Archive for February, 2011

Desire 033 Jacques Lacan

February 28, 2011

Desire 033

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

3.12.58 52
Seminar 4: 3 December 1958

So that the way out proposed to this new drama is to censure this truth of desire. But this censorship is not something which, however it is exercised, can be sustained with the stroke of a pen, because here it is the process of enunciating which is aimed
at, and because to prevent it some foreknowledge of the process of the enunciation is necessary, and that every discourse destined to banish this enunciation from the process of enunciating is going to find itself offending more or less openly with its end. It is the matrix of this possibility which at this level, is given on our graph, and it will give you a lot of other matrices.

對於這個新的戲劇所提出的解決方法,就是檢查這個欲望的真理。但是檢查並不是某件僅是用一隻筆的描述,就能維持的東西,無論它如何的運用。因為在此,我們目標所要的,就是這個表達的過程。我們必須要預先知道這個表達的過程,我們才能夠阻止它。每一個真理論述,假如註定要驅逐這個表達,於表達的過程之外,它將會發現它自己,彰彰明甚地跟自己的目的背道而馳。這就是在我們的欲望圖表裏,以這個層次,被給予的這個可能性的基模。它還會給予你們許多其他的基模。

The subject, because of the fact that he articulates his demand, is captured in a discourse in which he cannot but be himself constructed qua agent of enunciating, which is why he cannot renounce it without this enunciation, because that is to efface himself completely as a subject knowing what is in question.

事實上,當生命主體表達他的需求時,他被擄獲在一個真理論述裏。他不得不讓自己被建構,作為表達的代理人。這就是為什麼,他無法在沒有這個表達的情況下,放棄它。因為那等於是完全抹除自己,作為一個生命主體,知道受到質疑的是什麼。

(30) The relationship to one another of these two lines of the process of enunciating and the process of the enunciation is quite simple, it is the whole of grammar, a rational grammar which is articulated in these terms; if you find it interesting I
will tell you where and how, in what terms and in what context this has been articulated, but for the moment what we have to deal with is the following: it is the fact that we see when repression is introduced, it is essentially linked to the
absolute necessity of the subject being effaced and disappearing at the level of the process of enunciating.

表達的過程及這個表達內容的過程,這兩條線互相的關係。這就是文法的整體,一個理性的文法,用這些術語來表達。假如你們發現它很有趣,我將告訴你們,這個東西在哪里,用什麼方法,用什麼術語,在什麼內容被表達。但是目前,我們必須要處理的以下:事實上,我們看出壓抑什麼時候被介紹,它基本上是跟這個絕對的需要息息相關。那就是生命主體被抹除,並且消失,在表達的這個過程。

How, by what empirical paths does the subject accede to this possibility? It is quite impossible, even to articulate it if we do not see what the nature of the process of enunciating is.

使用怎樣的試驗性途徑,生命主體同意這樣的可能性?這是相當不可能的,即使僅是表達它,假如我們看出表達的過程的特性是什麼?

As I told you: every word begins from these points of intersection which we have designated by the point 0, namely that every word in so far as the subject is implicated in it, is the discourse of the Other.

如同我告訴你們,每個字都開始於我們用大它者的點,指明代這些交會點。換句話說,每個字都是大它者的真理論述,當生命主體牽涉在內。

That is the precise reason why at first the child is quite convinced that all his thoughts are known, it is because the definition of thought is not as the psychologists say, something like the beginning of an act. Thought is above all something which participates in this dimension of the unsaid which I have just introduced by the distinction between the process of enunciating and the process of enunciation, but for
this unsaid to subsist, naturally in so far as in order that it (31) should be an unsaid it must be said, it must be said at the level of the process of enunciating, namely qua discourse of the Other, and that is why the child does not doubt for an instant
that what represents for him this locus where this discourse is carried on, namely his parents, know all his thoughts.

那確實就是為什麼,起初小孩是如此地相信,所有他的思想都被人知道,因為思想的定義並不是如心理學家所說,像是某件開始行動的東西。特別是,思想是某件參與這個沒有說出的向度。我剛剛介紹它,使用表達的過程,與表達內容的過程的這個區別。但是要讓這個沒有說出的部份存在,我們必須在表達的過程這個層次說。換句話說,作為大它者的真理論述。那就是為什麼,小孩沒有片刻懷疑,對於他,代表真理論述被執行的這個軌跡。換句話說,父母知道他所有的思想。

In any case this is his first movement, it is a movement which will subsist as long as he is not introduced to something new which we have again articulated here concerning this relationship of the upper line with the lower line, namely what keeps them outside grammar at a certain distance.

無論如何,這是他的第一次活動,這是一個活動將會生存,假如他並沒有被介紹給某件新的東西。我們在此再一次表達,關於上面這條線跟下面這條線的這個關係。換句話說,是什麼保持它們在文法外面的某個距離?

I do not need to tell you how grammar keeps a distance between sentences like “I do not know whether he is dead”, “He is not dead, as far as I know”, “I did not know that he was dead”, “I was afraid that he was dead”. All these subtle taxemes which go
from the subjunctive here to a ne that Monsieur Lebidoy calls in a fashion that is really incredible for a philologist who writes in Le Monde, the expletive ne. All of this is done to show us that a whole part of grammar, the essential part, the taxemes,
are there to maintain the necessary gap between these two lines.

我並不需要告訴你們,文法如何保持距離,在像這樣的句子:「我不知道他是否死亡。」「據我所知,他並沒有死亡。」「我當時不知道他已經死亡。」「我當時擔心他已經死亡。」所有這些微妙的語法要素,從這裏的這個假設,到一個列比度先生所謂的「沒有」,以某種真的是難以相信的方式,就一位元語言學家而言。他在「世界報」寫這個虛字的否定詞。所有這些被做,是為了跟我們顯示,文法的整體,主要的部份,語法要素,在那裏都是要維持必須要的差距,在這兩行之間。

The next time I will project for you onto these two lines the articulations in question, but for the subject who has not yet learned these subtle forms, and it is quite clear that the (32) distinction between the two lines is made well before.

下一次,我將跟你們把受到質疑的表達,投射到這兩行。但是對於還沒有學習到這些微妙形式的生命主體而言,這是顯而易見的,這兩行之間的這個區別,在以前就做過了。

There are required conditions, and these form the basis of the interrogation that I am bringing before you today. This distinction is very essentially linked, like every time of course that you see that it is a question of something which is not a temporal reference point, but a tensional point, namely of a difference in tenses between these two lines, you can clearly see the relationship that there can be between this and the
situation, and the topology of desire.

這些是被要求的條件,形成這個詢問的基礎,我今天在你們面前呈現的。這個區別是基本的關係,當然,就像每一次你們看到,某件東西並不是時間的指稱點,而是時態點。換句話說,在兩行之間的時態的差異。你們能夠清楚地看出這個關係,存在於這個跟情境以及欲望的拓樸圖形之間。

This is where we are. For a time the child is in sum entirely caught up in the interplay between these two lines. What is necessary here in order that repression may be produced? I would say that I am hesitating before committing myself to a path which
after all I would like not to appear for what it nevertheless is, a path of concession, namely that I appeal to notions of development properly speaking, I mean that everything is implicated in the empirical process at the level at which this is
produced, of an intervention, of an empirical and certainly necessary incidence, but the necessity to which this empirical incidence, this empirical accident, the necessity in which it comes to reverberate, which it precipitates in its form, is of a different nature.

這就是我們所在的地方。總之,有一陣子,小孩完全套陷在這兩行之間的互動。在此,為了要壓抑能夠被產生,我們需要什麼?我不妨說,我正在猶豫一下,才能專注致力於某條途徑。畢竟,我不想要表現它的實際樣子,一條讓步的途經。換句話說,我訴諸於發展的觀念,適當地說。我的意思是,每一樣東西都被牽連到這個試驗性地過程,在介入,在一個試驗及必然需要的意外,這個會被產生的層次。但是這個需要屬於不同的特性,這個試驗的意外,它會反彈回來的必要。

In any case, the child perceives at a given moment that these adults who are supposed to know all his thoughts, and here precisely he is not going to go beyond this stage, in a certain (33) fashion he will be able to reproduce later on the possibility which is the fundamental possibility of what we call in brief and rapidly the so-called elementary form of hallucination, that there appears this primitive structure of what we call this background of the process of enunciating, parallel to the current enunciation of the existence of what is called the echo of acts, the echo of expressed thoughts.

無論如何,在某個時刻,小孩感覺到,被認為應該知道他所有的思想的這些成年人,在此,他確實不要超越這個階段,以某種的方式,後來他將能夠複製這個可能性。這是基本的可能性,我們簡短而迅速地稱為幻覺的基本形式,這個原始的結構,我們所謂表達的過程的背景,出現在那裏,平行於目前的表達,對於所謂行動迴響的存在,被表的思想的存在。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

雄伯手記100228

February 28, 2011

Desire 032 Jacques Lacan

February 28, 2011

Desire 032

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

3.12.58 52
Seminar 4: 3 December 1958

If what I am saying there were not obvious, the whole of grammar would vanish. I am simply in the process of pointing out to you for the moment the necessity of using the future perfect, in so far as there are two reference points to time: a reference point
to time concerning the act that is going to be in question: “by that date I will have become her husband” for example, and it is a question of locating what is going to be transformed by marriage into the enunciation; but on the other hand, because you
express it in terms of the future perfect, it is the present point from which you speak from the act of enunciating which locates you.

假如我正在說的內容沒有顯而易見,整個的文法將會瓦解。目前,我僅是在跟你們指出這個必要性的過程,未來完成式的必要性。這裏有兩個時間的指稱點:一個時間的指稱點關係到將會受到質疑的行動:例如,「在那個日期之前,我將會已經成為她的丈夫。」問題是要找出,什麼事情將會被婚姻轉移成為這個表達?但是在另一方面,因為你使用未來完成式的術語表達它,你是從現在的這個時間點談論,從定位你的時間的表達的行動談論。

There are therefore two subjects, two I’s, and the stage that the child must go beyond at the level of this test of Binet’s, namely the distinction between these two I’s, seems to me to be something which has literally nothing to do with this famous reduction to reciprocity which Piaget considers to be the essential pivot as regards grasping how to use personal pronouns.

