Archive for July, 2015

Synchronicity 428

July 31, 2015

Synchronicity 428
共时性
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

III. Exposition
说明
In his view “the subject of the great dream of life … is but one,” 17 the transcendental Will, the prima causa, from which all causal chains radiate like meridian lines from the poles and, because of the circular parallels, stand to one another in a meaningful relationship of simultaneity.18 Schopenhauer be¬lieved in the absolute determinism of the natural process and furthermore in a first cause. There is nothing to w<!rrant either assumption. The first cause is a philosophical mythologem which is only credible when it appears in the form of the old paradox "Ev TC, ?Tav, as unity and multiplicity at once.

依照他的观点,“生命的伟大的梦想的主体,仅是一位。”这个超验的意志,这个prima causa,所有的因果的锁链,从极地,像子午线般焕发出来。因为这些循环的并列,所有的因果的锁链处于互相具有共时性的意义的关系。叔本华相信这个绝对的决定论,自然过程进一步地处于一个最初原因的绝对的决定论。没有任何东西能够保证任何一个假设。这个最初原因是哲学的神秘主义,仅有当它以古老的悖论的形式出现时,它才是可信的。它同时具有一致性与多重新。

The idea that the simultaneous points in the causal chains, or meridians, represent meaningful coincidences would only hold water if the first cause really were a unity. But if it were a multiplicity, which is just as likely, then Schopenhauer's whole explanation col¬lapses, quite apart from the fact, which we have only recently realized, that natural law possesses a merely statistical validity and thus keeps the door open to indeterminism. Neither philo¬sophical reflection nor experience can provide any evidence for the regular occurrence of these two kinds of connection, in which the same thing is both subject and object. Schopenhauer thought and wrote at a time when causality held sovereign sway as a category a priori and had therefore to be dragged in to explain meaningful coincidences. But, as we have seen, it can do this with some degree of probability only if we have recourse to the other, equally arbitrary assumption of the unity of the first cause. It then follows as a necessity that every point on a given meridian stands in a relationship of meaningful coincidence to every other point on the same degree of latitude.

在因果律的锁链或子午线,同时性的点代表有意义的巧合。这个观念将会证明是真实,仅有但第一原因确实是具有一致性。但是,假如它是多重性,那是同样的可能,那么叔本华的整个的解释就崩溃了。除了这个事实之外,我们仅是在最近才体会到的事实,自然法则拥有一个仅是统计数目的正确性,因此保持大门开放给不确定主要。哲学的反思,或经验都无法供应这个证据,给这两种的联接的规律发生的事情。在那里,相同的事情既是主体,又是客体。叔本华认为并且写作,当因果律拥有统治的影响,作为是先验的范畴。因此,因果律必须被带进来解释有意义的巧合。但是如同我们已经看见,因果律能够这样做,带着某个程度的可能性,仅有当我们诉诸于另外一个,同样是任意性的一致性的假设,最初原因具有一致性。因此,我们能够推论这是必要的:在某个子午线的每个点,都处于具有意义的巧合的关系,跟相同程度的纬度度每个其他的点。

16 P. 45. [Irvine, pp. 49f.]
17 P. 46. [Irvine, p. 50']
18 Hence my term "synchronicity."
428

SYNCHRONICITY: AN ACAUSAL CONNECTING PRINCIPLE
This conclu¬sion, however, goes far beyond the bounds of what is empirically possible, for it credits meaningful coincidences with occurring so regularly and systematically that their verification would be either unnecessary or the simplest thing in the world. Schopen-hauer's examples carry as much or as little conviction as all the others. Nevertheless, it is to his credit that he saw the prob¬lem and understood that there are no facile ad hoc explanations. Since this problem is concerned with the foundations of our epistemology, he derived it in accordance with the general trend of his philosophy from a transcendental premise, from the Will which creates life and being on all levels, and which modulates each of these levels in such a way that they are not only in harmony with their synchronous parallels but also prepare and arrange future events in the form of Fate or Providence.

可是,这个结论远超过这个边界,经验上的可能的边界。因为它推崇有意义的巧合,跟如此规律而有系统地发生,以致于它们的证明为真实要就是没有必要,要不就是世界上最简单的事情。叔本华的例子,具有如此多,也如此少的信念,如同其他的信念。可是,由于他的信念,他看见这个难题,并且理解到:并不存在着事实而明确的解释。因为这个难题所关注的是我们的认识论的基础。叔本华获得这个认识论,依照他的哲学的一般倾向,从超验的假设。从这个“意志”。这个意志创造生命与生物,在各个层次。这个意志调换每一个这些层次,以这样一种方式,以致它们不但跟它们的共时性的并列互相和谐,而且准备与安排未来的事件,以命运或天启的形式。

829 In contrast to Schopenhauer's accustomed pessimism, this
utterance has an almost friendly and optimistic tone which we can hardly sympathize with today. One of the most problemati¬cal and momentous centuries the world has ever known sepa¬rates us from that still medievalistic age when the philosophizing mind believed it could make assertions beyond what could be empirically proved. It was an age of large views, which did not cry halt and think that the limits of nature had been reached just where the scientific road-builders had come to a temporary stop. Thus Schopenhauer, with true philosophical vision, opened up a field for reflection whose peculiar phenomenology he was not equipped to understand, though he outlined it more or less correctly.

跟叔本华的习惯性的悲观主义对照起来。这个表达具有几乎是友善而乐观主义的语调。我们今天几乎无法同情的语调。其中一个最棘手而重要的世纪,这世界曾经知道过的世纪,将我们分开,跟依旧是中世纪分。当哲学的心灵相信,它能够发表各种主张,超越经验上能够被证明的主张。那是一个百家争鸣的时代。这些观点并不喊叫停止,并且思维,自然的极限已经被达到。就在科学的筑路者暂时停止的地方。因此,叔本华,具有真实的哲学的幻景,展开这个领域作为反思。这个领域的特殊的现象学,他并没有具备理解。虽然他描绘出轮廓,相当正确地。

He recognized that with their omina and praesagia astrology and the various intuitive methods of in¬terpreting fate have a common denominator which he sought to discover by means of "transcendental speculation."

他体认出,凭借他们的omina and praesagia,星相学与各色各样的直觉得诠释命运的方法,具有共同的母母。他设法发现这个共同分母,凭借“超验的沉思”。

He recog¬nized, equally rightly, that it was a problem of principle of the first order, unlike all those before and after him who operated with futile conceptions of some kind of energy transmission, or conveniently dismissed the whole thing as nonsense in order to avoid a too difficult task.19 Schopenhauer's attempt is the more remarkable in that it was made at a time when the tremendous advance of the natural sciences had convinced everybody that causality alone could be considered the final principle of ex¬planation. Instead of ignoring all those experiences which re¬fuse to bow down to the sovereign rule of causality, he tried, as we have seen, to fit them into his deterministic view of the world.

他体认到,同样正确地,那是最初秩序的原则的难题。不像在他之前与之后的所有人们的那些难题。那些人们运作徒然无效的某种能源的传递的观念,或是方便地排斥整个的事情,作为是无稽之谈,为了避免太困难的一件工作。叔本华的企图是更加引人注意,因为他从事这一个企图,当自然科学的巨大的进步已经说服每个人们:仅有因果律能够被认为是解释的最后的原则。叔本华并没有忽略所有那些经验,拒绝屈服于因果律的统辖统治的那些经验。相反地,他尝试,如同我们已经看见,他尝试将它们套进他的决定论的世界观。

In so doing, he forced concepts like prefiguration, cor¬respondence, and pre-established harmony, which as a universal order coexisting with the causal one have always underlain man's explanations of nature, into the causal scheIJ1e, probably because he felt-and rightly-that the scientific view of the world based on natural law, though he did not doubt its validity, nevertheless lacked something which played a considerable role in the classical and medieval view (as it also does in the intuitive feelings of modern man).

当他这样做时,他强迫那些观念,诸如预先想像,对应性,与预先建立的和谐,进入因果律的行程里。作为普世的秩序,跟因果律的秩序共同存在,它们总是作为人对自然的解释的基础。可能是因为他感觉到,正确地感觉到,科学的世界观,以自然法则作为基础,虽然他并没有怀疑科学的世界观的正确性,它仍然欠缺某件扮演重要角色的东西,在古典与中世纪的观点(如同它扮演重要的角色,在现代人的直觉的感觉。)

429

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
830 The mass of facts collected by Gurney, Myers, and Pod-
more 20 inspired three other investigators-Dariex,21 Richet,22 and Flammarion 23_ to tackle the problem in terms of a prob¬ability calculus. Dariex found a probability of 1 : 4,114,545 for telepathic precognitions of death, which means that the ex¬plan'ltion of such a warning as due to "chance" is more than four million times more improbable than explaining it as a "telepathic," or acausal, meaningful coincidence. The astron¬omer Flammarion reckoned a probability of no less than 1 : 804,622,222 for a particularly well-observed instance of "phantasms of the living." 24

由古涅,梅尔,与普得莫收集的那一大堆事实,启发三位研究员—达瑞克,李查特,与弗拉马力恩,来克服这个难题,用机率微积分的术语。达瑞克发现1比4,114,545的机率,作为心灵感应预先体认到死亡。这意味着,这样的预警的解释,作为由于“偶然性”,超过四百万倍的更加不可能,比起解释它,作为是“心灵感应”,或非因果律,有意义的巧合。天文学家,弗拉马力恩考虑到一个机率:有1比804,622,222之多,作为特殊被仔细观察的例子:活着的人都幻景“。

He was also the first to link up other suspicious happenings with the general interest in phe¬nomena_ connected with death. Thus he relates 25 that, while writing his book on the atmosphere, he was just at the chapter on wind-force when a sudden gust of wind swept all his papers off the table and blew them out of the window. He 3.lso cites, as an example of triple coincidence, the edifying story of 19 Here I must m<lke an exception of Kant, whose treatise Dreams at a Spirit¬Seer, I/lustrated by Dreams at Metaphysics pointed the way for Schopenhauer. 20 Edmund Gurney, Frederic W. H. Myers, and Frank Podmore, Phantasms at
the Living. 21 Xavier Dariex, "Le Hazard et la telepathie."
22 Charles Richet, "Relations de diverses experiences sur transmission mentale, la lucidite, et autres phenomenes non explicable par les donnees scientifiques
actuelles." 23 Camille Flammarion, The Unknown, pp. 1911£.
24 Ibid., p. 202. 25 Pp. 192f.
430

SYNCHRONICITY: AN ACAUSAL CONNECTING PRINCIPLE Monsieur de Fortgibu and the plum-pudding.28 The fact that he mentions these coincidences at all in connection with the problem of telepathy shows that Flammarion had a distinct intuition, albeit an unconscious one, of a far more compre¬hensive principle.

他是第一位将其他的可疑的发生的事情连接一块,跟对死亡息息相关的这些现象的一般興趣连接一块,因此,他陈述,当他正在写作他探讨这个气氛的书时,他仅是从事探讨风的力量的这个章节。突然地,有一阵强风将他的所有的文稿从书桌扫落,将它们吹向窗外。他也引述,作为是三重的巧合的例子。佛己布与草梅-布丁的启蒙的例子。他提到这些巧合,跟心灵感应的难题息息相关的这个事实,显示出来,弗拉马力恩拥有杰出的直觉。虽然是无意识的直觉,属于更加全面性的原则。

雄伯译
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无意识对于意识的影响 148

July 31, 2015

无意识对于意识的影响 148
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格
II
PHENOMENA RESULTING FROM THE ASSIMILATION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
吸收无意识造成的现象

4 CL Psychological Types, Def. 26, “Image.” Leon Daudet, in L’Heredo, calls th process “autofecondation interieure,” by which he means the reawakening of a ancestral soul.
5 Bleuler, Dementia Praecox Or the Group ot Schizophrenias (orig. 1911).
147

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

236 By raising the personal unconscious to consciousness, the
analysis makes the subject aware of things which he is generally aware of in others, but never in himself. This discovery makes him therefore less individually unique, and more collective. His collectiviZation is not always a step to the bad; it may sometimes be a step to the good.

