Archive for April, 2011

Desire 63 Jacques Lacan

April 30, 2011

Desire 63

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

14.1.59 116
Seminar 8: 14 January 1959

Freud indicates to us that that which, at the level of enunciating, at the apparently most developed level therefore of the assumption of the subject, at the point at which the it poses itself as conscious with respect to, we will not say its own production because precisely the riddle remains entire – from whom does this enunciation that we are talking about come? – the subject does not decide, if he says “I dreamt” it is with its own connotation and accent which means that the one who dreamt is all the same something which with respect to him presents itself as problematic.

佛洛伊德跟我們指示:在表達的層次,在生命主體的假定的最發展的層次,在這一點,它提出它自己作為意識,關於,我們姑且不說是它自己的產品,因為那個地方確實是謎團重重。我們正在談論的這個表達來自誰呢?生命主體並沒有決定,假如他說:「我作夢」,那是用夢的內涵及強調。意思是:作夢的這個人仍然是某件呈現它自己,作為棘手難題,關於這個生命主體。

The subject of this enunciating contained in the enunciation that we are dealing with, and with a question mark, was for a long time considered to be God before becoming the self of the subject. It is more or less with Aristotle …

在我們正在處理的表達當中,用一個問號,所表包括的這個表達的生命主體,長久以來,就是在他還沒有變成生命主體的「大我」的上帝。這跟亞力斯多德的說法頗為一致。

To return to this beyond of the subject which is the Freudian unconscious, a whole oscillation, a whole vacillation is produced which still leaves a permanent question about its otherness. And what the subject takes up from this afterwards, has the same
fragmentary nature, has the same value of signifying element as what is produced in the spontaneous phenomenon of substitution, of the deranging of the signifier, which is what Freud on the other hand show us to be the normal way to decipher the meaning of the dream.

回到生命主體的這個超越,它就是佛洛伊德的無意識,一種整體的搖擺,一種整體的搖擺被產生。它依舊留下一個永恆的問題關於它的大它者。後來,這個生命主體從這裏所從事的,擁有相同的碎片的特性,擁有能指元素的相同的價值,作為代替的自動自發現象,能指點混亂的現象。這就是佛洛伊德在另一方面跟我們顯示是正常的方式,來解釋夢的意義。

In other words, the fragmentation which is produced at the level of enunciating, in so far as enunciating is the assumption of the dream by the subject, is something which Freud tells us is on the (11) same plane and of the same nature as the following, which
the rest of his doctrine shows us to be the way of interpreting a dream, namely the maximum signifying decomposition, the spelling out of signifying elements in so far as it is in this spelling out that there will reside the highlighting of the possibilities
of the dream, namely of these intersections, of these intervals that it leaves and which only appear to the degree that the signifying chain is related to, is recut, is intersected by all the other chains which in connection with each of the elements of the dream may be interlaced, intermingled with the first.

換句話說,在表達的層次被產生的碎片化。因為表達是生命主體的夢的假定,這個碎片化是某件佛洛伊德告訴我們,處於相同的層次,屬於相同的特性,跟底下,他的其餘的信條跟我們顯示為解釋夢的方式。換句話說,最大量的能指的瓦解,能指元素的澄清。因為夢的可能性的強調就駐紮在這個澄清裏。換句話說,這些互相交會的強調,它留下的這些間隔,它僅僅跟能指鎖鏈相關的程度,它被重新被切割,被所有其他的意符鎖鏈交會。關於夢的每一個元素,其他的意符鎖鏈可能會跟前面的意符鎖鏈交織及混合。

In other words it is to the extent, and in a more exemplary fashion in connection with the dream than in connection with any other discourse, it is to the degree that in the discourse of the subject, in the actual discourse, we allow to vacillate, we allow
to be detached from the actual signification the signifier that is involved in this enunciating, it is in this way that we approach that which in the subject is called in the Freudian doctrine unconscious.

換句話說,到這個程度,以更加是典範的方式,關於這個夢,比起任何的其他的真理論述。到達這個程度,在生命主體的真理論述,在實際的真理論述,我們容許這個能指搖擺,我們容許這個能指跟實際的意義隔離。這個牽涉到這個表達的能指。就是以這個方式,我們接近生命主體身上佛洛伊德信條所謂的無意識。

It is in the measure that the signifier is involved, it is in the possibilities of rupture, in the points of rupture of this unconscious that there lies the thing we are tracking down, what we are there to look for, namely the essential thing that has happened in the subject which keeps (maintenant) certain signifiers in repression. And this something is going to allow us to follow precisely the path of his desire, namely this something in the subject which is maintained in this capture by the signifying network, must so to speak in order to be revealed pass through this mesh, be subject to this filtering, to this (12) sifting of the signifier and which is what we have as our aim to replace and to restore in the discourse of the subject.

隨著這個能指牽涉的程度,這就是斷裂的可能性。在無意識的斷裂的這些點,我們正在追蹤的這個東西就在那裏。換句話說,發生在生命主體身上的,基本的東西,維持某些的能指在倒退那裏。這個某件東西,將要容許我們確實地遵照他的欲望的途經。換句話說,生命主體身上這個某件東西,在這個斷裂裏被維持,被這個能指的網路。也就是說,為了要被顯示出來,它必須通過這個網路,承受這種過濾,承受這個能指的篩選。這就是我們所擁有的,作為我們要取代及恢復的目標,在生命主體的真理論述裏。

How are we able to do it? What does the fact that we are able to do it signify? I told you, desire is essentially linked, by the doctrine, by the practice, by the Freudian experience, in this position, it is excluded, enigmatic, or it is posed with respect to the subject as being essentially linked to the existence of the signifier, which is repressed as such, and its reinstatement, its restoration is linked to the return of these signifiers. But this does not mean that the reinstatement of these signifiers purely and simply enuntiates the desire.

我們如何能夠做到這一點?我們能夠做到這一點的這個事實意味著什麼?我告訴你們,欲望基本上是相關聯,跟這種信條,跟這種實踐,跟佛洛伊德的精神分析學經驗,在這個謎團一般的立場,它被排除,或者說,它被提出,關於這個生命主體,作為基本上跟這個能指的存在息息相關。能指的本身被壓抑,它的重新陳述,它的恢復跟這些能指點回轉息息相關。但是,這並不意味著:這些能指點重新陳述純粹就是表達欲望。

What is articulated in these repressed signifiers, and what is always a demand, is one thing, the desire is something else, in so far as desire is something through which the subject situates himself, because of the existence of discourse, with respect to this demand.

在這些被壓抑的能指裏,所被表達的,總是一個要求的是一件東西。欲望是某件其他的東西。欲望是某件其他的東西,透過這個東西,生命主體定位它自己,因為真理論述的存在,關於這個需求。

It is not what he demands that is in question, it is what he is in function of this 、demand, and what he is in the measure that this demand is repressed, is masked. And this is what is expressed in an obscure fashion in the phantasy of his desire.

受到置疑的並不是他所要求的東西,而是他在行使要求這個功用。隨著這個要求的被壓抑,他的生命本質被遮蔽起來。這就是所被壓抑的東西,在他的欲望的幻見裏,以這個模糊的形式。

It is his relationship to a being of which there would be no question if there did not exist demand, discourse, which is fundamentally language, but of which there begins to be question from the moment that language introduces this dimension of being,
and at the same time conceals it from him.

他跟一個生命實存的關係。假如沒有需求,真理論述存在,就沒有生命實存的問題。真理論述基本上是語言,但是有關語言的問題會開始,從語言介紹生命實存的維度,並且同時地隱藏它,不讓生命主體知道的時刻。

The reinstatement of the meaning of the phantasy, namely of something imaginary, comes between the two lines, between the enunciation of the intention of the subject, and this something in which in a decomposed (13) fashion he reads that this intention is profoundly fragmented, cut up, refracted by language; between the two is this phantasy where he habitually suspends his relationship to being.

幻見的意義的重新陳述,換句話說,某件想像的陳述,介入這兩行之間,介人生命主體的意圖的表達與這個某件東西之間。在這個東西裏,以一個被瓦解的方式,他閱讀到:這個意圖深刻地被語言零碎化,被切碎,被折射。存在於這兩者之間的是這個幻見。在幻見這裏,他習慣地懸置他跟生命實存的關係。

But this phantasy, more than anything else, is always enigmatic. And what does it want? The following: that we should interpret it. To interpret desire, is to reinstate something to which the subject can not accede all by himself: namely the affect which designates at the level of this desire which is his – I am speaking about the precise desire that intervenes in one or other incident of the life of the subject, of the masochistic desire, of the suicidal desire, of the oblative desire, on different occasions.

但是這個幻見總是一個謎團,超過其他東西。它倒底想要什麼?它想要以下的東西:我們應該解釋它。解釋欲望,就是重新陳述某件生命主體單獨不能同意的東西。換句話說,在這個屬於他的欲望的層次,指明的情意。我是在談論到這個確實的欲望,介入於生命主體的生活的某種意外,受虐狂的欲望,自殺的欲望,這個奉獻的欲望,依不同場合而定。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

心理治療今日觀100

April 30, 2011

VIII
PSYCHOTHERAPY TODAY 1
心理治療今日觀100

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

218e
That is why he says “every illness is a purgatorial fire’ He consciously recognized and made full use of the healing power of a man’s mental attitude. When, therefore, I am treating practising Catholics, and am faced with the transference problem, I can, by virtue of my office as a doctor, step aside and lead the problem over to the Church.

那就是為什麼他說「每場疾病都是煉獄之火」。他有意識地體認並充分利用一個人的精神態度,充當治療的力量。因此,當我正在治療任職的天主教徒時,我面臨移情的難題,憑藉我作為醫生的身份立場,我閃躲這個難題,並且將它引導到教會。

Office—身份立場The actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group

218f
But if I am treating a non-Catholic, that way out is debarred, and by virtue of my
office as a doctor I cannot step aside, for there is as a rule nobody there, nothing towards which I could suitably lead the father imago. I can, of course, get the patient to recognize with his reason that I am not the father. But by that very act I become the reasonable father and remain despite everything the father. Not only nature, but the patient too, abhors a vacuum.

但是假如我正在治療的是一位非天主教徒,那個解決方法就被排除。憑藉我的作為醫生的身份立場,我無閃躲。因為通常沒有人在那裏,沒有東西,能夠讓我適當地引導父親的理想意象。當然,我能夠讓病人用他的理性體認到,我並不是他的父親。但是憑藉著那個行動,我成為明理的父親,儘管一切,始終是父親。不僅是自然,病人也是憎惡空無狀態。

Debar—排除發生Prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening

218g

He has an instinctive horror of allowing the parental imagos and his childhood psyche to fall into nothingness, into a hopeless past that has no future. His instinct tells him that, for the sake of his own wholeness, these things must be kept alive in one form or another. He knows that a complete withdrawal of the projection will be followed by an apparently endless isolation within the ego, which is all the more burdensome because he has so little love for it.