因此有兩個生命主體,兩個「我」。小孩必須超越的階段,在邊拿的測驗的層次。換句話說,在這兩個「我」之間的這個區別,我覺得是某件跟這個著名的化簡成為互惠性,幾乎沒有什麼關係。皮亞傑認為這個互惠性是重要的樞紐,關於理想如何使用個人的代名詞。

But let us leave this then to one side for the moment. What have (26) we arrived at? To a grasp of these two lines as representing one which is referred to the process of enunciating, the other the process of the enuntiation.

但是讓我們將這個暫時擱置一邊。我們已經到達什麼地方?到達理解這兩條線,其中一條代表被認為是被表達的過程,另一條代表表達的過程。

The fact that they are two, does not mean that each represents one function, but that every time we are dealing with the functions of language we should always discover this duplicity.

它們是兩個這個事實並不意味著,每一段都代表一個功用。而是每一次我們正在處理語言的這個功用,我們應個總是發現這個雙重性。

Let us say again that not only are they two, but that they will always have opposing discontinuous structures, here for example for one when the other is continuous, and inversely.

讓我們再一次說,它們不但是兩個,而且它們總是有相反的中斷的結構。例如,其中一條中斷,另一條就繼續。反過來,也是一樣。

Where is Anna Freud’s articulation situated?

安娜、佛洛伊德的表達位置在哪里?

I am not going to tell you how this topology can be used, I mean I am not going to say just like that all at once because it might suit me, or even because I may be able to see a little bit further, given the fact that I was the one who constructed this contraption, and because I know where I am going, so that I should tell you: it is here or it is there.

我並沒有要告訴你們,這個拓樸圖形如何被使用。我的意思是,我沒有要突然地就像那樣說,因為它可能適合於我。甚至因為我可能能夠稍微看遠一點,假如考慮到,我是建構這個陷阱的人。因為我知道,我將到達哪里,所以我應該告訴你們,就是這裏,就是那裏。

The fact is that the question arises: the question arises of what this articulation represents on this occasion which is the aspect under which the reality of Anna Freud’s dream is presented to us, and that in the case of this child who was quite capable of perceiving the meaning of the sentence of her nurse – true or false – Freud implies it, and Freud supposes it, and quite correctly because of course, a child of nineteen months understands very well that her nurse has messed her about – there
(27) is articulated in what I called this flocculated form, this series of signifiers in a certain order, this something which takes its form from being stacked up, by being superimposed as I might say, in a column, from the fact of substituting for one another these things in so far as each one is a metaphor for the other, which it is then a question of making emerge, namely the reality of satisfaction qua prohibited (inter-dite) and we shall go no further with Anna Freud’s dream.

事實是,這個問題會出現,這個問題會從這個表達所代表的東西出現。在這個場合,在這一方面,安娜、佛洛伊德的夢的現實界,被呈現給予我們,在這個小孩的情況,這個小孩相當能夠感覺到她的奶媽的句子的意義,無論是真實,或是虛假。佛洛伊德暗示它,佛洛伊德假定它。這是相當正確的,因為當然,一個十九個月大的小孩很清楚地瞭解,她的奶媽曾經擾亂她。以我所謂的這個凝聚的形式被表達。這一系列的意符,處於某種的秩序,這個某件東西獲得它的形式,從被堆積起來、我不妨說說,以一排柱子的方式重疊,從互相替代這些事情的這個事實,每一個都是另外一個的比喻。因此,問題是要使作為被禁止的滿足的現實界出現。我們對於安娜、佛洛伊德的夢的討論在此告一段落。

We will nevertheless take the next step. So that once we have sufficiently begun to clarify this matter by asking ourselves now, because it is a question of the topology of repression, the way in which what we are beginning to articulate is going to help
us when it is a question of an adult dream, namely how, what is the real difference between what we can clearly see to be a certain form which the child’s desire takes on on this occasion in the dream, and a form which is undoubtedly much more
complicated because it is going to give much more trouble, in any case as regards interpretation, namely what happens in a adult’s dream.

可是,我們將會採取下一步驟。所以一旦我們現在詢問自己,就已經開始充份澄清這件事情。因為這是一個壓抑的拓樸圖形,我們漸漸開始表達的方式,將會幫助我們。這是一個成年人的夢的問題,換句話說,真實的差異是什麼?我們很清楚看出是小孩的欲望,在夢的這個場合,所構成的形式,以及無可置疑的,更加複雜化的的形式之間。在許多情況,我們將會遭遇更多的麻煩,關於解釋。換句話說,在成年人的夢裏,發生什麼事?

In this matter there is no ambiguity in Freud. He has no difficulty with it, it is enough to read the usage and the function of what intervenes, it is in the order of censorship.
Censorship operates very exactly in a way that I was able to illustrate during my previous seminars. I do not know if you remember the famous story which we enjoyed so much, the one (28) about: “The king of England is an idiot, therefore
everything is permitted,” says the typist who is caught up in the Irish revolution. But this was not what was in question. I gave you another application of it, namely what Freud says to explain punishment dreams.

這件事情在佛洛伊德身上沒有什麼模糊曖昧。他沒有遭遇到它的困難,我們只要閱讀所介入的這個用途跟功用就足夠了。就在這個檢查的這個秩序。運作的方式確實是,在我前次的講座,我能夠舉例說明的方式。我不知道你們是否記得,我們如此欣賞的這個著名的故事:「英國國王是一個白癡,因此每一件事情都被准許。」身陷愛爾蘭革命的打字員說。但是這並不是受到質疑的東西。我給予你們另外一種應用方式。換句話說,對於懲罰的夢,佛洛伊德說了什麼。

We had very specially put forward the law: whoever says that the king of England is an idiot will have his head cut off, and as I told you: the following night I
dreamt that I had my head cut off.

我們曾經非常特別地提出這個法則:任何說英國國王是白癡的人,他的頭顱將會被砍掉。如同我告訴你們,第二天晚上,我夢到我的頭顱被砍掉。

Freud also articulates even more simple forms. Because I have been persuaded to read Tintin for some time past, I will borrow an example from him. I have a way of breaking through the censorship by using my Tintinesque qualities, I can say aloud:
anyone who says in my presence that General Tapiocca is not a better man than General Alcazar, will have to deal with me.

佛洛伊德也表達甚至是更簡單的形式。因為過去一段時間,我被勸告去閱讀頂丁的著作。我從他那裏借用一個例子。我用某種方式突破檢查,以使用我從頂丁借用的方式。我大聲地說:任何人在我面前說,塔皮奧卡將軍沒有比阿爾卡薩將軍好的人,他將必須先對付我。

Now, it is quite clear that if I articulate something like this, neither partisans of General Tapiocca, nor those of General Alcazar would be satisfied, and I would say that what is much more surprising, is that the least satisfied will be those who
are the partisans of both.

現在,顯而易見的,我清楚表達像這樣的某件事情,塔皮奧卡將軍的黨徒,或是阿爾卡薩將軍的黨徒,都不會對我滿意。我會說,更加令人驚奇的是,對我最不滿意的人將是,那兩位將軍的黨徒。

Here then is what Freud explains to us in the most precise fashion: it is in the nature of what is said to confront us with a very particular difficulty which at the same time also opens up very special possibilities. What is in question is (29) simply the following: What the child had to deal with, was the prohibition (inter-dit), a saying, no. The whole process of education, some principles of censorship, go therefore to form this saying no, because it is a question of operations with the signifier in an inexpressible way (en indieible), and this also supposes that the subject perceives that the saying no, if it is said, is said, and even if it is not executed, remains said. Whence the fact that not saying it is distinct from obeying not to do it, in other words that the truth of desire is all by itself an offence against the authority of law.

在此是佛洛伊德跟我們的解釋,以最精確的方式:我們面對的內容的特質,具有特別的困難。這個困難同時也展開非常明確的可能性。受到質疑的僅是以下:小孩所必須處理的是這個禁止,說不可以的禁止。教育的整個過程,某件檢查的原則,因此將會形成這個說不可以。因為對於意符的運作的問題,以一個無法表達的方式。這個也假定,生命主體感覺到,這個說不可以,假如一旦被說,即使它沒有被執行,它始終就已經被說。沒有說出它,不同於就是服從不去做它,換句話說,欲望的真理,本身就是對於權威法則的冒犯。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Jung handbook 05

February 28, 2011

Jung handbook 05

The Handbook of Jung Psychology
榮格心理學的手冊

Chapter 9 Individuation 197
Individuation
Murray Stein

第九章 個體化
墨菲、史坦因

200 Murray Stein Individuation 201

With further motor and cognitive development, the ego is able to begin exercising its executive functions and to exert some control over muscles.

由於有更進一步的動力跟認知發展,自我能夠開始運作它的執行的功用,並且對於肌肉實施恐制。

Arms and legs become coordinated and speech follows. Soon the whole world becomes a vast theatre of play and learning, a veritable Garden of Eden to explore. The healthy child asserts itself vigorously and with abandon in this perceived safe and protected environment. Serious reality testing is left to the oversight of the parental unit, a nurturing and containing presence hovering above. The boundaries of this paradise are tested soon enough as the child exerts more and more autonomy physically and emotionally. Disobedience and increasing consciousness go hand in hand.

手臂跟腳互相協調,言談能力也跟隨而來。不久,整個世界成為一個遊戲及學習的廣大劇場,一個可供探索的名符其實的伊甸園。建康的小孩強烈而任性地表現自己,在這個感覺到的安全而受到保護的環境。嚴重的現實界的考驗,則是讓父母親們去掛念,他們的滋養跟包容的存在盤旋上方。這種天堂的邊界不久就受到考驗,當小孩在生理上及情感上,運用越來越多的自主權。不服從及越來越增加的意識則齊頭並進。

Psychological boundaries begin to be erected between child and parental guardian, and the child becomes aware of the differences between self and other and exploits them. Throughout this stage, however, a basic level of unconscious identification remains between child and nurturing environment. Participation mystique continues to reign. Jung thought of the child’s psyche as largely contained in the parental psyche and reflective of it:

心理的邊界開始被豎立,在小孩跟父母親的監護之間。小孩漸漸知道在自我與別人之間的這個差異,並且利用這個差異。可是,在這個階段的過程,無意識認同的一個基本的層次,始終保持在小孩與滋養的環境之間。「參與的神秘」繼續支配。榮格將小孩的心理視為是,主要是被包容在父母的心理及其反射裏。

‘Children are so deeply involved in the psychological attitude of their parents that it is no wonder that most of the nervous disturbances in childhood can be traced back to a disturbed psychic atmosphere in the home’ (CW 17: par. 80). The child’s true individual personality does not emerge until it leaves the parents’ psyche in a sort of second birth, a psychological birth for the ego when it becomes a more truly separate entity.