凭借将个人无意识提升到意识,精神分析让主体知道他通常在别人身上才知道的事情。 但是他在他自身上从来就不知道的事情。这个发现让他因此在个人方面,比较不那么独特, 而是更加集体。他的成为集体未必总是变成恶化的一个步骤,它有时是成为良善的步骤。

There are people who repress their good qualities and consciously give free rein to their infantile desires. The lifting of personal repressions at first brings purely personal contents into consciousness; but attached to them are the col¬lective elements of the unconscious, the ever-present instincts, qualities, and ideas (images) as well as all those “statistical” quotas of average virtue and average vice which we recognize when we say, “Everyone has in him something of the criminal, the genius, and the saint.” Thus a living picture emerges, con¬taining pretty well everything that moves upon the checker¬board of the world, the good and the bad, the fair and the foul. A sense of solidarity with the world is gradually built up, which is felt by many natures as something very positive and in certain cases actually is the deciding factor in the treatment of neurosis.

有些人们压抑他们的良善的品质,并且有意识地自由发挥他们的婴孩的欲望。个人的压抑的撤销起初将纯粹是个人的内容,带进意识。但是附著于它们的那些个人的内容却是无意识的集体的元素,这些永远存在的本能,品质,与表象(意象),以及那是“统计”的平均品德的配额。我们体认出它们,当我们说:「每个人都在他身上拥有某件属于犯罪,天才与圣贤的东西。」因此,一个活生生的画面出现,确实包括每样在世界的棋盘上移动的东西。良善与邪恶的事情,美好与卑劣的事情。跟世界团结一块,逐渐地被累积,被很多的天性感觉是某件非常正面的东西。在某些的情况,那实际上是这个决定的因素,在神经症者的治疗。

6 Les Nevroses (1898).

148

Itl~ A~~lMILAnUN U.I” Ttl~ UNCUNSCIOUS
I have myself seen cases who, in this condition, managed for th first time in their lives to arouse love, and even to experience j themselves; or, by daring to leap into the unknown, they ge involved in the very fate for which they were suited. I have see: not a few who, taking this condition as final, remained for yeal in a state of enterprising euphoria. I have often heard such case referred to as shining examples of analytical therapy. But I mm point out that cases of this euphoric and enterprising type are s utterly lacking in differentiation from the world that nob od could pass them as fundamentally cured. To my way of thinkin they are as much cured as not cured.

我自己曾经看见过一些案例。在这个情况,在他们一生当中首次,他们成功地召唤起爱,甚至成功地经验到自己,或凭借勇敢地跳跃进入未知,他们被牵涉进入这个命运。他们适合的命运。我曾经看见过许多案例。他们将这个情况视为最终,他们好几年来,就始终保持处于这种跟众生团结的幸福感的状态。我经常听说过这个案例,被提到作为精神分析的治疗的闪亮的例子。但是,我必须指出,这种幸福感与跟众生团结的个案是如此完全地欠缺差异,跟这个世界,没有人能够将他们视为是基本上被治疗。依我的思维方式,他们可说是被治疗,也可说是没有被治疗。

I have had occasion to fo low up the lives of such patients, and it must be owned tha many of them showed symptoms of maladjustment, which, i persisted in, gradually leads to the sterility and monotony s characteristic of those who have divested themselves of thei egos. Here too I am speaking of the border-line cases, and not c the less valuable, normal, average folk for whom the question c adaptation is more technical than problematical. If I were mor of a therapist than an investigator, I would naturally be unabl to check a certain optimism of judgment, because my eyes woul, then be glued to the number of cures. But my conscience as al investigator is concerned not with quantity but with qualit) Nature is aristocratic, and one person of value outweighs tel lesser ones. My eye followed the valuable people, and from ther I learned the dubiousness of the results of a purely persona analysis, and also to understand the reasons for this dubiousnes:

我曾经有过机会追踪这些病人的生活。我必须承认,他们许多人都显示适应不良的症状。这些症状假如被持续下去,会逐渐导致贫瘠与单调。那些人们的一个特色。他们剥夺掉他们的自我。在此,我也谈论到那些边缘人的个案,而不是谈论的那些比较没有价值的正常的,平均的人们。对于后者,适应的问题是技术性,而不是棘手难题。假如我的身份是治疗师,而不是研究员。我当然无法核对某些判断的乐观主义。因为我的眼睛将会紧紧盯住那些治疗好的数目。但是,我作为研究员的良心,我所关注的并不是数量,而是品质。自然是贵族。一位有价值的人重要性超过与十位次要的人们。我的眼睛追踪这些有价值的人们。从他们身上,我学习到纯粹的个人的分析的结果的可疑。而且也理解这种可疑的理由。

237 If, through assimilation of the unconscious, we make th
mistake of including the collective psyche in the inventory c personal psychic functions, a dissolution of the personality int, its paired opposites inevitably follows. Besides the pair of oppc sites already discussed, megalomania and the sense of inferioriq which are so painfully evident in neurosis, there are man others, from which I will single out only the specifically mor” pair of opposites, namely good and evil.

假如通过无意识的吸收,我们犯下这个错误,将集体心灵包括在个人的心灵的功能的目录里,人格的瓦解成为它的配对的对立,必然随之而来。除了已经被讨论到底对立的配对,自大狂与自卑感,在神经症者身上,是如此令人痛苦地明显。还有许多其他的人们,我们将他们挑选出来,仅是作为明确的道德的对立。换句话说,作为良善与邪恶的对立。

The specific virtues an, vices of humanity are contained in the collective psyche lik everything else. One man arrogates collective virtue to himsel as his personal merit, another takes collective vice as his persona guilt. Both are as illusory as the megalomania and the inferimity, because the imaginary virtues and the imaginary wickec nesses are simply the moral pair of opposites contained in the collective psyche, which have become perceptible or have been rendered conscious artificially.

人类的这些明确的品德与邪恶,被包含在集体的心灵,就像每一位其他的人。有一个人对集体的品德沾沾自喜,作为是他个人的优点。另外一个人则是以集体的邪恶作为他个人的罪恶。两者都是作为自大狂与自卑感的幻见。 因为想像的品德与想像的邪恶都仅是对立的道德的配对,被包括在集体心灵里。这个集体心灵则是已经变得被感知,并且以人为方式让人知道。

How much these paired oppo¬sites are contained in the collective psyche is exemplified by primitives: one observer will extol the greatest virtues in them, while another will record the very worst impressions of the self¬same tribe. For the primitive, whose personal differentiation is, as we know, only just beginning, both judgments are true, be¬cause his psyche is essentially collective and therefore for the most part unconscious. He is still more or less identical with the collective psyche, and for that reason shares equally in the collective virtues and vices, without any personal attribution and without inner contradiction.

这些配对的对立有多少被包含在集体心灵,可以原始的人们作为典范:有一位观察者将会称赞他们身上的这些品德。还有另外一位则是记录这些酷似的部落的最糟糕的印象。依照我们所知,对于原始人们,他们的个人的差异仅是开始。两种的判断都是真实。因为他的心灵基本上是集体,因此,大部分都是无意识。他依旧相当地认同集体的心灵。因为那个理由,他同样分享集体的品德与邪恶。而没有个人的归属,也没有内在的悖论。

The contradiction arises only when the personal development of the psyche begins, and when reason discovers the irreconcilable nature of the opposites. The consequence of this discovery is the conflict of repression. We want to be good, and therefore must repress evil; and with that the paradise of the collective psyche comes to an end. Repression of the collective psyche was absolutely necessary for the develop¬ment of personality. In primitives, development of personality, or more accurately, development of the person, is a question of magical prestige.

这个悖论会产生,仅有当心灵的这个个人的发展开始。仅有当理性发现这些对立力量的这个无法和解的特性时。这个发现的结果就是压抑的冲突。我们想要成为良善,因病必须压抑邪恶。随着那样,集体心灵的天堂才会结束。集体心灵的压抑绝对是必要的,作为个人的发展。在原始人们,人格的发展,或者正确地说,人的发展是具有魔法威望的问题。

The figure of the medicine-man or chief leads the way: both make themselves conspicuous by the singularity of their oniaments and their mode of life, expressive of their social roles. The singularity of his outward tokens marks the individ¬ual off from the rest, and the segregation is still further en¬hanced by the possession of special ritual secrets. By these and similar means the primitive creates around him a shell, which might be called a persona (mask).

医术的人员或酋长引导这个途径:两者都让他们自己成为显著,凭借他们的装饰的独特性,与他们的生活方式。表达他们的社会的角色。他的外显的表征的独特性标记个人远离其余的人们。隔离则是进一步地被强调,凭借拥有特殊的仪式的秘密。凭借这些与类似的方法,原始人们环人他创造一个贝壳。这个贝壳可以被称为是人格(面具)。

Masks, as we know, are actu¬ally used among primitives in totem ceremonies-for instance, as a means of enhancing or changing the personality. In this way the outstanding individual is apparently removed from the sphere of the collective psyche, and to the degree that he suc¬ceeds in identifying himself with his persona, he actually is re-moved. This removal means magical prestige. One could easily assert that the impelling motive in this development is the will to power. But that would be to forget that the building up of prestige is always a product of collective compromise: not only must there be one who wants prestige, there must also be a pub¬lic seeking somebody on whom to confer prestige.

我们知道,在原始人们当中,面具实际上被使用,在图腾的典礼里—譬如,作为一种工具,强调或改变人格。 用这个方式,杰出的个人显而易见地,跟集体的心灵的范围远离。甚至,他成功地认同他的人格面具,他实际上是远离的。这个远离意味着魔法的威望。我们很容易主张,这个强迫的动机就是意志的力量。但是那将是要忘记,威望的累积总是集体的妥协的产物:不但存在着一位想要威望的一个人,也必然存在着一个寻求某个能够赐予威望的公众。

That being so, it would be incorrect to say that a man creates prestige for him- self out of his individual will to power; it is on the contrary an entirely collective affair. Since society as a whole needs the magi¬cally effective figure, it uses this need of the will to power in the individual, and the will to submit in the mass, as a vehicle, and thus brings about the creation of personal prestige. The latter is a phenomenon which, as the history of political institutions shows, is of the utmost importance for the comity of nations.

情况既然如此,这将是不正确的,假如我们说,一个人替他自己创造威望,从他的个人的权力意志。相反地,那是一个完全是集体的事物。因为作为整体的社会需要魔法般有效的人物。它使用这个权力意志来让公众臣服。作为一个工具,因此导致个人的威望的创造。后者是一个现象,依照政治的历史所显示,对于国家的和谐的,是至关紧要。

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Identification 255

July 31, 2015

Identification 255
认同
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康
13.6.62 XXIV 14

If it appears to be this unmanageable thing that Plato describes in
such a pathetic, moving fashion and that the superior soul is
destined to dominate, to captivate, of course, it is because
there is a relationship, but the relationship is internal, and to
divide it, is precisely to surrender oneself to a lure, to a lure
which depends on the fact that this image of the soul which is
nothing other than the central image of secondary narcissism as I
defined it for you earlier and to which I will return, only
functions as a way of access, a deceptive access path, but an
access path oriented as such to desire. It is certain that Plato
was not ignorant of it.

假如柏拉图以如此悲悯,动人的方式描述的,似乎就是这个无法掌控的东西。这个优秀的灵魂就注定要支使,当然是要捕捉。因为有一个关系,但是这个关系是内部。区分这个东西,确实就是屈服于一个诱惑,屈服于依靠这个事实的诱惑:灵魂的意象实实在在就是次级自恋的中央的意象。如同我早先跟你们定义它。我将回转到作为接近的方式的各种功能,一个欺骗性的接近途经。但是这一个接近途经被定向为欲望的途径。的确,柏拉图对于这个欲望并非无知。

And what renders his enterprise all the
more strangely perverse, it is that he masks it from us. Because
I will speak to you about the phallus in its double function, the
one which allows us to see it as the common point of eversion as
I might say, of evergence, if I may put forward this word
constructed as the reverse of convergence;

为什么柏拉图的企图变得更加怪异地倒错?那是因为柏拉图遮蔽它不让我们知道。因为我将跟你们谈论关于这个阳具,在它的双重的功能。让我们能够看见它,作为“向外翻转”的共同的点的功能。我不妨这样说。假如我可以提出这个字词,被建构作为是“汇集”的相反。

if I think I can
articulate for you on the one hand the function of this phallus
at the level of the $ of the phantasy
and at the level of o that it
authenticates for desire, from today I
will indicate to you the kinship of
paradoxes with this very image that this
_____________ J schema of the figure gives
because here
] nothing other than this point
guarantees
Q i J for this surface cut in this
way its
^x / character as a unilateral surface, but
\ ~~ ” / entirely guarantees it to it, making
‘s^-__^// truly of $ the cut of o.

