Archive for May, 2014

无意识的形成 25

May 31, 2014

无意识的形成 25
13.11.57 36
Here lies the distinction between the witticism compared to what
is pure and simple phenomenon, the relating of a symptom, for
example; it is in the passage to the second function that the
witticism itself lies.


But on the other hand if all that I have
just told you today did not exist, namely what happens at the
level of the signifying conjunction which is its essential
phenomenon, and of what it develops as such, in so far as it
participates in the essential dimensions of the signifier, namely
metaphor and metonymy, there would be no sanction possible, no
other distinction possible for the witticism. For example in
comparison with the comic there would be none possible; or
compared to the jest, or compared to the raw phenomenon of


In order to understand what is in question in the witticism qua
signifying phenomenon, we had to isolate its aspects, its
particularities, its attachments, all its ins and outs at the
(41) level of the signifier, and that the fact that the Witz
(S?), something that is at such an elevated level of signifying
elaboration, was dwelt on by Freud in order to see in it a
particular example of the formation of the unconscious, is also
something that retains us, it is also this whose importance you
should begin to see when I have shown you in this connection how
it allows us to advance in a rigorous fashion into a phenomenon
that is itself psychopathological as such, namely the parapraxis.



无意识的形成 24

May 30, 2014

13.11.57 35

The important thing is that you see in this joke itself the two
aspects of metaphorical creation: in one sense, in the sense of
meaning, in the sense that this joke bears, stirs up, is rich in
psychological signification, and in this instance hits the mark
and gains our attention by a talent that borders on a poetic
creation, and on the other hand on a sort of reverse side that is
not necessarily immediately perceived by him, the mot by virtue
of the combinations that we could extend here indefinitely,
seethes with all the teeming needs that surround an object on
this occasion.


I have already alluded to fames. There would also be fama,
namely the need for brilliance and reputation which accompanies
the personage of Hirsch-Hyacinth’s master. There would also be
the basic infamy of that servile familiarity that culminates in
the scene at the Baths of Lucca, with the fact that
Hirsch-Hyacinth gives his master one of those purgatives of which
he has the secret, and that he is in the grip of agonizing
stomach cramps at the precise moment that he finally receives
(39) from his beloved lady the letter, that would in other
circumstances have allowed him to realize all his dreams.

我已经提到各种名声fames 。也会有才名远播,换句话说,伴随Hirsch-Hyacinth的主人的这位人物的才名远播。也会有擅长奉承基本的坏名声,在「路卡的沐浴」的场景最是淋漓尽致。当他最后从他钟爱的女士那里获得信件的那个时刻,他腹痛如绞。若是在其他的环境,那本来会让他实现他的梦想。

This grossly farcical scene reveals what can be called the
underpinnings of this infamous familiarity, and is something
which really gives its weight, its meaning, its connections, its
open and hidden side, its metaphorical aspect and it metonymical
aspect, to this formation of the joke, and which is nevertheless
not its essence, because now that we have seen both its aspects,
all the ins and outs, the creation of meaning of famillionaire
which also implies a loss, is something which is repressed.

这个巨大闹剧的场景显示所谓的擅长奉承familiarity的坏名声。那个东西确实给予它的份量,它的意义,它的联想,它开放与隐藏的层面,它隐喻的层面,它换喻的层面,来形成这个笑话。可是,那并不是它的本质,因为现在我们已经看见它的各个层面,里外的一切细节,famillionaire 的意义的创作,也暗示着丧失,那是某件被压抑的东西。

It must necessarily be something that concerns Heinrich Heine,
something that will begin like the Signor above to turn round and
round between the code and the message.

它必然是跟Heinrich Heine 有关系的东西,某件像以上的这位Signor将会开始的东西,为了在符码与讯息之间反复翻转的东西。

When on the other hand
we also have on the side of the metonymical thing, those losses
of meaning that are all the sparks, all the spatters produced
around the creation of the word famillionaire, and which
constitute its radiation, its weight, that which gives it for us
its literary value, it nonetheless remains that the only
important thing is the centre of the phenomenon, namely that
which appears at the level of signifying creation, whatever
ensures that this is precisely a witticism, and not everything
that is there which is produced all about and puts us on the path
of its function qua centre of gravity of this whole phenomenon,
what gives it its accent and its weight, should be looked for at
(40) the very centre of the phenomenon, namely at the level of
the conjunction of signifiers on the one hand, and on the other
hand, as I have already indicated, at the level of the sanction
that is given by the Other to this creation itself, through the
fact that it is the Other who gives to this signifying creation
the value of a signifier in itself, the value of a signifier in
relation to the phenomenon of signifying creation.


