Archive for August, 2013

雄伯手記102829

August 29, 2013

雄伯手記102829

首次目睹她的妍姿,是在重慶街的市集。一位老人站在她的旁邊,手裡拿著一小張她花朵燦爛的照片,炫耀地說,這是從澳洲進口的稀有花卉種子,經過漫長時間繁殖出來的。我細讀照片上的文字是Nerium Oleander。

大小株三株,我一時心血來潮,全數購買。問及她的芳名,老人說:「袋池」。

我回家往網路查尋,並無「袋池」這樣的花名,倒是從Nerium Oleander的照片及特性描繪,查尋回到中文的資料,竟然是有毒的植物。

雖然心有疑懼,我仍然被她的其他正面的特性所吸引。譬如,醫學與生物科技的研究,從Nerium Oleander的提煉物質,發現有增強免疫能力與抗癌的功能。有一家化妝品公司,在網路大作廣告,以Nerium Oleander的提煉物質作為主要訴求,謂具有養顏美容,永保青春皮膚的功效。

我相信哲學家德希達Jacques Derrida的說法:英文Pharmacy(藥劑)的字源有正反歧義,一是毒藥poison,另一是解藥remedy。正如人生的百態與疾病,有時「毒藥就是解藥」。

我繼續被她的毒性與藥效的交加所著迷,偏訪其他園藝花卉店,卻了無她的蹤跡。有一天騎腳踏車經過王母娘娘廟附近,發現有兩株花朵盛開的Nerium Oleander。我停駐觀賞良久,然後發現花園裡插著一個警示牌,上面寫著:「花卉僅供觀賞,不送不賣,請不要再問!不問而取是偷竊,可判2到5年徒刑!」

我不禁呀然失笑,對於花卉主人的尊重其事與偏執的自負。不過,以後每次騎機車兜風,我總是忍不住繞道那裡,停駐觀賞一下。經過大約兩個星期後,突然發現這兩株Nerium Oleander 不翼而飛,心裡一直感到納悶:「果真花妍招妒,被偷了?」

有一天下午,我騎機車兜風,經過南濱堤防的荒僻小路時,猛然發現路邊,有兩大株的Nerium Oleander,高大的枝葉與怒放的花朵,震懾心弦。我停駐觀賞良久,最後終於鼓起勇氣,進入旁邊小徑的住家詢問。

住家主人先是說「小徑裡面的花樹才是我們的,路邊的不是。」,出來觀看後,又大方地說,「你想要,可以拿幾枝,沒有關係!」

於是我回到市區的特力屋買了一把長柄剪刀,用一大布袋,裝了四枝回來,依照網路資訊所教導的遷插方法,泡水數天后,分別培植於盆栽裡。

我的遷插盆栽並未成功,過一個星期後,Nerium Oleander 的燦爛花朵與枝葉陸續枯萎凋謝。

惆悵之餘,我每天從修行屋,回世俗屋時,都特意繞道早晨市集。終於有一天心血來潮地靠近花卉攤位,仔細一瞧,咦!那不就是我心中念茲在茲的Nerium Oleander嗎!

回想到前些日子,我流覽網路臉書,觀看到因讀書會結識的年輕朋友P,張貼的一篇短訊文,謂:「最近我在想:『愛很難,尤其當「礙」到自己的痛楚時候。』對於此,長輩怎麼說呢?

對於「前輩」一詞,我本想對號入座,像往昔讀書會講述拉康精神分析那樣,賣弄知識學問,予以指點迷津。然而,滑鼠浮標在臉書上來回逡巡,卻始終打不出任何字句出來。心裡恍然了悟,男女感情之事,前輩跟後輩一樣,即使是哲學家如蘇格拉底,精神分析家拉康,經歷人生滄桑之後,卻依舊僅能悵然迷惘!或者,正如哲學家德希達所說,毒藥可以成為解藥,反過來說,解藥也可能成為毒藥!就像日本電影「失樂園」的情節那樣,愛情是迷失的生命的救贖,同時也是終極致命的毒藥。敢不敢喝?願不願意喝?端看各人的生命的抉擇!

荣格:无意识的结构

August 21, 2013

494 [This view will seem the only acceptable one to the man of
our time who thinks and feels scientifically, but not to the ex¬traordinarily large number of so-called educated people for whom science is not a principle of intellectual ethics superior to their own minds, but rather a means of corroborating their inner experiences and giving them general validity. No one who is con¬cerned with psychology should blind himself to the fact that be¬sides the relatively small number of those who pay homage to scientific principles and techniques, humanity fairly swarms with adherents of quite another principle. It is entirely in keep¬ing with the spirit of our present-day culture that one can read in an encyclopaedia, in an article on astrology, the following re¬mark: “One of its last adherents was 1. W. Pfaff, whose Astroio¬gie (Bamberg, 1816) and Der Stern der Drei Weisen (1821) must be called strange anachronisms. Even today, however, as¬trology is still highly regarded in the East, particularly in Persia, India, and China.” One must be smitten with blindness to write such a thing nowadays. The truth is that astrology flourishes as never before. There is a regular library of astrological books and magazines that sell for far better than the best scientific works. The Europeans and Americans who have horoscopes cast for them may be counted not by the hundred thousand but by the million. Astrology is a flourishing industry. Yet the encyclopae¬dia can say: “The poet Dryden (d. 1701) still had horoscopes cast for his children.” Christian Science, too, has swamped Europe and America. Hundreds and thousands of people on both sides of the Atlantic swear by theosophy and anthroposo¬phy, and anyone who believes that the Rosicrucians are a legend of the dim bygone has only to open his eyes to see them as much alive today as they ever were. Folk magic and secret lore have by no means died out. Nor should it be imagined that only the dregs of the populace fall for such superstitions. We have, as we know, to climb very high on the social scale to find the cham¬pions of this other principle.]