小孩是如此深度地牽涉到他們父母親的心理態度,也就難怪,在童年時,大部份的精神上的困擾,可以被追蹤到一個受到困擾的家庭的心理氣氛。「小孩的真實的個人人格,要等到它以一種重生的方式,脫離父母的心理,才會出現。」對於自我,這是一種心理的誕生,當它成為一種更加真實的脫離的實體。

This psychological containment of the young gives parents enormous influence over their children, not only through the conscious transmission of culture, tradition, teaching and training, but more importantly and deeply through unconscious communication of attitude and structure.

幼兒的這個心理的被包容,使父母親對於他們的小孩產生巨大的影響。不但是透過文化、傳統、教學及訓練的有意識地傳遞,而且更重要,更深刻地,透過態度及結構的無意識的溝通。

Via the unconscious, a kind of psychological programming of the child’s inner
world takes place, for good or ill. It is not what the parent says, but what the parent is and does, that has the greatest impact on the shape of the child’s inner world. The family is the child’s adaptive environment, and much of this world’s emotional tone enters the child’s inner world by introjection.

經由這種無意識,小孩內在世界一種心理的戲碼會產生,無論是好或是不好。這不是父母所說的話,而是父母的存在與行為,有最大的影響,對於小孩內在世界的形成。家庭是小孩的適應環境。這個世界的大部份的情感音色,會突然進入小孩的世界。

The testing and challenging of physical and psychological boundaries continues throughout the first stage of individuation. Adolescence, which for most of us falls within this stage, is a transitional time when physically, and to some extent psychologically, a person is ready to leave the nurturing/ containing environment and enter the next stage of individuation.

生理與心理邊界的考驗與挑戰,繼續貫穿個體化的第一階段。對於我們大部份人而言,青少年就處於這個階段。那是一個轉移到時刻,當生理上,以及心理上的某個程度,一個人準備要離開這個滋養及包容的環境,然後進入個體化的下一個階段。

In modern developed societies, however, this is complicated by educational and training requirements that often prolong the containment stage to a significant extent. An adolescent of 15 or even 18 is nowhere near being able to take on the tasks and responsibilities of adulthood in modern societies.

可是,在現代發展成熟的社會,教育及訓練的要求會使它變得更加複雜。它們延長這個包容的階段,到達一個重要的程度。十五歲到甚至十八歲的青少年,根本就沒有辦法擔負起在現代社會中,成年的這些工作及責任。

This prolongation of the first stage of individuation creates the specific problems and attitudes so characteristic of adolescents in these countries: impatience, rebelliousness, feelings of inferiority, being marginalised, and frustration. Ready to leave the world of childhood but not yet prepared for the tasks of adulthood, they are truly betwixt and between.

個體化的第一階段的延長,創造這個明確的難題及態度。在這些國家,它們是青少年的特性:沒有耐心、反叛、自卑感、邊緣感、及挫折感。他們準備離開這個童年的世界,但是對於成年的工作,還沒有準備好。他們確實進退維谷。

The adult personae that initiation rituals provide in traditional societies are withheld from adolescents in modern cultures, and the dependent state of childhood is artificially prolonged far beyond its natural physical and psychological timeframe. Schools and colleges are the holding pens and containers devised by modern cultures for adolescents and post-adolescents who need to have more time to mature and to become acculturated and ready for successful adaptation to the demands of work and family that are shortly to fall upon them.

在傳統社會裏,成年禮儀式供應的成年的角色,在現代的文物,還是受到青少年的支持。童年的依靠狀態,以人為方式被延長,超越它的自然的生理及心理的時間限制。中小學校及大學是現代文化替青少年及青年,設計的支持場所及包容處。他們需要更多的時間來成熟,並且融入文化,準備從事成功的適應於工作及家庭的要求。這些要求不久就會落在他們身上。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
http://springhero.wordpress.com

Jung handbook 04

February 27, 2011

Jung handbook 04

The Handbook of Jung Psychology
荣格心理学的手册

Chapter 9 Individuation 197
Individuation
Murray Stein

第九章 个体化
墨菲、史坦因

200 Murray Stein Individuation 201

The first and primary nurturing figure is, of course, the mother. From pregnancy onwards, the mother represents as well as symbolises the nurturing container itself.

最初及原初的滋養人物,當然是母親。從懷孕開始,母親代表也象徵這個滋養的包容者本身。

Nurturing and containing can be referred to as the mothering function, whether this is delivered by the actual biological mother, by mother surrogates, by fathers, teachers, or institutions. Symbolically speaking, they are all the mother’ if they approach the individual in a nurturing, containing mode.

滋養及包容有時能夠被提到當著述母愛的功用,無論是實際上的親生母親所給予,或是代理母親、父親、老師、或收養機構。象徵意義來說,他們都是母親的功用,假如他們接近這個個人,以滋養及包容的方式。

Nurturing, while it grows out of concrete acts of mothering like breastfeeding,
is not only physical, and to a large extent it takes on other features as the child grows. Feeding takes place on emotional, cognitive and spiritual levels. Nurturing is an attitude. Symbolically it has been expressed by mother figures since time immemorial.

当滋养来自母亲的具体的行为,譬如餵奶,它并不仅是生理上,虽著小孩成长,到达某个程度,它具有其它特征。餵奶发生在亲感、认知、及精神的层次。滋养是一种态度。象征符号来说,自从远古以来,它都是由母亲的角色来表达。

The Great Goddesses of world religions — figures such as Demeter (Greek), Isis (Egyptian), the Virgin Mary (Christian) to name only a few — are identified as nurturers, feeders, containers and comforters. The role of the Great Mother Goddesses
extends far beyond the biological and physical feeding functions, although it is rooted in the gestures and rituals of literal feeding.

世界宗教的伟大女神,诸如希腊神话的底米特,埃及的埃西斯,基督教的聖母玛丽,我只举几个例子。她们都被认同为滋养者,餵食者,包容者及安慰者。伟大的母亲女神的角色,延伸超越生物及生理的餵食功用。虽然它根源于实质上餵食的人物及仪式。

The church, for example, is a classic nurturing, containing institution that feeds its ‘children’ the bread of heaven, a spiritual type of food. Its primary mission is not to feed people materially, although sometimes it has done so and has dedicated itself to the material improvement of the poor. Yet its main meal is a symbolic and spiritual one. Nurturing institutions are typically represented by mother images. Similarly, containers such as ships are referred to as ‘she’.

例如,教堂是一个古典的滋养、包容的机构。这个机构以天堂的面包,餵食它的「小孩」,那是一种精神食粮。它的原初的任务,并不是要以物质来餵食人们。虽然有时候它曾经这样做,并且致力于改善贫穷人家的物质条件。可是,它的主要的食物,是象征符号及精神的食物。滋养的机构典型上是由母亲的意象所代表。同样地,诸如船隻这个包容器,也被认为是「女性的她」。

This does not mean that actual mothers or nurturing institutions like the church or ships of the navy do not also have marked fatherly, patriarchal functions and aspects, but when the emphasis falls on nurturing, the images hark back to the mother. Therefore this stage of individuation is referred to as the mother stage, and people within it are seen as living ‘in the mother’.

这并不意味着,实际上的母亲,或是滋养的机构,诸如教堂或是海军的船隻,都没有被标示为男性的父亲,因为它也具有父权的功用及方面。但是当这个强调点是滋养的时候,这些意象让人想到的是母亲。因此,个体化的这个阶段,被认为是母亲的阶段。在这个阶段里面的人们被视为是「在母亲这一边」。

Whether the containing/nurturing function is performed by the actual mother, by another person, or by an institution, the underlying attitude is: I am here to help you’. Nurturers are providers, helpers, sustainers. This attitude on the part of the nurturer, in turn, creates or inspires a corresponding attitude in the recipient of nurturance.

这个包容及滋养的功用,执行者无论是由实际的母亲,或是另外一人,或是一个机构,基本的态度是:「我在此是为了帮助你。」滋养者是供应者、帮助者、维持者。反过来,在滋养者的这一边的态度,会创造或是啟发一种对应的态度,在接受滋养者的这一边。

Nurturers conjure children, and children attach themselves to nurturers. The recipient’s attitude is one of radical dependence upon the perceived nurturer. This attitude may he quite conscious or largely unconscious. In the first years of life, it is
definitely unconscious. Nurturance and containment are simply taken for granted by the infant and the young child. Recipients often struggle mightily against their caregivers, not realising how profound the real dependence actually is.

滋养者让人想起小孩,而小孩则跟滋养者连繫在一起。这个接受者的态度,是强烈依靠他感觉到的滋养者的态度。这种态度可能会相当意识到,或是根本没有意识到。在生命的前几年,那确实是无意识的。滋养和包容仅仅被婴儿及幼儿视为是理所当然。接受者时常努力奮鬥,对抗他们的照顾者,因为他们没有体会到,真实的依靠,实际上是多么深刻。

A child pushing away from its mother and running impulsively out into traffic simply assumes, at an unconscious level, that will be safe, cared for, protected, and at the end of the day fed, held and comforted. This degree of entitlement is unchallenged in the young child, and the nurturing adult, who may even find it attractive and mildly
amusing, freely gives it. The dependency arising out of a good bonding. between infant and mother is to be desired, for too much anxiety about the world at this early stage of life would not augur well.