无意识的形成 23

May 28, 2014

无意识的形成 23
13.11.57 34

Gide in his Prometheus ill-bound makes the whole story revolve
around what is not really the god, but the machine, the banker,
Zeus whom he calls the “miglionnaire”, and I will show you in
Freud what is its essential function in the creation of the joke.
We do not know whether we should pronounce Gide’s “miglionnaire”
as Italian or French, but I myself believe that it should be
pronounced as Italian.


In short, if we consider famillionaire we will then see in the
direction I am indicating to you, which is not reached at the
level of Heine’s text at this time, that Heine does not at all
give it its liberty, its independence, at the substantive state.


If I even translated it above “as quite famillionairely”, it is
indeed to indicate to you that we remain there at the level of
the adverb, because one can even play with words, attract the
tongue from the manner of being (?), and in dividing things
between the two, you see the whole difference there is between
the manner of being and what I was in the process of indicating
to you as a direction, namely, a manner of being.


We did not go as far as that, but you see that the two are
continuous. Heine remains at the level of the manner of being,
and he was himself careful in translating his own term, to
translate it precisely, not as “quite as a famillionaire”, but as
(37) I did above, as “quite famillionairely”.

我们并没有进行到那里。但是你们看出,这两者是连续性。海因始终保持着生命实存的方式。他自己非常小心地翻阅他自己的术语,确实地翻译它,不是作为「quite as famillionaire“,而是如同我以上所做的,作为”quite famillionairely“

What is supported by this “quite famillionairely”? Something
that is, even though we do not in any way get to this poetical
being, something that is extraordinarily rich, teeming, swarming,
in just the way things happen in metonymical decomposition.

这个“quite famillionairely“所支持的东西是什么?它是某件特别充实的东西,即使我们根本不知道诗意的生命实存,它密集,蜂涌,就想换喻瓦解时,所发生的事情那样。

Here Heinrich Heine’s creation deserves to be replaced in its
text, in the text of the Baths of Lucca, in the text of that de
facto familiarity in which Hirsch-Hyacinth lives with Baron
Cristoforo Gumpelino, who has become a very fashionable man and
spends himself on all kinds of courtesies and attentions to
beautiful women, and to which must be added the fabulous,
astonishing familiarity of Hirsch-Hyacinth hanging on to his

在此,Heinrich Heine 的创造在他的文本里,应该值得被替代,在「路卡的沐浴」的文本,在Hirsch-Hyacinth跟Cristoforo Gumpelino 男爵共同生活的真实的熟悉的文本里。后者已经成为一位时髦的人物,专注于追求与密切关注美丽的女人。在这个真实的熟悉之上,必须增加这个巨大的令人惊奇的熟悉,Hirsch-Hyacinth坚持他的攀附的熟悉。

The function of parasite, of servant, of domestic, of
commissionaire of this character, suddenly evokes for us another
possible decomposition of the word famillionaire, without taking
into account that behind – I do not want to go into the frightful
and miserable function of women in the life of this caricature of
a banker whom Heine produces for us here, but which certainly
includes the aspect of craving associated with success, the
hunger that is no longer the ………. sacra fames, but the hunger
to satisfy something that until the moment of his accession to
the highest circles of life, had been refused him.


(38) This will allow us to follow the trace of another possible
manner of decomposition, the possible signification of the word
fat-millionaire. The fat-millionaire is at once Hirsch-Hyacinth
and Baron Cristoforo Gumpellno…. And it is indeed something
else, because behind it there are all the relationships of the
life of Heinrich Heine, and also his relationships with the
Rothschilds, which were particularly famillionaire.