这个观点似乎是我们时代的人所能够被接受的东西。我们现代人用科学方式思考与感觉,但是对于特殊的许多所谓的受过教育的人们,情况并非如此。对于他们,科学并不是优于他们自己心灵的知识伦理的原则。相反地,科学是一种工具,跟他们的内在经验合作,并且给予他们一般的正确性。关心心理学的人们,没有人会对这个事实视而不见。除了比较少数的那些人们,他们尊重科学的原则及技术,人类到处簇拥着相信另外一种原则的人们。这完全符合我们目前时代文化的精神,在百科全书,我们能够阅读到这种文化。在一篇探讨星相学的文章,有以下的谈话:它的其中一位坚信者W.Pfaff,他的星相学astrology与Der Stern der Drei (1821)必须被称为是奇怪的时代错置。可是,甚至今日,因为星相学在东方依旧高度地被重视,特别是在波斯,印度,与中国。今天,我们必须极端盲目,才会写出这样的东西。事实是,星相学前所未有地興盛。有一所正式的星相学书籍与杂志的图书馆,这些书籍与杂志的销售,远比即使是最佳的科学的著作还好。欧洲人与美国人曾经将星相学horoscope跟它们相提并论,这些人们不是几十万,而是百万人数计算。星相学是一门蓬勃成长的工业。可是,这部百科全书却说:「诗人德来顿依旧跟他的小孩算星相。」基督教的科学也曾经泛滥欧洲与美国。在大西洋的两边都有好几十万的人们根据神学与人类神学宣称,任何相信Rosicrucians 人是过往的模糊的传说,他们只要打开眼睛,就会看见它们在今天依旧生龙活现,有如以前。民俗的魔法与秘密的传说绝对没有消声匿迹。我们也不应该想像,仅有低俗民众才会喜欢迷信。据我们所知,我们还可以攀爬更高的社会阶梯,去发现这另外一个原则的捍卫者。

195 [Anyone who is interested in the real psychology of man
must bear such facts in mind. For if such a large percentage of the population has an insatiable need for this counterpole to the scientific spirit, we can be sure that the collective psyche in every individual-be he never so scientific-•has this psychologi¬cal requirement in equally high degree. A certain kind of “sci¬entific” scepticism and criticism in our time is nothing but a misplaced compensation of the powerful and deep-rooted super¬stitious impulses of the collective psyche. We have seen from experience that extremely critical minds have succumbed com¬pletely to this demand of the collective psyche, either directly,
292

THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

195 [Anyone who is interested in the real psychology of man
must bear such facts in mind. For if such a large percentage of the population has an insatiable need for this counterpole to the scientific spirit, we can be sure that the collective psyche in every individual-be he never so scientific-•has this psychologi¬cal requirement in equally high degree. A certain kind of “sci¬entific” scepticism and criticism in our time is nothing but a misplaced compensation of the powerful and deep-rooted super¬stitious impulses of the collective psyche. We have seen from experience that extremely critical minds have succumbed com¬pletely to this demand of the collective psyche, either directly, or indirectly by making a fetish of their particular scientific the¬ory.] 18

(任个对于人的真实的心理学感到兴趣的人,都必须将这些事实记在心里。因为,假如如此众多比例的人数,对于跟科学的精神相反的极端,具有无法满足的需要,我们能够确定,在每个个人的集体的心灵,无论他多么的科学,他都会同样程度具有这种心理的要求。在我们的时代,某种的科学的怀疑主义与批评,仅是一种错置的补偿,对于集体心灵的强烈而根深蒂固的迷信的冲动。我们根据精神分析经验已经看出,极端批判性的心灵已经完全屈从于集体心灵的这个要求,不论是直接或是间接,将他们的特殊的科学理论当成物神崇拜。

496 Faithful to the spirit of scientific superstition, someone may
now begin to talk about suggestion. But we ought to have real¬ized long ago that a suggestion is not accepted unless it is agree¬able to the person concerned. Unless it is acceptable, all sugges¬tion is futile; otherwise the treatment of neurosis would be an extremely simple affair: one would merely have to suggest the state of health. This pseudo-scientific talk about suggestion is based on the unconscious superstition that suggestion is pos¬sessed of some self-generated magical power. No one succumbs to suggestion unless from the very bottom of his heart he is will¬ing to comply with it.

当我们忠实于科学迷信的精神,我们现在可能开始谈论暗示。但是我们老早以前,本来就应该体会到,暗示并不被接受,除非它跟相关的那个人互相一致。除非它是可接受的,所有的暗示都是徒然无用,否则神经症的治疗将是极端简单的事情。我们将只需要暗示健康的状态。这种对于暗示的伪科学的谈论,是以无意识的迷信作基础,暗示拥有某种自我产生的魔术力量。没有人会屈从于暗示,除非从他内心底层,他就心甘情愿接受它。

497 By means of the hermeneutic treatment of fantasies we ar-
rive, in theory, at a synthesis of the individual with the collec¬tive psyche; but in practice one indispensable condition remains to be fulfilled. It belongs essentially to the regressive nature of the neurotic-and this is something he has also learnt in the course of his illness-never to take himself or the world seriously, but always to rely first on one doctor and then on another, by this or that method, and in such and such circumstances, to cure him, without any serious cooperation on his part. Now, no dog can be washed without getting wet. Without the complete will¬ingness and absolute seriousness of the patient, no recovery is possible. There are no magical cures for neurosis. The moment we begin to map out the lines of advance that are symbolically indicated, the patient himself must proceed along them. If he shirks this by his own deceit, he automatically precludes any cure. He must in very truth take the way of the individual life¬line he has recognized as his own, and continue along it until such time as an unmistakable reaction from the unconscious tells him that he is on the wrong track.

凭借幻想的解释的治疗,我们在理论上到达一种个人与集体心灵的综合。但是实践上,有一个无法免除的情况始终有待解决。它基本上归属于神经症的倒退的天性。这是某件在他生病毒过程,他已经学会的东西,永远不要过分执着于他自己,或是世界。而是总是首先依靠某位医生,然后另外一位医生。凭借这个或是那个方法来治疗他,在某些的情况下,而没有要求他自身的合作。现在,就像狗先淋湿了,它才肯被洗。病人若是没有完全愿意或认真,不可能恢复健康。对于神经症,并没有什么魔术疗法。当我们一开始描绘象征指示灯前进脉络,病人自己就必须遵循它们前进。假如他凭借他自己的欺骗退缩,他自动地预先排除任何治疗。他必须真诚地将他体认出来的个人生活脉络的方式,当成是他自己的,然后继续遵循它,直到从无意识的绝无错误的反应的这样的时刻,告诉他说,他走错路线。

荣格:无意识的结构

August 16, 2013

Whence has fantasy acquired its bad reputation? Above all
from the circumstance that it cannot be taken literally. Con¬cretely understood, it is worthless. If it is understood semioti¬callYJ as Freud understands it, it is interesting from the scientific point of view; but if it is understood hermeneuticallYJ as an au¬thentic symbol, it acts as a signpost, providing the clues we need in order to carry on our lives in harmony with ourselves.