当一个小孩在被餵食、被拥抱、被安慰的一天之后,推开他的母亲,冲动地跑进大街,在他无意识的层次,他只是假定那将是安全的、受照顾、受保护的。幼儿自以为是的程度并没有受到挑战。而滋养的成人甚至可能觉得好玩,有趣,就随便地纵容他。在婴儿跟母亲之间这种依靠,出之于彼此的默契,是应该受到批评的。因为在生命如此早的阶段,对于这个世界有过多的焦虑,并不是好的预兆。

The containment/nurturance phase of individuation serves the psycho logical purpose of supporting and protecting an incipient ego in the child The ego complex, which we conceive of as the centre of consciousness with certain executive functions and some measure of innate anxiety about reality, comes into being gradually over the course of early childhood. Its earliest beginnings lie already in the intrauterine experience.

个体化的这个包容及滋养的阶段,可以充当心理的用途,支持及保护小孩身上的一种接受者的自我。我们所构想的自我情结,作为意识的中心,拥有某些的执行的功用,跟某种程度的与生俱来关于现实界的焦虑。随着早期童年的成长,这个自我情结会逐渐存在。它最早的开始已经存在于母亲子宫内的经验。

There the ego is barely a point of awareness and of reaction to stimuli, a tiny bit of
separate consciousness in the darkness of the mother’s body. With birth, the ego’s world is dramatically enlarged, and the infant’s ego responds by registering and reacting to sights, tastes, and touching as well as to sounds and smells. Very quickly a baby is able to recognise its mother’s face and to respond. At a profound psychological level, however, infant and mother remain joined in a state of psychological fusion.

在那里,自我仅是一个知觉及反应刺激的点,一个小小的分开的意识,在母亲身体的黑暗中。随着出生,这个自我的世界戏剧性地扩大。婴儿的自我的回应是,接受及反应视觉、味觉、触觉,以及声音跟嗅觉。很快地,一个婴儿能够认出母亲的脸孔,并且反应。可是,在一个深度的心理的层次,婴儿跟母亲始终有默契处于心理的状态。

The ego’s separateness is severely limited. This unconscious identification is mutual. The mother is as deeply tied into it as the infant. Jung termed this type of identification participation mystique, a phrase that denotes an unconscious psychophysical bond and comes originally from anthropology (introduced by Levy-
Bruhl 1910). What happens to one person in this union happens to the other. They feel each other’s pain, hunger and joy. For the infant, this forms the basis of later empathy and eventually will develop into a sense of responsibility for others and an inner conscience. It also creates part of the foundation for later ego identity, especially for female children.

这个自我的分开严重地受到限制。这个无意识里的认同是互相的。母亲跟她的婴儿是息息相关的。荣格将这种的认同称为是「参与的神秘」。这个词语暗含着一种无意识的心理的默契,原先是来自人类学。(1910年,列比、布鲁首先介绍。)在这种默契,一个人发生的事情,会发生到另一个人身上。他们会互相感受到彼此的痛苦、饥饿、及欢欣。对于婴儿而言,这个会形成以后同理心的基础。最后,它会发展成为一种对于别人的责任感和一种内在的良心。它也会创造部份的基础,对于后来的自我认同,特别是对于女性的小孩。

陈春雄译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Jung handbook 03

February 27, 2011

Jung handbook 03

The Handbook of Jung Psychology
榮格心理學的手冊

Chapter 9 Individuation 197
Individuation
Murray Stein

第九章 個體化
墨菲、史坦因

 

 

200 Murray Stein Individuation 201

 

The containment/nurturance stage of individuation

 

Like other mammals, humans start terrestrial life in a maternal womb. This space, bathed in amniotic fluid and kept warm by the surrounding body of the mother, is the archetypal nurturing environment. Passively fed through the umbilical cord, the foetus is required to make little effort to care for itself. For postnatal life, the mother’s womb symbolises the psychological environment needed for the first stage of a person’s life.

 

就像其他的哺乳動物,人類在母親的子宮裏,就開始在人間的生涯。這個空間,沉浸在羊膜液體裏,由母親的環境保持溫暖,是原型的滋養環境。當這個胎兒透過臍帶,被動地被滋養,它幾乎沒有被要求要做任何努力來照顧自己。母親的子宮象徵著這個心理的環境被需要,對於一個人生命的第一階段。

 

It is a protected space, an enclosure in which the vulnerable young can grow relatively

undisturbed by toxic intrusions from the surrounding world. For humans, this type of shielded environment is suitable for a lengthy period of time after birth. This is true especially for infants, for unlike many other mammals, human offspring, because of their large head size, are ejected from the mother’s womb long before they are prepared to function independently of a nurturing container. Human neonates require an external nurturing environment of extended duration, until their bodies and minds

are prepared to cope with the physical and social worlds into which they have been delivered.

 

這是一個被保護的空間,一個封閉空間。在這裏,脆弱的初生生命能夠相對地成長,不受周遭世界的橫加侵入的干擾。對於人類而言,這種受到保護的環境,在嬰兒誕生之後,會適合一段漫長的期間。這對嬰兒而言,特別是真實的。因為不像其他的哺乳動物,人類的後代,因為頭部體積大,從母親的子宮擠出來,還來不及準備獨立于滋養的容器之外發揮功用。人類的嬰兒需要一個外在的滋養的環境,延長一段時間。直到它們的身體及心靈,準備好應付生理及社會的世界。這是它們被拋進去的世界。

 

Especially in modern developed cultures, this first stage of life, which we casually refer to as childhood, lasts a long time. For most people nowadays, the containment/nurturance stage extends through much of the educational experience, from infancy and the years of primary and secondary school, through university studies and further professional training. During these years, a person, even if physically and to some extent psychologically prepared to assume some of the roles of adulthood, is not fully equipped to deal with the demands of social life and is usually not economically viable as an adult member of society.

 

特別是在現代發展成熟的文化裏,生命的第一階段,我們偶爾提到這個階段當著是童年。它會延續一段長的時間。對於今天大部份人而言,這個包容及滋養的階段,延伸通過大部份的教育經驗。從嬰兒階段開始,小學及中學的歲月,經歷大學的學業,更進一步到專業的訓練。在這些歲月裏,一個人,即使生理上及心理上,都有某個程度的準備,要扮演成年人的某些角色。實際上,他並沒有完全裝備,能夠處理社會生活的這些要求。通常,他在經濟方面,也不像社會的其他成年人,那樣具有競爭力。

 

This period of dependence on parents and parental institutions may last for thirty years or more. In traditional cultures, on the other hand, where initiation rituals into adulthood occur at around the age of 12 or 13, the containment/nurturance stage of

individuation/development is typically terminated at the onset of puberty.

 

這個依賴父母及照顧機構的時期,可能延續三十年,甚至更久。另一方面,在傳統的文化,進入成年人的儀式,發生在大約十二到十三歲。個體化及發展的這個包容及滋養的階段,一般來說,都在青春期開始時被終結。

 

By that age, a person is considered ready and able to take up the physical and cultural tasks required of young adults in the group. There it is an abrupt and dramatic change of attitude and social identity; in our modern cultures, the change is gradual and takes place over decades.

 

在那個年紀之前,一個人被認為是準備好,而且能夠從事生理及文化的工作,那個團體的年輕人被要求的工作。在那裏,在我們現代的文化裏,這是態度及社會認同的突然而戲劇性的改變。這個改變是逐漸,發生的時間會有幾十年之久。

 

The quality of the containment/nurturance stage is defined, symbolically speaking, as maternal. The containing environment is constructed socially and psychologically on the model of a womb, in that the basic ingredients needed for survival — food, shelter, highly structured settings of care that are screened and protected — are provided by family and society. At the emotional level, nurturance is delivered (ideally) in the form of warm support and encouragement. Young children are loved unconditionally.

appreciated for being rather than doing. The harsh aspects of reality are screened out. Children are held, caressed and comforted by smiling, doting parents who stand guard over them and look out for their well-being. The most that is asked of the young is a cooperative and willing attitude. For the rest, adult supervision and protection prevail. Not much is demanded of young people at this stage in the way of contributing to the general welfare of the family or group. They remain dependent and are nourished by parents and other adults.

 

从象征符号来说,这个包容及滋养阶段的特质被定义为母亲。这个被包容的环境在社会上及心理上被建构,根据一个子宫的模式。因为需要存活的基本因素,

诸如食物、房屋,及遮蔽跟保护的照顾的高度复杂的背景,都是由家庭及社会供应。在情感的层次,滋养被给予,理想上是以温暖支持及鼓励的形式。年轻的小孩无条件地被爱,被赏识,因为他们生命本质,而不是行为表现。现实界的严酷一面被遮蔽在外面。小孩只要微笑,取悦父母亲,就会受到拥抱,爱抚,及安慰

父母亲监护者他们,并且照顾他们的幸福。年轻人最时常被要求的东西是一个合作及愿意的态度。其余的,成人的监督及保护非常盛行。在这个阶段,对于年轻人的要求不多,主要是为了促成家庭及团体的一般幸福。他们保持依靠并接受父母及其它成人的养育。

 

Naturally the degree of richness of the matrix in this stage of containment is highly dependent upon the attitudes and resources that happen to be available to the adult caregivers. It is also crucially dependent on their emotional stability and maturity. Instead of screening harsh reality out of the protected environment, anxious parents may amplify threats and worrisome aspects of reality.

 

当然,这个基型的丰富的程度,在包容的这个阶段,非常依靠这个态度,及成人照顾者恰好可利用到的资源。这也相当依靠他们情感上的稳定跟成熟。焦虑的父母非但没有遮护严酷的现实,避开婴儿受到保护的环境,他们可能会加强现实界的威胁及令人焦虑的一面。

 

Absence of adequate containment and serious breaches in the walls of protection surrounding the person at this stage generally put down the groundwork for later psychopathology, such as anxiety disorders and various character disorders. In addition, the frightened or threatened child, in order to replace the absent or breached outer protective shield, develops primitive and massive defences of the self, which

also have the capacity to cut the person off from important developments and relationships later in life.