假如我认为我能够一方面跟你们表达阳具的这个功能,在幻见到这个被阉割的主体$的层次。在小客体O的层次,它让小客体O真诚地成为欲望的客体。从今天开始,我将跟你们指示各种悖论的亲属关系。这个图形的这个J基模给予的这个意象。因为在此,J的点,实实在在就是这个点保证Q与J,作为这个表面的切割,以这种方式,它的特性,作为是单边的表面,但是J点完全保证它接近它,确实用小客体O的这个切割,来成为被阉割的主体$。

But let us not go too quickly, o, for its part, undoubtedly is
the cut of £. The sort of reality that we are aiming at in this
objectality or this objectiveness that we alone define, is truly
for us what unifies the subject. And what have we seen in the
dialogue between Socrates and Alcibiades? And what is this
comparison between this man carried to the pinnacle of passionate
homage and a box: this marvellous box, as always, has always
existed wherever man has known how to construct for himself
objects, figures of what for him is the central object, that of
the fundamental phantasy, it contains what, Alcibiades says to
Socrates? The agalma. Let us begin to see what this agalma is:
something which should have not just a tiny relationship with
this central point which gives its accent, its dignity to the
object o.

但是让我们不要进行太快。小客体O,就它本身而言,无可置疑地,是£的切割。我们目前的目标的这种的现实,在这个客观性,或是仅有我们才能定义的这个客观性,对于我们,那确实是统一主体的东西。在苏格拉底与阿西比底斯之间的对话里,我们看见什么?这个人被发挥到激情膜拜的颠峰与小盒子之间的这个比喻是什么?这个神奇的小盒子,像经常那样,总是已经存在,每当人已经知道如何替他自己建构这些客体。对他而言,那是属于中央的客体的各种图像,是基本的幻见的图像,它包含什么?阿西比底斯对苏格拉底说些什么?这个小盒子。让我们开始看见这个小盒子是什么:某件应该具有不仅仅是一个小小的关系,跟中央的这个客体,给予它的强调,它的尊严,给予小客体O.

But things, in fact are to be inverted at the level of
the object. This phallus, if it is established so paradoxically
(18) that it is always necessary to pay great attention to what
is its enveloping function and its enveloped function, I believe
that it is rather at the heart of the agalma that Alcibiades
seeks what he is appealing to, at this moment when the Symposium
ends, in this something which we alone are able to read, even
though it is obvious, because what he is looking for, what he
prostrates himself before, what he makes this impudent appeal to
is what? Socrates as desiring, whose avowal he wants. At the
heart of the agalma what he is searching for in the object
manifests itself as being the pure eron, because what he wants is
not to tell us that Socrates is lovable, it is to tell us that
what he desired most in the world was to see Socrates desiring.

但是,事实上,事情应该被倒转,在这个客体的层次。这个阳具,假如它如此悖论地被建立,以致这总是必要的,给予强烈的注意,它的涵盖的功能以及它的被涵盖的功能是什么。我相信,就在这个agalma小盒子的核心,阿西比底斯寻求他正在诉求的东西。在这个时刻,当“会饮篇”结束时。仅为我们能够阅读,在这个某件东西里,即使那是显而易见地,因为他正在寻找的东西,他以前让自己成为无助的东西,他发出这个无礼的诉求的东西是什么?作为欲望的苏格拉底,他想要苏格拉底的忠诚。就在这个小盒子agalma的核心,他所正在寻求的东西,在这个客体,展示它的自身,作为是这个纯粹的情人eron,因为他想要的东西,并不是要告诉我们,苏格拉底是可爱的。而是要告诉我们,他在世界上最欲望的东西,就是看见苏格拉底在欲望。

This most radical subjective implication at the heart of the
object itself of desire where I think that all the same you find
your bearings a little, simply because you could put it back into
the old drawer of the desire of man and the desire of the Other.
It is something that we are going to be able to highlight more
precisely. We see that what organises it is the punctual,
central function of the phallus. And there, we have our old
enchanter rotting or not, but certainly an enchanter, the one who
knows something about desire, who sends off our Alcibiades on his
way telling him what? To look after his soul, his ego, to
become what he is not: a neurotic for the centuries to come, a
child of Theo.

在欲望的客体的自身的核心,最强烈的主观的暗示。在那里,我认为,你们仍然能够稍微找到你们相关的东西。仅是因为你们能够将它放置回到人的欲望与大他者的欲望的旧的抽屉里。这是某件我们将会能够更加明确地强调的东西。我们看见,组织它的东西,就是这个阳具的准时的中央的功能。在那里,我们让我们的古老的魔法师腐败与否,但是确实地,一位魔法师,知道关于欲望的某件东西的这个人。他派出我们的阿西比底斯前往来告诉他什么?照顾他的灵魂,他的自我,成为他并非他本质的样子:未来几世纪的神经症者,Theo(神性)的孩子。

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无意识对于意识的影响 147

July 30, 2015

无意识对于意识的影响 147
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格
II
PHENOMENA RESULTING FROM THE ASSIMILATION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
吸收无意识造成的现象

231 Outer attractions, such as offices, titles, and other social reg
lia are not the only things that cause inflation. These are simp impersonal quantities that lie outside in society, in the collecti’ consciousness. But just as there is a society outside the indivi ual, so there is a collective psyche outside the personal psycll namely the collective unconscious, concealing, as the above e ample shows, elements that are no whit less attractive. And ju as a man may suddenly step into the world on his profession dignity (“Messieurs, a present je suis Roy”), so another ID; disappear out of it equally suddenly when it is his lot to beho one of those mighty images that put a new face upon the world

其他的吸引的东西,譬如,职位,头衔,与社会标志,并不是仅有的引起自我膨胀的东西。它们仅是非个人的位于社会之外的数量,位于集体无意识。但是正如会有外在于个人之外的社会,也会有集体的心灵,外在于个人的心灵。换句话说,集体的无意识,隐藏一些比较不那么吸引人的因素,如同以上的例子显示。正如一个人可能会突然走入这个世界,依靠他的专业的尊严,另外一个人可能从它那里消失,同样突然地,当这个他的命运,要注意其中的一个伟大的意象。这些意象在世界上摆出一个新的脸孔。

These are the magical representations collectives which underlie the slo?an, the catchword, and, on a higher level, the language of the
poet and mystic. I am reminded of another mental case who was neither a poet nor anything very outstanding, just a naturally quiet and rather sentimental youth. He had fallen in love with a girl and, as so often happens, had failed to ascertain whether his love was requited.

这些都是神奇的集体的再现表象。作为口号,标语,更高层次地,作为诗人与神秘主义者的语言的基础。我想起另外一位精神病的个案。他既不是诗人,也不是任何杰出的东西。他仅是天性上安详,而且相当性情中人的年轻人。他爱上一位女孩,并且如同经常发生的状况,他没有办法确定,他的爱是否会有回报。

145

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS guage of the His primitive participation mys¬tique took it for granted that his agitations were plainly the agi¬tations of the other, which on the lower levels of human psychology is naturally very often the case. Thus he built up a sentimental love-fantasy which precipitately collapsed when he discovered that the girl would have none of him. He was so des¬perate that he went straight to the river to drown himself. It was late at night, and the stars gleamed up at him from the dark water.
It seemed to him that the stars were swimming two by two down the river, and a wonderful feeling came over him. He forgot his suicidal intentions and gazed fascinated at the strange, sweet drama. And gradually he became aware that every star was a face, and that all these pairs were lovers, who were carried along locked in a dreaming embrace. An entirely new under-standing came to him: all had changed-his fate, his disappoint¬ment, even his love, receded and fell away. The memory of the girl grew• distant, blurred; but instead, he felt with complete certainty that untold riches were promised him. He knew that an immense treasure lay hidden for him in the neighbouring observatory. The result was that he was arrested by the police at four o’clock in the morning, attempting to break into the ob¬servatory.

他的原始的“神秘的参与”将它视为当然,他的激动很明白就算对方的激动。在人类心理的较低层面,这通常就是这种情况。因此,他建造一个情感的爱的幻想。这个爱的幻想突然崩溃,当他发现,这位女孩根本就没有爱他。他是如此的绝望,以致他直接前往河流,想要淹死自己。那是三更半夜,从黑暗的水面,群星对他闪烁照耀。他觉得,群星三三两两地游泳下河流,一种奇妙的感觉瀰漫他身上。他忘记他的自杀的企图,并且专注地凝视这个奇妙的甜蜜的戏剧。慢慢地,他变得知道,每颗星星都是一个脸孔,所有的这些配对都是情人。他们在梦幻般的拥抱里交织地向前。他获得一个完全新奇的理解。一切都已经改变。他的命运,他的失望,甚至他的爱,都隐退与消失。那位女孩的记忆变得遥远,模糊。但是代替地,他感觉完全地确定,无数的财富被许诺给他。他知道,一个巨大的财富隐藏给他,在附近的观测台。结果是,他在零晨四点被警察逮捕,因为他企图闯入观测台。

232 What had happened? His poor head had glimpsed a Dan-
tesque vision, whose loveliness he could never have grasped had he read it in a poem. But he saw it, and it transformed him. What had hurt him most was now far away; a new and un¬dreamed-of world of stars, tracing their silent courses far beyond this grievous earth, had opened out to him the moment he crossed “Proserpine’s threshold.” The intuition of untold wealth-and could any fail to be touched by this thought?-came to him like a revelation. For his poor turnip-head it was too much. He did not drown in the river, but in an eternal image, and its beauty perished with him.

发生什么事呢?他的可怜的脑袋曾经瞥见一个但丁神曲的幻象。这个幻象的可爱,假如仅是在诗里朗读,他本来是无法理解的。但是他看见这个幻象,这个幻象转变他。曾经最伤害他的东西现在非常遥远。新奇而从未被梦想过的群星的世界,追踪它们的沉默的途径,远远超过令人痛苦的大地。现在展开给他,当他跨越过“普罗索派的门槛”。无数财富的意图就像启示录般来到他—对于这样的思想,可能有人不感动吗?对于他可怜的愚昧的头脑,真是无法承受。他并没有淹溺在水里。而是淹溺在永恒的意象里,永恒的意象的美丽随着他一块毁灭。

233 Just as one man may disappear in his social role, so another
may be engulfed in an inner vision and be lost to his surround¬ings. Many fathomless transformations of personality, like sudden conversions and other far-reaching changes of mind, originate in the attractive power of a collective image,4 which, as tt present example shows, can cause such a high degree of inflation that the entire personality is disintegrated. This disintegration is a mental disease, of a transitory or a permanent nature, “splitting of the mind” or “schizophrenia,” in Bleuler’s term The pathological inflation naturally depends on some innate weakness of the personality against the autonomy of collective unconscious contents.

正如一个人可能消失在他的社会的角色里,另外一个人可能被淹没在内部队幻象里,并且迷失于他的周遭当中。许多深不可测的人格的转化,就像是突然的转变,与其他的深远的心灵的改变,都起源于集体意象的迷人的力量。如同目前的例子显示,这个集体意象的迷人力量会引起如此强烈的自我膨胀,以致于整个的人格为之瓦解。这个瓦解是精神的疾病,属于瞬间或永远的特性,‘心灵的分裂“,或”精神分裂“,用布鲁勒的术语说。这个病态的自我膨胀,自然依靠人格的某个天生的弱点,来对抗集体无意识的内容的自主权。

THE ASSIMILATION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

234 We shall probably get nearest to the truth if we think of the
conscious and personal psyche as resting upon the broad basis ( an inherited and universal psychic disposition which is as suc unconscious, and that our personal psyche bears the same rd tion to the collective psyche as the individual to society.