这将让我们能够追踪瓦解的另外一个可能的方式,fat-millionaire这个字的可能的意义。这个fat-millionaire 既是Hirsch-Hyacinth,又是Cristofor Gumpellno男爵。那确实是某件其他东西,因为在它背后,有Heinrich Heine 的生活的各种关系,也有他跟Rothschilds的生活的关系。那是特别是famillionaire。


精神分析中的侵凌性 2/4

May 27, 2014

精神分析中的侵凌性 2/4

And the two moments, when the subject denies himself and when he charges the other,
become confused, and one discovers in him that paranoiac structure of the ego that finds
its analogue in the fundamental negations described by Freud as the three delusions of
jealousy, erotomania, and interpretation. It is the especial delusion of the misanthropic
‘belle âme’, throwing back on to the world the disorder of which his being is composed.


Subjective experience must be fully enabled to recognize the central nucleus of
ambivalent aggressivity, which in the present stage of our culture is given to us under the
dominant species of resentment, even in its earliest aspects in the child.


Thus, because he
lived at a similar time, without having to suffer from a behaviourist resistance in the
sense that we ourselves do, St Augustin foreshadowed psychoanalysis when he expressed
such behaviour in the following exemplary image: ‘Vidi ego et expertus sum zelantem
parvulum: nondum loquebatur et intuebatur pallidus amaro aspectu conlactaneum suum’
(I have seen with my own eyes and known very well an infant in the grip of jealousy: he
could not yet speak, and already he observed his foster-brother, pale and with an
envenomed stare).

因此,因为圣奥古生活在类似的时代,他没有必要像我们一样遭受行为主义的抗拒。他预示精神分析的来临,当他用以下的意象表的如此的行为: 「我曾经亲眼看见,并且清楚知道充满妒嫉的婴孩。婴孩还不会说话,可是已经脸色苍白,目光凶狠地旁观收养家庭的兄弟。

Thus, with the infans (pre-verbal) stage of early childhood, the
situation of spectacular absorption is permanently tied: the child observed, the emotional
reaction (pale), and this reactivation of images of primordial frustration (with an
envenomed stare) that are the psychical and somatic co-ordinates of original aggressivity.


Only Melanie Klein, working on the child at the very limit of the appearance of
language, dared to project subjective experience back to that earlier period when
observation enables us nevertheless to affirm its dimension, in the simple fact for
example that a child who does not speak reacts differently to punishment or brutality.


Through her we know the function of the imaginary primordial enclosure formed by
the imago of the mother’s body; through her we have the cartography, drawn by the
children’s own hands, of the mother’s internal empire, the historical atlas of the intestinal
divisions in which the imagos of the father and brothers (real or virtual), and the
voracious aggression of the subject himself, dispute their deleterious dominance over her
sacred regions.


We know, too, the persistence in the subject of this shadow of the bad
internal objects, linked with some accidental association (to use a term that we should
accept in the organic sense that it assumes in our experience, as opposed to the abstract
sense that it retains in Humean ideology).


Hence we can understand by what structural
means the re-evocation of certain imaginary personae, the reproduction of certain
situational inferiorities may disconcert in the most strictly predictable way the adult’s
voluntary functions: namely, their fragmenting effect on the imago of the original


By showing us the primordiality of the ‘depressive position’, the extreme archaism of
the subjectification of a kakon, Melanie Klein pushes back the limits within which we can
see the subjective function of identification operate, and in particular enables us to situate
as perfectly original the first formation of the superego.


But it is of particular importance to define the orbit within which, as far as our
theoretical reflexion is concerned, are ordered the relations – by no means all elucidated –
of guilt tension, oral noxiousness, hypochondriacal fixation, even that primordial
masochism that we exclude from our field of study, in order to isolate the notion of an
aggressivity linked to the narcissistic relation and to the structures of systematic
méconnaissance and objectification that characterize the formation of the ego.


