Archive for September, 2015

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型104

September 27, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

In these associations the patient is describing a very impor-
tant experience of his childhood. As in nearly all cases of this kind, he had a particularly close tie with his mother. By this we are not to understand a particularly good or intense conscious relationship, but something in the nature of a secret, subterra-nean tie which expresses itself consciously, perhaps, only in the retarded development of character,.i.e., in a relative infantilism. The developing personality naturally veers away from such an unconscious infantile bond; for nothing is more obstructive to development than persistence in an unconscious-we could also say, a psychically embryonic-state. For this reason instinct seizes on the first opportunity to replace the mother by another object.

在这些联想里,病人正在描述有关他的童年的一个非常重要的经验。如同在几乎所有诸如其类的个案,他跟母亲具有特殊亲密的关系。凭借这一点,我们并不是要理解特殊的好或强烈意识的关系。而是某件像是秘密性质的关系,以意识状态表达自己的潜在的关系,或许,仅是人格的迟缓的发展,譬如,以相对待婴孩的状态。这种正在发展的人格自然突然转向离开无意识的婴孩的默契关系。因为没有一样东西更加具有毁灭性,对于发展,比起无意识的持续。我们也能够是,这是一种心灵的初萌状态。因为这个理由,本能掌握最初的机会,要取代母亲,凭借另外一个客体。

If it is to be a real mother-substitute, this object must be, in some sense, an analogy of her. This is entirely the case with our patient. The intensity with which his childish fantasy seized upon the symbol of Cologne Cathedral corresponds to the strength of his unconscious need to find a substitute for the mother. The unconscious need is heightened still further in a case where the infantile bond could become harmful. Hence the enthusiasm with which his childish imagination took up the idea of the Church; for the Church is, in the fullest sense, a mother.

假如这个替代想要成为真实的母亲-替代,这个客体必须在某个意义上说她的类比。就我们的病人而言,这完全是这个情况。他的孩童的幻想强烈地掌握科伦尼大教堂。这种强烈程度符合他的无意识需要的力量,需要找到一个对于母亲的替代。这个无意识的需要被更加一步强化,在这个个案,婴孩的默契关系有时是有害的。因此,他的童孩的想像热忱地接纳教堂的这个观念.因为教堂的最完整的意义是母亲。

11 The idea of compensation has already been extensively used by Alfred Adler.
104

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
of the Ch
We speak not only of Mother Church, but even of the Church’s womb. In the ceremony known as the benedictio fontis) the bap¬tismal font is apostrophized as “immaculatus divini fontis uterus”-the immaculate womb of the divine font. We naturally think that a man must have known this meaning consciously be¬fore it could get to work in his fantasy, and that an unknowing child could not possibly be affected by these significations. Such analogies certainly do not work by way of the conscious mind, but in quite another manner.

我们不仅谈论母亲-教堂,而且谈论到教堂的子宫。在众所周知的“洗礼的盆子”的典礼里,洗礼的盆子被简略成为“纯洁的神性的盆部子宫”。我们当然认为,一个人当时一定意识地知道这个意义,他才能够从事他的幻想。一位无知的小孩不可能受到这些意义的影响。这些类比确实并没有运作,凭借意识的心灵。而是用另外一个方式。

172 The Church represents a higher spiritual substitute for the
purely natural, or “carnal,” tie to the parents. Consequently it frees the individual from an unconscious natural relationship which, strictly speaking, is not a relationship at all but simply a condition of inchoate, unconscious identity. This, just because it is unconscious, possesses a tremendous inertia and offers the utmost resistance to any kind of spiritual development. It would be hard to say what the essential difference is between this state and the soul of an animal.