幻想何时变得恶名昭彰?尤其重要的是,从它无法被实质看待的那个情况开始。当它具体被理解时,它并无价值。假如从语言学来理解它,如同弗洛依德理解它,从科学的观点而言,那是很有興趣。但是假如从解释学来理解,作为一个真诚的象征,它充当一个指标,提供我们需要的这个线索,为了从事我们的生活,跟我们自己相和谐。

492 The symbol is not a sign that disguises something generally
known.I6 Its meaning resides in the fact that it is an attempt to elucidate, by a more or less apt analogy, something that is still entirely unknown or still in the process of formationY If we reduce this by analysis to something that is generally known, we destroy the true value of the symbol; but to attribute hermeneu¬tic significance to it is consistent with its value and meaning.

这个象征并不是通俗知道的伪装某件东西的符号。它的意义在于这个事实:它是一种诠释的企图,根据一种相当合宜的类比,某件依旧完全未知的东西,或是依旧处于形成的过程。假如我们凭借精神分析还原它,成为某件通俗知道的东西,我们毁灭象征的真实价值,但是赋予它解释学的意义,是跟它的价值与意义相一致的。

493 The essence of hermeneutics, an art widely practised in for-
mer times, consists in adding further analogies to the one al¬ready supplied by the symbol: in the first place subjective analo¬gies produced at random by the patient, then objective analogies provided by the analyst out of his general knowledge. This procedure widens and enriches the initial symbol, and the final outcome is an infinitely complex and variegated picture the ele¬ments of which can be reduced to their respective tertia compar¬ationis. Certain lines of psychological development then stand out that are at once individual and collective. There is no sci¬ence on earth by which these lines could be proved “right”; on the contrary, rationalism could very easily prove that they are wrong. Their validity is proved by their intense value for life. And that is what matters in practical treatment: that human be¬ings should get a hold on their own lives, not that the principles by which they live should be proved rationally to be “right.”

在以前的时代,解释学是广泛被实践的一门艺术,它的本质在于增添更进一步的类比,给象征已经供应的类比。首先是主观性的类比,由父母亲任意地提出,然后是客观性的类比,由精神分析家根据他的一般知识所提供。这种程序拓宽并且丰富最初的象征,最后的结果则是无限复杂,变化万千的画面。它们的因素能够被还原成为他们个别的tertia comparoationis。心理发展的某些脉络因此凸显出来,它们既是个人,又是集体。世界上没有一门科学能够被用来证明这些脉络是正确的。相反地,理性主义能够很容易地证明,它们是错误的。它们是否正确,根据它们的对于生命的强烈的价值来证明。这就是在实际的治疗时的重点所在。人类应该掌控他们自己的生活,而不是根据他们生活的某些原则,在理性上应该被证明是正确的。

荣格:无意识的结构

August 13, 2013

484 With regard to individual psychology, however, science must
waive its claims. To speak of a science of individual psychology is already a contradiction in terms. It is only the collective ele¬ment in the psychology of an individual that constitutes an ob¬ject for science; for the individual is by definition something unique that cannot be compared with anything else. A psychol¬ogist who professes a “scientific” individual psychology is simply denying individual psychology. He exposes his individual psy-chology to the legitimate suspicion of being merely his own psy¬chology. The psychology of every individual would need its own manual, for the general manual can deal only with collective psychology.

可是,关于个人心理学,科学必须放弃它的宣称。谈论到个人心理学的科学,在术语方面,就已经是一种矛盾。它仅是个人的心理学的集体因素,这种个人组成科学的对象。因为个人在定义上,是某件独特的东西,无法跟任何其他东西相比较。宣称是科学的个人的心理学家,仅是在否认个人心理学。他暴露他的个人心理学,承受那仅是他自己的心理学的合理的怀疑。每一位个人的心理学将需要它自己的手册,因为一般性的手册仅能够处理集体心理。

485 These remarks are intended as a prelude to what I have to
say about the handling of the aforesaid problem. The funda¬mental error of both procedures consists in identifying the sub¬ject with one side or the other of his psychology. His psychology is as much individual as collective, but not in the sense that the individual ought to merge himself in the collective, nor the col¬lective in the individual. We must rigorously separate the con¬cept of the individual from that of the persona, for the persona can be entirely dissolved in the collective. But the individual is precisely that which can never be merged with the collective and is never identical with it. That is why identification with the collective and voluntary segregation from it are alike synony¬mous with disease.

这些谈论被用来作为是一种序言,对于我所必需谈论关于前述问题的处理。两种程序的基本错误在于将主体认同于他的心理学的某一边。他的心理学既是个人,也是集体。但是意义上并不是,个人应该将他自己融入集体,也不是集体融入个人。我们必须严格地将个人的观念,跟人格面具的观念分开。因为人格面具完全瓦解于集体当中。但是个人确实是永远无法被融入集体当中,并且永远无法认同它。那就是为什么认同集体,并且自愿跟它分离,两者都是疾病的同义字。

486 It is simply impossible to effect a clear division of the indi-
vidual from the collective, and even if it were possible it would be quite pointless and valueless for our purpose. It is sufficient to know that the human psyche is both individual and collec¬tive, and that its well-being depends on the natural co-operation of these two apparently contradictory sides. Their union is es¬sentially an irrational life process that can, at most, be described in individual cases, but can neither be brought about, nor un¬derstood, nor explained rationally.15

要清楚地区分个人心灵跟集体心灵,就是不可能。即使可能,对于我们的目标,那也是完全没有意义,没有价值。我们仅需要知道,人类的心灵既是个人,也是集体,就足够了。它的幸福依靠这两种明显的矛盾的自然的合作。它们的统一基本上是非理性的生命的过程,充其量能够在个人的情况被描述,但是既无法被导致,也无法被理解,更无法理想地被解释。

15 [This paragraph, though included in the earliest draft of the German MS, was omitted from the earlier French and English translations.-EDITORS.]
289

APPENDICES
<le87 If I may be forgiven a humorous illustration of the starting-
point for the solution of our problem, I would cite Buridan’s ass between the two bundles of hay. Obviously his question was wrongly put. The important thing was not whether the bundle on the right or the one on the left was the better, or which one he ought to start eating, but what he wanted in the depths of his being-which did he feel pushed towards? The ass wanted the object to make up his mind for him.