他本能地感到駭懼,竟然容許父母的理想意象及童年的心靈,掉入到空無,掉入到沒有未來的絕望的過去。他的本能告訴他,為了他自己的整體性,這些事情必須以某種形式被保持鮮活。他知道,從投射的完整撤退,後面跟隨而來的是自我內部,顯而易見的無窮盡的孤立。這種無窮盡的孤立將會更加負擔沉重,因為他並怎麼喜愛。

218h
He found it unbearable enough before, and he is unlikely to bear it now simply out of sweet reasonableness. Therefore at this juncture the Catholic who has been freed from an excessively personal tie to his parents can return fairly easily to the mysteries of the Church, which he is now in a position to understand better and more deeply. There are also Protestants who can discover in one of the newer variants of Protestantism a meaning which appeals to them, and so regain a genuine religious attitude.

以前,他就發現這是難以忍受的。現在他不可能因為理由充分就去忍受它。因此,在這個時候,天主教徒,已經從跟父母親的過度關係裏被解脫出來,能夠很容易地退回到教會的神秘。現在他的立場能夠更加深刻地瞭解教會的神秘。也有些基督教徒能夠在較新的基督教派那裏,發現到討他喜歡的意義,並且獲得一種真誠的宗教的態度。

218i
All other cases –unless there is a violent and sometimes injurious solution –will, as the saying goes, “get stuck” in the transference relationship, thereby subjecting both
themselves and the doctor to a severe trial of patience. Probably this cannot be avoided, for a sudden fall into the orphaned, parentless state may in certain cases namely, where there is a tendency to psychosis–have dangerous consequences owing to the equally sudden activation of the unconscious which always accompanies it.

除非有猛烈,有時是傷害性的解決方法,所有其他的個案,將會「陷套」在移情的關係裏,如諺語所言。它們因此會使醫生及病人承受耐心的嚴重考驗。這種事情可能無法避免,因為突然掉入孤兒般沒有父母親的狀態,在某些個案裏,也就是說,在精神變態狂的傾向裏。他們會有危險的結果,由於伴隨而來的無意識,同樣突然被激發起來。

218j
Accordingly the projection can and should be withdrawn only step by step. The integration of the contents split off in the parental imagos has an activating effect on the unconscious, for these imagos are charged with all the energy they originally possessed in childhood, thanks to which they continued to exercise a fateful influence even on the adult. Their integration therefore means a considerable afflux of energy
to the unconscious, which soon makes itself felt in the increasingly strong coloration of the conscious mind by unconscious contents. Isolation in pure ego-consciousness has the paradoxical consequence that there now appear in dreams and fantasies impersonal, collective contents which are the very material from which certain schizophrenic psychoses are constructed.

因此,這種投射能夠而且應該按部就班地撤退。在父母親的理想意象裏,被分裂的內容的完整性,對於無意識產生激發的影響。因為這些理想意象被賦予所有的精力能源,他們在童年時期原先所擁有的。由於這些精力能源,他們繼續運作重大的影響對於成年人。他們的完整性因此意味著一種精力能源匯流到無意識。不久,在意識心靈被無意識內涵越來越浸染的過程,無意識會使它自己被感覺到。在純粹自我意識裏的孤立,擁有這個矛盾的結果:在夢及幻見裏,客觀,集體的內容現在會出現。這些客觀集體的內容,就是精神分裂變態狂被用來建構的這些材料。

218k

For this reason the situation is not without its dangers, since the releasing of the ego from its ties with the projection– and of these the transference to the doctor plays
the principal part– involves the risk that the ego, which was formerly dissolved in relationships to the personal environment, may now be dissolved in the contents of the collective unconscious. For, although the parents may be dead in the world of external reality, they and their imagos have passed over into the “other” world of the collective unconscious, where they continue to attract the same ego-dissolving projections as before.

因為這個理由,這個情況並不是沒有它的危險。因為自我從它跟投射的關係裏釋放出來,會牽涉到這個危險:這個自我,以前融合在跟個人環境的關係裏,現在可能會融合在集體無意識裏。在這些關係當中,跟醫生的移情扮演主要的部分。雖然在外在的現實界的世界裏,父母親可能已經死了,他們以及他們的理想意象,可能傳遞到集體無意識的「另外一個」世界裏。在那裏,像以前那樣,他們繼續吸引相同的融合自我的投射。

219
But at this point a healthful, compensatory operation comes into play which each time seems to me like a miracle. Struggling against that dangerous trend towards disintegration, there arises out of this same collective unconscious a counteraction,
characterized by symbols which point unmistakably to a process of centring. This process creates nothing less than a new centre of personality, which the symbols show from the first to be superordinate to the ego and which later proves its superiority empirically.

但是在這個時候,一個健康,補充的運作會發生。這個運作對我而言,每一次都是一個奇跡。當我們奮鬥對抗危險的朝向瓦解的趨勢時,從這個相同的集體無意識裏,會產生一種反作用,它的特徵是:意符明確無誤地指向中心化的過程。這個過程創造道道地地是人格的一個新的中心。意符顯示這個新的人格中心,從最高級的第一層到自我。後來,這個新的人格中心根據經驗來看,證明它具有優越的地位。

The centre cannot therefore be classed with the ego, but must be accorded a higher value. Nor can we continue to give it the name of “ego/’ for which reason I have called it the “self.” To experience and realize this self is the ultimate aim of Indian yoga, and in considering the psychology of the self we would do well to have recourse
to the treasures of Indian wisdom. In India, as with us, the experience of the self has nothing to do with intellectualism; it is a vital happening which brings about a fundamental transformation of personality.

因此,這個中心不能夠跟自我一起歸類,而必須給予一個較高的價值。我們也不能夠繼續給予它「自我」這個名字。因為那個理由,我曾經稱它為「大我」。經驗及體會這個「大我」,就是印度瑜伽的最終目標。當我們考慮這個「大我」的心理學時,我們最好訴諸于印度人智慧的財寶。在印度,如同跟我們一樣,「大我」的經驗跟理智主義根本沒有關係。這是一個重大的事件,會促成人格的基本的改變。

I have called the process that leads to this experience the “process of individuation.” If I recommend the study of classical yoga, it is not because I am one of those who roll up their eyes in ecstasy when they hear such magic words as dhyana or buddhi or mukti, but because psychologically we can learn a great deal from yoga philosophy and turn it to practical account.

我曾經稱導致這個經驗的這個過程為「個體化過程」。假如我推薦古典瑜伽的研究,那不是因為我是那些陶醉於幻覺裏的其中一位,當他們聽到這些魔術的字,如「禪那」「佛陀」「靈修」。而是因為從心理學來說,我們能夠從瑜伽哲學學習許多東西,並且將它實際運用。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Desire 62 Jacques Lacan

April 28, 2011

Desire 62

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

14.1.59 116
Seminar 8: 14 January 1959

(7) This dream is presented to us as a whole. It is this enunciation which is produced, as I might say, at the lower level of the graph. It is a signifying chain which presents itself in a form which is all the more global because it is closed, because it presents itself precisely in the usual form of language, because it is something about which the subject has to make a report, an enuntiating, has to situate himself with respect to,
has to transmit to you precisely with all these accents that he has to add to it of a greater or lesser adherence to what he is telling you. Namely that it is in short at the level of the discourse for the other, which is also the discourse where the subject assumes this dream, that there is going to be produced this something which accompanies the dream, and comments on it in a way from the position that has been more or less assumed by the subject.

夢呈現給予我們作為整體。就在被產生的表達裏,在這個欲望圖形的低層次,我不妨這樣說。這是一個能指的鎖鏈,呈現本身,以一個更加是全球化的形式,因為它被封閉,因為它呈現它自己,確實以語言的尋常形式。因為它是某件生命主體必須報告它的東西,一個表達的生命主體,必須定位他自己,關於這個東西。他必須傳遞給你,確實以所有他必須增添的這些強調,或多或少要堅持他正在告訴你的東西。換句話說,總之,就是在對於大它者的真理論述的層次,也就是生命主體呈現這個夢的真理論述。陪伴著夢的這個某件東西將會被產生,並且從這個立場以某種方式評論這個夢。這個立場,多多少少是生命主體呈現的立場。

Namely that here, during the narrative of what has happened, he presents himself already within it as the enunciation of the dream. It is here, in the discourse which
this subject assumes for you to whom he is telling it, that we are going to see appearing these different elements, these different accentuations which are always accentuations of greater or lesser assumption by the subject. “It seems to me”. “It
appeared to me that at this moment that happened”.

換句話說,在此,在所發生的描述過程,、他呈現他自己,已經是在夢當中,作為夢的表達。就在這裏,在生命主體呈現給你的真理論述,他正在跟你告訴這個夢。我們將會看出,這些不同的元素,這些不同的強調出現。它們總是強調生命主體或大或小的假定:「我覺得」「我覺得,在那個發生的時刻。」

At that moment it is just as if the subject were at the same time someone else, or was being transformed into someone else. This is what I called above accents; these different modes of assumption of the experience of the dream by the subject are
situated here on the line which is that of the I of the enunciating, in so far as precisely vis-a-vis this psychical event he assumes it more or less in his enunciating.

在那個時刻,生命主體也同時是某一個其他的人,或是正在被轉變成為某一個其他的人。這就是我所謂的超越的強調。生命主體夢的經驗的這些不同的假定的模式,被定位在這條線,那就是正在表達的這個「我」的這條線。它確實跟他在他的表達中,呈現的這個心靈的事件正面相遇。

(8) What does that mean, except that what we have here is precisely that which on our graph is presented in the form of the fragmented, discontinuous line, that it shows you as being the characteristic of what is articulated at the level of the enunciating in so far as this involves the signifier. Because note this. If it is true that what justifies the lower line, the one on which at one time we placed this retroactivity of the code
onto the message which at every moment gives the sentence its meaning – this phrasal unity is of different sizes; at the end of a long discourse, at the end of my seminar or at the end of all my seminars, there is something which retroactively closes the
meaning of what I stated for you before but to a certain degree in each one of the parts of my discourse, in each one of the paragraphs there is something which is changed in shape.