教堂代表一个更高的精神的替代纯粹自然,或跟父母亲的“肉身”的关系。严格来说,这根本就不是关系,而仅是不成熟的无意识的认同的情况。仅是因为它是无意识,这拥有巨大的惯性,并且提供最大的抗拒,对于任何具有精神发展。我们很困难地说这个基本的差异是什么,存在于这个状态与动物的灵魂之间。

Now, it is by no means the special prerogative of the Christian Church to try to make it possible for the individual to detach himself from his original, animal¬like condition; the Church is simply the latest, and specifically Western, form of an instinctive striving that is probably as old as mankind itself. It is a striving that can be found in the most varied forms among all primitive peoples who are in any way developed and have not yet become degenerate: I mean the in• stitution or rite of initiation into manhood. When he has reached puberty the young man is conducted to the “men’s house,” or some other place of consecration, where he is system• atically alienated from his family.

现在,这决非是基督教教堂的特权,尝试让个人有可能将自己更他的原初的像动物一样的情况隔离开来。教堂仅是最近,明确是西方的形式,作为本能的追寻的形式。这个形式可能更人类本身一样的古老。这一种追寻能够被找到,以各色各样的形式,在原始的民族当中。他们以任何方式被发展,而且还没有变得恶化。我指的是由入会到成年的体制与仪式。当他到达青春期时,年轻柔被引导到” 成年人之屋“,或是某个奉献的地方。在那里,他跟他的家庭制度方面被隔离。

At the same time he is initi¬ated into the religious mysteries, and in this way is ushered not only into a wholly new set of relationships, but, as a renewed and changed personality, into a new world, like one reborn (quasimodo genitus). The initiation is often attended by all kinds of tortures, sometimes including such things as circumci• sion and the like. These practices are undoubtedly very old. They have almost become instinctive mechanisms, with the re¬sult that they continue to repeat themselves without external compulsion, as in the “baptisms” of German students or the even more wildly extravagant initiations in American students’ fraternities. They are engraved on the unconscious as a primor¬dial image.

同时,他被引导入会,进入宗教的神秘。以这个方式,他被引导不但进入完全新的一套关系,而且,作为被更新与改变的人格,进入新的世界。像一个新生的小孩。这个入会仪式经常伴随着各色各样的折磨,有时包括切割包皮,等等。这些做法无可置疑地非常古老。它们几乎已经变成本能的机制。结果,它们继续重复它们自己,而没有外在的冲动,如同在德国学生的‘洗礼会“,或是更加豪华的入会仪式,在美国的兄弟会。他们被铭记在无意识,作为是原初的意象。

105

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

173 When his mother told him as a little boy about Cologne Ca-
thedral, this primordial image was stirred and awakened to life. But there was no priestly instructor to develop it further, so the child remained in his mother’s hands. Yet the longing for a man’s leadership continued to grow in the boy, taking the form of homosexual leanings-a faulty developmeJ;1t that might never have come about had a man been there to educate his childish fantasies.

作为小孩时, 当他的母亲告诉他关于科伦尼大教堂,这个原初的意象被触动,并且甦醒复活。但是,并没有僧侣的教师来更加深入地发展它。所以,小孩始终留在他的母亲的手中。可是,对于男人的领导的渴望继续在男孩身上成长,採取同性恋的习性的形式—错误的发展。假如当时有人在那里教育他的童年的幻想,这样的错误的发展本来可能不会发生。

The deviation towards homosexuality has, to be sure, numerous historical precedents. In ancient Greece, as also in certain primitive communities, homosexuality and education were practically synonymous. Viewed in this light, the homosex¬uality of adolescence is only a misunderstanding of the otherwise very appropriate need for masculine guidance. One might also say that the fear of incest which is based on the mother-complex extends to women in general; but in my opinion an immature man is quite right to be afraid of women, because his relations with women are generally disastrous.

的确,朝向同性恋的偏离拥有无数的历史的先例。在古代希腊,如同在某些的原始人的社群里,同性恋与教育几乎是同义词。从这个观点来看,青春期的同性恋仅是一种误解,从另外一个角度看,那是非常合宜的对于男性引导的需要。我们也不妨说,对于乱伦的恐惧,以母亲情结作为基础,延伸到一般女人。但是,依我之见,一个不成熟的男人完全有权利害怕女人,因为他跟女人的关系通常是灾难的。

174 According to the dream, then, what the initiation of the
treatment signifies for the patient is the fulfilment of the true meaning of his homosexuality, i.e., his entry into the world of the adult man. All that we h<l¥e been forced to discuss here in such tedious and long-winded detail, in order to understand it properly, the dream has condensed into a few vivid metaphors, thus creating a picture which works far more effectively on the imagination, feeling, and understanding of the dreamer than any learned discourse.