假如我被容许用一个幽默的例子,作为我们的难体的解决的出发点,我将引述布瑞顿的两束乾草之间的驴子。显而易见地,他的问题提出的方式错误。重要的事情并不是在右边,或者在左边的乾草束比较好,或是他应该从哪边吃起,而是他在他生命的深处,他所要的东西,他感觉被迫超著它们前进。驴子想要这个对象来代替他下定决心。

<le88 What is it, at this moment and in this individual, that repre-
sents the natural urge of life? That is the question.

在这个时刻,在这个个人,是什么代表生命的自然渴望?那是个问题。

<le8g That question neither science, nor worldly wisdom, nor reli-
gion, nor the best of advice can resolve for him. The resolution can come solely from absolutely impartial observation of those psychological germs of life which are born of the natural collab¬oration of the conscious and the unconscious on the one hand and of the individual and the collective on the other. Where do we find these germs of life? One man seeks them in the con¬scious, another in the unconscious. But the conscious is only one side, and the unconscious is only its reverse. We should never forget that dreams are the compensators of consciousness. If it were not so, we would have to regard them as a source of knowl¬edge superior to consciousness: we should then be degraded to the mental level of fortune tellers and would be obliged to ac¬cept all the futility of superstition, or else, following vulgar opinion, deny any value at all to dreams.

这个问题既非科学,也非世俗的智慧,更非宗教,即使是金玉良言都无法给他提供解答。解答仅能来自绝对不偏不倚的观察,对于那些生命的心理的微细来源。它们诞生于一方面是意识与无意识的自然合作,另一方面是个人与集体心灵的合作。我们到哪里寻找这些生命的细微来源?有人在意识里寻找,另外有人在无意识里寻找。但是意识仅是一边,而无意识则仅是另外一边。我们永远不应该忘记,梦是意识状态的补偿。假如不是那样,我们将会必须将梦视为是优秀于意识的知识的来源。我们因此应该被贬抑到算命师的精神层次,并且被迫接受迷信,或其他随之而来的粗俗意见的徒劳无用,根本否认掉梦的价值。

490 It is in creative fantasies that we find the unifying function
we seek. All the functions that are active in the psyche converge in fantasy. Fantasy has, it is true, a poor reputation among psy¬chologists, and up to the present psychoanalytic theories have treated it accordingly. For Freud as for Adler it is nothing but a “symbolic” disguise for the basic drives and intentions presup¬posed by these two investigators. As against these opinions it must be emphasized-not on theoretical grounds but essentially for practical reasons-that although fantasy can be causally ex-plained and devalued in this way, it nevertheless remains the creative matrix of everything that has made progress possible for humanity. Fantasy has its own irreducible value, for it is a psy¬chic function that has its roots in the conscious and the uncon¬sciousalike, in the individual as much as in the collective.

在这个创造性的想象,我们找到我们寻找到这个统一的功能。在心灵里所有主动的功能,都在想象里汇集。的确,在心理学界当中,想象拥有的名声并不佳。迄今,心理学的理论曾经也是同样态度对待它。弗洛依德,跟阿德勒一样,认为积极想象仅是基本冲动与意图的象征的伪装,这两位研究员预先这样假设。跟他们的意见背道而驰的,我们必须强调,不是根据理论的理由,而是基本上为了实践的目的。虽然想象能够用因果关系来解释,并且以这种方式贬抑它。它仍然始终是人类进步的成为可能的一切事物的创造的基础。想象拥有它自己的无法还原的价值。因为它是心灵的功能,同样拥有它的根源于意识与无意识,于个人与集体心灵。

290

荣格:无意识的结构·

August 11, 2013

479 Identification with the collective psyche is thus a mistake
that, in another form, ends as disastrously as the first way, which led to the separation of the persona from the collective psyche.

认同于集体心灵因此是一种错误。以另外一种形式,它的结果跟第一种方式同样是灾难重重。第一种方式导致人格面具跟集体心灵分离。

Psychology of the Unconscious, is the aggregate of all those primordial images in which the libido is invested, or rather, which are self-representations of the libido.

无意识的心理学上所有那些原初意象的汇集。在那里,力比多被投注,或者说,它们是力比多的自我的表象。
287

APPENDICES
5. Fundamental PrinciPles in the Treatment of Collective Identity
集体认同的治疗的基本原则

<l80 In order to solve the problem presented by the assimilation
of the collective psyche, and to find a practical method of treat¬ment, we have first of all to take account of the error of the two procedures we have just described. We have seen that neither the one nor the other can lead to good results.

为了解决被集体心灵吸收的这个难题,以及为了找到一个实用的治,疗方法,我们首先必须考虑到我们刚刚描述的这两个程序的错误。

<l81 The first, by abandoning the vital values in the collective
psyche, simply leads back to the point of departure. The second penetrates directly into the collective psyche, but at the price of losing that separate human existence which alone can render life supportable and satisfying. Yet each of these ways proffers abso¬lute values that should not be lost to the individual.

第一种方法凭借放弃集体心灵的这些重大的价值,仅是引导回到出发点。第二种方法直接贯穿进入集体的心灵,但是代价是丧失那种分开的人类的生命实存。光是这个生命实存就能够将生命成为可支持及令人满意。可是,这些方法的每一个提供绝对的价值,不应该丧失给个人。

<l82 The mischief, then, lies neither with the collective psyche
nor with the individual psyche, but in allowing the one to ex¬clude the other. The disposition to do this is encouraged by the monistic tendency) which always and everywhere looks for a unique principle. Monism, as a general psychological tendency, is a characteristic of all civilized thinking and feeling, and it pro¬ceeds from the desire to set l,lp one function or the other as the supreme psychological principle. The introverted type knows only the principle of thinking) the extraverted type only that of teeling.14 This psychological monism, or rather monotheism, has the advantage of simplicity but the defect of one-sidedness. It implies on the one hand exclusion of the diversity and rich real¬ity of life and the world, and on the other the practicality of realizing the ideals of the present and the immediate past, but it holds out no real possibility of human development.