 

適當包容的欠缺,跟環繞個人的保護環境的牆壁的嚴重破裂,在這個階段通常會奠下基礎的工作,充當後來的心理病理學,諸如焦慮的疾病及各種的人格的疾病。除外,受到驚嚇及威脅的小孩,為了替代這個欠缺及破裂的外在保護盾甲,發展原始及巨大的自我防衛。這個自我的防衛有這個能力阻止這個人,無法有重要的發展,及後來的人際關係。

 

Under the best conditions, the quality and degree of containment gradually changes as a person passes through the sub-phases of childhood.

 

即使在最好的條件下,包容的品質跟程度漸漸會改變,當一個人通過童年的這個次級階段。

 

At first there is maximal nurturance and containment. The kind of attention given to the newborn baby, who can do practically nothing for itself, modulates to a less intense level of care as the child grows older. Later the parents will place further limits on the amount and kind of nurturance they provide, and the degree of containment is eased. Expectations for a relative amount of autonomy, independence and self-control are introduced at many points along the way, as the child is able to respond positively to these changes.

 

起初,有最大量的滋養跟包容。這種的注意被給予新生代嬰兒。他幾乎什麼事情都無法做,只能適應一個比較不那麼緊張層次的焦慮,隨著年歲增長。後來,父母親會給予更多的限制,對於他們供應的滋養的數量跟種類。包容的程度也被抹除。沿著成長的許多時段,對於一個相對的自主權、獨立及自我控制的的期望開始被介紹,因為小孩能夠積極回應這些改變。

 

Normally these shifts are met by a willingness on the part of the child to cooperate if the onset of these new conditions corresponds to growing abilities (cognitive, emotional, motor). As the individual proceeds through the usual sub-phases of childhood development, the nurturing container evolves in order to meet the new needs that appear and to reduce what would become an intrusive type of overprotective care in many areas.

 

正常來說,只要小孩這一方面願意合作,就能夠應付得了這些改變,假如逐漸成長的能力,諸如認知能力、情感及活動能力等,能夠配合這些新的狀況的開始。當這個個人繼續通過童年發展的這個通常的次級階段,這個滋養的包容會進化,為了要符合出現的新的需要,及化簡在許多地區過度保護的照顧的干涉。

 

By the end of this stage of individuation, people experience only a minimum

of nurturing and containment from the environment and are able to do for themselves what others have done for them earlier.

 

在個體化的階段的結束,人們只經驗到,從環境得到一個最大量的滋養及包容,並且能夠依靠自己做早現別人替他做到事情。

 

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

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200 Murray Stein Individuation 201

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Desire 031 Jacques Lacan

February 26, 2011

Desire 031

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

3.12.58 52
Seminar 4: 3 December 1958

Things are necessarily organised starting from this necessity, and all sorts of consequences are going to flow from this, that there is a topology which it is necessary and sufficient for us to conceive of as constituted by two superimposed chains, for us to account for it, but it is absolutely required in order that we should account for it, that there are these two superimposed chains, and it is towards this
that we are advancing.

事情必須要被組織,從這個必要的部份。各種的結果就在從這裏紛至遝來。有一個拓樸圖形,我們有需要而且足夠去構想它,當著是由兩個重疊的意符鎖鏈組成。我們有需要而且足夠去解釋它。但是這個絕對是必要的,為了讓我們解釋它,要有這兩個重疊的意符鎖鏈。我們就朝著這一個目標前進。

Here at the level of Anna Freud’s dream, how do things appear?

在安娜、佛洛伊德的夢的層次,事情的狀況是怎樣?

It is true that they appear in a problematic, ambiguous fashion, which permits, which makes it legitimate up to a certain point for Freud to distinguish a difference between children’s dreams and adults dreams.

它們出現的方式確實很棘手,而且模糊曖昧。到達某個的程度,這種方式容許,並且使佛洛伊德振振有理,區別一個差異,處於小孩的夢跟成人的夢之間的差異。

Where is the chain of nominations which makes up the dream of Anna Freud situated? On the upper chain or on the lower chain? It is a question regarding which you have been able to notice that the upper part of the graph represents this chain in a dotted form, putting the accent on the element of discontinuity of the signifier, while we represent the lower chain of the graph as continuous, and on the other hand I told you that of course in every process the two chains are involved.

組成安娜、佛洛伊德的夢的命名意符鎖鏈,位置在哪里?在上面的意符鎖鏈?還是在下麵的意符鎖鏈?關於這個問題,你們已經能夠注意到,這個欲望圖形的上面部份代表這個意符鎖鏈,以點點的形式,強調這個意符不連續性的元素。而我們代表這個欲望圖形的下面意符鎖鏈,作為連續性。在另一方面,我告訴你們,當然,在每一個過程,這兩個意符鎖鏈都會牽涉到。

(22) What does the lower chain mean at the level that we are posing the question? The lower chain at the level of demand, and in so far as I told you that the subject qua speaking took on this solidity borrowed from the synchronic solidarity of the
signifier, it is quite obvious that it is something that participates in the unity of the sentence, of this something which has made people talk and which gave rise to so much discussion, about the function of the sentence as holophrase in so far that is as the holophrase exists.

下面的這個意符鎖鏈,當它處於我們正在提出問題的層次,它是什麼意思?下面的意符鎖鏈處於要求的層次。我告訴過你們,生命主體作為言談的主體,形成這個牢固性,從意符的同時性的牢固性借用而來。這是顯而易見的,某件東西參與這個句子的一致性。這個某件東西使人們談論,並且產生如此多的討論,關於這個句子的功用,作為以一個字代表整個句子。也就是全句字是存在的。

There is no doubt about it, the holophrase has a name: it is the interjection.

無可置疑的,全句字有一個名字,那就是驚歎詞。

If you like, to illustrate at the level of the demand what the function of the lower chain represents, it is: “Foodl”, or “Helpl”; I am speaking about universal discourse, I am not talking about the child’s discourse for the moment. This form of sentence exists, I would even say that in certain cases it takes on a quite pressing and demanding value.

容我以這個要求的層次來說明,下面的意符鎖鏈的功用代表什麼。「食物!」或是「救命!」我是談論到普及的真理論述,目前,我不是談論有關小孩的真理論述。句子的這個形式存在,我甚至會說,在某些的情況,它會形成一個相當迫切而要求嚴格的價值。

This is what is in question, it is the articulation of the sentence, it is the subject in so far as this need which of course must pass by way of the defiles of the signifier qua need, is expressed in a fashion which is deformed, but at least which is monolithic. except that the monolith that is in question, is the subject himself at this level which constitutes him.

這就是受到質疑的地方。這個句子的表達,這個生命主體。當然,這個需求必須藉由意符作為需要的污染通過。這個需求被表達,以一種畸形的方式。但是至少,這個方式是整體的,除了:這個整體物本身受到質疑。生命主體的本身在這個層次,組成他。

What happens on the other line, is quite different. What can be (23) said about it is not easy to say, but for a good reason, which is that it is precisely what is at the basis of what happens on the first line, the lower one; but undoubtedly what we see, is that even in something which is given to us as being as primitive as this child’s dream, Anna Freud’s dream, something marks for us that here the subject is not simply constituted in the sentence and by the sentence, in the sense that when the
individual, or the crowd, or the mob cries: “Foodl”, one knows very well that in this case the whole weight of the message is on the emitter, I mean that it is the dominant element and one even knows that this cry just by itself is sufficient precisely in the
forms that I have just evoked, to constitute this emitter, as being well and truly a unique subject, even if it has a hundred mouths, a thousand mouths. It does not need to introduce itself, the sentence introduces it sufficiently.

在安娜、佛洛伊德的夢,某件東西跟我們標示著,在此,生命主體不僅在這個句子裏被形成,而且這個句子的意義是,當個人,或是群眾,或是暴徒,大聲喊叫:「食物!」我們知道得很清楚,在這個情形,訊息的整個重量是在這位發表者。我的意思是,這是支配性的元素,我們甚至知道,光是這聲喊叫本身,就已經確實足夠形成這個發表者,作為道道地地是一個獨特的生命主體,以我剛剛召喚的形式而言。即使它有一百個嘴巴,一千個嘴巴。它並不需要介紹它自己,這個句子已經足夠介紹它自己。

Now all the same we find ourselves confronted with the following, that the human subject when he operates with language, takes himself into account, and to such a degree is it his primitive position that I do not know if you remember a certain text by Monsieur Binet, namely the difficulties that the subject has in going beyond this stage which I for my part find much more suggestive than any of the stages indicated by Monsieur Piaget, and this stage, I am not going to tell you about it because I do not want to get into details, appears as distinctive and consists in the fact that the (24) subject perceives that there is something wrong with the sentence: “I have three brothers, Paul, Ernest and me”.

現在,我們仍然發現我們自己面對著以下的問題。人類的生命主體,當他使用語言運作,考慮到自己的本身,到達這個程度,以致于他的原初的立場。我不知道你們是否記得某一個文本,邊拿先生的著作。換句話說,生命主體或遭遇的困難,當他前進超越了這個階段。就我而言,我發現這個階段,比起皮亞傑先生指示的任何的階段,更加具有意義。這個階段,我不是要告訴你們關於它,因為我不想要從事細節討論。這個階段清楚明白,而且在於這個事實:生命主體感覺到,這個句子有某個地方不對勁:「我有三個兄弟,保羅、厄内斯特、和我。」

Up to a fairly advanced stage this seems to him quite natural, and for a very good reason, because to tell the truth everything about the implication of the human subject in the act of speech is there: the fact is that he takes himself into account in it, that he
names himself in it, and that consequently this is what I might call the most natural the most coordinated expression.

一直到一個非常高級的階段,這個句子對於他而言,似乎相當自然。理由很簡單,因為坦白說,在言談的行動中,人類生命主體所牽涉到的每一件事情,都在那裏。事實上,他考慮到自己的本身在裏面,他在裏面命名他自己。結果是,這就是我所謂的最自然,最調和一致的表達。

The child simply has not found the proper formula which would obviously be the following: “We are three brothers, Paul, Ernest and me”, except that we would be very far from reproaching him for giving it the ambiguities of the function of being and
having. It is clear that a step must be taken in order that in sum what is in question, namely the distinction between the I qua subject of the enunciation and the I qua subject of the enunciating, can be made, because this is what is in question.