依照这个梦,对于病人,治疗的入会象征的东西,是满足同性恋的真实的意义。譬如,他进入成年人的世界。我们一直被迫在此讨论的东西,用如此冗长而累赘的细节,为了合适地理解它。这个梦已经浓缩成为一些生动的隐喻。因此创造一个画面,更加有效地运作在想像,感觉,与梦的理解里,比起任何有学问到辞说。

Consequently the patient was better and more intelligently prepared for the treatment than if he had been overwhelmed with medical and pedagogical maxims. (For this reason I regard dreams not only as a valuable source of in¬formation but as an extraordinarily effective instrument of edu¬cation.)

结果,病人转好,而且更加聪明地准备接受治疗,比起假如他当时被充斥着医学与教学的公理。(因为这个理由,我认为梦不仅作为有价值的资讯的来源,而且作为特殊有效的教育的工具。

雄伯译
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From an other to the other 66

September 26, 2015

From an other to the Other 66
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康
5.2.69
Seminar 10: Wednesday 5 February 1969
I am going to restart from where I left you the last time. I said a lot of things the last
time, and in particular I succeeded in touching some people by the mathematical
evidence that I believe I succeeded in giving of the genesis of what is involved in o,
through the simple virtue of the One qua mark.

我将要重新开始,从我上次离开你们的地方。我上次说了许多事情,特别是我成功地碰触到某些人们,凭借数学的证据。我相信我成功地给予在个创世纪,在这个0所牵涉到东西的创世纪,经营这个“一”作为标记的单纯的品德。

This depends on this factum, this
fabrication that results from the simplest use of this One in so far as it multiplies once
it is repeated, since it is only posited in order to attempt the repetition of, to rediscover
enjoyment in so far as it has already fled. The first One, by rediscovering what was
not marked at the origin, already alters it, since at the origin it was not marked. It is
already posited then by grounding a difference that it does not constitute as such but
in so far as it produces it. This is this original point that makes of repetition the key of
a process about which the question is posed, once it has been opened up, of whether
or not it can find its term.

这依靠这个事实,这个建构,因为简单地运用这个“一”而造成的建构。因为它一旦被重复后,会加倍乘上去。因为它被提出,仅是为了企图从事重复,为了重新发现享乐,因为它已经逃走。这第一个“一”已经改变它,凭借重新发现在起源没有被标记的东西。因为在起义,它并没有被标记。它当时被提出,凭借作为差异的基础,它并没有构成作为这样的本质,而是因为它产生它。这是原初的点,将重复解释为过程的解答,关于这个过程,这个问题被提出。一旦它已经被开展,关于它是否能够找到它的术语。

You see that we are immediately brought to the question that is only terminal when
applied to a single career, that of Freud, in so far as subject on the one hand, he was
also a man of action, let us say a man who inaugurated a path. How did he inaugurate
it? This is something that is worthwhile recalling perhaps at a detour in what I will
say to you today. But every man’s career is committed to something that has death as
its limit, and it is only from this point of view that we can find the term of the path
traced by Freud in the question that he poses, of the end of analysis, terminable or
interminable.