我们将可能最为靠近真理,假如我们认为意识与个人的心灵,作为依靠这个广泛的基础,承先启后而且普世的心灵的性情的广泛的基础。它的本身是无意识。我们的个人的心灵具有相同的关系,跟这个集体的心灵,如同个人跟社会的相同的关系。

235 But equally, just as the individual is not merely a unique
and separate being, but is also a social being, so the huma psyche is not a self-contained and wholly individual phenoilll non, but also a collective one. And just as certain soci; functions or instincts are opposed to the interests of single ind viduals, so the human psyche exhibits certain functions or teI dencies which, on account of their collective nature, are oppose to individual needs. The reason for this is that every man is born with a highly differentiated brain and is thus assured of a wid range of mental functioning which is neither developed ontogl netically nor acquired.

但是同样地,正如个人并不仅是独特而分开的人,而且也是社会的人。人类的心灵并不是一个自我包容而完全是个人的现象,而且也是一个集体的现象。正如某些社会的功能或本能,跟单一的个人的興趣相对立,人类的心灵也展示跟个人的需要相对立的的某些功能与倾向,因为它们具有集体的特性。形成这样的理由是,每个人都天生带有巨大差异的头脑,因此他确定会具有广大范围的精神的功能。这个精神的功能既不是先天基因地被发展,也不是后天获得。

But, to the degree that human brains a1 uniformly differentiated, the mental functioning thereby mad possible is also collective and universal. This explains, for eJ ample, the interesting fact that the unconscious processes of th most widely separated peoples and races show a quite remarkabl correspondence, which displays itself, among other things, i the extraordinary but well-authenticated analogies between th forms and motifs of autochthonous myths. The universal sim larity of human brains leads to the universal possibility of uniform mental functioning.
This functioning is the collectiv psyche.

但是随着人的脑具有一致性地差异化,精神的功能因此而成为可能,也是集体而普世。譬如,这解释这个有趣的事实:广大分开的民族与种族的无意识的过程,显示一种相当引人注意的一致性。除此而外,这个一致性展示它自己,在特殊而非常真诚的类比,处于原生发展的神话的形式与主题之间。人类的脑袋普世的类似,导致在个普世的可能:一致性的精神的功能。这个功能是集体的心灵。

Inasmuch as there are differentiations corresponding t race, tribe, and even family, there is also a collective psyche limited to race, tribe, and family over and above the “universal” collective psyche. To borrow an expression from Pierre Janet,6 the collective psyche comprises the parties intirieures of the psy¬chic functions, that is to say those deep-rooted, well-nigh auto¬matic portions of the individual psyche which are inherited and are to be found everywhere, and are thus impersonal or supra¬personal.

因为有各种的差异化,对应于种族,部落,甚至是家庭,也有集体的心灵被限制于种族,部落,与家庭。尤其重要的是,对应于“普世“的集体的心灵。借用皮尔 杰尼特点表达,集体的心灵由心灵功能的”内部成员“组成。换句话说,,个人心灵的那些根深蒂固,几乎是自动的部分。它们被继承,而且能够在每个地方被找到。它们因此是非个人,或超越个人的。

Consciousness plus the personal unconscious consti¬tutes the parties supirieures of the psychic functions, those por¬tions, therefore, that are developed ontogenetically and acquired. Consequently, the individual who annexes the uncon¬scious heritage of the collective psyche to what has accrued to him in the course of his ontogenetic development, as though it were part of the latter, enlarges the scope of his personality in an illegitimate way and suffers the consequences. In so far as the collective psyche comprises the parties intirieures of the psychic functions and thus forms the basis of every personality, it has the effect of crushing and devaluing the personality. This shows it¬self either in the aforementioned stifling of self-confidence or else in an unconscious heightening of the ego’s importance to the point of a pathological will to power.

意识加上个人的无意识组成这个心灵的功能的‘内部成员“。那些部分因此被发展,自体基因地发展并且后天习得。结果,个人将集体心灵的无意识的遗产,合并到已经累积给他的东西,在他的自体基因的发展的过程。好像那是后者的部分,扩大他的人格的范围,用一个不合法的方式,并且遭受后果的痛苦。因为集体心灵组成心灵功能的“内部成员”,因此形成每个人格的基础。它具有这个效果,粉碎与贬低人格的价值的效果。这显示它自己,要就是在前述的自信心的窒闷,要不就是在无意识的强化自我的重要性,甚至到达病态的意志的力量。

雄伯译
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Identification 254

July 30, 2015

Identification 254
认同
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

13.6.62 XXIV 12
However she may know herself, we do not see anything to prevent
it. It is quite certain that the whole development of science,
in all its branches, is constructed for us in a fashion which
renders more and more clear the notion of knowledge.

无论她如何知道她自己,我们并没有看见任何东西阻止它。相当确定的是,科学的整个发展,在科学的全部分开部门里,使用一个方式跟我们建构。这个方式让知识的观念越来越清楚。

Connaturality with whatever means there may be in the natural
field, is what is most foreign, always more foreign to the
development of this science. Is it not this that makes it so
contemporary for us to advance into the structure of desire as
our experience precisely, effectively makes us sense it everyday?

无论在自然的领域,拥有怎样的工具,自然共性是最为陌生的东西。对于这个科学的发展,总是更加地陌生。对于我们,难道不就是这个自然共性让它成为如此当代的东西,要前进,进入欲望的结构,确实作为是我们的经验?它难道不是有效地让我们每天都理解它?

The kernel of unconscious desire and what one might call its
orienting, attracting, relationship, is absolutely central with
respect to all the paradoxes of human miscognition. And does its
foundation not depend on the fact that human desire is an
acosmic function?

无意识的欲望的核心,以及我们所谓的它的定向,吸引的关系的东西,绝对是作为中央,关于人类的误认的所有悖论。它的基础难道不是依靠这个事实:人的欲望是一个非宇宙的功能?

That is why, when I try to foment these plastics for you, you
might think you are seeing an updating of ancient imaginary
techniques which are the ones that I taught you to read in the
form of Plato’s sphere. You might say that to yourselves.

那就是为什么当我尝试替你们煽动这些弹性的东西,你们可能认为你们正在看见古代的想像的技术的现代更新。古代的想像的技术就是我教导你们阅读的东西,以柏拉图的球形的形状。你们可能对你们自己那样说。

This
little double point, this stamp shows us that here is the field
where there is ringed what is the veritable mainspring of the
relationship between the possible and the real. What gives to
classical logic all its charm, all its long-pursued seduction,
the real point of interest of formal logic – I mean that of
Aristotle – is what it supposes and what it excludes and what is
really its pivotal point, namely the point of the impossible in
so far as it is that of desire. And I will come back to it.

这个小小的双重点,这个邮戳跟我们显示,存在着这个领域。在那里,在可能界与实在界之间的关系的可验证的动力的东西,被环绕着。给予古典的逻辑它的一切魅力的东西,所有它的长久被追寻的诱拐,正式的逻辑的興趣的真实的点—我指的是亚里斯多德的逻辑—那是它所假设,它所排斥,以及确实是它的枢纽点。换句话说,这个不可能界的点,因为它将是欲望的点。我将回头谈论它。

Therefore you can say that everything that I am in the process of
explaining to you here is the continuation of the preceding
discourse. They are – let me use this formula – Theo-type
contraptions. Because when all is said and done, it is as well
to give a name to this God with whom we gargle a little bit too
romantically our throats in this proclamation that we have done
very well in saying that God is dead.

因此,你们能够说,我在此正处于跟你们解释的过程的东西,就是前面的辞说的连续性。它们是Theo-type 的圈套—请容我使用这个术语。因为当一切都说都做了,它同样给予一个名字,给这位上帝,我们对于上帝稍微具有浪漫情怀,当我们宣称,我们已经做得恰好地说,上帝已经死亡。

There is god and god. I
already told you that some of them are quite real. We would be
(16) wrong to overlook the reality. The God who is involved,
the problem of whom we cannot elude since it is a problem which
is our business, a problem in which we have to take part, this
one, in order to distinguish terms, echoing Beckett who one day
called him Godot, why not have called him by his true name, the
supreme Being?

有各种各样的神祗。我已经告诉你们,有些的神祗是相当真实的。我们将会是错误,假如我们忽略这个现实。被牵涉到的上帝,我们逃避有关上帝的难题。因为这个难题是我们的事情,我们必须参与这个难题。为了要区别各种术业,这个难题迴响着贝克特。有一天,他称他为“果陀”。为什么不称他的真实的名字呢?这位崇高的神的存在?

If I remember rightly moreover, the good friend
of Robespierre had this name as a proper name, I believe that she
was called Catherine Theot.

而且,假如我记忆正确,罗比皮尔的好朋友将这个名字,视为是一个专有名词。我相信,她被称为是凯撒琳 希奥特。

It is quite certain that a whole
part of analytic elucidation and, in a word, the whole story of
the father in Freud, is our essential contribution to the
function of Theo in a certain field, very precisely in this field
which finds its limits at the edge of the double cut in so far as
it is what determines the structuring characteristics, the
fundamental kernel of phantasy in theory as in practice.

相当确定的是,整个的精神分析的阐释的部分,总之,在弗洛依德,父亲的整个的故事。就是我们的基本的贡献,对于希奥的这个功能,在某个领域,确实是在这个领域。这个领域发现它的限制,在这个双重的切割的边缘,因为这就是决定作为结果的特征的东西,幻见到基本的核心,在理论里跟在实践里。

If something can be articulated which puts in the balance the
domains of Theo, which prove not to be so totally reduced, nor
reducible since we busy ourselves with them just as much, except
for the fact that, for some time, we are losing, as I might say,
their soul, their sap and their essence. One no longer knows
very well what to say. This father seems to be reabsorbed in a
cloud that is more and more withdrawn and at the same time leaves
the import of our practice singularly in suspense. It is not at
all superfluous for us to evoke that there is here in effect some
historical correlative when it is a matter of defining what we
have to deal with in our domain.

假如某件东西能够被表达,它放置Theo(神性)的领域作为平衡。这个Theo(神性)证明并没有如此完整地化简,也没有可以化简。因为我们自己同样忙碌从事它,除了这个事实:有段时间,我们正在丧失它,我不妨说,丧失它们的灵魂,它们的精神与它们的本质。我们不再清楚知道我们应该说什么。父亲似乎重新被吸收,在越来越撤退的雲里。同时,它留下我们实践的意义,独特地在悬置当中。我们这样做并非多余,假如我们召唤,实际上,在此有某个历史的相关因素,当问题是定义我们必须处理的东西,在我们的领域里。

I believe it is time. It is
time because, already in a thousand concretised, articulated,
clinical and practical forms a certain sector is being separated
out in the evolution of our practice, which is distinct from the
relationship to the Other, 0, as fundamental, as structuring the
whole experience whose foundations we have found in the
unconscious.

我相信那是时间。那是时间,因为时间用一千种方式,被具体表现,被表达,以临床与实践的形式,有某些的部分被分开,在我们实践的进化里。我们的实践不同于跟大他者的关系,作为是基本,作为是整个的经验的结构。我们在无意识里发现整个的经验的基础。

But its other pole has all the value that I earlier
called complementary, the one without which we wander, I mean
without which we return, as a retreat, an abdication, to this
something which was the ethics of the theological era, the one
whose origins I made you sense as certainly conserving their
whole price, all their value in this original freshness that
Plato’s dialogues preserves them in.

但是它的另外一个极端拥有所有的我早先所谓的辅助的价值。假如没有这个辅助的价值,我们会漫游,我的意思是,假如没有这个辅助的价值,我们回转,作为一种撤退,一种罢黜,对于这个东西。在神学的时代的伦理学的东西。这个东西的起源,我让你们理解到,作为确实是保存它们的完整的价格,所有它们的价值,在这个原初的新鲜里。柏拉图的对话录保存它们在新鲜里。

What do we see after Plato,
if not the promotion of something which is now perpetuated in the
dust-covered shape of this distinction regarding which it is
really scandalous that one can still find it written by an
analyst, between ego-subject and ego-object! Speak to me about
the rider and the horse, of the dialogue between the soul and
desire, but precisely it is a matter of this soul and of this
desire, of the referring back of desire to the soul at the moment
precisely when only desire was in question, in short, everything
that I showed you last year in Transference. It is a matter of
(17) seeing this more essential clarity that we for our part can
contribute to it: the fact is that desire is not on one side.