那是什麼意思?難道不就是:我們在此所擁有的,確實就是在我們欲望的圖形所被呈現,以這個碎片的中斷的線。它跟你顯示,作為在這個表達的層次,所被表達的東西的這個特色,因為這牽涉到能指。請注意這一點。的確,這條低的線能夠成立的理由,有一陣子,我們將這個符碼的反彈作用放進這個訊息:在每個時刻,這個訊息給予這個句子它的意義。「一致性」這個詞語,有不同的形狀大小,就在一個漫長的真理論述的結束,在我的講座的結束,或是在我所有的講座的結束,會有某件東西,反彈地封閉我以前跟你們陳述的意義,在我的真理論述的每一個部分,在這些段落的每個段落,總是有某件東西,在形狀上被改變。

It is a question of knowing what is the smallest degree that we must stop at in order that this effect which we call an effect of signification, in so far as it is something essentially new, which goes beyond what are called the usages of the signifier,
constitutes a sentence, constitutes precisely this creation of signification brought about in language. Where does it stop?

問題是要知道,我們必須停止的這個最小程度是什麼?為了讓我們所謂的意符的影響的這個影響,可以組成一個句子,組成確實就是在語言所導致的意義的創造、這個某件新穎的東西,它超越了所謂的能指的用途。它在什麼地方停止?

It stops obviously at the smallest possible unit, which is the sentence, precisely at this unit which on this occasion is presented here in quite a clear fashion in the report of the dream, in the form of the fact that the subject assumes it or does not assume it, either believes it or does not believe it, either reports something, or is doubtful about what he is telling us.

它確實就在這個最小可能的單位停止。這個單位就是這個句子。確實就是在這個單位,在這個場合,這個單位在此被呈現,以某種清楚的方式,在報導這個夢,以這個事實的形式。生命主體呈現它,或是沒有呈現它。他要就是相信它,要不就是不相信它,要就是報導某件事情,要不就是懷疑他正在告訴我們的內容。

What I mean on this occasion, is that this line or loop of enunciating, is made up of sentence-fragments which can be shorter than the totality of what is being told. The dream, in connection with one or other part of the dream, brings an assumption by the subject, an enunciatory position (une prise nonciative) of a shorter range than the totality of the dream.

在這個場合,我的意思是,表達的這條線,或是迴圈,是由句子的碎片所組成。這些碎片比所正在被告訴的整體性更加簡短。這個夢,跟這個夢的某個其他部分,被生命主體帶來一個假定,一個較為簡短範圍的表達的立場,比起夢的整體性。

In other words, it introduces a possibility of a fragmentation which is much shorter at the upper level of the graph than at the lower level.

換句話說,它介紹一個碎片的可能性。這個碎片在這個欲望圖形的高層次的地方,比起在低層次的地方,更加簡短。

This puts us on the track of what Freud implies in saying that this accent of assumption by the subject forms part of the latent thoughts of the dream.

這讓我們追蹤佛洛伊德所暗示的,當他說:生命主體假定的這個強調,組成夢的潛在的思想的一部分。

This is to tell us that it is at the level of enunciating and in so far as it implies this type of highlighting of the signifier which is implied in free association; namely that if the signifying chain has two aspects, one which is the unity of its meaning, the phrasal signification, the monolithism of the holophrastic sentence, or more exactly
namely that a sentence may be taken as having a single meaning, as being something which forms a signifier, let us say a transitory one, but which, while it exists, stands as such all by itself; and the other phase of the signifier which is called free association involves that each one of the elements of this sentence goes as far as is possible in terms of decomposition, stopping strictly at the phonetic element. Something can
intervene which by getting rid of one of the signifiers implants there in its place another signifier which supplants it and it is in this that there lies the property of the signifier; it is something which refers to this aspect of the willing of the subject.

這個告訴我們,在這個表達的層次,它暗示著這種能指點強調,在自有聯想裏被暗示。也就是說,假如意符的鎖鏈有兩個方面,一個是它的意義的一致性,詞語的意義,以一個字顯示整個句子的「統一性」,說得更確實些就是:一個句子能個被認為是擁有單一的意義,擁有某件組成能指的東西,這是一個無常的能指,容我們這樣說。但是當這個能指存在時,它單獨就是一個存在體,能指的另外一個部分,被稱為是自由聯想的能指的部分,牽涉到:這個句子的每一個元素,以瓦解的術語而言,就在語音的元素,就嚴格地停止。某件東西會介入,它廢除其中一個能指,將另外一個代替它的能指,安置在那裏代替它。能指的特性就在這裏。有某件東西提到生命主體的意志的這一方面。

Something, an incident, intersects with it at each moment which implies, without the subject knowing it, and in a way that is unconscious for him, that even in his deliberate discourse, beyond his intention, something intervenes in the choice of these elements whose effects we see emerging at the (10) surface, in the most elementary form for example of a phonematic lapse, whether it is a question of a syllable that is
changed in a word, which shows there the presence of another signifying chain, which can intersect with the first, and grafts onto, implants in it another meaning.

某件東西,一件意外,在每個時刻跟它交會。它暗示著,生命主體本身並不知道,某方面,他並沒有意識到:即使在他深思熟慮的真理論述裏,超越他的意圖,某件東西會介入,在這些元素的選擇裏。我們看到這些元素的影響出現在這個表面,以最基本的形式,例如,語音的失誤,無論它是一個字裏的音節問題。這個字顯示有另外一個能指的鎖鏈的存在那裏。它會跟第一個能指的鎖鏈互相交會,然後插接及移植另外一個意義在那裏。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
http://springhero.wordpress.com

我希望

April 28, 2011

我希望

人們常問 應該找個什麼樣的伴侶呢
我說

我希望 她
和我一樣
胸中有血
心頭有傷

This I Hope

When asked what partner I am expecting,
I answer:

I hope she has the same
Fibers as well as I do
Blood burning in bosom,
Wound suffering in heart

要窮 窮得象茶
苦中一縷清香
要傲 傲得象蘭
高掛一臉秋霜

In spite of being poor, we are like tea,
Tasting bitter, but smelling fragrant
When self-assured, we are like orchids
Enduring winter frost without bending

我們一樣 就敢在暗夜裏
徘徊在白色的墳場
傾聽鴟梟的慘笑
追逐那飄移的螢光

On drear dark nights,she dares
Like me, lingering on the pallid grave,
Listening to the laughter of the night hawk
Pursuing the floating sulfur light

我們一樣 就敢劃起一葉咿呀的扁舟
去探索遙遠的海港
任憑風如喪鐘
霧似飛網

Sailing on a dilapidating boat,
Beyond the remote horizon, we explore
With a gale tolling like the bell,
Caught in a net of heavy mist,
We fear not.

我們一樣 就敢在泥沼裏
種下松籽 要它成梁
我們一樣 就敢挽起朝暉
踩著鮮花 走向死亡
雖然我只是一粒芝麻
被風吹離了莖的故鄉
遠別雲雀婉囀的歌喉
遠別玫瑰迷人的芬芳

Still struggling in a swamp,
We are  sowing the seed for rebirth
Against the sun dawning,flowers in bloom,
We are advancing in defiance of death
Though I am but a little sesame
Blown away from my rooted place
Adieu! Chirruping skylark !
Adieu! Sweet-smelling rose !

我相信 一定有另一顆芝麻
和我一樣 躺在風風雨雨的大地上
我們雖未相識 但我終極樂觀
因為我們頂的是同一輪太陽

I believe that there exists another seed of sesame
Fighting for its soul dignity on the stormy earth
Though unacquainted, we are closest to each other,
Convinced we are sharing the cherished desire.

就這樣 在漫天的星雲裏
去尋找那粒閃爍的微光
就這樣 在蔽日的密林中
去辨認那片模糊的葉掌我希望

Amid the cloudy night skies
That flickering twilight, we are expecting
Amid the heavy and gloomy forests
That leaf of life we are identifying
This I hope

黃蓓佳詩
雄伯試譯
歡迎潤飾及訂正
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

心理治療今日觀96

April 28, 2011

VIII
PSYCHOTHERAPY TODAY 1
心理治療今日觀96

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

212k
And with school and the relentless advance of time, one objective fact after another increasingly forces its way into his personal life, regardless of whether it is welcome or not and whether he has developed any special attitude towards it Meanwhile it is made overpoweringly clear that any prolongation of the father-and-mother world beyond its allotted span must be paid for dearly.

隨著上學及時間無情地過去,一個接續一個的客觀的事實越來越強迫地進入他個人的生活,無論歡迎與否,無論他已經發展任何特別的態度對待它。同時,強而有力地顯而易見,父親與母親世界的延長超越它被分配的期限,必須被付出昂貴的代價。

Dearly 昂貴代價At a great cost

212l
All attempts to carry the infant’s personal world over into the greater world are doomed to failure; even the transference which occurs during the treatment of neurosis is at best only an intermediate stage, giving the patient a chance to shed all the fragments of egg-shell still adhering to him from his childhood days, and to withdraw the projection of the parental imagos from external reality.

一切企圖要將嬰兒的個人世界帶進更大的世界,註定會失敗。即使是發生在神經症治療的期間的移情,充其量僅是一種過渡到階段,給予病人一個機會,剝落從他童年時代依舊粘附在他身上的蛋殼的碎片,以及從外在的現實界,投射的父母的理想意象撤退下來。

212m
This operation is one of the most difficult tasks of modern psychotherapy. At one time it was optimistically assumed that the parental imagos could be more or less broken down and destroyed through analysis of their contents. But in reality that is not the
case: although the parental imagos can be released from the state of projection and withdrawn from the external world, they continue, like everything else acquired in early childhood, to retain their original freshness. With the withdrawal of the
projection they fall back into the individual psyche, from which indeed they mainly originated.

這個運作是現代心理治療最艱辛的工作之一。有一陣子,有人樂觀地假設,父母的理想意象憑藉對於它們內容的精神分析,多少能夠被瓦解破滅。但是事實上,情況並不是這樣。雖然父母的理想意象能夠被釋放,從投射的狀態,並且從外在的世界撤退,它們繼續保留它們原來的新鮮感,就像童年早期被獲得的其他一切東西。隨著投射到撤退,它們倒退進入個人的心靈。的確,它們主要是從那裏開始。

Fall back into—倒退

213
Before we go into the question of what happens when the parental imagos are no longer projected, let us turn to another question: Is this problem, which has been brought to light by modern psychotherapy, a new one in the sense that it was unknown
to earlier ages which possessed no scientific psychology as we understand it? How did this problem present itself in the past?

在我們探討這個問題之前,當父母的理想意象不再被投射時,會發生什麼事?讓我們轉向另外一個問題:現代心理治療啟明的這個難題,是一個新的難題嗎?因為在早期沒有擁有我們所瞭解的科學的心理學的時代,這個難題並不為人所知。在以前,這個難題如何呈現它自己?

214
In so far as earlier ages had in fact no knowledge of psychotherapy in our sense of the word, we cannot possibly expect to find in history any formulations similar to our own. But since the transformation of child into parent has been going on everywhere from time immemorial and, with the increase of consciousness, was also experienced subjectively as a difficult process, we must conjecture the existence of various general
psychotherapeutic systems which enabled man to accomplish the difficult transition-stages.