To the Urbild of this formation, alienating as it is by virtue of its capacity to render
extraneous, corresponds a peculiar satisfaction deriving from the integration of an
original organic disarray, a satisfaction that must be conceived in the dimension of a vital
dehiscence that is constitutive of man, and which makes unthinkable the idea of an
environment that is preformed for him, a ‘negative’ libido that enables the Heraclitean
notion of Discord, which the Ephesian believed to be prior to harmony, to shine once



台湾最近发生一位大二学生在捷运持刀无缘无故砍死4人,伤22人。被捕后面临死刑的控诉,他心里坦荡荡,一点罪恶感或良心不安都没有。甚至还有生命力终于绽放的欢爽 jouissance。这就是我想要理解与翻译的动机。欢迎大家加入讨论,看看能不能将问题看得更清楚些。

When speaking of the problem of repression, Freud asks himself where the ego
obtains the energy it puts at the service of the ‘reality principle’ – we need look no


There can be no doubt that it derives from the ‘narcissistic passion’, if, that is, one
conceives of the ego according to the subjective notion that I am proposing here, as
conforming with the register of my experience. The theoretical difficulties encountered
by Freud seem to me in fact to derive from the mirage of objectification, inherited from
classical psychology, constituted by the idea of the perception/consciousness system, in
which Freud seems suddenly to fail to recognize the existence of everything that the ego
neglects, scotomizes, misconstrues in the sensations that make it react to reality,
everything that it ignores, exhausts, and binds in the significations that it receives from
language: a surprising méconnaissance on the part of the man who succeeded by the
power of his dialectic in forcing back the limits of the unconscious.


Just as the senseless oppression of the superego lies at the root of the motivated
imperatives of conscience, the passionate desire peculiar to man to impress his image in
reality is the obscure basis of the rational mediations of the will.


The notion of aggressivity as a correlative tension of the narcissistic structure in the
coming-into-being (devenir) of the subject enables us to understand in a very simply
formulated function all sorts of accidents and atypicalities in that coming-into-being.


I shall now say something about how I conceive of the dialectical relation with the
function of the Oedipus complex. In its normal state, this complex is one of sublimation,
which designates precisely an identificatory reshaping of the subject, and, as Freud wrote
when he felt the need for a ‘topographical’ co-ordination of the psychical dynamisms, a
secondary identification by introjection of the imago of the parent of the same sex.


The energy for that identification is provided by the first biological upsurge of genital
libido. But it is clear that the structural effect of identification with the rival is not self evident,
except at the level of fable, and can only be conceived of if the way is prepared
for it by a primary identification that structures the subject as a rival with himself.


In fact,
the note of biological impotence is met with again here, as is the effect of anticipation
characteristic of the genesis of the human psyche, in the fixation of an imaginary ‘ideal’,
which, as analysis has shown, decides the conformity of the ‘instinct’ to the physiological
sex of the individual.



庞蒂论时间 3

May 27, 2014

庞蒂论时间 478

Now, no sooner
have I introduced an observer, whether he follows the river or whether
he stands on the bank and observes its flow, than temporal relationships
are reversed. In the latter case, the volume of water already carried by is
not moving towards the future, but sinking into the past; what is to
come is on the side of the source, for time does not come from the
past. It is not the past that pushes the present, nor the present that
pushes the future, into being; the future is not prepared behind the
observer, it is a brooding presence moving to meet him, like a storm on
the horizon.


If the observer sits in a boat and is carried by the current,
we may say that he is moving downstream towards his future, but the
future lies in the new landscapes which await him at the estuary, and
the course of time is no longer the stream itself: it is the landscape as it
rolls by for the moving observer. Time is, therefore, not a real process,
not an actual succession that I am content to record. It arises from my
relation to things.


Within things themselves, the future and the past are
in a kind of eternal state of pre-existence and survival; the water which
will flow by tomorrow is at this moment at its source, the water
which has just passed is now a little further downstream in the valley.
What is past or future for me is present in the world. It is often said
that, within things themselves, the future is not yet, the past is no
longer, while the present, strictly speaking, is infinitesimal, so that time


That is why Leibnitz was able to define the objective world as
mens momentanea, and why Saint Augustine, in order to constitute time,
required, besides the presence of the present, a presence of the past and
of the future. But let us be clear about what they mean.

那就是为什么莱布尼兹能够定义客观的世界,作为是瞬间的心灵mens momentanea,为什么圣奥古斯丁为了构成时间,要求过去与未来的存在,作为目前的存在旁边。但是那是什么意思,让我们弄清楚。

If the objective
world is incapable of sustaining time, it is not because it is in some way
too narrow, and that we need to add to it a bit of past and a bit of


Past and future exist only too unmistakably in the world, they
exist in the present, and what being itself lacks in order to be of the
temporal order, is the not-being of elsewhere, formerly and tomorrow.
The objective world is too much of a plenum for there to be time.