因此,这个恶作剧既不是在于集体心灵,也不是在于个人心灵,而是在于让前者能够将后者排除。这样做的倾向被这个单一倾向所鼓励。这个单一倾向总是而且到处寻找一个独特的原则。单一论,作为一个一般性的心理倾向,表现所有的文明思想与感觉的特征。它继续从这个欲望下去,想要建立某一种功能,作为最崇高的心理的原则。内省类型的人们仅是知道思想的原则,而外向型的人们则仅是知道感觉的原则。这种心理的单一论,或单一主义,拥有单纯化的利益,但是会有偏向一边的缺点。它暗示着,一方面,生命与世界的多样化与丰富的现实的被排除。另一方面,目前与当下的过去的理想的体会的实践,但是它并没有呈现人类发展的确是可能性。

483 The disposition to exclusiveness is encouraged no less by ra-
tionalism. The essence of this consists in the flat denial of what¬ever is opposed to one’s own way of seeing things either from the logic of the intellect or from the logic of feeling. It is equally monistic and tyrannical in regard to reason itself. We ought to be particularly grateful to Bergson for having broken a lance in defence of the irrational. Although it may not be at all to the taste of the scientific mind, psychology will nonetheless have to 14 [A view abandoned later. Cf. n. 8 supra.-EDIToRS.]
288

THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

483 The disposition to exclusiveness is encouraged no less by ra-
tionalism. The essence of this consists in the flat denial of what¬ever is opposed to one’s own way of seeing things either from the logic of the intellect or from the logic of feeling. It is equally monistic and tyrannical in regard to reason itself. We ought to be particularly grateful to Bergson for having broken a lance in defence of the irrational. Although it may not be at all to the taste of the scientific mind, psychology will nonetheless have to recognize a plurality of principles and accommodate itself to them. It is the only way to prevent psychology from getting stranded. In this matter we owe a great deal to the pioneer work of William J ames.

排除的性情同样被理性主义所鼓励。这种性情的本质在于直率地否认跟自己的观点相对立的东西。我们常从知识逻辑,或从感觉逻辑来看待事情。关于理性的本身,这同样是单一论及暴虐。我们应该特别感激柏格森,因为他曾经折断防卫非理性的一根标枪。虽然这根本不为科学的心灵所喜欢。心理学仍然必须承认原则的多重性,并且对于它们有容乃大。这是唯一的方式阻止心理学不要被搁浅。在这件事情,我们归功于威廉、詹姆斯的开先锋的研究。

荣格:无意识的结构

August 10, 2013

b. IDENTIFICATION WITH THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE
[260] 476 The second way leads to identification with the collective
psyche. This amounts to an acceptance of “godlikeness,” but now exalted into a system. That is to say, one is the fortunate possessor of the great truth which was only waiting to be discov¬ered, of the eschatological knowledge which spells the healing of the nations. This attitude is not necessarily megalomania in di¬rect form, but in the milder and more familiar form of pro¬phetic inspiration and desire for martyrdom. For weak-minded persons, who as often as not possess more than their fair share of ambition, vanity, and misplaced nai’vete, the danger of yielding to this temptation is very great. Access to the collective psyche means a renewal of life for the individual, no matter whether this renewal is felt as pleasant or unpleasant. Everybody would like to hold fast to this renewal: one man because it enhances his life-feeling, another because it promises a rich harvest of knowl¬edge. Therefore both of them, not wishing to deprive them¬selves of the great treasures that lie buried in the collective psyche, will strive by every means possible to maintain their newly won connection with the primal source of life.13 Identification would seem to be the shortest road to this, for the dissolu¬tion of the persona in the collective psyche positively invites one to plunge into that “ocean of divinity” and blot out all memory in its embrace. This piece of mysticism is innate in all better men as the “longing for the mother,” the nostalgia for the source from which we came.

二、认同集体心灵

第二种方式导致认同集体心灵。这相当等于是接受像神一样的感觉,但是现在它被提升进入一个系统。换句话说,我们是这个仅是等待被发现的伟大真理的幸运拥有者,具有普救众生的知识,意味着救国救民。这种态度未必是直接形式的自大狂,而是更加温和,更加熟悉的先知启发与烈士情操的形式。对于心灵软弱的人们,他们经常拥有超乎自己份外的企图心,及错置的天真,屈服于这种诱惑的危险是非常巨大的。接近集体心灵意味着对于个人的生命的更新,无论这种更新是否被感觉是愉快,或是不愉快。每个人都想要紧紧把握这种更新。有的人是因为它强化他的生命的感觉,还有的人则是因为它承诺给予丰富的知识的收获。因此,他们两种人并不希望替他们自己剥夺埋藏于集体心灵的钜大财宝。他们将会凭借任何方法努力来维持他们新近获得的关于原初的生命来源。认同似乎是到达这里的捷径。人格面具在集体心灵里瓦解邀请我们投掷进入那是神性的汪洋,并且在它的接纳里,抹除所有的记忆。这种神秘主义在所有优秀的人们身上是与生具有的,作为对于母亲的渴望,对于我们来自的地方的怀旧。
12 Ibid., Part I, p. 67 (modified).
13 I would like to call attention here to an in teresting remark of Kant’s. In his lectures on psychology (Vorlesungen ilber Psychologie) he speaks of the “treasure lying within the field of dim representations, that deep abyss of human knowl¬edge forever beyond our reach.” This treasure, as I have demonstrated in my
286

THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
[261] 477 As I have shown in my book on libido, there lie at the
root of the regressive longing, which Freud conceives as “infan¬tile fixation” or the “incest wish,” a specific value and a specific need which are made explicit in myths. It is precisely the strong¬est and best among men, the heroes, who give way to their re¬gressive longing and purposely expose themselves to the danger of being devoured by the monster of the maternal abyss. But if a man is a hero, he is a hero because, in the final reckoning, he did not let the monster devour him, but subdued it, not once but many times. Victory over the collective psyche alone yields the true value-the capture of the hoard, the invincible weapon, the magic talisman, or whatever it be that the myth deems most de¬sirable. Anyone who identifies with the collective psyche-or, in mythological terms, lets himself be devoured by the monster¬and vanishes in it, attains the treasure that the dragon guards, but he does so in spite of himself and to his own greatest harm.