事實上,以前的時代並沒有擁有心理治療的知識。就這個字詞的意義而言,我們不可能期望在歷史上找到任何構想,類似我們的構想。但是從小孩成為父母親的這個轉變,從遠古以來,到處都在進行。隨著意識到增加,它也主觀性地被經驗,作為一個困難的過程。我們必須推測各式各樣的一般心理治療系統的存在。因為它們的存在,人們才能夠完成這個困難的轉變階段。

214b
And we do find, even at the most primitive level, certain drastic measures at all those moments in life when psychic transitions have to be effected. The most important
of these are the initiations at puberty and the rites pertaining to marriage, birth, and death. All these ceremonies, which in primitive cultures still free from foreign influence are observed with the utmost care and exactitude, are probably designed in the first place to avert the psychic injuries liable to occur at such times; but they are also intended to impart to the initiand the preparation and teaching needed for life.

即使在最原始的層次,我們確實發現到某些激烈的措施,在人生的那些時刻,當心靈的轉移必須被形成。最重要的是,青春期的成年禮,及婚姻,誕生,及死亡的適當儀式。所有這些典禮,在原始的文化裏,依舊可以免除外來的影響,它們受到仔細而精確地觀察。它們當初的設計,可能是要轉移在這些時刻容易遭受的心靈的傷害,但是它們也被用來傳授給剛要進入社會者,人生所需的準備及教導。

The existence and prosperity of a primitive tribe are absolutely bound up with the scrupulous and traditional performance of the ceremonies. Wherever these customs fall into disuse through the influence of the white man, authentic tribal life ceases; the
tribe loses its soul and disintegrates. Opinion is very much divided about the influence of Christian missionaries in this respect; what I myself saw in Africa led me to take an extremely pessimistic view.

原始部落的存在及興盛,跟這些典禮的慎重其事及傳統的表現,絕對是息息相關。有些地方,由於白人的影響,這些風俗習慣已經廢棄不用,真誠的部落生活已經不再存在,部落失去它的靈魂而瓦解。關於基督教傳教士在這一方面的影響,意見非常分歧。我自己在非洲的見聞,讓我採取極度悲觀的觀點。

215
On a higher and more civilized level the same work is performed by the great religions. There are the christening, confirmation, marriage, and funeral ceremonies which, as is well known, are much closer to their origins, more living and complete,
in Catholic ritual than in Protestantism. Here too we see how the father-mother world of the child is superseded by a wealth of analogical symbols: a patriarchal order receives the adult into a new filial relationship through spiritual generation
and rebirth. The pope as pater patrum and the ecclesia mater are the parents of a family that embraces the whole of Christendom, except such parts of it as protest. VIII
PSYCHOTHERAPY TODAY 1
心理治療今日觀94

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

212k
And with school and the relentless advance of time, one objective fact after another increasingly forces its way into his personal life, regardless of whether it is welcome or not and whether he has developed any special attitude towards it Meanwhile it is made overpoweringly clear that any prolongation of the father-and-mother world beyond its allotted span must be paid for dearly.

隨著上學及時間無情地過去,一個接續一個的客觀的事實越來越強迫地進入他個人的生活,無論歡迎與否,無論他已經發展任何特別的態度對待它。同時,強而有力地顯而易見,父親與母親世界的延長超越它被分配的期限,必須被付出昂貴的代價。

Dearly 昂貴代價At a great cost

212l
All attempts to carry the infant’s personal world over into the greater world are doomed to failure; even the transference which occurs during the treatment of neurosis is at best only an intermediate stage, giving the patient a chance to shed all the fragments of egg-shell still adhering to him from his childhood days, and to withdraw the projection of the parental imagos from external reality.

一切企圖要將嬰兒的個人世界帶進更大的世界,註定會失敗。即使是發生在神經症治療的期間的移情,充其量僅是一種過渡到階段,給予病人一個機會,剝落從他童年時代依舊粘附在他身上的蛋殼的碎片,以及從外在的現實界,投射的父母的理想意象撤退下來。

212m
This operation is one of the most difficult tasks of modern psychotherapy. At one time it was optimistically assumed that the parental imagos could be more or less broken down and destroyed through analysis of their contents. But in reality that is not the
case: although the parental imagos can be released from the state of projection and withdrawn from the external world, they continue, like everything else acquired in early childhood, to retain their original freshness. With the withdrawal of the
projection they fall back into the individual psyche, from which indeed they mainly originated.

這個運作是現代心理治療最艱辛的工作之一。有一陣子,有人樂觀地假設,父母的理想意象憑藉對於它們內容的精神分析,多少能夠被瓦解破滅。但是事實上,情況並不是這樣。雖然父母的理想意象能夠被釋放,從投射的狀態,並且從外在的世界撤退,它們繼續保留它們原來的新鮮感,就像童年早期被獲得的其他一切東西。隨著投射到撤退,它們倒退進入個人的心靈。的確,它們主要是從那裏開始。

Fall back into—倒退

213
Before we go into the question of what happens when the parental imagos are no longer projected, let us turn to another question: Is this problem, which has been brought to light by modern psychotherapy, a new one in the sense that it was unknown
to earlier ages which possessed no scientific psychology as we understand it? How did this problem present itself in the past?

在我們探討這個問題之前,當父母的理想意象不再被投射時,會發生什麼事?讓我們轉向另外一個問題:現代心理治療啟明的這個難題,是一個新的難題嗎?因為在早期沒有擁有我們所瞭解的科學的心理學的時代,這個難題並不為人所知。在以前,這個難題如何呈現它自己?

214
In so far as earlier ages had in fact no knowledge of psychotherapy in our sense of the word, we cannot possibly expect to find in history any formulations similar to our own. But since the transformation of child into parent has been going on everywhere from time immemorial and, with the increase of consciousness, was also experienced subjectively as a difficult process, we must conjecture the existence of various general
psychotherapeutic systems which enabled man to accomplish the difficult transition-stages.

事實上,以前的時代並沒有擁有心理治療的知識。就這個字詞的意義而言,我們不可能期望在歷史上找到任何構想,類似我們的構想。但是從小孩成為父母親的這個轉變,從遠古以來,到處都在進行。隨著意識到增加,它也主觀性地被經驗,作為一個困難的過程。我們必須推測各式各樣的一般心理治療系統的存在。因為它們的存在,人們才能夠完成這個困難的轉變階段。

214b
And we do find, even at the most primitive level, certain drastic measures at all those moments in life when psychic transitions have to be effected. The most important
of these are the initiations at puberty and the rites pertaining to marriage, birth, and death. All these ceremonies, which in primitive cultures still free from foreign influence are observed with the utmost care and exactitude, are probably designed in the first place to avert the psychic injuries liable to occur at such times; but they are also intended to impart to the initiand the preparation and teaching needed for life.

即使在最原始的層次,我們確實發現到某些激烈的措施,在人生的那些時刻,當心靈的轉移必須被形成。最重要的是,青春期的成年禮,及婚姻,誕生,及死亡的適當儀式。所有這些典禮,在原始的文化裏,依舊可以免除外來的影響,它們受到仔細而精確地觀察。它們當初的設計,可能是要轉移在這些時刻容易遭受的心靈的傷害,但是它們也被用來傳授給剛要進入社會者,人生所需的準備及教導。

The existence and prosperity of a primitive tribe are absolutely bound up with the scrupulous and traditional performance of the ceremonies. Wherever these customs fall into disuse through the influence of the white man, authentic tribal life ceases; the
tribe loses its soul and disintegrates. Opinion is very much divided about the influence of Christian missionaries in this respect; what I myself saw in Africa led me to take an extremely pessimistic view.

原始部落的存在及興盛,跟這些典禮的慎重其事及傳統的表現,絕對是息息相關。有些地方,由於白人的影響,這些風俗習慣已經廢棄不用,真誠的部落生活已經不再存在,部落失去它的靈魂而瓦解。關於基督教傳教士在這一方面的影響,意見非常分歧。我自己在非洲的見聞,讓我採取極度悲觀的觀點。

215
On a higher and more civilized level the same work is performed by the great religions. There are the christening, confirmation, marriage, and funeral ceremonies which, as is well known, are much closer to their origins, more living and complete,
in Catholic ritual than in Protestantism. Here too we see how the father-mother world of the child is superseded by a wealth of analogical symbols: a patriarchal order receives the adult into a new filial relationship through spiritual generation
and rebirth. The pope as pater patrum and the ecclesia mater are the parents of a family that embraces the whole of Christendom, except such parts of it as protest.

在較高及較文明的層次,相同的工作則是由偉大的宗教來執行。眾所周知的,入教會儀式,堅信禮,婚禮,及葬禮非常靠近它們的起源處,在天主教的儀式,比起在基督教的儀式,更加生動完整。在此,我們看到,小孩的父母親的世界,已經由大量的類似的符號象徵所取代。憑藉著精神的誕生與重生,父權的秩序接納成年,進入一個新的父母子女的關係。教皇作為「天主教教父」,而「羅馬天主教堂」則是家庭的父母親,接納整體基督教,除了基督教作為抗議天主教的那些部分。

A wealth of – a large amount of 許多
Generation–A coming into being 誕生
Supersede—take the place of 取代
pater partum天主教教父
ecclesia mater羅馬天主教堂
Christendom 整體基督教 The collective body of Christians throughout the world and history (found predominantly in Europe and the Americas and Australia) 全世界及有史以來的整體基督教,這個名詞在歐洲,美洲及澳洲,非常盛行使用。

215b
Had the parental images been destroyed in the course of development and thus been
rendered ineffective, an order of this kind would have lost not only its raison d’etre but the very possibility of its existence. As it is, however, a place is found for the ever-active parental imagos as well as for that ineradicable feeling of being a
child, a feeling which finds meaning and shelter in the bosom of the Church. In addition, a number of other ecclesiastical institutions provide for the steady growth and constant renewal of the bond. Among them I would mention in particular the mass and the confessional. The Communion is, in the proper sense of the word, the family table at which the members foregather and partake of the meal in the presence of God, following a sacred custom that goes far back into pre-Christian times.