Past and future withdraw of their own accord from being and move over
into subjectivity in search, not of some real support, but, on the contrary,
of a possibility of not-being which accords with their nature. If
we separate the objective world from the finite perspectives which
open upon it, and posit it in itself, we find everywhere in it only so
many instances of ‘now’.


These instances of ‘now’, moreover, not
being present to anybody, have no temporal character and could not
occur in sequence. The definition of time which is implicit in the
comparisons undertaken by common sense, and which might be formulated
as ‘a succession of instances of now’1 has not even the disadvantage
of treating past and future as presents: it is inconsistent, since it
destroys the very notion of ‘now’, and that of succession.




May 27, 2014

13.11.57 33

(34) You would really not be able to understand it without
referring it to this same framework, to this same skeleton, with
its two levels, its combinatory level with this privileged point
at which is produced the metonymical object as such, and to the
substitutive level with this privileged point at which there is
produced at the encounter of the two chains of the discourse on
the one hand, and on the other hand of the signifying chain in
its pure state, at the elementary level, and which constitutes
the message.


As we have seen, the Signor is repressed here in the message-code
circuit, the Herr is unterdruckt at the level of the discourse,
because it is the discourse that preceded, that caught this Herr,
and what you rediscover, that which allows you to get back on the
track of the lost signifier, are the metonymical ruins (ruses) of
the object.

如同我们所见,这个Signor 在讯息符码的迴圈这里被压抑,这个Herr 在辞说的层面就是unterdruckt,因为它是先前的辞说,它捕捉住这个Herr。你们重新发现的东西,让你们能够回到迷失的能指的轨迹的东西。它们是客体的换喻的废墟。

This is what we are given by the analysis of the example of the
forgetting of a name in Freud. From now on it will appear more
clearly to us what we can think of famillionaire.


The famillionaire is something which, as we have seen, has
something about it that is ambiguous and altogether of the same
order as the production of a symptom.

如我们所见,这个famillionaire 是某件具有意义的东西。这个意义是暧昧,而且完全属于跟病征的产生相同秩序的东西。

If it can be referred to,
superimposed on what happens in the signifying economy of the
production of a language symptom, the forgetting of a name, we
should be able to find at its level that which completes, what I
(35) tried to make you understand a little while ago about its
double function, its function of aiming in the direction of
meaning, and its confusing, upsetting, neological function from
the point of view of something that can be called a dissolution
of the object, namely no longer: “He treated me quite as his
equal, quite famillionairely”, but this something from which
emerges what we can call the famillionaire to the extent that as
a fantastic and derisory character, it is like one of those
creations in a certain poetry of fantasy that allows us to
imagine something intermediary between the mad millionaire and
the centipede, which would however also be a sort of human type
that can be imagined as moving, living and growing in the
interstices of things, a melkose(?) or something analogous, but
even without going this far, might pass into the tongue in the
way that for some time now a “respectueuse” means a whore.
假如它能够被提到,被赋加在语言的产生的能指化活动所发生的东西之上,也将是名字的遗忘,我们应该能够在它的层次找到完成的东西,不久之前,我尝试让你们理解关于它的双重功能,目标朝着意义的功能,以及混淆,扰乱,铸造新词的功能,从某件所谓的客体的瓦解的东西的观点,换句话说,不再是:「他对待我,完全平起平坐,完全famillionairely。“ 而是,这个某件东西,我们所谓的famillionaire的东西从那里出现的东西,甚至,作为一个幻想与欺骗的人物,那就像是在某首幻想的诗里的那些创造。幻想让我们能够想像某件中介的东西,处于这位疯狂的百万富翁millionaire与这个蜈蚣之间的中介。可是,这个蜈蚣也是一种人类,被想像为在东西的内脏里移动,生活与成长,某件类似东西。但是没有那么过分,它可能进入语言,有一阵子,现在的“respectuese”指的是妓女。

These sorts of creations are something that has its own value of
introducing us to something unexplored up to then. They give
rise to this thing that we could call a verbal being, but a
verbal being is also simply a being, that tends more and more to
become incarnated. In the same way the famillionaire is
something that it seems to me plays, or has played a number of
roles not simply in the imagination of poets, but also in
history. I do not need to remind you that many things would go
(36) still closer than this famillionaire.