這位小孩就是還沒有找到這個適當的公式。這個公式顯見如下:「我們是三個兄弟,保羅、厄尼斯特,跟我自己。」除了,我們根本不會責怪他,因為他給予它,生命實存跟生命擁有的功用的這個模糊曖昧。顯而易見的,我們必須採取一個步驟,總之,在受到質疑的地方,我們必須做出這個區別:在我作為表達的生命主體,跟我作為被表達者的生命主體。因為這是受到質疑的地方。

What is articulated at the level of the first line when we take the following step is the process of enunciation: in our dream of the other day: “he had died”. But when you announce something like that, in which I would point out to you in passing, the whole novelty of the dimension that the word introduces into the world, is already implied, because to be able to say: “He had died”, this cannot be said otherwise than in a completely different perspective to that of the statement (du dire) “He had died”, means absolutely nothing (ne veut absolument rien dire);

在第一行的這個層次所被表達的東西,當我們採取以下的步驟,就是前天我們談論的夢,表達的過程:「他已經死亡。」但是當你們宣佈像那樣的某件事情,在這件事情,我順便跟你們指出這個向度的整個新奇性。這個字詞介紹給世界的這個向度的新奇性,已經被暗含在裏面。因為能夠說:「他已經死亡」。這句話不能夠被說,除了在一個完全不同的觀點,跟陳述的觀點不同。「他已經死亡」本身絕對沒有任何意義。

(25) “He had died”, means: he no longer exists, therefore there is no need to say it, he is no longer there in order to say he is dead, he must already be a being supported by the word. But no one is being asked to perceive this, of course, but simply on the
contrary the following, that the act of enunciating: “He had died”, usually requires in the discourse itself all sorts of reference points which are distinct from the reference points that are taken from the enunciation of the process.

「他已經死亡」意味著:他不再存在。因此,沒有需要去說它。他已經不在那裏,為了要說,他已經死亡。他必須已經是一個被文字支援的生命。但是當然,沒有人會被要求去感覺這一點。相反對,僅是會發生以下的問題。在真理論述的本身,表達「他已經死亡」的這個行動,通常會要求各種的指稱點。這些指稱點截然不同於從過程的表達的這些指稱點。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Desire 030 Jacques Lacan

February 26, 2011

Desire 030

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

3.12.58 52
Seminar 4: 3 December 1958

Therefore this is not what I am talking about, I am saying that on this occasion what we know about the dream, is properly speaking what we actually know about it at the moment that it is happening as an articulated dream, in other words that the degree
of certainty that we have concerning this dream is something linked to the fact that we would also be much more sure what pigs and geese dream about if they themselves told us about it.

因此,這並不是我正在談論的東西。我正在說的是,在這個場合,我們所知道關於這個夢,適當來說,我們實際上知道的關於它,在它發生的時刻,作為一個被表達的夢。換句話說,我們擁有的這個確定性的程度,關於這個夢,是某件跟這個事實息息相關。我們也會更加確定,豬跟鵝夢到什麼,假如它們自己能告訴我們。

But in this original example we have more, namely that the dream discovered by Freud has this exemplary value that it is articulated aloud during sleep, which is something that allows no kind of ambiguity about the presence of the signifier in its
actual text.

但是在這個原先的例子,換句話說,佛洛伊德發現的夢,擁有這個典範的價值。在睡覺中,夢被表達出來。這是某件不容許模糊曖昧的東西,關於這個意符的存在於它的實際的文本裏。

In this case it is not possible to throw any doubt on a phenomenon concerning the added-on character of what one might call information on the dream which might be taken by the word. (18) We know that Anna Freud is dreaming because she articulates: “Anna F-eud, Er(d)beer, Hochbeer, Eier(s)peis, Papp”.

在這個情形,我們不可能對於這個現象有任何的懷疑,關於這個被增添的東西,在我們所謂的夢的資訊的特性上。它可能會被文字所掌握。我們知道,安娜、佛洛伊德正在作夢,因為她表達出來:「安娜、佛洛伊德、紅草莓、藍莓、荷包蛋、布丁」。

The dream images of which we know nothing on this occasion, find here an affix, if I may express myself in this way with the help of a term borrowed from the theory of complex numbers, a symbolic affix in these words where we see the signifier presenting itself in a way in a flocculent state, namely in a series of nominations, and this nomination constitutes a sequence whose choice is not indifferent because, as Freud tells us, the choice is precisely of everything which has been prohibited to her. inter-dict; of the things which when she demanded them she was told no, that she could not have them, and this common denominator introduces a unity into their diversity, without preventing us also from noticing that inversely this diversity reinforces this unity, and even designates it.

夢到意象在此找到添加詞,在這個場合,我們對於這些夢的意象一無所知。假如我可以用這種方式表達自己,憑藉一個術語的幫助,從複雜數目的理論,用這些字的一個符號的添加詞。在那裏,我們看到這個意符以某種方式呈現它自己,處於絨毛的狀態,換句話說,以一系列的命名。這個命名組成一個系列,這個系列的選擇並不是互不相關,如佛洛伊德告訴我們。這個選擇確實是屬於每一樣被禁止給她的東西,這些東西的禁止。當她要求它們,她不告訴說不可以。她無法得到她們。這個共同的命名介紹一致性到它們的多樣性裏,但是並沒有也阻止我們也不能夠注意到:反過來說,這個多樣性強化這個一致性,甚至是指明它。

It is in sum the unity that this series completely opposes to the special satisfaction of need, such for example of the desire imputed to the pig and the goose, the desire moreover, you only have to reflect on the effect that this would have if instead, in the proverb, of saying that the pig dreams of Kukuruz (of maize) we were to set about enumerating everything that the pig is supposed to dream about, you would see that this has a quite different effect, and even if one wished to claim that it was only an insufficient education of the glottis that prevented the pig and (19) the goose from letting us know as much, and even if one could say that we could manage to make up for it by perceiving in both cases and by finding the equivalent if you wish of this articulation by detecting some quivering of their mandibles, it still remains that it would be very unlikely that the following would happen, namely that these animals would name themselves as Anna Freud does in the series.

總之,這個一致性,這個系列完全反對需求的這個特別的滿足,例如,這個被歸因於豬與鵝的欲望。而且,你們只需要反思一下它會產生的這個結果,假如在這個格言,它並沒有說,豬夢見玉米,我們將會開始列舉每一樣,豬應該夢見到的東西,你們將會看出,這個有一個完全不同的結果。即使我們希望宣稱,那只是聲門的教育不充足,阻止豬與鵝無法讓我們同樣知道。即使我們能夠說,我們能夠成功地彌補它,在豬與鵝兩個情況,我們靠著感覺,靠著找到這個表達的相等物,以偵察它們喉部的震動,問題依舊是,很不可能發生以下的情形。換句話說,這些動物會命名它們自己,如同安娜、佛洛伊德在這個系列所做的。

And even if we admit the pig is called Toto and the goose Bel Azor, even if something of that order occurred, it would turn out that they are naming themselves in a language which would evidently moreover, neither more or less evidently than in the case of man, but in the case of man that is seen less clearly, that this language has precisely
nothing to do with the satisfaction of their needs because this is the name they would have in the farmyard, namely in a context of human needs and not their own.

即使我們承認,豬被稱為「托托」,鵝被稱為「貝爾阿左」,即使那種層次的某件東西發生,結果將會是,它們命名它們自己,以一種語言。而且顯而易見的,在人的情形,同樣是模糊不清,這個語言確實跟它們的需求的滿足,根本沒有關係。因為這是他們在農場上所擁有的這個名字。換句話說,在人類需求的內涵,而不是在它們自己的內涵。

In other words, I would like you to focus on the fact, and we said it above, that 1. Anna Freud articulates that there is the mechanism of motor activity, and we would say in effect that it is not absent from this dream, because this is the way that we get to know it.

換句話說,我想要你們集中這個事實。我們以上所說的:第一點,安娜、佛洛伊德表達:有動力活動的機械學,事實上,我們將會說,這個夢並不欠缺這種動力活動機械學,因為這是我們變得能夠知道它的方法。

But this dream reveals by the signifying structuring of its sequence that, 2., we would like to dwell in this sequence on the fact that at the beginning of this sequence literally there is a message, which you can see being illustrated if you know how (20) communication takes place inside one of these complicated machines of our modern era, for example between the front and the back of a plane. When one telephones from one cabin to another one begins by announcing what? One announces oneself, one
announces who is speaking. Anna Freud at nineteen months, during her dream, announces, she says: “Anna F-eud”, and she goes on with her series. I would almost say that there is only one thing missing, after having heard her articulating her dream, it is that at the end she should say: “over and out”.

但是這個夢顯示,以它的系列的意符化結構。第二點,我們想要詳細描述這個系列,根據這個事實:在這個系列的開始,實質上有一個訊息。你們能夠看見這個訊息正在被說明,假如你們知道溝通如何發生,在我們這個時代的這些複雜的機器裏。例如,在一個平面的前面與後面之間。當我們從一個電話亭到另一個電話亭打電話,我們開始宣告什麼?我們宣告我們自己,我們宣告誰正在說話。安娜、佛洛伊德在十九個月大的時候,在她的夢中宣告,她說:「安娜、佛洛伊德」。她繼續她的系列。我幾乎說,只有一件東西失落,當我已經聽到她表達她的夢。那就是在最後,她應該說:「演完了,我退場。」

Here we are introduced then to what I call the topology of repression, in its clearest, also its most formal and most articulated way, regarding which Freud underlines for us that this topology can in no way be considered, since it is that of another locus which had so struck him when reading Fechner, to the extent that one senses that this was for him a type of lightening bolt, of illumination, of revelation, but at the same
time at the very moment that he talks to us at least twice, in the Traumdeutung about the anderer Schauplatz, he always underlines that it has nothing to do with another neurological locus.

