,这个总是具有威胁的单一事物的狂热,并没有提供难题的任何解决,当一个运动获得无可争议的力量。因为它同样是盲目的,在它的瓦解组织,如同它在组织时的盲目。

112 The only person who escapes the grim law of enantiodromia
is the man who knows how to separate himself from the uncon¬scious, not by repressing it-for then it simply attacks him from the rear-but by putting it clearly before him as that which he is not.

唯一逃避单一事物的狂热的人,他知道如何将他自己跟无意识区隔开是。不是凭借压抑它,因为,它仅是从后面攻击他。而是凭借摆放它在它面前,作为他并不是本质的样子。

113 This prepares the way for the solution of the Scylla and
Charybdis problem described above. The patient must learn to differentiate what is ego and what is non-ego, i.e., collective psyche. In this way he finds the material to which he will hence¬forth have to accommodate himself.

这替以上所描述的史塞拉与大旋涡的难题的解决铺路。病人必须学习区别自我是什么与非自我是什么。譬如,集体心灵是什么。用这个方式,他找到这个材料,他因此将必须供应他自己的财力。

His energy, until now laid up in unserviceable and pathological forms, has come into its proper sphere. It is essential, in differentiating the ego from the non-ego, that a man should be firmly rooted in his ego-function; that is, he must fulfil his duty to life, so as to be in every respect a viable member of the community. All that he neglects in this respect falls into the unconscious and reinforces its position, so that he is in danger of being swallowed up by it. But the penal¬ties for this are heavy.

他的能源,直到现在,都用没有提供服务与病态的形式来累积,现在则是进入它的合适的范围。重要的是,当区别自我跟非自我的差别时,一个人应该坚定地根源于他的自我-功能。换句话说,他必须实践他获得生命的责任,为了要在各方面成为社会的有用的成员。在这方面他忽略的一切掉入无意识,并且重新增强它的立场。这样,他处于被它吞没的危险。但是,对于这个惩罚是很严重的。

As Synesius opined of old, it is just the “inspired soul” ( 7r1J€vfJ,aTL){~ 1fvx~ ) that becomes god and de¬mon, and as such suffers the divine punishment of being torn asunder like Zagreus. This was what N ietzsche experienced at the onset of his malady. Enantiodromia means being torn asun¬der into pairs of opposites, which are the attributes of “the god” and hence also of the godlike man, who owes his godlikeness to overcoming his gods. As soon as we speak of the collective un¬conscious we find ourselves in a sphere, and concerned with a problem, which is altogether precluded in the practical analysis of young people or of those who have remained infantile too long.

如同如同希尼西斯对老年的看法,同样就是这个位“被启发的灵魂”已经成为神性与恶魔。作为神性与恶魔,他遭受神的惩罚的痛苦,像扎格瑞斯一样被撕裂。这就是尼采在疾病的开始经验到的东西。专注于单一事物意味着被撕裂分为对立力量的配对。它们是“神”的属性,因此,也属于像神一样的人。他将这个神性归功于克服他的众神。当我们一谈了集体无意识,我们发现我们自己处于一个氛围,并且关注一个难题。这个难题在年轻人们的实践的精神分析完全被预示,他们保持当婴孩太久了。

Wherever the father and mother imagos have still to be overcome, wherever there is a little bit of life still to be con¬quered, which is the natural possession of the average man, then we had better make no mention of the collective unconscious and the problem of opposites. But once the parental transfer¬ences and the youthful illusions have been mastered, or are at
7P

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
least ripe for mastery, then we must speak of these things. We are here outside the range of Freudian and Adlerian reductions; we are no longer concerned with how to remove the obstacles to a man’s profession, or to his marriage, or to anything that means a widening of his life, but are confronted with the task of find¬ing a meaning that will enable him to continue living at all-a meaning more than blank resignation and mournful retrospect.

每当父亲与母亲的意象还有待克服,每当还有一点点生活依旧有待克服,这是一般人自然会拥有的,那么我们最好不要提的集体无意识与对立力量的难题。但是一旦父母的移情与年轻的幻觉已经被掌控,或是至少成熟到可以掌控,那么,我们必须谈了这些事情。我们在此是在弗洛依德与阿德勒的化简主义的范围之外。我们不再关注如何移除这些阻碍,移到一个人的专业,或移到他的婚姻,或移到任何意味著他的生命的扩宽。但是,我们面临这个工作,要找到一个意义,将让他能够继续生活下去—这意味着不仅空白地顺服与哀伤的反思。

114 Our life is like the course of the sun. In the morning it gains
continually in strength until it reaches the zenith-heat of high noon. Then comes the enantiodromia: the steady forward move¬ment no longer denotes an increase, but a decrease, in strength. Thus our task in handling a young person is different from the task of handling an older person. In the former case, it is enough to clear away all the obstacles that hinder expansion and ascent; in the latter, we must nurture everything that assists the descent.