在柏拉图之后,我们看见什么?难道不就是某件东西的提升?这个东西现在被强调,在这个区别的被灰尘覆盖的形状?关于这个区别,这确实是丑闻,我们依旧发现它被书写,被一位精神分析家书写,在自我-主体与自我-客体之间。假如你们跟我谈论关于这位骑者与马,谈论灵魂与欲望之间的对话。但是确实地,这是灵魂的问题,与这个欲望的问题。欲望的回溯到灵魂的问题,在这个时刻,确实是当只有欲望受到质疑。总之,我去年跟你们显示的东西,在“论移情”的研讨班。问题是要看见这个更加基本的澄清。就我们而言,我们能够贡献它:事实上,欲望并不是在一边。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

无意识对于意识的影响 145

July 29, 2015

无意识对于意识的影响 145
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格
II
PHENOMENA RESULTING FROM THE ASSIMILATION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
吸收无意识造成的现象
228

I

In the case of inflation through knowledge we are dealing
with something similar in principle, though psychological more subtle. Here it is not the dignity of an office that causes tJ inflation, but very significant fantasies. I will explain what mean by a practical example, choosing a mental case whom happened to know personally and who is also mentioned in publication by Maeder.2

在通过知识的膨胀的个案,我们正在处理某件类似原则的东西。虽然就精神分析而言,是更加微妙。在此,引起这个膨胀的并不是一个职位的尊严。而是非常重要的幻想。我将会解释我是什么意思,用一个实际的例子,选择一个精神病的个案,我巧合个人知道的个案。这个精神个案也被梅德尔在出版物被提到。

The case is characterized by a high d gree of inflation. (In mental cases we can observe all the pb nomena that are present only fleetingly in normal people, in cruder and enlarged form.) 3 The patient suffered from para¬noid dementia with megalomania. He was in telephonic com¬munication with the Mother of God and other great ones. In human reality he was a wretched locksmith’s apprentice who at the age of nineteen had become incurably insane. He had never been blessed with intelligence, but he had, among other things, hit upon the magnificent idea that the world was his picture¬book, the pages of which he could turn at will. The proof was quite simple: he had only to turn round, and there was a new page for him to see.

这个个案的特色是高度的膨胀(在精神病的状态,我们能够感觉所有的现状,在正常人们身上,仅是瞬间出现,以更加粗糙而扩大到形式。)病人遭受偏执狂精神病与夸大狂的痛苦。他跟上帝的母亲与其他伟大的人物l,用电话在沟通。在人类的现实界,他是一位悲惨的锁匠的学徒。在19岁的年纪,他已经成为无可救药的疯狂。他从来没有享有过智慧的幸福。但是,除此而外,他曾经想到辉煌的观念:这世界上他的图画书。图画书的页数,他能够任意翻阅。这个证据相当简单:他只要向后转,就有新的一页等待他看。

2 Maeder, “Psychologische Untersuchungen an Dementia-Praecox-Kranken” (‘9′ pp. 209ft’.
143

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THt: t:l70 AND THt: UNGONM.;IOUS
229 This is Schopenhauer’s “world as will and idea” in un-
adorned, primitive concreteness of vision. A shattering idea in¬deed, born of extreme alienation and seclusion from the world, but so naively and simply expressed that at first one can only smile at the grotesqueness of it. And yet this primitive way of looking lies at the very heart of Schopenhauer’s brilliant vision of the world. Only a genius or a madman could so disentangle himself from the bonds of reality as to see the world as his pic¬ture-book. Did the patient actually work out or build up such a vision, or did it just befall him? Or did he perhaps fall into it? His pathological disintegration and inflation point rather to the latter. It is no longer he that thinks and speaks, but it thinks and speaks within him: he hears voices.

这是叔本华的“意志与表象的世界”,让幻象处于没有装饰的原始的具体状态。这确实是一个摧毁的表象,跟这个世界极端异化与隐遁所诞生。但是如此天真而单纯地被表达,以致于起初我们仅能够微笑,对于它的古怪。可是,观看的这种原始的方式,位于叔本华的杰出的世界的幻象的核心。仅有一位天才,要不然就是疯子,才会将他自己跟现实的默契如此脱离开来,以致于他看见世界,作为他的图画书。病人实际上解决或建筑这样的幻景吗?或这个幻景仅是降临他身上?或他或许掉入这个幻景?不再是他在思想与言谈。而是它在他身上思想与言谈:他听见声音。

So the difference between him an1 Schopenhauer is that, in him, the vision remained at the stage of a mere spontaneous growth, while Schopenhauer ab¬stracted it and expressed it in language of universal validity. In so doing he raised it out of its subterranean beginnings into the clear light of collective consciousness. But it would be quite wrong to suppose that the patient’s vision had a purely personal character or value, as though it were something that belonged to him. If that were so, he would be a philosopher. A man is a philosopher of genius only when he succeeds in transmuting the primitive and merely natural vision into an abstract idea be-longing to the common stock of consciousness.

在他与叔本华之间的差异是,在他身上,这个幻景始终在仅是自动自发的成长的阶段。而叔本华则是将它抽离出来,并且用普世正确性的语言表达它。当他这样做时,他将它从它在地下的开始抬举起来,进入集体意识的光天化日之下。但是这将是相当错误,假如我们认为,病人的幻象拥有完全的个人的特性或价值。好像那时某件属于他的东西。假如情况是那样,他将会是一位哲学家。一个人是一位天才的哲学家,仅有当他成功地将原始与仅是自然的幻景,传递进入抽象的表象,属于意识的共同贮存所的抽象的表象。

g When 1 was still a doctor at the psychiatric clinic in Zurich, 1
once took an intelligent layman through the sick•wards. He had never seen a lunatic asylum from the inside before. When we had finished our round, he exclaimed, “I tell you, it’s just like Zurich in miniature’ A quintessence of the population. It is as though all the types one meets every day on the streets had been assembled here in their classical purity. Nothing but oddities and picked specimens from top to bottom of society'” 1 had never looked at it from this angle before, but my p-iend was not far wrong.
144

THE ASSIMILATION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

This achievement, and this alone, constitutes his personal value, for which may take credit without necessarily succumbing to inflation. But the sick man’s vision is an impersonal value, a natural grow against which he is powerless to defend himself, by which he actually swallowed up and “wafted” clean out of the world. F from his mastering the idea and expanding it into a philosopl cal view of the world, it is truer to say that the undoubted gra deur of his vision blew him up to pathological proportions. The personal value lies entirely in the philosophical achievemel not in the primary vision. To the philosopher as well this visi( comes as so much increment, and is simply a part of the comm( property of mankind, in which, in principle, everyone has share. The golden apples drop from the same tree, wheth they be gathered by an imbecile locksmith’s apprentice or by Schopenhauer.

这个成就,仅有这个成就,就构成他的个人的价值。对于这个价值,他可能获得推崇,而没有必然要陶醉于自我膨胀。但是生病的人的幻象,具有非个人的价值。他并没有能够防卫他自己,来对抗这种自然的成长。他实际上被这个非个人的价值,自然的成长所吞没,并且被“冲走”离开这个世界。他根本就没有掌控这个表象,也没有将这个表象扩大成为他对世界的哲学的观点。更加真实地,我们说:他的幻象的无可置疑的辉煌吹刮他,直至病态的程度。这个个人的价值完全在于哲学的成就,而不是在于原初的幻象。对于这位哲学家,这个幻象充当是如此的增值,并且仅是人类的共同财产的一部分。在这个财产里,原则上,每个人都分享一部分。黄金般的蘋果从相同的树上掉下来,无论它们被收集,被白痴的锁匠的学徒,或被叔本华。

230 There is, however, yet another thing to be learnt from tl
example, namely that these transpersonal contents are not jl inert or dead matter that can be annexed at will. Rather th are living entities which exert an attractive force upon the co scious mind. Identification with one’s office or one’s title is ve attractive indeed, which is precisely why so many men are not ing more than the decorum accorded to them by society. In va would one look for a personality behind the husk. Undernea all the padding one would find a very pitiable little creatm That is why the office-or whatever this outer husk may be-is attractive: it offers easy compensation for personal deficiencies

可是,还有另外一件事情要学习,从这个例子。换句话说,这些跨越个人的内容并不仅是能够随意被合并的惰性,或是死的东西。相反地,它们是活生生的实体。这些实体运用迷人的力量,在意识的心灵。认同一个人的职位,或一个人的头衔,确实是非常迷人的。那确实是为什么这么多的人们仅仅就是社会给予他们的礼仪。我们将会白费力气地在那个残幹背后,寻找一个人格。在所有的座垫底下,我们将会找到一个可怜的小动物。

雄伯译
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Identification 253

July 29, 2015

Identification 253
认同
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康
13.6.62 XXIV 10

Here in fact is what is in question: the true imaginary function,
as one might say, in so far as it intervenes at the level of
desire, is a privileged relationship with o, object of desire,
term of the phantasy. I say term because there are two of them,
$ and o, linked by the function of the cut. The function of the
object of the phantasy, in so far as it is the term of the
function of desire, this function is hidden.

在此,事实上是受到质疑的东西:真实界的想像的功能。我们不妨说,因为它介入欲望的层次,这个真实界的想像的功能,具有跟0的一个特权的关系,欲望的客体,幻见的术语。我说它是术语,因为有两个术语:$ 与 o, 由切割的功能连接。

What is most efficient, most efficacious in the relationship to
the object, as we understand it, is marked by a maximal veiling
in the vocabulary currently accepted in psychoanalysis. One could
say that the libidinal structure, in so far as it is marked by
the narcissistic function, is what covers and masks the
relationship to the object for us.

最有效率,最具实用的东西,跟这个客体的关系,依照我们理解它,它被标识著大量的遮蔽,用精神分析目前被接纳的词汇来说。我们能够说,这个力比多的结构,因为它被标识,被自恋的功能。这个结构就是替我们涵盖与遮蔽跟客体的关系。

It is in so far as the
narcissistic, secondarily narcissistic, relationship, the
relationship to the image of the body as such is linked by
something structural to this relationship to the object which is
that of the fundamental phantasy, that it takes on all its
weight, but this something structural of which I speak is a
(13) complementary relationship, it is in so far as the
relationship of the subject marked by the unary trait finds a
certain support which is a lure, which is an error, in the image
of the body as constitutive of specular identification that it
has its indirect relationship with what is hidden behind it,
namely the relationship to the object, the relationship to the
fundamental phantasy.

因为这个自恋,其次是自恋的关系,跟身体本身的意象的关系,它由某件跟这个客体的关系的结构的东西连接。这个客体就是基本的幻见的客体。它具有它的一切都重量。但是我谈论的这个某件作为结构的东西,因为跟主体的关系被这个独特性的特征标识,它找到某个作为陷阱的支持。这个陷阱是个错误,在身体的意象,作为由魅影理想的自我的认同,它具有它的间接的关系,跟这个客体,跟基本的幻见的关系。

There are therefore two imaginarles, the
true and the false; and the false is only sustained in this sort
of subsistence to which there remain attached all the mirages of
the mé-connaitre (miscognition) – I already introduced this play
on words, mé-connaissance: the subject miscognises himself in the
mirror relationship.

因此有两个想像界,真实的想像界与虚假的想像界。虚假的想像界被维持,仅是用这种的存在,误认的幻景始终连接一块的这种存在。我已经介绍过文字的这种遊戏,主体错误地体认他自己,在镜像关系。

This mirror relationship in order to be
understood as such, ought to be situated on a basis of this
relationship to the Other which is the foundation of the subject,
as long as our subject is the subject of discourse, the subject
of language.

为了本身被人理解,这样镜像关系应该被定位,根据跟大他者的关系作基础。这个大他者就是主体的基础。只要我们的主体是辞说的主体,语言的主体。

It is by situating what $ cut of o is with respect
to the fundamental deficiency of the Other as locus of the word,
with respect to what is the only definitive response at the level
of enunciating, the signifier of (¡J, of the universal witness in
so far as it is lacking and that at a given moment it only has
the function of a false witness, it is by situating the function
of o at this point of failure, by showing the support that the
subject finds in this o which is what we aim at in analysis as
an object which has nothing in common with the object of
classical idealism, which has nothing in common with the object
of the Hegelian subject.