这些的创造是某件具有它自己的价值,跟我们介绍某件直到当时都没有被探索的东西。他们产生我们所谓的文辞表达的生物的这个东西。但是文辞表达的生物也仅是生物,它越来越倾向于被具体表达。同样地,这个famillionaire 是某件我觉得扮演许多角色的东西,不仅是在诗人的想像里,而且在历史里。我不需要提醒你们,很多东西会比这个famillionaire更加靠近。


无意识的形成 21

May 26, 2014

无意识的形成 21
13.11.57 32

(32) Nevertheless, after having indicated where I want to get to
on this precise, particular point, I would like to indicate that
even though in effect there is here indeed only substitution,
there is also metaphor. Every time there is substitution, there
is a metaphorical effect or induction. It is not quite the same
thing for a German speaker, to say Signor or to say Herr. I
would even go further: it is altogether different that those of
our patients who are bi-lingual or who simply know a foreign
language, and who at a certain moment when they have something to
tell us, tell it to us in a foreign language.

可是,当我已经指示我想要到达哪里,在这个明确,特殊的时刻,我想要指示,即使实际上,在此确实仅有替换,也有隐喻存在。每当有替换时,就会有隐喻的效果或推论。对于说德语者,说signor 或说Herr,这并不是相同的事情。我甚至想要更加深入 。这是完全不同的,那些具有双语能力的病人,或仅是知道一种外国语言的那些病人,在某个时刻,当他们有事情要告诉我们,请他们用外国语言告诉我们。

You can be certain
that it always suits them much better; it is never without reason
that a patient passes from one register to another. If he is
really a polyglot it has a meaning, if he knows the language he
is referring to imperfectly, that has naturally not got the same
meaning, if he is bilingual from birth that has not the same
meaning either. But in every case it has one, and in any case
here provisionally in the substitution of Signor for Herr, there
was no metaphor but simply heteronomyic substitution.

你们能够确定,这总是更加适合他们。一位病人从一个铭记到另外一个铭记,不是没有理由的。假如他确实是一位精通数种语言的人,这具有意义。假如他知道,他正在不完美地提及的语言,那确实没有相同的意义,假如他从诞生时,就是双语,那也拥有不相同的意义。但是在每个情况,它有一个意义。在此,无论如何,在用Signor替换Herr 时,并没有隐喻,而仅有同词异音的替换。

I return to this point to tell you that on this occasion Signor
on the contrary, despite the whole …………….. context that it
is attached to, namely to Signorelli, namely precisely to the
frescoes at Orvieto, namely that are as Freud himself tells us,
(33) the evocation of the last things, historically represent the
most beautiful elaboration there is of that reality impossible to
affront, which is death. It is very precisely by telling
ourselves a thousand fictions – taking fiction here in its truest
sense – about the last things, that we metaphorise, that we tame,
that we make enter into language this confrontation with death.

我回到这点,为了告诉你们,在这个场合,Signor,相反地,尽管整个的内容,它跟所谓的Signorelli 联接一块。换句话说,确实是跟在Orvieto 的壁画有关。也就是,依照弗洛依德告诉我们的,这些壁画召唤最后的事情,在历史上,它们代表有史以来最美丽的建构,关于那不可能冒犯的那个现实。那就是死亡。确实是凭借告诉我们自己上千的幻想—在此就幻想一词就其最真实的意义而言—关于那些最后的事情,我们予以隐喻,我们驯服它,我们让这个跟死亡的冒犯,进入我们的语言。

Therefore it is quite clear that the Signor here in so far as it
is attached to the context of Signorelli, is something that
really represents a metaphor.


Here then is what we arrive at. We arrive at this that we are
approaching something that allows us to reapply point by point,
because we find they have a common topography, the phenomenon of


At the point at which there was produced the positive
production of famillionaire, there is a phenomenon of parapraxis,
of a hole. I could take another one and demonstrate it for you
again, I could give you as an exercise to refer for example to
the next example given by Freud in connection with the Latin
phrase evoked by one of his interlocutors: “exoriare ex nostris

在这个时刻,famillionaire 的正面的产品就产生了。有一个空洞的失误的现象。我能够拿另外一个现象,再次跟你们证明。我能够给予你们作为譬如提到下一个例子,弗洛依德给予的例子,关于这个拉丁的片语,他的一位对谈者提出的拉丁的片语。

By arranging the words a little because the “ex” is
between “nostris” and “ossibus”, and by dropping the second word
that is indispensable for the scansion, “aliquis”, there results
the fact that he cannot make “aliquis” emerge.