我们的生命就像太阳的途径。在早上,太阳不断地获得力量,直到它到达正午的顶端的热度。然后,单一事物的狂热来临,稳定地向前运动,不再指明增加,而是力量的减少。因此,我们的工作,当我们处理一位年轻人时,不同于处理一位老年人的工作。在前者的情况,我们只要清理掉所有的妨碍扩展与上升的阻碍。在后者,我们必须滋养每一样有助于上升的东西。

An inexperienced youth thinks one can let the old people go, because not much more can happen to them anyway: they have their lives behind them and are no better than petrified pillars of the past. But it is a great mistake to suppose that the meaning of life is exhausted with the period of youth and expansion; that, for example, a woman who has passed the menopause is “finished.”

一位没有经验的年轻人认为,我们能够让老年人们自主,因为他们无论如何不会再会发生什么事。他们将他们的生活抛弃在背后,像过去的麻痹的柱子没有什么两样。但是,这是一个很大的错误,假如我们认为生命的意义已经被耗尽,随着年轻与扩展的时期。譬如,一位已经通过停经期的女人,已经“没戏了”。

The afternoon of life is just as full of meaning as the morning; only, its meaning and purpose are different.14 Man has two aims: the first is the natural aim, the begetting of children and the business of protecting the brood; to this belongs the acquisition of money and social position. When this aim has been reached a new phase begins: the cultural aim. For the attainment of the former we have the help of nature and, on top of that, education; for the attainment of the latter, little or nothing helps.

生命的下午仅是跟早上一样充满意义。仅是它的意义与目的是不同的。人有两个目标:首先是自然的目标,生育小孩与保护家庭的责任,金钱与社会地位的获得属于这一类。当这个目标已经被达到,一个新的时期开始,文化的目标。为了获得前者,我们拥有自然的帮助。除此而外,教育。为了获得后者,几乎没有什么可帮助。

Often, indeed, a false ambition survives, in that an old man wants to be a youth again, or at least feels he must behave like one, although in his heart he can no longer make believe. This is what makes the transition from the natu¬ral to the cultural phase so terribly difficult and bitter for many people; they cling to the illusion of youth or to their chil¬dren, hoping to salvage in this way a last little scrap of youth.

的确,经常,一个虚假的企图心存活下来。因为一位老年人想要再次成为年轻人。或至少感觉他必须行为像一位年轻人。虽然在他的心里,他不再能够假装。这就是为什么对于许多人们,这个转换,从自然到文化时期的转换,会如此艰辛与痛楚的原因。他们紧捉著年轻的幻觉,或是紧捉住他们的小孩。他们希望用这个方式打捞年轻时的最后残渣。

One sees it especially in mothers, who find their sole meaning in their children and imagine they will sink into a bottomless void when they have to give them up. No wonder that many bad neu¬Ho Cf. “The Stages of Life.”
74

THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
roses appear at the onset of life’s afternoon. It is a sort of second puberty, another “storm and stress” period, not infrequently ac¬companied by tempests of passion-the :’dangerous age.” But the problems that crop up at this age are no longer to be solved by the old recipes: the hand of this clock cannot be put back. What youth found and must find outside, the man of life’s afternoon must find within himself. Here we face new problems which often cause the doctor no light headache.

我们看见它,特别在母亲们身上。母亲们找到她们的唯一的意义,在他们的小孩身上,并且想像他们将会沉入无底的空洞,当他们必须放弃它们。难怪,许多严重的神经症出现在生命的下午的开始。这是一种第二次的青春期,另外一种“暴风雨与压力”的时期。经常伴随着激情的狂风暴雨,“危险的时期”。但是,在这个年纪突然出现的这个难题,不再能够被解救,凭借旧的药方。时钟的指针无法倒转。年轻所发现的东西,以及必须在外面找到的东西,生命的下午的人必须在他自己内部找到。在此,我们面临新的难题,这些难题经常引起医生相当的头痛。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com