凭借定位被阉割主体$ ,跟客体o的切割,关于大他者的基本的欠缺,作为文字的轨迹。关于属于这个唯一的明确的回应的东西,在表达的层面。这个能指,普遍性的见证者的能指,因为它是欠缺,在特定的时刻,它仅拥有一个虚假见证者的功能。凭借定位客体0的这个功能,在失败的这个点。凭借显示这个支持,主体找到的支持,在这个客体O里。这个客体O就是我们在精神分析所目标的东西,作为一个客体,跟古典的理念主义的客体没有丝毫的共同的关系。它跟黑格尔的主体的客体没有任何共同的关系。

13.6.62 XXIV 11

It is by articulating in the most precise fashion this o at the
point of lack of the Other, which is also the point where the
subject receives from this Other, as locus of the word, its major
mark, that of the unary trait, the one which distinguishes our
subject from the knowing transparency of classical thinking as a
subject entirely attached to the signifier in so far as this
signifier is the turning point of his rejection, for him the
subject, of the whole signifying realisation … it is in
showing, starting from the formula o as structure of the
phantasy, the relationship between this object and the lack of
the Other that we see how at a moment everything retreats,
everything is effaced in the signifying function in face of the
rise, the eruption of this object. It is towards this that we
can advance even though it is the most veiled, the most difficult
zone to articulate in our experience.

凭借用最明确的方式表达这个客体O,在大他者的欠缺的这个点。这个点也是主体从这位大他者接收的点,作为文字的轨迹,它的主要的标记,独特性的特征的轨迹。这个轨迹区别我们的主体,跟古典的思维的这个知道的透明体不同,作为完全跟能指连接一块的主体不同。因为这个能指就是他拒绝的转捩点,对于他,这个主体,是整个的成为能指的的体会的不同。当它显示,从这个公式O开始,作为幻见的结构,这个客体育大他者的欠缺之间的关系,我们看见,在每件东西撤退的时刻,每样东西被抹除,在成为能指的功能,面对这个升起,这个客体的暴发。我们能够前景,朝向这个,即使它是最被遮蔽,最困难的地区,在我们的经验里表达。

Because precisely we have
a check for it in the fact that by the ways which are those of
our experience, paths that we take, most usually those of the
neurotic, we have a structure which it is not at all a matter
(14) of loading onto scapegoats.

因为我们确实检查过它,根据这个事实:凭借作为我们的精神分析经验的那些途径,我们採取的途径,通常是神经症者的途径,我们拥有一个结构,这个结构的问题完全不是把一切都推给替罪羔羊的问题。

At this level, the neurotic
like the pervert, like the psychotic himself, are only faces of
the normal structure. I am often told after these lectures: when
you speak about the neurotic and about his object which is the
demand of the Other, unless his demand is the object of the
Other, why do you not speak to us about normal desire! But
precisely, I am talking about it all the time.

在这个层面,神经症者,像倒错症者,像精神病者自身,这些都是正常的结构的表面。我经常被告诉,这些演讲,当你们谈论到神经症者,谈论到他的客体。那就是大他者的要求。除非他的要求就是大他者的客体。为什么你们不跟我谈论,关于正常的欲望!但是确实地,我始终正在谈论它。

The neurotic, is
the normal in so far as, for him, the Other with a big 0, is
all-important. The pervert, is the normal in so far as for him
the Phallus – the big <_5 that we are going to identify with this
point which gives to the central piece of the projective plane
all its consistency – the Phallus is all-important. For the
psychotic his own body, which is to be distinguished in its
place, in this structuring of desire, his own body is
all-important.

神经症者是正常的,因为对于他,大他者拥有一个大写字母O,是非常重要的。倒错症者是正常的,因为对于他,这个阳具,这个大的φ,我们将要辨明这个点,给予投射层面的中央的这块的点,让它具有一致性。阳具是非常重要的。对于精神病者,他自己的身体,应该被区别出来,在它的位置。在欲望的这个结构,他自己的身体是非常重要的。

And these are only faces where something is manifested about this
element of paradox which is the one which I am going to try to
articulate before you at the level of desire.

这些仅是一些脸孔。在那里,某件东西被展示,关于悖论的这个因素。那是我将要尝试表达的这个元素,在你们面前,在欲望的层面。

Already, the last time, I gave you
a foretaste of it by showing you
what can be distinct in the
function, in so far as it emerges,
of the phantasy, namely of
something that the subject foments,
tries to produce at the blind
place, at the masked place which is
the one this central piece gives
the schema of.

上次,我已经给予你们对于它的一个预先品尝,凭借跟你们显示在功能当中能够清楚的东西。因为它出现,在幻见的功能。换句话说,主体煽动的东西的功能。主体尝试在这个盲目的地方,产生的东西的功能。在这个被遮蔽的地方,那就是这个中央的这块给予主体的基模的这个地方。

Already in
connection with the neurotic and
precisely the obsessional, I
indicated to you how it can be
conceived that the search for the object might be the true aim,
in the obsessional phantasy, of this always renewed and always
impotent attempt at destroying the specular image in so far as it
is what the obsessional aims at, that he senses as an obstacle
for the realisation of his fundamental phantasy.

关于神经症者,确实关于妄想症者,我已经跟你们指示,这是如何被构想的,对于客体的寻求可能是这个真实的目标,在妄想症者的幻见里。可能是这个总是更新的目标,总是无能为力的企图要毁灭这个魅影理想自我的目标。因为它就是妄想症者的目标。他感觉到,作为是一个阻碍,实践他的基本的幻见的阻碍。

I showed you
that this clarifies very well what happens at the level not of
the sadistic phantasy but the Sadian one, namely the one that I
had occasion to spell out previously, for you, with you, in the
seminar on ethics, in so far as, being the realisation of an
inner experience that one cannot entirely reduce to the
contingencies of the knowable framework of an effort of thinking
concerning the relationship of the subject to nature, it is by
insulting nature that Sade tries to define the essence of human
desire.

我跟你们显示,这非常清楚地澄清所发生的事情,并不是在施虐狂的幻见,而是萨德的这个幻见。换句话说,我先前曾经拥有这个机会解释的这个层次,为了你们,也跟你们一块,在探讨精神分析伦理学的研讨班。因为它是一个内部经验的实践,我们无法完全将它化简成为是这些偶然性,思想努力想要知道的架构。关于主体跟自然的关系。凭借侮辱自然,萨德尝试定义人类欲望的本质。

And it is through this indeed that, today already, I can
(15) introduce for you the dialectic involved. If somewhere we
can still preserve the notion of knowledge, it is undoubtedly
outside the human field. There is no obstacle to us thinking, we
positivists, Marxists, anything you wish, that nature knows
herself. She undoubtedly has her preferences. She does not
take, for her part, just any materials whatsoever. This indeed
is what has left the field open to us for some time, to find a
whole load of other funny ones that she had funnily left to one
side!

确实是凭借这个,今天我已经跟你们介绍牵涉到的辩证法。假如某个地方,我们依旧能够保存知识的观念,无可置疑地,那是在人类的领域的外面。对于我们的思想,我们作为实证论者,并没有阻碍存在。马克思主义者,或是任何你们愿意的东西,自然知道她自己。自然无可置疑地拥有她的偏好。就自然而言,自然并没有接受任何的物质。这确实是让这个领域有时开放给予我们的东西。为了找到一整堆的东西,自然好笑地留在一边的东西!

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

无意识对于意识的影响 141

July 28, 2015

无意识对于意识的影响 141
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格
II
PHENOMENA RESULTING FROM THE ASSIMILATION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
吸收无意识造成的现象

225 Since human nature is not compounded wholly of light, but
also abounds in shadows, the insight gained in practical analy~ is often somewhat painful, the more so if, as is generally the cas one has previously neglected the other side. Hence there a people who take their newly won insight very much to heart, f; too much in fact, quite forgetting that they are not unique J having a shadow-side. They allow themselves to get unduly depressed and are then inclined to doubt everything, finding noth¬ing right anywhere. That is why many excellent analysts with very good ideas can never bring themselves to publish them, be¬cause the psychic problem, as they see it, is so overwhelmingly vast that it seems to them almost impossible to tackle it scientifi¬cally.

因为人类的天性并不完全由光组成,而且也充满阴影。在实际的精神分析里获得的洞见,经常是相当令人痛苦的。假如我们先前已经忽略了另外一面,如同在一般的情况,那更是令人痛苦。因此,有些人们将他们新获得的洞见牢记在心,事实上过分牢记,完全忘记,他们并非是独特的,当他们拥有阴影的一面。他们容许他们自己,变得过分沮丧,并且因此倾向于怀疑一切,在任何地方都找不到任何东西。那就是为什么许多拥有良好的观念的优秀的精神分析家,永远无法有这个勇气来出版它们。因为心灵的难题,依照他们的看法,是如此强烈地广大,以致于他们觉得不可能用科学方式来克服它。
141

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN TH1<. 1<.LTU Al'lV 1H1<. Uj'l'-'Vl'l~LdVU"
One man's optimism makes him overweening, while an¬other's pessimism makes him over-anxious and despondent. Such are the forms which the great conflict takes when reduced to a smaller scale. But even in these lesser proportions the es¬sence of the conflict is easily recognized: the arrogance of the one and the despondency of the other share a common uncer¬tainty as to their boundaries.

一个人的乐观主义,让他产生傲慢。而一个人的悲观主义又让他过分地焦虑,与沮丧。强烈冲突採取的形式是这样,以致于当它们被化简到最小规模时。但是即使是那些比较次要的比例,冲突的这个本质很容易被体认。前者的傲慢与后者的沮丧分享共同的不确定性,关于它们的边界。

The one is excessively expanded, the other excessively contracted. Their individual boundaries are in some way obliterated. If we now consider the fact that, as a result of psychic compensation, great humility stands very close to pride, and that "pride goeth before a fall," we can easily discover behind the haughtiness certain traits of an anxious sense of inferiority. In fact we shall see clearly how his uncer¬tainty forces the enthusiast to puff up his truths, of which he feels none too sure, and to win proselytes to his side in order that his followers may prove to himself the value and trustworthiness of his own convictions. Nor is he altogether so happy in his fund of knowledge as to be able to hold out alone; at bottom he feels isolated by it, and the secret fear of being left alone with it in¬duces him to trot out his opinions and interpretations in and out of season, because only when convincing someone else does he feel safe from gnawing doubts.

前者过分地被扩大,而后者则是过分地被浓缩。他们的个人的边界以某种的方式被抹除。假如我们现在考虑这个事实:由于心灵补偿的结果,伟大的谦虚非常靠近骄傲。而“骄兵必败”。我们很容易发现,在高傲的背后,具有焦虑的自卑感的某些特征。事实上,我们将会清楚地看见,他的不确定强迫这位热诚的人膨胀这些真理。他对于这些真理根本就没有确定。他对于他自己这一边装模作样,为了让他的跟随者可以替他自己证明他自己的信仰的价值与信任。他也并不完全如此快乐,对于他的知识的基金。以致于他能够单独维持下去。追根究底,他感觉被它所孤立。这个秘密的恐惧,被单独地留置跟真理一块,会让他对他的意见与解释洋洋自得,因为仅有当他说服别人时,他才感觉安全,避开令人痛苦的怀疑。

226 It is just the reverse with our despondent friend. The more
he withdraws and hides himself, the greater becomes his secret need to be understood and recognized. Although he speaks of his inferiority he does not really believe it. There arises within him a defiant conviction of his unrecognized merits, and in conse¬quence he is sensitive to the slightest disapprobation, always wearing the stricken air of one who is misunderstood and de¬prived of his rightful due. In this way he nurses a morbid pride and an insolent discontent-which is the very last thing he wants and for which his environment has to pay all the more dearly.