在此我們被介紹這個我所謂的壓抑的拓樸圖形,最清楚明白的地方,而且也是它最正式,最被表達的方式。關於這一點,佛洛伊德跟我們強調,拓朴圖形根本就不能夠被考慮。因為那是另外一個軌跡的拓樸圖形,曾經給予他的印象,當他閱讀「馮德心理物理學」時,這個印象讓他感覺到,對他而言,像是一道閃電霹靂、一種啟明,一種頓悟。但是同時,就在他跟我們談論至少是第二次的時刻,在「夢的解析」,關於古代的「無意識的另一場景」,他總是強調,它跟另外一個腦神經的軌跡沒有任何的關係。

We are saying that this other locus is to be sought in the structure of the signifier itself. Now what I am trying to show you here, is that the structure of the signifier itself once the subject is engaged in it, I mean with the minimal hypotheses (21) that are required by the fact that a subject enters into its game. I mean once the signifier is given and the subject is defined as that which is going to enter into the signifier and nothing else.

我們是在說:這個另外的軌跡能夠被尋找到,在意符本身的結構裏。現在,我正在設法在此跟你們顯示的是,這個意符本身的結構,一旦生命主體全神貫注於它,我是指用最小量的假設,這個事實要求最小量的假設:一個生命主體進入它的遊戲。我的意思是:一旦這個意符被給予,這個生命主體就被註定,作為將要進入這個意符,沒有別的。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Desire 029 Jacques Lacan

February 25, 2011

Desire 029

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

3.12.58 52
Seminar 4: 3 December 1958

This veritable topology of signifiers, because you cannot escape from it once you follow closely Freud’s articulation, is what is in question, and in Letter 52 (6.12.96) to Fliess, one sees that he is necessarily led to presuppose at the origin a type of ideal
Wahrnehmungen which cannot be taken as simple freshly taken Wahrnehmung. If we translate it literally, this topology does not reach a Begriffen, it is a term that he continually uses, a grasp of reality, it does not reach it at all by an eliminatory
sorting out, by a selective sorting out, of anything that resembles what was put forward in the whole theory of instinct as being the first approximate behaviour which directs the organism along the paths of successful instinctual behaviour.

意符鎖鏈的可驗證的拓樸圖形,是受到質疑的地方,因為你無法逃避它,一旦你仔細遵照佛洛伊德的表達。在給佛力斯的第五十二封信(6、12、96),我們看到,他必然會被引導在起源的地方,預先假定一種理想的「感覺」。這個「感覺」無法被當作是剛剛被接納的「知覺」。假如我按字面翻譯它,這個拓樸圖形無法到達一個「理解」。這是他繼續使用的一個術語,一種對於現實界的理解。憑藉一種刪除的分類,一種選擇性的分類,它根本就並沒有到達它。這種分類,類似本能的整個理論所提出的東西,作為第一靠近的行為。這個行為引導這個有機體,沿著成功的本能的行為,所採取的途徑。

This is not what we are dealing with, but with a sort of real recurrent critique, with a critique of these signifiers evoked in (14) the primary process, which critique of course, like every critique, does not eliminate the previous thing on which it is brought to bear, but complicates it, complicates it by connoting it with what? With indices of reality which themselves belong to the signifying order. There is absolutely no way of escaping from this accentuation of what I articulate as being what Freud
conceives and presents to us as the primary process. You will see, provided you refer to any of the texts that Freud wrote, that at the different stages of his doctrine he articulated, repeated, every time he had to approach this problem, whether he
is dealing with the Traumdeutung or with what is, in the introduction of the Interpretation of dreams, and subsequently with what he took up later when he brought forward the second mode of presenting his topography, namely starting with the articles grouped around the psychology of the ego and the beyond
of the pleasure principle.

這並不是我們正在處理的東西。但是以一種真實的重複的批判,以在這個原初過程所召喚的這些意符的批判,當然,這種批判像每一種批判一樣,並沒有減少跟它有關的先前的東西。而是以暗示它的內涵來牽涉它,暗示什麼的內涵?使用現實界的指數,它們本身屬於這個意符化的秩序。我們絕對沒有辦法逃避我所表達的強調內容,作為佛洛伊德所構想,並且呈現給予我們,作為原初過程。你們將會看出,只要你們提到佛洛伊德所寫的任何的這些文本。在他的信條的不同階段,他表達,並重複,每當他必須接近這個問題,無論是他正在處理「夢的解析」,或是在「夢的解析」的介紹裏的東西。隨後,當他呈現他的拓朴圖形時,他提出第二個模式,所正在處理的東西。換句話說,他從這些文章開始。這些文章的主題都繞著自我心理學及快樂原則的超越。

You will allow me for a moment to image, by playing with etymologies, what is meant by this fresh way of looking at things which would lead a sort of ideal subject to the real; but the alternatives by which the subject brings the real into his propositions, Vorste1lunqen, here I decompose it by articulating it as follows: these Vorstellunqen have a signifying organisation. If we wish to talk about them in terms other than the Freudian ones, in Pavlovian terms, we would say that they form part from the beginning, not of a first system of (15) significations, not of something connected to the tendency of need, but of a second system of significations.

請容許我發揮想像,玩弄一下詞源學。這個新鮮的觀看事情的方式,它是什麼意思?這些事情會引導一種理想的生命主體到達真實界。但是這些替代選擇是一種「表像」,生命主體將真實界帶進他的假設當中。在此,我分解它,將它表達如下:這些表像有一種意符化的組織。假如我們希望談論它們,使用佛洛伊德使用以外的術語,以巴甫洛夫的術語,我們將會說,從一開始,它們所形成的部份,並不是意義的最初的系統的部份,也不是某件跟需要的傾向有關的部份,而是意義的第二系統的部份。

They are like the lighting up of a bulb in a slot machine when the ball has fallen into the proper hole, and the sign that the ball has fallen into the proper hole Freud also articulates: the proper hole means the same hole into which the ball has previously
fallen.

它們就像是燈泡的閃亮,在一個插座的機器裏,當這個球掉落到適當的洞裏。佛洛伊德也表達過的,這個球掉落到適當的洞裏。這個適當的洞意味著這個相同的洞,這個球先前就曾掉落過。

The primary process is not directed towards the search for a new object, but for an object which is to be rediscovered, and this by means of a Vorstellunq which is re-evoked, because it was the Vorstellunq corresponding to a first pathway so that the
illumination of this bulb entitles you to a prize, and there is no doubt about this, and that is what the pleasure principle is.

這個原初過程並沒有被引導朝向一個新的客體的尋,而是尋求一個應該被重新發現的客體。憑藉著這個「表像」。這個「表像」重新被召喚,因為它是這個表像,對應一個最初的通路。這樣,這個燈泡的閃亮使你們有資格獲得一個獎品。對於這一點,這是無可置疑的。這就是快樂原則的所在。

But in order that this prize should be honoured, there must be a certain reserve of money in the machine, and the reserve of money in the machine on this occasion is pledged to this system of processes which are called the secondary processes. In other
words, the lighting up of the bulb is only a satisfaction within the total convention of the machine in so far as this machine is that of the gambler, from the moment that he begins to gamble.

但是為了讓這個獎品被珍惜,必須要有某種金錢的儲存在機器裏。在這個場合,這個機器裏的金錢的儲存,被宣稱給予這些過程的這個系統。這些過程的系統被稱為是第二過程。換句話說,燈泡的閃亮僅是一種滿足,在機器的整個系統裏。這個機器就是賭徒的機器,從他開始賭博開始。

Staring with this, let us again take up Anna’s dream. This dream of Anna is presented to us as a dream of desire in its naked form. It seems to me that it is quite impossible to evade, to elide in the revelation of this nakedness, the mechanism itself (16) by which this nakedness is revealed, in other words the mode of this revelation cannot be separated from this nakedness itself.

當我們分享這個時,讓我們再一次探討安娜的夢。安娜的夢被呈現給予我們,作為一個欲望的夢,以它赤裸裸的方式。我覺得,逃避或是閃躲這個赤裸裸的這個啟明,這個機械構造的本身,是完全不可能。憑藉這個機械構造,這個赤裸裸被啟明出來。換句話說,這個啟明的模式無法被分開,跟赤裸裸的本身。

I have the idea that we only know about this so-called naked dream by hearsay, and when I say by hearsay, that does not at all mean what some people quoted me as saying that in sum it was a question here of a remark about the fact that we never know that someone dreams except through what he tells us, and that in sum that everything which refers to the dream should be included in the fact, in the parenthesis of the fact that he reports it.

我認為我們只是根據傳聞知道,關於這個所謂的赤裸裸的夢。當我說是根據傳聞,那絲毫並不意味著,有些人引述我作為一種說法。總之,在此的問題是有關這個事實的談論,我們從來不知道,某個人做的夢,除了透過他告訴我們。總之,每一樣提到夢的東西,都應該被包括在這個事實裏,在他報導它的這個事實的這個括弧裏。

It is certainly not indifferent that Freud accords so much importance to the Niederschrift which constitutes this residue of the dream, but it is quite clear that this Niederschrift refers to an experience that the subject is telling us about. It is important to see that Freud is a long long way from retaining even for a single instant the nevertheless obvious objections which arise from the fact that a spoken narrative is one thing, and a lived experience is something else, and it is starting from there that we can connect the remark that the fact that he sets aside with such vigour, and even that he agrees with, that he explicitly makes the starting point of all his analysis even to the point of advising that it should be a technique of the Niederschrift, of what is there lying in the writings of the dream, shows us precisely what he thinks fundamentally about this lived experience, namely that there is everything to be said for approaching it in this way because he did not try of course, to (17) articulate it; it is itself already structured in a series of Niederschriften, in a kind of palimpsest-writing as one might say.

佛洛伊德對於這個記載,如此的重視,確實不是偶然。這個記載組成夢的這個殘渣。但是顯而易見的,這個「記載」提到生命主體正在告訴我們的一個經驗。這是很重要的,我們必須看出,佛洛伊德絲毫沒有保留這些顯而易見的反對,即使是某個瞬間。這些反對起源自這個事實:一個被說出的描述是一回事,一個被生活過的經驗,又是另外一回事。從那裏開始,我們能夠連接這個談論,他如興高采烈擱置一邊的這個事實。他甚至是同意這個事實。他明確地作為他全部的精神分析的開始點,甚至到達這個程度,勸告說,這應該就是這個「記載」的一種技巧,作為夢的這些著作裏的內涵。他確實跟我們顯示,他的基本的看法,關於這曾經被生活過的經驗。換句話說,有一切應該被說出的東西,當我們以這種方式接近它。因為當然他並沒有設法表達它。它本身就已經是被架構在一系列的「記載」裏,以一種羊皮紙的重複書寫,我們可以這樣說。

If one could imagine a palimpsest where the different superimposed texts have a certain relationship, it would still be a question of knowing which, with one another; but if you search for it, you would see that it is a relationship that is to be sought much more in the form of the letters than in the meaning of the text.