假如在個體化發展過程,父母的理想意象當時被毀滅,因此無法發揮功用,這種秩序本來不但會失去它存在的合理性,而且會失去它存在的可能性。可是,事實上,有個位置被找到,代替這個永遠活躍的父母的理想意象,以及代替那個無法抹除的純真小孩的感覺。這種感覺在教會的接納裏尋找到意義及庇護。除外,許多其他的教會的機構也提供這樣的契合,一種穩定的成長及不斷的更新。其中,我特別要提到彌撒及告解儀式。領聖餐禮,顧名思義,就是家庭的餐桌。在上帝的面前,家庭成員聚會在一起,共同進食,遵照著神聖的習俗。這個習俗可遠溯到基督教以前的時期。

In the course of development—in the course of individuation development
個體化發展過程
raison d’etre—證實一件東西存在的理由The purpose that justifies a thing’s existence
as it is –in fact 事實上
bosom—親密情感及保護地接納A close affectionate and protective acceptance

Had the parental images been destroyed in the course of development and thus been
rendered ineffective, an order of this kind would have lost not only its raison d’etre but the very possibility of its existence.
= If the parental images had been destroyed in the course of development and thus been rendered ineffective, an order of this kind would have lost not only its raison d’etre but the very possibility of its existence.

假如在個體化發展過程,父母的理想意象當時被毀滅,因此無法發揮功用,這種秩序本來不但會失去它存在的合理性,而且會失去它存在的可能性。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

在較高及較文明的層次,相同的工作則是由偉大的宗教來執行。眾所周知的,入教會儀式,堅信禮,婚禮,及葬禮非常靠近它們的起源處,在天主教的儀式,比起在基督教的儀式,更加生動完整。在此,我們看到,小孩的父母親的世界,已經由大量的類似的符號象徵所取代。憑藉著精神的誕生與重生,父權的秩序接納成年,進入一個新的父母子女的關係。教皇作為「天主教教父」,而「羅馬天主教堂」則是家庭的父母親,接納整體基督教,除了基督教作為抗議天主教的那些部分。

A wealth of – a large amount of 許多
Generation–A coming into being 誕生
Supersede—take the place of 取代
pater partum天主教教父
ecclesia mater羅馬天主教堂
Christendom 整體基督教 The collective body of Christians throughout the world and history (found predominantly in Europe and the Americas and Australia) 全世界及有史以來的整體基督教,這個名詞在歐洲,美洲及澳洲,非常盛行使用。

215b
Had the parental images been destroyed in the course of development and thus been
rendered ineffective, an order of this kind would have lost not only its raison d’etre but the very possibility of its existence. As it is, however, a place is found for the ever-active parental imagos as well as for that ineradicable feeling of being a
child, a feeling which finds meaning and shelter in the bosom of the Church. In addition, a number of other ecclesiastical institutions provide for the steady growth and constant renewal of the bond. Among them I would mention in particular the mass and the confessional. The Communion is, in the proper sense of the word, the family table at which the members foregather and partake of the meal in the presence of God, following a sacred custom that goes far back into pre-Christian times.

假如在個體化發展過程,父母的理想意象當時被毀滅,因此無法發揮功用,這種秩序本來不但會失去它存在的合理性,而且會失去它存在的可能性。可是,事實上,有個位置被找到,代替這個永遠活躍的父母的理想意象,以及代替那個無法抹除的純真小孩的感覺。這種感覺在教會的接納裏尋找到意義及庇護。除外,許多其他的教會的機構也提供這樣的契合,一種穩定的成長及不斷的更新。其中,我特別要提到彌撒及告解儀式。領聖餐禮,顧名思義,就是家庭的餐桌。在上帝的面前,家庭成員聚會在一起,共同進食,遵照著神聖的習俗。這個習俗可遠溯到基督教以前的時期。

In the course of development—in the course of individuation development
個體化發展過程
raison d’etre—證實一件東西存在的理由The purpose that justifies a thing’s existence
as it is –in fact 事實上
bosom—親密情感及保護地接納A close affectionate and protective acceptance

Had the parental images been destroyed in the course of development and thus been
rendered ineffective, an order of this kind would have lost not only its raison d’etre but the very possibility of its existence.
= If the parental images had been destroyed in the course of development and thus been rendered ineffective, an order of this kind would have lost not only its raison d’etre but the very possibility of its existence.

假如在個體化發展過程,父母的理想意象當時被毀滅,因此無法發揮功用,這種秩序本來不但會失去它存在的合理性,而且會失去它存在的可能性。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

心理治療今日觀94

April 28, 2011

VIII
PSYCHOTHERAPY TODAY 1
心理治療今日觀94

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

212
It would be a rewarding task to examine in some detail the relationship between psychotherapy and the state of mind in Europe today. Yet probably no one would be blamed for shrinking from so bold a venture, for who could guarantee that the
picture he has formed of the present psychological and spiritual plight of Europe is true to reality? Are we, as contemporaries of and participants in these cataclysmic events, at all capable of cool judgment and of seeing clearly amid the indescribable
political and ideological chaos of present-day Europe?

假如我們能夠詳細檢視,心理治療與今天歐洲的精神狀態的關係,那將是一件很有價值的工作。可是,對於如此大膽的妄舉,假如人人望而卻步,也沒有什麼好責怪。因為有誰能夠保證:他對於歐洲當代心理及精神的困境,所構想的畫面是跟現實界相吻合?作為這些滔天钜變事件的當代人及參與者,我們真的能夠冷靜地持平而論?並且在目前歐洲無法描述的政治與意識形態的混亂當中,能清楚地洞見真相?,

212b
Or should we perhaps do better to narrow the field of psychotherapy and restrict our science to a modest specialists’ corner, remaining indifferent to the ruin of half the world? I fear that such a course, in spite of its commendable modesty, would ill accord with the nature of psychotherapy, which is after all the “treatment of the soul.”

或者,我們最好縮小心理治療的範圍,將我們這門科學限制在作為專家謙虛的角落,然後對於一大半世界的淪為廢墟,保持漠不關心?我恐怕這樣一種態度,儘管它的謙虛是值得讚賞,跟心理治療的特性卻是格格不入。畢竟,心理治療就是「靈魂的治療」?

212c
Indeed, the concept of psychotherapy, however one may choose to interpret it, carries with it very great pretensions: for the soul is the birth-place of all action and hence of everything that happens by the will of man. It would be difficult, if not impossible, to carve out an arbitrarily limited segment of the infinitely vast realm of the psyche and call that the secluded theatre of psychotherapy.

的確,心理治療的觀念,無論我們選擇用什麼方式解釋它,它總是帶著強烈的偽裝:因為靈魂是一切行動的出生地,因此也是憑藉人類意志而發生的一切事情的出生地。要將心靈無限廣大的領域,執行任意的限制的區隔,然後稱呼那個區隔,就是心理治療的獨立劇場,這種做法即使並非不可能,也是困難重重。

212d
Medicine, it is true, has found itself obliged to mark off a specific field, that of the neuroses and psychoses, and this is both convenient and feasible for the practical purpose of treatment. But the artificial restriction must be broken down immediately psychotherapy understands its problems not simply as those of a technique but as those of a science. Science qua science has no boundaries, and there is no speciality whatever that can boast of complete self sufficiency.

的確,醫學發現自己不得不標示分開一個明確的領域,神經症與精神變態症的領域。作為治療的實用目的,這是既方便又可行。但是人為的限制必須立刻被打破,因為心理治療瞭解它的難題,不僅作為技術的難題,而且作為科學的難題。作為科學的本體是沒有界限的,根本就沒有什們專門的領域,能夠自炫完整地自給自足。

Mark off—標示分開separatesomething

212e
Any speciality is bound to spill over its borders and to encroach on adjoining territory if it is to lay serious claim to the status of a science. Even so highly specialized a technique as Freudian psychoanalysis was unable, at the very outset, to avoid
poaching on other, and sometimes exceedingly remote, scientific preserves. It is, in fact, impossible to treat the psyche, and human personality in general, sectionally. In all psychic disturbances it is becoming clear perhaps even more so than in the
case of physical illnesses that the psyche is a whole in which everything hangs together.

任何的專業一定會溢出它自己的邊界,並且侵犯到鄰近的領土,假如它想要認真地宣稱,它具有科學的地位。剛開始時,即使像佛洛伊德的精神分析學如此專業的一門技術,它也無法避免會侵犯其他科學的保留區,有時,那些保留區異常遙遠。事實上,我們不可能用區隔的方式,對待心靈及一般性的人類的人格。在所有的心靈的疾病裏,這件事變得很清楚,甚至比生理上的疾病的案例更加清楚。心靈是一個整體,每一樣東西都在心靈裏依附在一起。

212f
When the patient comes to us with a neurosis, he does not bring a part but the whole of his psyche and with it the fragment of world on which that psyche depends, and without which it can never be properly understood. Psychotherapy is therefore less able than any other specialized department of science to take refuge in the sanctuary
of a speciality which has no further connection with the world at large. Try as we may to concentrate on the most personal of personal problems, our therapy nevertheless stands or falls with the question: What sort of world does our patient come from and to what sort of world has he to adapt himself?

當病人帶著神經症來跟我們求診,他不是帶來一部份,而是帶來他整個心靈。隨著這整個心靈,是那個心靈依靠的世界的碎片。假如沒有那個世界,心靈永遠無法適當地被瞭解。因此,比起其他專業的科學科系,心理分析比較不能夠躲避到專業的庇護所。這種專業跟一般的世界,沒有更進一步的關聯。無論我們如何設法,專注於個人難題中最隱私的部分,可是我們的治療會隨著這個問題成立或是崩解:我們的病人來自怎樣的世界?他必須適應怎樣的世界?

212g
The world is a supra-personal fact to which an essentially personalistic psychology can never do justice. Such a psychology only penetrates to the personal element in man. But in so far as he is also a part of the world, he carries the world in himself,
that is, something at once impersonal and supra-personal. It includes his entire physical and psychic basis, so far as this” is given from the start.

這世界是一個超越個人之上的事實,一個基本上是純個人的心理學,對於這樣的
超越個人之上的事實,無法充分處理。這樣一種心理學僅能探究個人身上的因素。但是就人是世界的一部分而言,他身上背負著這個世界。換句話說,它是某件既是客觀,又是超越個人的東西。它包括他的整個生理及心靈的基礎,這是從一開始,就已經安置的。

212h
Undoubtedly the personalities of father and mother form the first and apparently the only world of man as an infant; and, if they continue to do so for too long, he is on the surest road to neurosis, because the great world he will have to enter as a whole person is no longer a world of fathers and mothers, but a supra-personal fact. The child first begins to wean itself from the childhood relation to father and mother through its relation to its brothers and sisters.

無可置疑的,在嬰兒時期,形成人的最初及顯而易見的唯一世界,是父母的人格。假如父母的人格繼續長久充當這個世界,他確實會形成神經症的征狀。因為作為一個整體的人,他將進入的這個大的世界,不再是屬於父母的世界,而是超越個人的事實。小孩首先透過跟兄弟姐妹的關係,開始跟童年的父母的關係切斷連繫,

212i
The elder brother is no longer the true father and the elder sister no longer the true mother. Later, husband and wife are originally strangers to one another and come from different families with a different history and often a different social background. When children come, they complete the process by forcing the parents into the role of father and mother, which the parents, in accordance with their infantile attitude, formerly saw only in others, thereby trying to secure for themselves all the advantages of the childhood role.