就我们的沮丧的朋友而言,那恰恰相反。他越是撤退与隐藏他自己,他的秘密的需要被人理解与被人承认,就变得越加强烈。虽然他谈了他的自卑感,他并没有确实地相信它。
在他内心,他自己没有被承认的优点的挑衅的信念产生出来。结果,他稍微遭遇不受认同,他就敏感异常。他总是摆出受到打击的神情,因为他被误解而且被剥夺他应该的尊重。以这个方式,他维护一个病态的骄傲与无礼的不满意。这是他最不想要的东西。他的环境因此必须付出更加昂贵的代价。

227 Both are at once too small and too big; their individual
mean, never very secure, now becomes shakier than ever. It 142
sounds almost grotesque to describe such a state as "godlike But since each in his way steps beyond his human proportions
both of them are a little "superhuman" and therefore, figuratively speaking, godlike. If we wish to avoid the use of this metaphor would suggest that we speak instead of "psychic inflation."

两者都是俱是太小,又是太大。他们的个人的工具,从来就没有安全过,现在变得比以前更加动摇。这听起来有点古怪,要描述这一个“神性一般”的状态。但是因为每个人以他自己的方式,走出超越他作为人的比例。他们两者都有点“超越人类”,因此,比喻地说,神性一般。假如我们希望避免使用这个隐喻。我将建议,代替地,我们应该谈了“心灵的膨胀”。

The term seems to me appropriate in so far as the state, are discussing involves an extension of the personality beyoI individual limits, in other words, a state of being puffed up .In such a state a man fills a space which normally he cannot fill. He ¬can only fill it by appropriating to himself contents and qua ties which properly exist for themselves alone and should the] fore remain outside our bounds. What lies outside ourselves t longs either to someone else, or to everyone, or to no one. Since psychic inflation is by no means a phenomenon induced excl sively by analysis, but occurs just as often in ordinary life, , can investigate it equally well in other cases.

我觉得这个术语是合适的,因为我们正在讨论的这个状态,牵涉到人格的延伸,超越个人的限制。换句话说,自我膨胀的状态。在这样的状态里,一个人填满一个空间,正常来说,他并无法填满的空间。他仅能够填满这个空间,仅是凭借替他自己盗用这些内容与品质。这些内容与品质,恰当来说,是依靠它们自己存在,因此应该是始终都是在我们的范围之外。属于我们自己之外的东西,要就是属于某个其他的人,要不就是属于每个人,要不就是不属于任何人。因为心灵的自我膨胀绝非是由于精神分析专属所引起的现象,而是同样经常地发生在日常的生活里。我们在其他的状况里,也能够同样清楚地研究它。

A very common instance is the humourless way in which many men identi themselves with their business or their titles. The office I hold certainly my special activity; but it is also a collective factor th has come into existence historically through the cooperation many people and whose dignity rests solely on collective a proval. When, therefore, I identify myself with my office or tit] I behave as though I myself were the whole complex of soci factors of which that office consists, or as though I were not on the bearer of the office, but also and at the same time the a pr oval of society. I have made an extraordinary extension of ill self and have usurped qualities which are not in me but outsi( me. L' etat c' est moi is the motto for such people.

一个非常共同的例子是这个欠缺幽默感的方式。许多人们用这个方式认同于他们的事业或他们的头衔。我拥有的职位确实就是我的特别的活动。但是它也是一个集体的因素,根据历史渊源而存在,凭借许多人们的合作。它们的尊严仅是依靠集体的认同。因此,当我认同自己对于我的职位,或头衔。我的行为好像我自己就是社会因素的整个的情结,因为那个职位就是由社会的因素组成。或是好像我不但是那个职位的拥有者,而且同时地,也是社会的认同。我曾经从事特殊的延伸,对于我自己。并且篡夺那些并非在我身上的品质,而是外在于我的那些品质。L' etat c' est moi (朕即国家)就是给那些人们的箴言。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Identification 252

July 28, 2015

Identification 252
认同
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

13.6.62 XXIV 9
I pointed out to you that the double cut is the first form of cut
which introduces into the surface defined as the cross-cap of the
projective plane the first cut, the minimal cut which obtains the
division of this surface. I indicated to you the last time what
this division culminated in and what it signifies. I showed you
in these very precise figures all of which I hope you have noted,
and which consisted in proving to you that this division has
precisely as a result to divide the surface in 1, a Mobius
surface namely a unilateral surface of the type of the figure
here: [Missing in text]

我跟你们指出,这个双重的切割是切割的第一部分。这个切割介绍第一次切割,进入被定义为投射层面的双叉帽的表面。这个最小的切割获得这个表面的区分。上次,我跟你们指示,这个区分在什么达到高潮,以及它意涵什么。我跟你们显示,在这些非常明确的图形里。我希望,你们已经注意到所有的这些图形。这些图形在于跟你们证明,这个区分结果确实必须区分在1的这个表面,一个莫比斯表面。换句话说,在此的这种图形的一个单边的表面:(文本失落)

This preserves, as one might say, in itself only a part of the
properties of the surface called the cross-cap, and, precisely
this particularly interesting and expressive part which consists
in the unilateral property; and in the one which I always
highlighted for you when I had circulated among you these little
Mobius ribbons that I made, namely that it is a question of a
left surface, which is, we will say in our language,
specularisable, that its image in the mirror cannot be
superimposed on it, that it is structured by a fundamental
asymmetry.

我们不妨说,在它本身,这保持所谓的双叉帽的表面的属性。确实地,这个特殊有趣,而且令人印象深刻的部分,它由单边的属性组成。在我总是跟你们强调的这一边,当我在你们当中流传我制作的这些小的莫比斯环带。这是一个左边的表面的问题,我们将用我们的语言说,这个左边的表面是可以成为魅影理想自我的。它在镜中的意象,无法被超级赋加在它上面。它的结构是基本的不均称。

And the whole interest of this structure that I am
showing you is that, on the contrary, the central part, what we
will call the central piece, isolated by the double cut, while
being manifestly the one which carries
with it the veritable structure of the
whole apparatus called the cross-cap, it
is enough to look at it, I would say to
see it, it is enough to imagine that, in
some fashion or other the edges here are
joined to one another in the points of
correspondence that they present
visually in order that there should be
immmediately reconstituted the general
shape of this projective plane or
cross-cap.

我正在跟你们显示的这个结构的整个的興趣,相反地,中央的这个部分,我们将所谓的中央的地方,被这个双重的切割孤立出来。当它明显地就是这个切割,随着它带着的可验证的结构,所谓的双叉帽的整个的工具的结构。光是观看它就足够了。我是说,光是看见它就足够想像,用某种的方式,在此的这些边缘被互相连接一块。在对应的这些点。它们在视觉上呈现的对应,为了这个一般的形状被重新建构,这个投射层面或双叉帽的一般形状。

But what appears with this cut is a surface which has this
Aspect that you can, I think, now consider as something which, for you,
(12) has gained enough familiarity for you to project it into
space, this surface which traverses itself according to a certain
line which stops at a point.

但是随着这个切割出现的东西,是一个表面,这个表面拥有这个层面,我认为,你们能够认为它,作为是某件东西,对于你们,这个东西已经获得足够的熟悉,将它投射进入空间。这个表面旅越过它自己,依照某个线条,在某个点停止。

It is this line and it is above all
this point which gives to the double circuit shape of this cut
its privileged signification from the schematic point of view
because it is this that we going to trust to give ourselves a
schematic schema of representation of the relationship $ cut of
o, which we will not manage to grasp at the level of the
structure of the torus namely of something which allows us to
articulate schematically the structure of desire, the structure
of desire in so far as we have already inscribed it formally in
this something which we are saying allows us to conceive of the
structure of the phantasy $ cut of o. S$ o

就是这条线,尤其重要的是这个点。给予切割的这个双重的循环的形状,给予它具有特权的意义,从这个基模的观点。因为我们将要信任这个,为了给予我们自己一个基模的基模,从0的$的切割的关系的再现表象基模。我们将无法成功与理解它,在圆环面对这个结构的层次,换句话说,在某件东西让我们能够用基模表的欲望的结构的东西的层次。因为我们已经正式地铭记它,在这个某件东西。我们正在说,这个某件东西让我们能够构想幻见的这个结构:$ cut of o. S$ o

We will not exhaust this subject today, but I will try to
introduce today for you the fact that this figure, in its
schematic function, is rather exemplary in order to allow us to
find the relationship of $ cut of o, the formalisation of the
phantasy in its relationship with something which is inscribed in
what is the remainder of the surface called the projective plane
or cross-cap when the central piece is in a way enucleated. It
is a question of a specularisable, fundamentally asymmetrical
structure which is going to allow us to localise the field of
this asymmetry of the subject with respect to the Other,
especially concerning the essential function that the specular
image plays in it.

今天,我们将不会穷尽这个主体。但是我将会尝试今天跟你们介绍这个事实:这个图形,以及它的基模的功能,是相当典范。为了让我们能够找到这个关系:0的$切割,幻见的这个正式化。在它跟某件东西的关系里,这个某件东西被铭记在所谓的投射到层面或双叉帽的表面的剩余物里。当中央的这块以某种方式被表达。这是一个可成为魅影理想自我的问题。基本上,它是不均称的结构。这个结构将会让我们能够定位主体的这个不均称的领域,关于大他者。特别是关于这个基本的功能,魅影理想自我在它那里扮演的意象。
雄伯译

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
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Synchronicity 424

July 27, 2015

Synchronicity 424
共时性
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

II. Exposition
说明

8\!4 It is not possible to sift the empirical material without a
criterion of distinction. How are we to recognize acausal com¬binations of events, since it is obviously impossble to examine all chance happenings for their causality? The answer to this is that acausal events may be expected most readily where, on closer reflection, a causal connection appears to be inconceiv¬able. As an example I would cite the “duplication of cases” which is a phenomenon well known to every doctor. Occa-sionally there is a trebling or even more, so that Kammerer a can speak of a “law of series,” of which he gives a number of excellent examples. In the majority of such cases there is not even the remotest probability of a causal connection between the coinciding events. When for instance I am faced with the fact that niy tram ticket bears the same number as the theatre ticket which I buy immediately afterwards, and I receive that same evening a telephone call during which the same number is mentioned again as a telephone number, then a causal con¬nection between these events seems to me improbable in the extreme, although it is obvious that each must have its own cau¬sality. I know, on the other hand, that chance happenings have a tendency to fall into aperiodic groupings-necessarily so, be¬cause otherwise there would be only a periodic or regular ar¬rangement of events which would by definition exclude chance.

当我们筛选材料时,我们必然要有区别的标准。我们如何能够体认出事件的非因果律的组合?因为要检视所有的偶然发生的事件,有关它们的因果关系,是不可能。对于这个问题的解答是,非因果律的事件最轻易被期望的的地方是,当我们更加仔细反思时,一个因果律的关系似乎是不可能给构想。譬如,我将引述一个“个案复制”的例子。那是每位医生耳熟能详的个案。有时,会有三次甚至更多次。所以康莫尔能够谈论到,作为“系列的法则”。在此,他给出许多优秀的案例。在大多数的这些的情况,在巧合的各个事件之间,甚至连丝毫的因果关系都没有。譬如,我面临这个事实:我的火车票的号码,跟我随后买到的戏院的票的号码相同。同一个晚上,我接听一个电话。在电话里,相同的号码再次被提到,作为是电话号码。然后是一个因果律的连接,在这些事件之间。我觉得那是极端不可能的。虽然显而易见地,每个事件一定会有它自己的因果律。另一方面,我知道,偶然发生的事件,拥有一个倾向,会掉入非周期的聚集。它们必然是如此。因为否则就仅有规律的事件的安排的周期。在定义上,它将会排除偶然事件。

8\!5 Kammerer holds that though “runs” 4 or successions of
chance events are not subject to the operation of a common cause,5 i.e., are acausal, they are nevertheless an expression of inertia-the property of persistence.6 The simultaneity of a “run of the same thing side by side” he explains as “imitation.” 7 Here he contradicts himself, for the run of chance has not been “removed outside the realm of the explicable,” 8 but, as we would expect, is included within it and is consequently re¬ducible, if not to a common cause, then at least to several causes.