凭借稍微安排这些字词,因为这个“ex“处于”nostris“与”ossibus“之间,凭借抛掉第二个字词,那是韵律上无可免除的,”aliguis“ 结果就是这个事实:他无法让”aliquis“这个字词出现。


庞蒂论时间 2

May 26, 2014

We say that time passes or flows by. We speak of the course of time.
The water that I see rolling by was made ready a few days ago in the
mountains, with the melting of the glacier; it is now in front of me and
makes its way towards the sea into which it will finally discharge itself.
If time is similar to a river, it flows from the past towards the present
and the future. The present is the consequence of the past, and the
future of the present. But this often repeated metaphor is in reality
extremely confused.


For, looking at the things themselves, the melting of the
snows and what results from this are not successive events, or rather
the very notion of event has no place in the objective world. When I say
that the day before yesterday the glacier produced the water which is
passing at this moment, I am tacitly assuming the existence of a witness
tied to a certain spot in the world, and I am comparing his successive
views: he was there when the snows melted and followed the water
down, or else, from the edge of the river and having waited two days,
he sees the pieces of wood that he threw into the water at its source.


The ‘events’ are shapes cut out by a finite observer from the spatiotemporal
totality of the objective world. But on the other hand, if I
consider the world itself, there is simply one indivisible and changeless
being in it. Change presupposes a certain position which I take up and
from which I see things in procession before me: there are no events
without someone to whom they happen and whose finite perspective
is the basis of their individuality. Time presupposes a view of time. It is,
therefore, not like a river, not a flowing substance.


The fact that the metaphor based on this comparison has persisted from the time of
Heraclitus to our own day is explained by our surreptitiously putting
into the river a witness of its course.


We do this already when we say
that the stream discharges itself, for this amounts to conceiving, where
there is merely a thing entirely external to itself, an individuality or
interior of the stream which manifests itself outside.




May 25, 2014

Le temps est le sens de la vie (sens: comme on dit le sens d’un
cours d’eau, le sens d’une phrase, le sens d’une etoffe, le sens
de l’odorat).
Claudel, Art Poetique.
Der Sinn des Daseins ist die Zeitlichkeit.
Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, p. 331.

In so far as, in the preceding pages, we have already met time on our
way to subjectivity, this is primarily because all our experiences, inasmuch
as they are ours, arrange themselves in terms of before and after,
because temporality, in Kantian language, is the form taken by our
inner sense, and because it is the most general characteristic of ‘psychic
facts’. But in reality, and without prejudging what the analysis of time
will disclose, we have already discovered, between time and subjectivity,
a much more intimate relationship.


We have just seen that the
subject, who cannot be a series of psychic events, nevertheless cannot
be eternal either. It remains for him to be temporal not by reason of
some vagary of the human make-up, but by virtue of an inner necessity.
We are called upon to conceive the subject and time as communicating
from within. We can now say of temporality what we said earlier about sexuality and spatiality, for example: existence can have no external or
contingent attribute.


It cannot be anything—spatial, sexual, temporal—
without being so in its entirety, without taking up and carrying forward
its ‘attributes’ and making them into so many dimensions of its
being, with the result that an analysis of any one of them that is at all
searching really touches upon subjectivity itself. There are no principal
and subordinate problems: all problems are concentric.


To analyse time
is not to follow out the consequences of a pre-established conception of
subjectivity, it is to gain access, through time, to its concrete structure.
If we succeed in understanding the subject, it will not be in its pure
form, but by seeking it at the intersection of its dimensions. We need,
therefore, to consider time itself, and it is by following through its
internal dialectic that we shall be led to revise our idea of the subject.



无意识的形成 20

May 25, 2014

无意识的形成 20
13.11.57 31

I tell you that the metaphor is produced within the level of
substitution, that means that substitution is a way in which the
signifier can be articulated, and that metaphor operates there
with its function as creator of the signified at that place where
substitution may be produced. They are two different things.