你们看出,我们立即被带到这个问题,仅有当它被运用到一个单一的生涯里,弗洛依德的生涯,它才会是终点。因为一方面,作为主体,他也是一位行动的人。我们不妨说,一位开启途径的人。他如何开启这个途径呢?有某件东西是值得回忆的,或许在迂回处,在我今天跟你们所说的东西。但是,每个人都生涯都奉献于某件东西,以死亡作为它的限制的东西。仅有从这个观点,我们才能够找到途径的这个项目,被弗洛依德追踪的项目,在他提出的这个问题,精神分析的结束的问题,精神分析终止或没有终止。

This only marks the phase of the question that I am opening up in
saying: is what is engaged for the subject by the fact of repetition as origin, itself a
process that has its limit or not? This is what I left open, in abeyance, but
nevertheless advanced, by showing on the board the last time in the clearest possible
fashion what I was able to express as the division, the bi-partition of two infinities,
marking that this is what is fundamentally in question in Pascal’s wager. The infinity
on which it is based is the infinity of number. Now, by taking this infinity, as I might
say, by further accelerating by setting up the Fibonacci series, which it is easy to show
is exponential, that the numbers that it generates grow not arithmetically but
geometrically.

这仅是标示我正在开展的问题的时期,当我在言说:对于主体,作被参与的东西,凭借重复的这个事实作为起源。它的本身是一个过程,这个过程有它的限制与否?这就是我展开的东西,一个暂时的停顿。可是,我前进,凭借上次用尽可能清楚的方式在黑板上显示,我能够表达,作为区分的东西。两个无限的双重区隔。它标示着,这是在巴斯卡的赌注里,基本上受到质疑的东西。巴斯卡的赌注以无限作为基础。这个无限是数字的无限。现在,凭借接纳这个无限,我不妨说,凭借更进一步加速度,凭借建立费伯那奇的数列。这个数列很容易显示是指数的系列。它产生的数字不是算术方式,而是几何级数成长。

This is the very thing that generates, and precisely in the measure that
we are more distant from its origin, the proportion articulated in o. In the measure
that these numbers grow, o intervenes there under its inverted form in a more
circumscribed and constant fashion. This is all the more striking in that it ties the 1 to
o, that it is l/o, that this proportion of one number to another ends up in the more and
more rigorous constant of this l/o, in the measure that the numbers increase.
I also wrote, taking it at its origin, the series that results from taking things in the other sense.

这就是产生的东西。确实是以我们距离它的起源更加遥远的程度。在0被表达的比例。随着这些数字的成长,0介入那里,在它的逆转的形式,以更加被限制与固定的形式。这是更加耐人寻味,因为它将这个1跟0绑在一块。那就是1/0.一个数字跟另外一个数字的这个比例,结果成为这个1/0越来越严谨的常数,随着这些数字的增加。我也书写到,在它的起源处接纳它,这些系列,因为另一个意义接纳事情的结果的系列。

There, because of the fact that o is less than 1, you see the process ends up not
simply in a proportion but in a limit. Whatever you add of what is produced,
inversely, by proceeding through subtraction, in such a way that it is always true that,
in this chain, by taking things in an ascending way, each term is the sum of the two
preceding ones, you will find again the function of o in so far as this time it reaches a
limit That in whatever numbers you add these terms, you will not go beyond 1 + o,
which seems to indicate that by taking things in this direction, what repetition
generates has a term.

这是因为这个事实:0少于1. 你们看见这个过程结果,不仅是一个比例,而是一个限制。关于所被产生的东西,无论你们增加什么,逆转地,凭借扣除继续前进,用它总是真实的这样的方式。在这个锁链里,凭借以上升的方式接纳事情。每个项目都是前面的两个项目的总和。你们再次发现0的这个功能。因为在这个时候,它到达一个限制。不管用什么数字,你们增加这些项目。你们将不会超越1+0.那似乎指示,凭借朝这个方向接纳事情,重复产生的东西拥有一个项目。

This is where there intervenes the well known table in which those, in short, who miss
what is involved in Pascal’s wager, write what is involved in terms of games*theory.
Namely, in a matrix that is constructed from distinct boxes, formulate what is
involved, if God exists, and write as zero what results from the observation of these
commandments, confused here with the renunciation of something. Whether we call it
pleasure or something else, it nevertheless remains that here, in appreciating it by a
spontaneity whose astonishing aspect we will see, that they write what is left in this
life for believers as zero.