假如我們能夠想像羊皮紙的重複書寫,在那裏,不同的重疊的文本擁有某種的關係。問題依舊是要知道,哪一個跟哪一個。但是假如你們尋求它,你們就會看出,這個關些應該被尋求,以這些信件的形式,勝過于文本的意義。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Desire 028 Jacques Lacan

February 25, 2011

Desire 028

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

3.12.58 52
Seminar 4: 3 December 1958

This takes on its value, I would say, through its insertion into a circuit, and if I say that in short what Freud describes to us as being the result of the primary process,
is in a way that on this circuit something lights up. I will not make a metaphor of this, I will only say in substance what Freud draws from the explanation on this occasion, from the translation of what is in question, namely to show you on this circuit which
always implicitly has homeostasis as its goal, the notion of reflexometry and to distinguish this series of relays and the fact that something is happening at the level of these relays, something which in itself takes on a certain value as a terminal
effect in certain conditions, is something which is quite identical to what we see being produced in any machine whatsoever in the form of a series of bulbs, as I might put it, and the fact that one of these becomes active indicates precisely, not so much what appears, namely a luminous phenomenon, but a certain voltage, something which is produced moreover in function of a (10) resistance and indicates at a given point the state of the whole circuit.

這形成它的價值,我不妨這樣說,透過它的插入到一個迴圈。假如我說,總之,佛洛伊德所跟我們描述的,作為原初過程的結果。在某方面,在這個迴圈裏,某件東西會閃亮起來。我不是將這個閃亮當著是一個比喻。我僅是說實質上的閃亮。在這個場合,佛洛伊德從解釋中獲得的結論,從受到質疑的內容的翻譯,換句話說,為了跟你們顯示,這個迴圈總是暗含有「體內平衡」,當著是它的目標,這個「反射論」的觀念。為了區別這一系列的傳遞及這個事實:某件東西正發生在這些傳遞的層次。某件東西本身形成某種的價值,在某些情況,作為一個終端的結果。這是某件東西,相當一致於我們看到的,在任何機器所被產生的東西,以一系列的燈泡的形式,我不妨這樣說。這些燈泡其一個會變得閃亮確實指示著,不是出現的東西,換句話說不是一個閃亮的現象,而是某種的電壓數。而且,某件東西會被產生,具有抗拒的功用。在某一個特定點,它指示著整個迴圈的狀態。

And therefore, let us say the word, this in no way corresponds to the principle of need, because of course no need is satisfied by a hallucinatory satisfaction. To be satisfied, need requires the intervention of the secondary process, and even of secondary
processes because there is a great variety of them, which processes, can of course only be satisfied, as the name indicates with reality; they are submitted to the reality principle.

因此,讓我們說出這個字。這個字絲毫沒有符合需要的原理。因為當然,沒有一個需要是被一個幻覺的滿足所滿足。為了要被滿足,需要要求這個二級過程的干涉。它甚至是屬於這個二級過程。因為它們的種類繁多。這個二級過程當然能夠被滿足。如同這個名字在現實界所指示的,它們會屈服于這個現實原則。

If secondary processes are produced, they are only produced because there have been primary processes. Only it is no less evident that this fencing off, that this separation makes instinct impossible no matter how one conceives it. It vanishes into thin air in this instance because look at the direction in which all the researches on instinct are going, and especially the most elaborate the most intelligent modern researches. What
are they aimed at? To give an account of how a structure which is not just purely preformed – we are no longer at that point, let us not look at instinct like Monsieur Fabre, it is a structure which engenders, which sustains its own chain – how
these structures outline, in the real, paths towards objects which have not yet been experienced.

假如二級過程被產生,它們被產生,只是因為有原初的過程。這同樣是顯而易見的,這個防護,這個分離使它不可能是本能,無論我們怎麼構想它。在這個情形,它會消失到微薄的空氣裏,因為讓我們觀看所有關於本能的研究進行的方向,特別是複雜而明智的現代研究。他們的目標朝向哪里呢?為了要說明一個結構不僅是被執行,我們不再處於那一個時候。讓我們不要像費伯瑞先生那樣觀看本能。這是一個會產生的結構,它維持它自己的意符鎖鏈。這些結構如何在真實界,描繪出朝向客體的途徑的輪廓,當這些客體還沒有被經驗到?

(11) This is the problem of the instincts, and it is explained to you that there is an appetitive stage of behaviour, of seeking.

這就是本能的難題,我跟你們解釋,尋求的行為具有一個跟食欲有關的階段。

The animal at one of these phases, puts himself into a certain state where motor activity is expressed by an activity going in all sorts of directions. And at the second stage, at the second phase, there is a stage of a specialised release, but even if
this specialised release finally culminates in a behaviour which disappoints them, namely if you wish to the realisation of the fact that they have got hold of some coloured cloths, it nevertheless remains true that they had detected these cloths in
the real.

在這些階段的動物,會將它自己放置於某種的狀態,動力活動被表達,以一種朝著各種方向進行的活動。在這第二階段,有一個是專門釋放的階段。但是即使這個專門釋放最後會達到高潮,以一個令它們失望的行為。換句話說,假如你們希望體會到這個事實:它們掌握一些有顏色的布。可是這仍然是真實,他們曾經在真實界覺察到這些布。

What I want to indicate here, is that hallucinatory behaviour is distinguished in the most radical fashion from a homing behaviour that the regressive investment, as one might say, of something which is going to be expressed by the illumination of a lamp on the conducting circuits.

我在此想要指出的是,幻覺的行為,以最激進的方式,跟返回原地的行為區別出來。某件東西的這個倒退的投注,我們可以這樣說。這個東西將會表達,在導電的迴圈裏,燈泡會閃亮起來。

This can at the limit illuminate an object that has already been experienced; if this object is perchance already there, it in no way shows its path, and still less of course if it shows it even when it is not there, which is what in effect is produced in the hallucinatory phenomenon, because at the very most the seeking-mechanism can begin from this, and this indeed is what happens.

到達極限,這個會照亮一個已經在那裏被經驗到的客體,假如這個客體或許就已經是在那裏。它絲毫沒有顯示它的途徑。當然,它尤其沒有,假如當它並不在那裏時,它顯示它。事實上,在這個幻覺的現象裏所被產生的東西。因為充其量,這個尋求的機械能夠從這裏開始,這確實是所發生的事情。

Freud also articulates it for us starting from the secondary process, which in sum fulfils the role of instinctive behaviour, but from another point of view is absolutely distinguished from it because due to the (12) existence of the primary process this secondary process is going to be, Freud articulates it – I do not subscribe to all of this, I am repeating to you the sense of what Freud articulates – a behaviour that tests the reality of this Wahrnehmung first ordered as the effect of a bulb in the circuit. This is going to be a judgement behaviour; the word is put forward when Freud explains things at this level.

佛洛伊德也跟我們表達它,從第二過程。總之,這個第二過程扮演了本能行為的角色。但是從另外一個觀點,它絕對跟它區別出來。因為原初過程的存在,這個第二過程將會成為一個行為,測試這個「知覺」的現實界。佛洛伊德表達它,但是我未必全部同意;我現在跟你們重複佛洛伊德表達的意義。這個「知覺」首先被規劃當著是這個迴圈裏一個燈泡閃亮的效果。這將是一種判斷的行為。這個字被提出,當佛洛伊德以這個層次解釋事情。

When all is said and done according to Freud, human reality is constructed on a previous foundation of hallucination, which is the universe of pleasure in its illusions, in its essence, and this whole process is openly avowed, I am not even saying
betrayed, is openly articulated in the terms that Freud continually makes use of every time he has to explain the series of borrowings into which the term is decomposed, and in the Traumdeutunq at the level that he is speaking about the processes of the psychic apparatus, he shows this series of layers where there is imprinted, and it is not even imprinted, there is inscribed every time he speaks in this text and in all the
others, it is terms like niederschreiben, and which recorded on the sequence of layers, are organised there.

依照佛洛伊德,當一切都說都做了,人類的現實界被建造,根據一個先前的幻覺的基礎。這個幻覺的基礎是快樂的宇宙,在它的幻想,在它的本質。這整個的過程公開地被宣稱。我甚至沒有說它被洩露,而是它公開地被表達,使用佛洛伊德繼續使用的這些術語,每當他必須解釋這一系列的借用語。這個術語被分解成為這些借用語。在這個層次的「夢的解析」,他談論到心理儀器的過程。他顯示這一系列的層級,在那裏,有某件東西被銘記,甚至不是銘記,而是銘刻在這個文本,以及在所有的其他文本。這就是像是「記載」的這些術語。當它們被記錄在層級的系列,它們在那裏被組織。

He articulates them differently according to the different moments of his thought. On the first layer for example it is by relationships of simultaneity; on others, piled up one on the other; on other levels they will be ordered.

他以不同方式表達它們,依照他的思想的不同時刻。例如,在第一層級,它是憑藉同時性的關係,在其他層級,一個層級堆積在另一個層級之上,它們被組織在其他的層級上。

(13) These impressions, through other relationships, separate the schema into a series of inscriptions, of Niederschriften which are superimposed on one another in a word which cannot be translated by a sort of typographical space, which is how there
ought to be conceived all the things which happen originally before arriving at another form of articulation which is that of the preconscious, namely very precisely in the unconscious.

這些印象,透過其他的關係,分開這個基模成為一系列的銘刻,「記載」的系列。它們互相地超級賦加,用一個字詞來說。這個字詞無法被翻譯成為一種拓樸圖形的空間。這就是這些事情應該被構想到方式,在我們到達另外一種表達的形式。這個表達是前意識的表達。換句話說,確實就是在無意識那裏。

陳春雄譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com