Likwise metonomy and combination are two different things.
I specify this for you in passing, because it is in these
non-distinctions that what is called an abuse of language is
introduced, that is typically characterized by this, that in what
one can define in logical-mathematical terms as a set or a
sub-set, when there is only one single element, the set in
question, or the sub-set, must not be confused with this
particular element.


This may be of some use to those who have criticized my,,,,


Let us return then to what happens at the level of Signor and
Herr. Simply something as simple as this, it is obviously what
happens in every translation: the substitutive liaison in
(30) question is a substitution which is called heteronymic. The
translation of a term into a foreign language on the plane of the
substitutive act, in the comparison necessitated by the existence
at the level of the phenomenon of language of several linguistic
systems, is called heteronymic substitution.

然后,让我们回到Signor 与Herr的层面所发生的事情。那仅是某件像这个这么单纯的东西,显而易见,那就是在翻译所发生的事情:受到质疑的替换的沟通,就是所谓的同词异音的替换。在替换行动的层面,一个术语被翻译成为一种外国语言,被称为是同词异音的替换。在好几个语言系统的语言的现象的层面的存在,有必要的比较。

You may say that this heteronymic substitution is not a metaphor.
I agree, I need only one thing, that is that it should be a
substitution. I am only following what you are forced to admit
in reading the text. In other words, I want you to draw out of
your knowledge, precisely this that you should know it. What is
more, I am not innovating, you have to admit all of this if you
admit Freud’s text.


Thus if Signor is implicated in the affair, it is because there
is something that links it to something of which the phenomenon
of metonymical decomposition is a sign, at the point at which it
is produced, and which depends on the fact that Signor is a
substitute for Herr.

因此,假如Signor 被牵涉到这件事情,那是因为有某件东西跟这个东西息息相关,换喻的瓦解的现象是一个讯息的东西。在讯息被产生的时刻。这个时刻依靠这个事实:Signor 是Herr 的一个替换。

I need no more in order to tell you that if the Herr has gone
this way, the Signor, as the direction of the arrows indicates,
has gone that way.

我不需要再告诉你们,假如这个Herr 朝这条途径走,这个Signor,依照箭头的方向指示,也朝那个途径走。

Not only has it gone that way, but we can
admit until I have come back to it, that it is here that it
begins to turn, namely that it is sent back and forth like a ball
between the code and the message, that it turns round and round
(31) in what can be called – remember what I let you glimpse on
another occasion regarding the possibility of the mechanism of
forgetting, and at the same of analytic rememoration, as being
something we should conceive of as being extremely close to the
memory of a machine, of what is in the memory of a machine,
namely of that which turns round and round until it reappears,
until one has need of it, and that is forced to turn round and
round in order to constitute a memory.


One cannot realize
in any other way the memory of a machine, it is very curiously
something that we find an application for in the fact that if we
can conceive Signor as turning round and round indefinitely until
it is rediscovered between the code and the message, you see
there at the same time the nuance that we can establish between
unterdruckt on the one hand and verdrangt on the other, because
if the unterdruckt here needs only to be done once and for all,
and in conditions to which being cannot descend, namely to the
level of its mortal condition, on the other hand it is clear that
it is something else that is at stake, namely that if this is
maintained in the circuit without being able to re-enter it for a
certain time, we must admit as Freud admits, the existence of a
special force that contains it there, and maintains it there,
namely of what can be properly called a Verdrängung.

我们无法用任何别的方式来体会机器的这个记忆。耐人寻味地,它是某件我们发现可以运用的东西。事实上,假如我们能够构想Signor, 作为不断地转来转去,直到它在符码与讯息之间重新被发现。同时你们在那里看见这个细微差别,我们能够建立的细微差别;一方面是unterdruckt,另一方面是verdrangt。 因为假如在此的这个unterdruckt 仅是需要一劳永逸地被做,在生命实存无法被沦落到它的有限生命的情况。另一方面,显而易见,岌岌可危的是某件其它东西。也就是,假如这个东西被维持在这个迴圈里,经过某段时期,它无法重新进入这个迴圈。我们必须承认,如同弗洛依德也承认,在那里包容它,并且维持它在那里的特别的力量的存在。换句话说,那里存在着贴切地所谓潜抑Verdrangung的东西。