康莫尔认为,虽然偶然事件的“运作”或连续系列,并没有隶属于共同因果的运作,它们是非因果律。它们仍然是惯性的表达—持续的属性。“相同事情并列的运作”的同时发生,他解释为“模仿”。在此,他牴触他自己的观点,因为偶然的运作并没有“从可以解释的事件的领域的外面移除”,如同我们期望的。它被包括在它里面,并且随后能够被化简。至少被化简成为好几个原因,虽然不是共同的原因。
His concepts of seriality, imitation, attraction, and inertia be¬long to a. causally conceived view of the world and tell us no more than that the run of chance corresponds to statistical and mathematical probability.9 Kammerer’s factual material contains nothing but runs of chance whose only “law” is prob¬ability; in other words, there is no apparent reason why he should look behind them for anything else. But for some ob¬scure reason he does look behind them for something more than mere probability warrants-for a law of seriality which he would like to introduce as a principle coexistent with causality and finality.

他对于系列,模仿,吸引与惯性的观念,属于因果律可以构想的世界观。并且仅仅告诉我们,偶然的运作,对应于统计学与数学的机率。康莫尔德事实的材料包含的仅是偶然事件的运作,它们的唯一的法则就是机率。换句话说,并没有外在的理由,为什么他竟然在它们的背后寻找任何其他东西。但是,为了某个模糊的理由,他确实在偶然事件的背后,寻找某件不仅是机率可以保证的事情。他寻找系列的法则。他想要介绍,作为是一个原则,跟因果律与最终性共同存在的原则。

a Paul Kammerer, Das Gesetz der Serie. 4 Ibid., p. 130.
5 Pp. 36, 93f., lOd.
424

SYNCHRONICITY: AN ACAUSAL CONNECTING PRINCIPLE

This tendency, as I have said, is in no way justified by his material. I can only explain this obvious contradiction by supposing that he had a dim but fascinated intuition of an acausal arrangement and combination of events, probably be¬cause, like all thoughtful and sensitive natures, he could not escape the peculiar impression which runs of chance usually make on us, and therefore, in accordance with his scientific disposition, took the bold step of postulating an acausal seriality on the basis of empirical material that lay within the limits of probability. Unfortunately he did not attempt a quantitative evaluation of seriality. Such an undertaking would undoubtedly have thrown up questions that are difficult to answer. The in¬vestigation of individual cases serves well enough for the pur¬pose of general orientation, but only quantitative evaluation or the statistical method promises results in dealing with chance.

如无曾经说过,这个倾向根本就无法根据他的材料自圆其说。我仅能解释这个明显的悖论,凭借假设,他拥有一个模糊而感到著迷的直觉,对于事件的非因果律的安排与组合。可能是因为像所有喜好沉思与敏感的天性,他无法逃避这个特殊的印象。偶然事件的运作给予我们的印象。因此,符合他的科学的性情。他採取大胆的步骤,假设一个非因果律的系列,根据试验的材料的基础。这些材料就在机率的范围之内。不幸地,他并没有企图做数量的评估这个系列。这样的从事无可置疑地抛弃掉困难回答的问题。个人的案例的研究非常合适充当一般的定向的目的。但是仅是数量上的评估,或是统计学的方法,在处理偶然事件时,也许诺会有结果。
6 “The law of series is an expression of the inertia of the objects involved in its repetitions (i.e., producing the series). The far greater inertia of a complex of objects and forces (as compared to that of a single object or force) explains the persistence of an identical constellation and the emergence, connected therewith,
of repetitions over long periods of time” (p. 117). 7 P. 130. 8 P. 94.
9 [The term “probability” therefore refers to the probability on a chance hypothesis (Null Hypothesis). This is the sense in which the term is most often used in this paper.-EDITORS.]
425

828
827

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE

826 Chance groupings or series seem, at least to our present way of thinking, to be meaningless, and to fall as a general rule within the limits of probability. There are, however, incidents whose “chance£ulness” seems open to doubt. To mention but one example out of many, I noted the following on April 1, 1949: Today is Friday. We have fish for lunch. Somebody hap¬pens to mention the custom of making an “April fish” of some-one. That same morning I made a note of an inscription which read: “Est homo totus medius piscis ab imo.” In the afternoon a former patient of mine, whom I had not seen for months, showed me some extremely impressive pictures of fish which she had painted in the meantime. In the evening I was shown a piece of embroidery with fish-like sea-monsters in it. On the morning of April 2 another patient, whom I had not seen for many years, told me a dream in which she stood on the shore of a lake and saw a large fish that swam straight towards her and landed at her feet. I was at this time engaged on a study of the fish symbol tn history. Only one of the persons mentioned here knew anything about it.

偶然事件或系列的聚集,至少依照我们目前的思维方式,似乎是没有意义的。通常,它们都掉落到机率的范围之内。可是,有些意味事件,它们的“偶然性”似乎公开受到质疑。我仅提到许多案例中的一个。在1949年1月4月,我记载以下的事情:今天是星期五。我们午餐有鱼。某个人刚好提到这个风俗,替某个人供应“四月鱼”的风俗。相同的那天早上,我记载一个铭记,内容是:”Est homo totus medius piscis ab imo.” 在下午,我的以前的一位病人,我好几个月没有见面,她给我观看鱼的极端生动的的画面。她在同一个时间画下的。在晚上,有人给我观看一幅刺绣,上面绣着像鱼一般的海洋怪物。在四月二日的早上,另外一位病人,我好几年没有见面,告诉我一个梦。在梦里,她站在湖的边缘,看见一条大的鱼,直接朝她游过来,并且登陆在她脚上。在这个时刻,我正专注于研究历史上鱼的象征。在这里被提到人们当中,仅有一个人知道有关我的研究。

The suspicion that this must be a case of meaningful co¬incidence) i.e., an acausal connection, is very natural. I must own that this run of events made a considerable impression on me. It seemed to me to have a certain numinous quality.lO In such circumstances we are inclined to say, “That cannot be mere chance,” without knowing what exactly we are saying. Kammerer would no doubt have reminded me of his “seriality.” The strength of an impression, however, proves nothing against the fortuitous coincidence of all these fishes. It is, admittedly, exceedingly odd that the fish theme recurs no less than six times within twenty-four hours. But one must remember that fish on Friday is the usual thing, and on April lone might very easily think of the April fish. I had at that time been working on the fish symbol for several months. Fishes frequently occur as sym-bols of unconscious contents. So there is no possible justification for seeing in this anything but a chance grouping.

这个怀疑是很自然的,譬如,这一定是有意义的巧合的案例,一个非因果律的关联。我必须承认,事件的这个运作,给予我相当的印象。我觉得,它具有某种的神性的特质。在这些的情况下,我们倾向于说:「那不可能仅是偶然事件。」但是我们并不知道,我们确实在说些什么。康莫尔无可置疑地本来会提醒我,有关他的“系列”“可是,这个印象的力量,并没有证明任何东西反对所有这些的鱼的偶然的巧合。虽然这是过分的古怪,鱼的主题重复发生,有六次之多,在二十四小时之内。但是,我们必须记住,在星期五的鱼是寻常的事情,在四月的传说,我们很容易就想到四月的鱼。在当时,我一直在研究鱼的象征,已经有好几个月。鱼经常发生,作为是无意识的内容。所以,并没有可能的合理理由在这个情况看见并非是偶然事件的聚集。

Runs or series which are composed of quite ordinary occurrences must for the present be regarded as fortuitous.11 However wide their range may be, they must be ruled out as acausal connections. It is, therefore, generally assumed that all coincidences are lucky hits and do not require an acausal interpretation.12 This as¬sumption can, and indeed must, be regarded as true so long as proof is lacking that their incidence ex~eeds the limits of prob¬ability. Should this proof be forthcoming, however, it would prove at the same time that there are genuinely non-causal combinations of events for whose explanation we should have to postulate a factor incommensurable with causality. We should then have to assume that events in general are related to one another on the one hand as causal chains, and on the other hand by a kind of meaningful cross-connection.

由相当普遍的发生的事情组成的运作或系列,目前,必然被认为是偶然巧合。它们的范围无论多么的宽广,它们必须被排除,作为是非因果的关联。人们因此通常会假定,所有的巧合事件都是幸运地碰在一块。并不要求非因果律的解释。这个假定能够,而且必然会被认为是真实。只要欠缺这个证据:它们的意外超过机率的那些限制。 可是,这个证据应该来临,它同时将会证明:存在着真正的非-因果律的事件的组合。我们将必须假设一个因素,作为它的解释。无法用因果率衡量的因素。我们因此必须假设:通常的事件互相息息相关,一方面作为是因果的锁链,另一方面,作为某种的意义的交叉连接。

10 The numin05ity of a series of chance happenings grows in proportion to the number of its terms. Unconscious-probably archetypal-contents are thereby constellated, which then give rise to the impression that the series has been “caused” by these contents. Since we cannot conceive how this could be possible without recourse to positively magical categories, we generally let it go at the bare impression.
426

S
Here I should like to draw attention to a treatise of Schopen-
hauer’s, “On the Apparent Design in the Fate of the Individ¬ual,” 13 which originally stood godfather to the views I am now developing. It deals with the “simultaneity of the causally uncon¬nected, which we call ‘chance• … 14 Schopenhauer illustrates this simultaneity by a geographical analogy, where the parallels represent the cross-connection between the meridians, which are thought of as causal chains.15

在此,我想要提醒注意叔本华的一篇论文“论个人命运的表面设计”。这篇论文充当我目前正在发展的各种观点的教父。它处理因果律不相干的事就的“同时性”。我们称为是“偶然事件”。叔本华说明这个同时性,凭借地质学的类比。在那里,这些并列代表子午线之间的交互连接。它们被认为是因果律的锁链。
11 As a pendant to what I have said above, I should like to mention that I wrote these lines sitting by the lake. Just as I had finished this sentence, I walked over to the sea•wall and there lay a dead fish, about a foot long, apparently uninjured. No fish had been there the previous evening. (Presumably it had been pulled out of the water by a bird of prey or a caLl The fish was the seventh in the series. 12 We find Ourselves in something of a quandary when it comes to making up our minds about the phenomenon which Stekel calls the “compulsion of the name.” What he means by this is the sometimes quite grotesque coincidence between a man’s name and his peculiarities or profession. For instance Herr Gross (Mr. Grand) suffers from delusions of grandeur, Herr Kleiner (Mr. Small) has an inferiority complex. The Altmann sisters marry men twenty years older than themselves. Herr Feist (Mr. Stout) is the Food Minister, Herr RossUiuscher (Mr. Horsetrader) is a lawyer, Herr Kalberer (Mr. CalveI’) is an -obstetrician. Herr FreUd (joy) champions the pleasure•prihciple, Herr Adler (eagle) the will• to• pOwer, Herr Jung (young) the idea of rebirth, and so on. Are these the whimsi. calities of chance, or the suggestive effects of the name, as Stekel seems to suggest, or are they “meaningful coincidences”? (“Die Verpflichtung des Namens,” llOff.) 13 Parerga und ParaliPomena, I, ed. by von Koeber. [C£. the trans. by David Irvine, to which reference is made for convenience, though not quoted here.]
14 Ibid., p. 40. [Irvine, p. 41.J 15 P. 39. [Irvine, pp. 39f.J
427

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
All the events in a man’s life would accordingly stand in two funda-mentally different kinds of connection: firstly, in the objective, causal connection of the natural process; secondly, in a subjective connection which exists only in relation to the individual who ex¬periences it, and which is thus as subjective as his own dreams . . . . That both kinds of connection exist simultaneously, and the selfsame event, although a link in two totally different chains, never¬theless falls into place in both, so that the fate of one individual invariably fits the fate of the other, and each is the hero of his own drama while simultaneously figuring in a drama foreign to him¬this is something that surpasses our powers of comprehension, and can only be conceived as possible by virtue of the most wonderful pre-established harmony.16

在人的一生当中,所有的事件因此具有两个基本上不同种类的联接。首先,在自然界的客观的因果的联接。其次,是主观性的联接,它存在于仅是跟经验到它的个人相关。它因此是主观的,如同他的梦。两种的联接同时地存在,这个确实相同的事件,虽然它们是两个完全不同的锁链里的一个连接,它们仍然掉落到两种的位置里。所以,一个人的命运必然会配合另外一个人的命运。每一个人都是他自己的戏剧的主角。而同时,又出现在一个对他陌生的戏剧里。这是某件超过我们的理解力量的东西。它仅能够被构想,作为可能。凭借这个最为奇妙的预先注定的和谐。
雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com