如同我在我探讨力比多的书里曾经显示,在倒退的渴望的根源,弗洛依德构想作为婴孩的固著,或是乱伦的愿望,一种明确的价值与一种明确的需要,它们在神话里被明确表达。确实就是这个最强烈,最佳的人中之人。这些英雄人物屈服于他们倒退的渴望,并刻意地将自身暴露于被母亲的深渊的怪物吞没的危险。但是,假如一个人是一位英雄,他是英雄,是因为在最后的考虑时,他并没有让怪物吞没他,而是他征服怪物,不仅一次,而且好几次。光是对于集体心灵的胜利,就产生真实的价值,对于贮存物的虏获,这个坚强的武器,魔法的符咒,或是任何神话认为是最被渴望的东西。任何认同于集体心灵或,用神话的术语来说,让他自己被怪物吞面,并且消失在它里面的人,他会获得巨龙捍卫的这个财宝,但是他奋不顾身地这样做,冒着自己受到伤害。

478 [The danger, therefore, of falling victim to the collective
psyche by identification is not to be minimized. Identification is a retrograde step, one more stupidity has been committed, and on top of that the principle of individuation is denied and re¬pressed under the cloak of the individual deed and in the nebu¬lous conceit that one has discovered what is truly one’s own. In reality one has not discovered one’s own at all, but rather the eternal truths and errors of the collective psyche. In the collec¬tive psyche one’s true individuality is lost.]

(因此,凭借认同成为集体心灵的受害者的这个危险,不应该被小觑。认同的一种倒退的步骤,曾经被犯过的另一个愚蠢。除此而外,个体化的原则被否认及被压抑,在个人行为的掩饰下。及在暧昧的自负里,我们曾经发现确实属于自己的东西。实际上,我们根本就没有发现我们自己的东西,而是集体心灵的永恒真理与错误。在集体心灵里,我们的真正的个体性丧失了。

荣格:无意识的结构

August 6, 2013

[258] 473 Such a solution would be perfect if a man were really able
to shake off the unconscious, drain it of libido and render it in¬active. But experience shows that it is not possible to drain the energy from the unconscious: it remains active, for it not only contains but is itself the source of libido from which all the psy¬chic elements flow into us-the thought-feelings or feeling¬thoughts, the still undifferentiated germs of formal thinking and feeling. It is therefore a delusion to think that by some kind of magical theory or method the unconscious can be finally emp¬tied of libido and thus, as it were, eliminated. One may for a while play with this delusion, but the day comes when one is forced to say with Faust:

这样的一种解决将是完美的,假如一个人确实能够摆脱无意识,耗尽它的力比多,并且让它静止不动。但是经验教导我们,要将无意识来的能源耗竭是不可能的。无意识始终在活动当中。因为它不仅包括力比多,而是它本身就是力比多的来源。所有的心灵的因素都从力比多那里,流入我们—不论是思想-感觉,或感觉-思想,正常思想及感觉尚未差异化的细胞。因此,这将是一个幻觉,假如我们认为,凭借某种魔术般的理论或方法,无意识最后能够被掏空力比多,因此就被所谓的减少。有一阵子,我们可能玩弄这种幻觉,但是终有一日,我们被迫跟随浮士德这样说出:

10 Faust, trans. by MacNeice, Part II, Act V, p. 283.
284

THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
But now such spectredom so throngs the air
That none knows how to dodge it, none knows where. Though one day greet us with a rational gleam,
The night entangles us in webs of dream.
We come back happy from the fields of spring¬And a bird croaks. Croaks what? Some evil thing. Enmeshed in superstition night and morn,
It forms and shows itself and comes to warn. And we, so scared, stand without friend or kin, And the door creaks-and nobody comes in.
Anyone here?

CARE: The answer should be clear.
F AUST: And you, who are you then?

CARE: I am just here.
F AUST: Take yourself off!

CARE: I am just here.
F AUST: Take yourself off!
CARE: This is where I belong.

FAUST: Take care, Faust, speak no magic spell, be strong. CARE: Unheard by the outward ear
In the heart I whisper fear; Changing shape from hour to hour I employ my savage power,11

但是现在,这种魅影簇拥空中
没有人知道如何闪躲它,没有人知道哪里
虽然有一天,它以理性的光辉欢迎我们,
夜晚却又将我们纠缠于梦的网络里
我们从春天的原野回来
一隻鸟鸣叫着。鸣叫什么? 某件邪恶的东西
纠结于迷信,夜晚与母亲那里
它形成,显示它自己,并且前来警告
我们如此惊恐,无亲无友地站立
门嘎嘎响,可是没有人进来
有人在家吗?

焦虑:回应应该很清楚。

浮士德:你,那么你是谁?

焦虑:我就在此地。

浮士德:请你离开。

焦虑:这是我归属所在。

浮士德:请注意,我浮士德不谈魔法力,而且强壮

焦虑:外表的耳朵前所未闻
在内心,我细声说恐惧,
每个时刻都在改变形状
我运用我的野蛮的力量

[258] 474 The unconscious cannot be analysed to a finish and
brought to a standstill. Nothing can deprive it of its power for any length of time. To attempt to do so by the method described is to deceive ourselves, and is nothing but ordinary repression in a new guise.