大哥不再是真實的父親,大姐不再是真實的母親。後來,丈夫與妻子原先互相是陌生人,來自不同的家庭,擁有不同的歷史及往往是不同的社會背景。當小孩來臨時,他們完成這個過程,強迫父母親扮演父親與母親的角色。而父母依照他們自己嬰孩時期的態度,以前只是在別人身上看到的,因此設法替他們獲得自己在童年扮演的角色的一切利益。

212j
Every more or less normal life runs this enantiodromian course and compels a change of attitude from the extreme of the child to the other extreme of the parent. The change requires the recognition of objective facts and values which a child can
dismiss from his mind. School, however, inexorably instils into him the idea of objective time, of duty and the fulfilment of duty, of outside authority, no matter whether he likes or loathes the school and his teacher.

每一位元稍微正常的人生都會順著這個「平衡原則」運作,並且強迫態度的改變,從小孩的極端到父母的另外一個極端。這種改變要求承認客觀的事實跟價值。這是小孩能夠從他的心理排除掉的。可是,學校毫不寬容地灌輸給他客觀時間,責任,及履行責任,外在權威等觀念,無論他喜歡或是討厭學校及老師與否。

雄伯注釋:

何謂「平衡原則」Enantiodromian?

Enantiodromia is a principle introduced by psychiatrist Carl Jung that the superabundance of any force inevitably produces its opposite. It is equivalent to the principle of equilibrium in the natural world, in that any extreme is opposed by the system in order to restore balance.

「平衡原則」是精神分析師卡爾、榮格介紹的一個原則:任何力量的過分充溢,無可避免會產生它的相反。它相當等於是自然世界的「平衡原則」,任何的極端都會被系統抵制,為了要恢復平衡。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

醫學與心理治療92

April 27, 2011

VII
MEDICINE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY
醫學與心理治療92

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

207
Mythologems are the aforementioned “portions of the world” which belong to the structural elements of the psyche. They are constants whose expression is everywhere and at all times the same.

神話主題是以上提到的「世界的宿命」,屬於心靈的結構的因素。它們是一些常數,這些常數的表達無論何處何時都一樣。

雄伯注釋:

Mythologem—a basic theme, as of revenge, self-sacrifice, or betrayal, that is shared by cultures throughout the world.

神話主題,一種基本的主題,諸如報復,自我犧牲,背叛,受到全世界各文化所分享。

Portion 宿命Your overall circumstances or condition in life (including everything that happens to you) 你人生的全面情境或情況(包括發生在你身上的一切)

Constant –常數A number representing a quantity assumed to have a fixed value in a specified mathematical context

208
You may ask in some consternation: What has all this to do with psychotherapy? That neuroses are somehow connected with instinctual disturbances is not surprising. But, as biology shows, instincts are by no means blind, spontaneous, isolated impulses; they are on the contrary associated with typical situational patterns and cannot be released unless existing conditions correspond to the a priori pattern. The collective contents expressed in mythologems represent such situational patterns, which are so intimately connected with the release of instinct. For this reason knowledge of them is of the highest practical importance to the psychotherapist.
你們可能會驚駭莫名地問:這跟心理治療有什麼關係?為了某種原因,神經症跟本能受到困擾的疾病息息相關,這是不足為奇的。但是依照生物學所顯示,本能一點兒也不是盲瞎,自動自發,孤立的人性衝動。相反的,它們跟典型的情境的模式有些關聯。除非現存的情況跟先驗的模式互相吻合,本能無法被釋放出來。從神話主題所被表達出來的集體的內容,代表如此情境的模式。這些模式跟本能的釋放息息相關。因為這個理由,對於本能的瞭解對於心理治療師而言,是具有至上的實用重要性。

Consternation—驚駭Fear resulting from the awareness of danger

The collective contents expressed in mythologems represent such situational patterns,
=The collective contents which are expressed in mythologems represent such situational patterns,
從神話主題所被表達出來的集體的內容,代表如此情境的模式。

209
Clearly, the investigation of these patterns and their properties must lead us into fields that seem to lie infinitely far from medicine. That is the fate of empirical psychology, and its misfortune: to fall between all the academic stools. And this comes precisely from the fact that the human psyche has a share in all the sciences, because it forms at least half the ground necessary for the existence of them all.

顯而易見的,對於這些模式及其屬性的研究,一定會引導我們進入無限偏離醫學的這些領域。那就是實驗心理學的命運及其不幸:處於各科學術之間,猶豫不決,兩頭落空。這確實是因為這個事實:人的心靈分佈於各門科學裏,因為各門科學需要的基礎,心靈至少佔據一半。

Fall between stools—處於兩個機會之間,猶豫不決,兩頭落空to make a complete failure by hesitating between two opportunities or trying to use both

210
It should be clear from the foregoing discussion that everything psychotherapy has in common with symptomatology clinically understood i.e., with the medical picture is, I will not say irrelevant, but of secondary importance in so far as the medical picture of disease is a provisional one. The real and important thing is the psychological picture, which can only be discovered in the course of treatment behind the veil of pathological symptoms.

從前面所述的討論,應該是顯而易見的,心理治療學跟臨床所瞭解的病徵學,也就是醫學的實際場景,它們具有共通之處。不過,這些共同之處,我估且不說是不相關,僅是處於此要地位,因為疾病在醫學的場景是一個暫時的場景。真正重要的事情,是心理的場景。只有隱藏在病理病徵的遮蔽之後的治療的過程,這些心理場景才會被發現出來。

Provisional—for the time being, temporary 暫時的

210b
In order to get closer to the sphere of the psyche, the ideas derived from the sphere of medicine are not enough. But, to the extent that psychotherapy, considered as part of the healing art, should never, for many cogent reasons, slip out of the doctor’s control and should therefore be taught in medical faculties, it is forced to borrow from the other sciences– which is what other medical disciplines have been doing for a long time. Yet whereas medicine in general can limit its borrowings to the natural sciences, psychotherapy needs the help of the humane sciences as well.

為了更加靠近心靈的領域,光是從醫學的領域獲得來的觀念是不足夠的。但是,心理治療被認為作為治療技術的一部份,因為許多令人信服的理由,它永遠不應該脫離醫生的掌控。因此在醫學的機構,心理治療應該被教導。它被迫向其他科學借用。長久以來,其他醫學部門一直在做的的,就是從其他科學借用心理治療。可是,雖然一般的醫學能夠限制它向自然科學的借用,心理治療也需要人文科學的幫忙。

211
In order to complete my account of the differences between medicine and psychotherapy, I ought really to describe the phenomenology of those psychic processes which manifest themselves in the course of treatment and do not have their
counterpart in medicine. But such an undertaking would exceed the compass of my lecture, and I must therefore refrain. I trust, however, that the little I have been privileged to say has thrown some light on the relations between psychotherapy
and the medical art.

為了結束我的描述,關於醫學與心理治療之間的差異,我真的應該描述那些心理過程的現象學。在治療的過程,這些過程展現它們自己,並且沒有它們在醫學的類似過程。但是從事這樣的描述,將會超過我的演講的範圍,因此我必須自我節制。可是,我相信,我擁有資格談論的這一些,對於心理治療與醫學技術之間的關係,已經有所澄清。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

醫學與心理治療90

April 27, 2011

VII
MEDICINE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY
醫學與心理治療90

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

204
But, in order to get a real understanding of this, we must very considerably broaden our conventional conception of the psyche. Our original identification of psyche with the conscious mind does not stand the test of empirical criticism. The medical
philosopher C. G. Carus had a clear inkling of this and was the first to set forth an explicit philosophy of the unconscious.

但是為了真正瞭解這一點,我們必須相當幅度擴寬我們傳統對於心靈的觀念。我們原先將心靈認同於意識的精神,經不起實驗性批判的考驗。醫學哲學家,凱魯斯,清楚地懷疑到這一點,是第一位宣佈一個明確的無意識的哲學。

He was the first to set forth an explicit philosophy of the unconscious.
=He was the first that set forth an explicit philosophy of the unconscious.
他是第一位宣佈一個明確的無意識的哲學。

The medical philosopher C. G. Carus had a clear inkling of this
= The medical philosopher C. G. Carus suspected this clearly
醫學哲學家,凱魯斯,清楚地懷疑到這一點

204b
Today he would undoubtedly have been a psychotherapist. But in those days the psyche was still the anxiously guarded possession of philosophy and therefore could not be discussed within the framework of medicine, although the physicians of
the Romantic Age tried all sorts of unorthodox experiments in this respect. I am thinking chiefly of Justinus Kerner.

假如處在今天,他本來無可置疑地會是一位心理治療師。但是在當時,心靈依舊哲學焦慮捍衛所有物,因此無法被放置醫學的架構裏被討論。雖然浪漫時代的醫生,在這一方面,曾經嘗試各種的非正規的試驗。我現在想到的,主要是嘉丁那斯、科拿。

Today he would undoubtedly have been a psychotherapist.
= If he had been born today, he would undoubtedly have been a psychotherapist.
假如處在今天,他本來無可置疑地會是一位心理治療師。

204c
It was reserved for the recent past to fill in the gaps in the conscious processes with hypothetical unconscious ones. The existence of an unconscious psyche is as likely, shall we say, as the existence of an as yet undiscovered planet, whose presence is inferred from the deviations of some known planetary orbit. Unfortunately we lack the aid of the telescope that would make certain of its existence. But once the idea of the unconscious was introduced, the concept of the psyche could be expanded to
the formula “psyche = ego-consciousness +unconscious.”

心靈一直被保留到最近,才以假設性的無意識心靈,填補意識過程的這個鴻溝。我們不妨這樣說,無意識心靈,跟迄今尚有未被發現的行星,同樣有可能存在。未被發現的行星的存在,是根據某些已知的行星的軌道的偏離來推測。不幸地,我們欠缺望遠鏡的幫助,可以確定它的存在。但是一旦無意識的觀念被介紹,心靈的觀念會被擴大成為這個公式「心靈等於意識自我加無意識」。

205
The unconscious was understood personalistically at first that is to say, its contents were thought to come exclusively from the sphere of ego-consciousness and to have become unconscious only secondarily, through repression. Freud later admitted
the existence of archaic vestiges in the unconscious, but thought they had more or less the significance of anatomical atavisms. Consequently we were still far from an adequate conception of the unconscious.

無意識起初由個別的人分別地瞭解。換句話說,它的內涵被認為完全來自自我意識的領域。只有間接地由於被壓抑,它才會成為是無意識。佛洛伊德後來承認,在無意識裏這個過時的殘餘物的存在。但是又認為這些殘餘物具有解剖的「早期特徵重現」的重要性。結果,我們距離無意識的合適觀念,依舊遙不可及。

Atavism—早期特徵重現A reappearance of an earlier characteristic

205b
Certain things had yet to be discovered, although actually they lay ready to hand: above all the fact that in every child consciousness grows out of the unconscious in the course of a few years, also that consciousness is always only a temporary state based on an optimum physiological performance and therefore regularly interrupted by phases of unconsciousness (sleep), and finally that the unconscious psyche not only possesses the longer lease of life but is continuously present. From this arises the important conclusion that the real and authentic psyche is the unconscious, whereas the ego-consciousness can be regarded only as a temporary epiphenomenon.

某些東西還沒有被發現,雖然實際上,它們隨手可獲得。尤其是這個事實,就每個小孩而言,意識是在幾年的時間內,從無意識成長出來。而且,意識總是一種暫時的狀態,以最理想的生理上的表現為基礎。因此意識經常會被無意識的部分(例如睡眠期間)所中斷。最後,無意識心靈不但擁有較長的人生期限,而且繼續存在那裏。從這裏,我們產生這個重要的結論:真實坦誠的心靈是在無意識那裏。而自我意識會被認為僅是暫時的附帶現象。

Ready to hand—隨手可獲的in one’s possession or within reach
Lease—租賃期The period of time during which a contract conveying property to a person is in effect
epiphenomenon.— 附帶現象A secondary phenomenon that is a by-product of another phenomenon

206
In ancient times the psyche was conceived as a microcosm, and this was one of the characteristics attributed to the psychophysical man. To attribute such a characteristic to the ego-consciousness would be boundlessly to overestimate the latter. But with the unconscious it is quite different. This, by definition and in fact, cannot be circumscribed. It must therefore be counted as something boundless: infinite or infinitesimal.

在古代,心靈被構想為一個小宇宙。這就是被歸屬給心理物理學的人其中一個特性。歸屬這樣一種特性給自我意識,等於是無限地高估後者。但是隨著無意識的浮現,情況完全改觀。根據定義及事實,無意識都無法這樣被畫定界限。無意識因此必須被認為是某件沒有界限的東西:偉大至無限,或是渺小至無窮。

psychophysical —心理物理學The branch of psychology concerned with quantitative relations between physical stimuli and their psychological effects 心理學的分科,關注到生理上的刺激與其心理上的影響之間的數量關係。

206b
Whether it may legitimately be called a microcosm depends simply and solely on whether certain portions of the world beyond individual experience can be shown to exist in the unconscious certain constants which are not individually acquired
but are a priori presences. The theory of instinct and the findings of biology in connection with the symbiotic relationship between plant and insect have long made us familiar with these things. But when it comes to the psyche one is immediately
seized with the fear of having to do with “inherited ideas’

心靈被稱為是小宇宙,合宜與否,僅僅就是依靠:超越個人經驗的世界的某些部分,是否能夠被顯示存在於無意識的某些常數裏。這些常數並不是個別被獲得,而是先驗地存在。本能的理論與生物的發現,關於植物與昆蟲之間的共生關係,長久以來,使我們熟悉這些事情。但是當我們提到心靈時,我們馬上充滿恐懼,因為必須跟「遺傳的觀念」有關。

何謂「先驗的存在」priori presence?
A priori is Latin for “from the former” or “from before”, and may refer to: A priori knowledge, justification or arguments
「先驗」一詞是拉丁字,意思是「從前者」或「從前面」,可能提到「先驗的知識,理由或論點。」

206d

We are not dealing with anything of the sort; it is more a question of a priori or prenatally determined modes of behaviour and function. It is to be conjectured that just as the chicken comes out of the egg in the same way all the world over, so there are psychic modes of functioning, certain ways of thinking, feeling, and imagining, which can be found everywhere and at all times, quite independent of tradition. A general proof of the rightness of this expectation lies in the ubiquitous occurrence of parallel mythologems, Bastian’s “folk-thoughts” or primordial ideas; and a special proof is the autochthonous reproduction of such ideas in the psyche of individuals where direct transmission is out of the question. The empirical material found in such cases consists of dreams, fantasies, delusions, etc.

我們並不是在處理諸如其類的事情。重要的問題是在先驗,或是出生之前就已經決定的行為及功用模式。我們能夠推測的是:正如全世界的小雞,都同樣是從蛋卵裏出來一樣,心靈的功用模式,某些的思想,感情,及想像,無論何處,無論何時,完全獨立于傳統之外,都能夠被發現,這也是普世皆准。這種期望是否允當,一般的證據在於類比的神話,到處發生,例如,巴斯汀的「民俗思想」,或原初觀念。一個特別的證據是:諸如其類的觀念,在個人的心靈裏,各別就地複製,而在個人的心靈那裏,彼此直接的傳遞是不可能的。在這些個案裏,被找到的這些實驗性的材料,組成的內容包括夢, 幻見,幻覺等等。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

醫學與心理治療88

April 26, 2011

VII
MEDICINE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY
醫學與心理治療88

Carl Jung
卡爾 榮格

199
Psychotherapy can be practised in a great variety of ways, from psychoanalysis, or something of that kind, to hypnotism, and so on right down to cataplasms of honey and possets of bat’s dung. Successes can be obtained with them all. So at least it
appears on a superficial view. On closer inspection, however, one realizes that the seemingly absurd remedy was exactly the right thing, not for this particular neurosis, but for this particular human being, whereas in another case it would have been
the worst thing possible.

心理治療的實踐方式,可說是各式各樣,從精神分析,諸如其類的東西,到催眠術,等等。一直到蜂蜜的泥氨劑與蝙蝠的糞便。各式各樣都有其療效之處。至少,從外表的觀點來看。可是,當我們更仔細的檢視之後,我們體會到,表面看來是荒謬的療法,確實是正確的,倒不是對於這個特別的神經症患者,而是就這個特別的人而言。但是假如這個療法被運用到另外一個個案,那本來會是糟糕到極點。

cataplasms of honey 蜂蜜的泥氨劑
possets of bat’s dung. 蝙蝠的糞便

in another case it would have been the worst thing possible.
= If this remedy had been used in another case, it would have been the worst thing possible.
假如這個療法被運用到另外一個個案,那本來會是糟糕到極點。

199b

Medicine too is doubtless aware that sick people exist as well as sicknesses; but psychotherapy knows first and foremost –or rather should know –that its proper concern is not the fiction of a neurosis but the distorted totality of the human being. True, it too has tried to treat neurosis like an ulcus cruris, where it matters not a jot for the treatment whether the patient was the apple of her father’s eye or whether she is a Catholic, a Baptist, or what not; whether the man she married be old or young, and all the rest of it. Psychotherapy began by attacking the symptom, just as medicine did.

無可置疑的,醫學界也知道,求診的不僅是疾病,而且是病人本身。但是心理治療尤其知道,或說得更精確些,應該知道:它的適當的關注點,並不是神經症患者的虛構想像,而是作為人的整體受到扭曲。的確,它也曾經設法治療神經症患者,就像是治療慢性靜脈腫瘤潰瘍。治療慢性靜脈腫瘤潰瘍時,病人是否是父親眼中的寶貝女兒,或是天主教徒,浸信教會教徒,等等,她嫁的丈夫年老或是年輕,等等,這些都絲毫無關緊要。心理治療首先開始就是處理病徵,如同醫學界的做法一樣。

Ulcus Cruris is an ulceration of the lower leg that is caused by chronic venous .
慢性靜脈腫瘤引起的腳下肢潰瘍
Not a jot – 絲毫沒有 not at all ( used to mean “ not even a small amount” when are emphasizing a negative statement.

199c
Despite its undeniable youthfulness as a scientifically avowable method, it is yet as old as the healing art itself and, consciously or otherwise, has always remained mistress of at least half the medical field. Certainly its real advances were made only in the last half century when, on account of the specialization needed, it withdrew to the narrower field of the psychoneuroses. But here it recognized relatively quickly that to attack symptoms or, as it is now called, symptom analysis was only half the story, and that the real point is the treatment of the whole psychic, human being.

儘管無可否認的,心理治療剛出道不久,作為自承是科學的療法。可是,作為治療技藝的本身,它卻有悠久的歷史。無論人們意識到,或是沒有,至少有一半的醫學領域,總是以它充當輔助。的確,在過去半世紀來,它才真正的突飛猛進。因為醫院診療分科的需要,它被歸類到神經官能症這個狹窄的領域。但是,它相對快速地體認到:處理病徵,也就是現在所謂的「病徵分析」,只是治療的半途,真正的重點是:它治療的人的心靈要完整。

200
What does this mean: the whole psychic human being?
人的心靈要完整,這句話是什麼意思?

201
Medicine in general has to deal, in the first place, with man as an anatomical and physiological phenomenon, and only to a lesser degree with the human being psychically defined. But this precisely is the subject of psychotherapy. When
we direct our attention to the psyche from the viewpoint of the natural sciences, it appears as one biological factor among many others. In man this factor is usually identified with the conscious mind, as has mostly been done up to now by the so-called humane sciences as well.

一般的醫學首先必須處理的是將人視為解剖及生理的現象,被視為心靈定義的人,被處理的僅是較少數。但是心靈確實是心理治療的主體。當我們將我們的注意力,從自然科學的觀點,轉移到心靈,在諸多因素當中,心靈出現作為一個生物的因素。在人身上,這個因素通常認同於意識的精神,直到現在,這個意識的精神也是所謂的人文科學研究的客體。

201b
I subscribe entirely to the biological view that the psyche is one such factor, but at the same time I am given to reflect that the psyche in this case, consciousness occupies
an exceptional position among all these biological factors. For without consciousness it would never have become known that there is such a thing as a world, and without the psyche there would be absolutely no possibility of knowledge, since the object must go through a complicated physiological and psychic process of change in order to become a psychic image. This image alone is the immediate object of knowledge. The existence of the world has two conditions: it to exist, and us to know it.

我完全接納這種生物的觀點:心靈是這樣一個因素。但是同時我常常會反思:處於這種情況的心靈,意識佔據所有這些生物的因素中,一個特殊的地位。假如沒有意識,我們本來永遠不會知道:世界這樣一個東西的存在。假如沒有心靈,我們絕對不可能產生知識。因為客體必須經歷一個複雜的生理及心靈的改變過程,才能成為一個心靈的意象。光是這個意象,就已經是知識當下的客體。世界的存在有兩個條件:一是它本身存在;二是我們認識它。

Subscribe to 接納作為信仰Adopt as a belief
Be given to—往往to do something often or regularly

202
Now, whether the psyche is understood as an epiphenomenon of the living body, or as an ens per se, makes little difference to psychology, in so far as the psyche knows itself to exist and behaves as such an existent, having its own phenomenology
which can be replaced by no other. Thereby it proves itself to be a biological factor that can be described phenomenologically like any other object of natural science.