无意识无法被分析殆尽,停止不动。无论任何时刻,没有东西能够剥夺它的力量。凭借被描述的方法企图这样做,仅是欺骗我们自己,并且用新的伪装,予以压抑。

[258] 475 Mephistopheles leaves an avenue open which should not
be overlooked, since it is a real possibility for some people. He tells Faust, who is sick of the “madness of magic” and would gladly escape from the witch’s kitchen:

梅菲特费尔展开的这个途径,不应该被忽略。因为它对于某些人们确实可能。他告诉浮士德,虽然浮士德已经厌倦于「魔法的狂热」,并且很高兴地从女巫的厨房逃脱出来:

11 Ibid., pp. 281£. (modified).
285

APPENDICES
Right. There is one way that needs No money, no physician, and no witch.
Pack up your things and get back to the land And there begin to dig and ditch;
Keep to the narrow round, confine your mind, And live on fodder of the simplest kind,
A beast among the beasts; and don’t forget To use your own dung on the crops you set.12

没错。有个方法不需要金钱
不需要医生,不需要女巫
请你打包你的行李,回到那块土地
在那里挖掘与犁耕
局限在狭窄的圈里,限制你的心灵
吃食平凡单纯的生活粮草而过活
成为动物的一员,并且不要忘记
用你自己的粪便充当你农作物的肥料
[Anyone who finds it possible to live this kind of life will never be in danger of coming to grief in either of the two ways we are discussing, for his nature does not compel him to tackle a prob¬lem that is beyond his powers. But if ever the great problem should be thrust upon him, this way out will be closed.]

(若是有任何人,发现过着这样的生活是可能的,他就永远不会陷入遭受灾难的这个危险,不论用我们正在讨论的两种方式的哪一种。因为他的天性并不会逼迫他去解决一个超乎他的能力的难题。但是,假如万一这个钜大的难题降临在他身上,这个方法就关闭了。)

荣格:无意识的结构

August 5, 2013

4. Attempts to Free the Individuality from the Collective Psyche
a. THE REGRESSIVE RESTORATION OF THE PERSONA
471 The unbearable state of identity with the collective psyche
drives the patient, as we have said, to some radical solution. Two ways are open to him for getting out of the condition of “god¬likeness:” The first possibility is to try to re-establish regressively the previous persona by attempting to control the unconscious through the application of a reductive theory-by declaring, for instance, that it is “nothing but” repressed and long overdue infantile sexuality which would really be best replaced by the normal sexual function. This explanation is based on the unde¬niably sexual symbolism of the language of the unconscious and on its concretistic interpretation. Alternatively the power theory may be invoked and, relying on the equally undeniable power tendencies of the unconscious, one may interpret the feeling of “godlikeness” as “masculine protest,” as the infantile desire for domination and security. Or one may explain the unconscious in terms of the archaic psychology of primitives, an explanation that would not only cover both the sexual symbolism and the “godlike” power strivings that come to light in the unconscious material but would also seem to do justice to its religious, philo¬sophical, and mythological aspects.

4 企图将个体性从集体心灵解放出来

A 人格面具的倒退恢复

我们曾经说过,认同于集体心灵的无法忍受的状态驱使病人获得激烈的解决。他有两个方式可以选择,为了摆脱「像神一般的感觉」。第一个可能性是倒退地尝试重新建立先前的人格面具,凭借企图控制无意识,通过还原理论的运用,譬如,凭借宣告无意识「仅仅」是被压抑,以及是过时已久的婴孩时期的性。这种性确实凭借正常的性的功能,就能完全取代。这种解释的基础,是无意识的语言具有无可否认的性的象征主义,以及它具体明确的诠释。替代地,权力理论可能被引用,并且依靠无意识具有同样无可否认的权力倾向。我们可以诠释这种「像神一般的感觉」,作为是「阳刚的抗议」,作为是婴孩想要获得支配与安全的欲望。或是,我们可以解释无意识,使用过时的原始人的心理学。这一种解释不仅可以涵盖性的象征主义,与在无意识的材料里显现的「像神一般的」奋斗,而且似乎充分发挥它的宗教,哲学,与神话的层面。

283

APPENDICES
472 In each case the conclusion will be the same, for what it
amounts to is a repudiation of the unconscious as something everybody knows to be useless, infantile, devoid of sense, and altogether impossible and obsolete. After this devaluation, there is nothing to be done but shrug one’s shoulders resignedly. To the patient there seems to be no alternative, if he is to go on living rationally, but to reconstitute, as best he can, that seg¬ment of the collective psyche which we have called the persona, and quietly give up analysis, trying to forget if possible that he possesses an unconscious. He will take Faust’s words to heart:

在每个个案,这个结论都是相同的,因为它获得的内容是将无意思排除,作为是某件每个人都知道是无用,婴孩般,欠缺意义,而且完全不可能与过时的东西。经过这样的贬抑之后,就没有什么可作为,除了顺服地耸耸肩膀。对于病人,假如他想要继续理性地生活,似乎没有别的选择,除了就是尽其可能地,重新形成我能曾经称为人格面具的集体心灵的那个部分,并且安静地放弃精神分析,假如可能的话,他尝试忘记他拥有一个无意识。他将将浮士德的话语铭记在心。

[257] This earthly circle I know well enough.
Towards the Beyond the view has been cut off; Fool-who directs that way his dazzled eye, Contrives himself a double in the sky!
Let him look round him here, not stray beyond; To a sound man this world must needs respond. To roam into eternity is vain!
What he perceives, he can attain.
Thus let him walk along his earthlong day; Though phantoms haunt him, let him go his way, And, moving on, to weal and woe assent-
He at each moment ever discontent.1o

这个大地的循环,我甚为知稔
朝向超越,这个视野已被阻隔,
以那种方式将他晕眩的眼睛朝向是个傻瓜
他企图在天空替自己建构一个双重人
请他环顾在此的四周,别迷途与超越
对于一位健全的人,世界必须回应
漫游进入永恒是徒劳无功!
他所感觉的东西,他必须获得。
因此,就让他沿着人世间的日子散步
虽然各种魅影萦绕著他,就让他走这条途径
一路前行,承受痛苦与灾难
他在每个时刻,都无法满足。

荣格:无意识的结构

August 4, 2013

[250J 467 This condition frequently announces itself by very pecul-
iar symptoms, as for example dreams in which the dreamer is flying through space like a comet, or feels that he is the earth, the sun, or a star, or that he is of immense size, or dwarfishly small, or that he is dead, is in a strange place, is a stranger to himself, confused, mad, ete. He may also experience body¬sensations, such as being too large for his skin, or too fat; or hyp¬nagogic sensations of falling or rising endlessly, of the body grow¬ing larger, or of vertigo. Psychologically this state is marked by a peculiar disorientation in regard to one’s own personality; one no longer knows who one is, or one is absolutely certain that one actually is what one seems to have become. Intolerance, dogma¬tism, self-conceit, self-depreciation, and contempt for “people who have not been analysed,” and for their views and activities, are common symptoms. Often enough I have observed an in¬crease in the liability to physical illness, but only when the pa¬tients relish their condition and dwell on it too long.