現在,心靈是否被瞭解為具有生命的身體的附帶現象,或本身就是作為「物質」,就心理學而已,這並無關緊要。因為心靈知道自己的存在,並且作為這樣一種存在在運作。心靈有它自己的現象,這些現象無法被其他的現象所取代。因此,心靈證明自己是一種生物的因素,能夠從現象方面來描述,如同任何其他的自然科學的研究的物件。

Epiphenomenon 附帶現象
Ens per se—物質substance

202b
The beginnings of a phenomenology of the psyche lie in psychophysiology and experimental psychology on the one hand, and, on the other, in descriptions of diseases and the diagnostic methods of psychopathology (e.g., association experiments and Rorschach’s irrational ink-blots). But the most convincing evidence is to be found in every manifestation of psychic life, in the humane sciences,
religious and political views and movements, the arts, and so forth.

心靈現象學的開端,一方面,存在于心理物理學及實驗心理學;另一方面,存在於疾病的描述及心理病理學的預診療法(例如,字詞自由聯想試驗與羅夏克墨蹟測驗)。但是被找到的最令人信服的證據,在心靈生活的每一個展示裏,在人文科學裏,在宗教與政治的觀點及運動,藝文活動,等等地方。

203
The “whole psychic human being” we were asking about thus proves to be nothing less than a world, that is, a microcosm, as the ancients quite rightly thought, though for the wrong reasons. The psyche reflects, and knows, the whole of existence, and everything works in and through the psyche.

我們正在探尋的這個「完整心靈的人」,因此證明道道地地是一個世界。換句話說,一個小宇宙,如同古代人合宜的設想,雖然理由並不正確。心靈會反思,會知道整個的生命存在,萬物在心靈裏,並且憑藉心靈在運作。

雄伯收集參照資料:

墨跡測驗或稱為羅夏克墨漬測驗是人格測驗的投射技術之一,由瑞士精神醫生羅夏克(Rorschach)於1921年最先編製。

測驗由10張有墨漬的卡片組成,其中5張是白底黑墨水,2張是白底及黑色或紅色的墨水,另外3張則是彩色的。受試者會被要求回答他們最初認為卡片看起來像什麼及後來覺得像什麼。心理學家再根據他們的回答及統計數據判斷受試者的性格。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Desire 60 Jacques Lacan

April 26, 2011

Desire 60

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

THE SEMINAR OF JACQUES LACAN
BOOK VI
Desire and its Interpretation
欲望及其解釋

14.1.59 116
Seminar 8: 14 January 1959

Because we have spoken a lot on the last occasions about desire, we are going to begin to tackle the question of interpretation.

因為在上一次場合,有關欲望,我們談論過很多。我們將要開始克服解釋的問題。

The graph should be of some use to us. I want to introduce what I am going to say today about an example, namely about the interpretation of a dream, by some remarks on what results from the indications that Freud gives us precisely about the interpretation of dreams.

這個圖形應該是有些用途。我想要介紹今天我要談論的一個例子。也就是夢的解析。關於夢的解釋,確實是佛洛伊德給予我們的指示所造成的東西,我們要予以評論一下。

Here in fact is more or less the meaning of the remark of Freud that I am now concerned with. It is in chapter VI where he is interested in intellectual feelings about the dream. For example while the subject is reporting a dream, he has the feeling that there is something missing in it that he has forgotten, or that something is ambiguous, doubtful, uncertain.

事實上,我現在所關心的是,差不多是有關佛洛伊德的談話的意義。就在第六章,他對於知識份子對於夢的感覺感到興趣。例如,當生命主體報導一個夢時,他的感覺是:裏面有某件漏失的東西,他曾經忘記,或是有某件東西是曖昧,可疑及不確定。

In all these cases, Freud tells us, what is affirmed by the subject in connection with the dream, in terms of its uncertainty, its doubtfulness, its ambiguity: namely it is
either this or that, I no longer remember, I can no longer say, even its degree of reality, namely the degree of reality with which it was seen, whether it was something which is affirmed in the dream with such a degree of reality that the subject notices
it, or on the contrary that it was a ………. dream, all of this Freud tells us, in all these cases, should be taken as enunciating what Freud calls one of the latent thoughts of the dream.

在所有這些個案裏,佛洛伊德告訴我們,關於夢,生命主體所肯定的,以夢的不確定,夢的可疑,夢的曖昧性。換句話說,不是這個,就是那個,我不再記得,我不再能夠說,夢的真實程度,也就是真實界的程度,它所被看見的,無論是某件在夢裏被肯定的東西,擁有如此真實的程度,以致於生命主體注意到它。或者反過來說,那是、、、一場夢。佛洛伊德告訴我們的這一切,在所有的個案裏,應該被認為是在表達佛洛伊德所說的「夢的其中一個潛在思想」。

What in short is said by the subject in a marginal note about the text of the dream, namely all the accents about tonality, that which in music is accompanied by annotations like allegro, crescendo, decrescendo, all of this forms part of the text of the dream.

總之,關於夢的文本,在邊緣注釋的生命主體所說的話,換句話說,所有的強調關於音調。在音樂裏,這種被快板樂章,漸次增強,漸次減弱等注釋所陪伴。所有這些都是夢的文本的部份。

I do not think that for the greater number of you whom I suppose to have already got to know the Traumdeutung, and the technique, (2) that this is new. This is something really fundamental as regards the interpretation of a dream. Therefore I am only
reminding you of it because I do not have the time to give the examples which are in Freud, and I refer you to the text of the Traumdeutung♦ You will see the use that Freud makes of this essential reminder.

我認為,對於你們大多數人,我認為已經瞭解「夢的解析」及技巧,這不算是什麼新鮮東西。關於夢的解析,有某件真正是很基本的東西。因此,我只是提醒你們,因為我沒有時間給予佛洛伊德里的例子。我推薦你們參照「夢的解析」的文本。你們將會看出,佛洛伊德使用到這個基本的提醒語。

He interprets the dream by integrating the feeling of doubt for example that there is in this dream at the moment that the subject recounts it, as one of the elements of the dream without which the dream could not be interpreted.

例如,他用合併懷疑的感覺,來解釋這個夢。在這個夢裏,就在生命主體重新描述它的時刻,作為夢的因素之一。假如沒有這個因素,夢不可能被解釋。

We begin then from the Freudian interpretation, and we ask the question of what this involves by way of implications. It is not sufficient to accept this fact, or this rule of conduct, as having to be religiously accepted as many of Freud’s disciples did, without trying to see any further, putting their trust in the unconscious in some way. What does it imply that Freud should tell us: it is not only the tension of your unconscious
(sic) that is there at the moment that your memory of the dream disappears, or on the contrary is placed under a certain rubric given a certain accent?

然後,我們從佛洛伊德的解釋開始。我們問這個問題,憑藉著暗示,這會牽涉到什麼?光是接受這個事實,或是行為的這個規則是不足夠的。如同佛洛伊德的許多門徒所做的,它們必須在宗教方面被接受,而沒有更進一步探究,以某種方式信任這個無意識。在你的夢的記憶消失的時刻,你的無意識存在那裏的緊張,或是反過來說,被放置在某個架構之下,被給予強調的東西。佛洛伊德應該告訴我們的內容暗示著什麼?

He says: this forms part of the latent thoughts of the dream itself. It is here therefore that what we have agreed to call the graph allows us to specify, to articulate in a more evident, a more certain fashion what is in question when Freud gives us a rule of conduct like this for the interpretation of dreams.

他說:這形成夢的本身的潛在思想的部分。因此,就在這裏,我們都同意稱為欲望的圖形,可以讓我們明確地指出,以更加明確的方式,更加明顯地表達,所被置疑的東西,當佛洛伊德給予我們像這樣一套行為的準則,作為夢的解釋。

Here in effect is what we can say. What do we do when we (3) communicate a dream, whether this is done inside or outside analysis? (We did not have to wait for analysis in order to be able to give to the enunciating of a dream a formula which specifies it among the totality of possible enunciatings as having a certain structure with regard to the subject).

事實上,這就是我們能夠說的。當我們溝通一個夢時,無論是在精神分析裏面,或是外面從事,我們在做些什麼?(我們並不需要等待精神分析,我們才能夠給予夢的表達一個公式。這個公式明確地指明夢,作為可能的表達的整體性,因為關於生命主體,它具有某一個結構。)

Within what we can put forward in a discourse as an enunciation of events we can legitimately distinguish the following that among the enunciations concerning events, there are some which have a value that is altogether worthy of being distinguished with regard to the signifying register.

在我們從一個真理論述,所能夠提出的東西之內,作為事件的表達,我們能夠有理由區別以下:關於事件的表達,有一些表達具有價值。這個價值全部值得我們區別出來,關於這個能指的銘記。

They are enunciations that we can put under the general rubric of belonging to indirect discourse; they are the enunciations that concern the enunciatings of other subjects; they involve the reporting of the signifying articulations of someone else.

這些表達,我們能夠將它們放置在屬於間接的真理論述的一般架構裏。它們是牽涉到其他生命主體的表達。它們牽涉到某一個其他人的能指表達的報導。

And many things are introduced because of this, including other enunciations, namely
hearsay, I was told, someone or other testified that this or that has happened, which is the form, one of the most fundamental forms of the universal discourse, most of the things that we ourselves can talk about being part of what we have gathered from
the tradition of others. Let us say therefore a pure and simple, factual, report of an enunciation for which we assume responsibility; and on the other hand this involving in a latent fashion the dimension of enunciating which is not necessarily highlighted, but which is highlighted once it is a question of reporting the enunciation of someone else.

因為這樣,許多東西被介紹,包括其他的表達。換句話說,我聽說的一些傳聞,某個其他的人證實:這件事或那件事發生。就是這個形式,普遍性的真理論述的其中一個基本形式。我們自己能夠談論到的大部分的事情,作為我們別人的傳統所收集來的部分東西。因此,讓我們說出某一個表達的一個純粹的事實的報導,我們對於這一個表達負起責任。在另一方面,以一個潛在的方式,這個表達牽涉到未必受到強調的表達的維度。但是一旦問題是報導某個其他人的表達時,這個表達的維度就會被強調。

It could also be something of our own that we are dealing with. We can say that
we have said such a thing, that we have given evidence before someone else, and we ourselves can even enunciate that we have produced an enunciation which is completely false. We can testify that we have lied.

這也可能是我們正在處理的自己的某件事情。我們能夠說,我們已經說了這樣一件事情。我們曾經在某個其他人面前給予證據,我們自己甚至能夠表達,我們已經產生一種完全是虛假的表達。我們能夠證實,我們已經說了謊。