这种情况经常凭借特殊的病征来宣告自己,譬如,在作梦时,作梦者像彗星般飞越大空。或是感觉到,他就是地球,太阳,或星星,或他具有巨大体形,或侏儒般矮小,或是他死亡,在一个陌生的地方,是自己的陌生人,困惑,疯狂,等等。他可能也经验到身体的各种感觉,诸如,身体太大,皮肤太紧,或太胖,或不停地掉落或上升的昏沉感觉,身体逐渐长得太高,或昏眩。从心理方面而言,这种状况的特征是特殊的丧失定向,关于自己的人格。我们不再知道我们是何许人也。或是我们绝对确定,我们实际上是我们似乎已经变成的样子。没有耐心,武断,自负,自我贬抑,与对于没有被精神分析的人们,对于他们的观点与活动,表示藐视。这些都是共同的病征。经常地,我曾经观察到它会逐渐容易形成生理疾病,但是仅是当病人对自己的情况沾沾自喜,而且详述它太久。

[251J 468 The forces that burst out of the collective psyche are con-
fusing and blinding. One result of the dissolution of the persona is the release of fantasy, which is apparently nothing less than the specific activity of the collective psyche. This outburst of fantasy throws up into consciousness materials and impulses whose existence one had never before suspected. All the treas¬ures of mythological thinking and feeling are unlocked. It is not always easy to hold one’s own against such an overwhelming impression. This phase must be reckoned one of the real dangers of analysis, a danger that ought not tobe minimized.

从集体心灵突然爆发出来的这些力量,令人混淆及令人目眩。人格面具的解离的其中一个结果是产生幻想。这种幻想显而易见实实在在就是集体心灵的特殊活动。幻想的突然爆发将为们从来没有怀疑过的材料与冲动的存在,抛到意识层面。神话思想与感觉的所有的财宝都被解放开来。要把持自己,对抗如此压倒性的印象,未必是容易的事。这个部分必须被认为是精神分析的确实的危险之一。这种危险不应该被漠视。

469 It will readily be understood that this condition is so insup-
portable that one would like to put an end to it as speedily as possible, since the analogy with mental derangement is too close. As we know, the commonest form of insanity, dementia praecox or schizophrenia, consists essentially in the fact that the uncon¬scious in large measure ousts and supplants the function of the conscious mind. The unconscious usurps the reality function and substitutes its own reality. Unconscious thoughts become audible as voices, or are perceived as visions or body-hallucina-
282

THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

469 It will readily be understood that this condition is so insup-
portable that one would like to put an end to it as speedily as possible, since the analogy with mental derangement is too close. As we know, the commonest form of insanity, dementia praecox or schizophrenia, consists essentially in the fact that the uncon¬scious in large measure ousts and supplants the function of the conscious mind. The unconscious usurps the reality function and substitutes its own reality. Unconscious thoughts become audible as voices, or are perceived as visions or body-hallucinations, or they manifest themselves in senseless, unshakable judg¬ments upheld in the face of reality.

我们将很快就了解到,这种情况并没有根据,我们想要尽可能迅速地结束它,因此跟精神的狂乱的类似太过于相近。据我们所知,疯狂,精神异常,或精神分裂,基本上在于这个事实:无意识大量地移除并且取代意识心灵的功能。无意识窜夺现实界的功能,并且换上它自己的现实界。无意识的思想作为声音是可听得见的,或是被感觉作为幻景或身体的幻觉。或是它们显示自己,用面对现实界时受到支撑的没有意义的,不可动摇的判断。

47° In a similar but not quite identical manner the unconscious
is pushed into consciousness when the persona is dissolved in the collective psyche. The one difference between this state and that of mental alienation is that here the unconscious is brought to the surface with the help of conscious analysis-at least, this is how things go at the beginning of an analysis, when powerful cultural resistances to the unconscious have still to be overcome. Later, when the barriers built up by the years have been broken down, the unconscious intrudes spontaneously, and sometimes irrupts into the conscious mind like a torrent. In this phase the analogy with mental derangement is very close. [In the same way, the moments of inspiration in a genius often bear a decided resemblance to pathological states.] But it would be real insan¬ity only if the contents of the unconscious became a reality that took the place of conscious reality; in other words, if they were believed in without reserve. [Actually, one can believe in the contents of the unconscious without this amounting to insanity in the proper sense, even though actions of an unadapted nature may be performed on the basis of such convictions. Paranoid delusions, for instance, do not depend on belief-they appear to be true a priori and have no need of belief in order to lead an effective and valid existence. In the cases we are discussing the question is still open whether belief or criticism will triumph. This alternative is not found in genuine insanity.]
以相同但是并不完全一致的方式,无意识被逼迫进入意识,当人格面具在集体心灵被解离时。这种状况跟精神异化的状况之间的一个差异是,在此,无意识被带到表明,至少凭借意识到精神分析的帮助。这就是在精神分析开始时事情进行的方式。而对于无意识的强烈的文化的抗拒,则是还有待克服。后来,当经年累月累积起来的障碍已经被瓦解,无意识自动自发地闯入。有时像急流一般地爆发进人意识的心灵。在这时,跟精神狂乱的类同相当近似。(以同样的方式,天才的灵光显现的时刻,跟病理的状态经常非常酷似。)但是仅有在无意识的内容变成现实,这个现实取代了意识到现实界,它才会是真实的疯狂。换句话说,假如它们被毫无保留地相信。(实际上,我们能够相信无意识的这个内容,即使这并不相等于疯狂,用适当的意义来说,虽然一个未经调适的性质的行动可能被执行,根据这个信心作为基础。譬如,偏执狂的幻觉并不依靠信仰:它们似乎是从推理来说是真实的。他们并不需要信仰,才能过一个有效而确实的存在。在我们正在讨论的那些个案,信仰或是批评,将会胜利,这个问题依旧悬而未决。在真实的疯狂,这种二者选一并未被发现。