这就是这个著名的表格介入的地方。用这个表格,总之,那些错过巴斯卡的赌注被牵涉的东西的那些人们,书写所被牵涉的东西,用遊戏理论的术语。换句话说,在一个用清楚的盒子建造的基座,阐释所被牵涉的东西,假如上帝存在。将这些戒令的遵守造成的的结果,书写为0。在此,这个0跟某件东西的捨弃混淆一块。无论我们称它为快乐或某件东西,问题仍然是,在这里,当我们欣赏它,凭借自动自发,它的令人惊奇的效果,我们将会看见。他们书写所剩余的东西,在这一生,对于信仰者,作为零。

As a result of which a future life is marked by the term
infinity, an infinity of lives promised to be infinitely happy. In other words, by
supposing that God does not exist, the subject, which we write as o, is presumed to be
still caught up in the game, make no mistake, literally to know the limited and
moreover problematic happiness that is offered him in this life. It is not groundless to
choose this if, since God does not exist, it seems clear that there is nothing to expect
from the other life.

由于这个零的结果,未来的生命被无限的这个术语所标示。生命的无限被承诺成为无限的快乐。换句话说,凭借假设,上帝并不存在,主体,我们书写作为0,被假定依旧是被套陷于这个遊戏里。请你们不要误解,我们实质上是要知道这个被限制,而且问题重重的快乐。在这一生被提供给他的快乐。选择这个并不是没有基础。假如,因为上帝并不存在,似乎清楚的是,没有一样东西能够期望,从另外一生。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 98

September 24, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

161 I must now emphasize the not unimportant fact, which must
also have struck the reader, that in the dream the collective un¬conscious appears under a very negative aspect, as something dangerous and harmful. This is because the patient has a richly developed, indeed positively luxuriant, fantasy life, possibly due to her literary gift. Her powers of fantasy are a symptom of ill¬ness in that she revels in them far too much and allows real life to slip by. Any more mythology would be exceedingly danger¬ous for her, because a great chunk of external life stands before her, still unlived. She has too little hold upon life to risk all at once a complete reversal of standpoint. The collective uncon¬scious has fallen upon her and threatens to bear her away from a reality whose demands have not been adequately met. Accord¬ingly, as the dream indicates, the collective unconscious had to be presented to her as something dangerous, otherwise she would have been only too ready to make it a refuge from the demands of life.

我现在必须强调这个并非不重要的事实,也一定曾经让读者大吃一惊的事实。在梦里,集体无意识出现,在非常负面的情况之下,作为某件危险而有害的东西。这是因为病人拥有丰富地被发展,确实是正面的豪华的幻想的生命。可能是由于她的文学的天赋。她的幻想的力量是疾病的症状,因为她相当过分地狂喜于它们,并且容许真实的生命滑溜过去。对于她,假如有更多的神话,那将是过度的危险。因为一大堆的外在的生命位在她的面前。依据还没有被生活。她对于生命的掌控太少,以致于不会突然冒著完全翻转观点的危险。集体无意识曾经攻击她,并且威胁要将她带走,脱离现实。因为现实的要求还没有被充分地满足。因此,如同梦所指示,集体无意识必须被呈现给她,作为某件危险的东西。否则她本来会非常愿意让它成为避难所,脱离生命的要求的避难所。

162 In judging a dream we must observe very carefully how the
figures are introduced. For example, the crab that personifies the unconscious is negative in that it “walks backwards” and, in addition, holds back the dreamer at the critical moment. Misled by the so-called dream mechanisms of Freudian manufacture, such as displacement, inversion, etc., people have imagined they could make themselves independent of the “facade” of the dream by supposing that the true dream-thoughts lay hidden behind it.

当我们判断一个梦时,我们必须非常仔细地观察,人物们如何被介绍。譬如,具体代表无意识的螃蟹是负面的,因为螃蟹“倒退行走”。除外,螃蟹在关键的时刻掌控作梦者。由于受到弗洛依德学派主张的所谓的梦的机制的误导,譬如,替换,逆转,等等,人们想像它们让自己独立于梦的“面向”之外。他们认为,真实的梦-思想隐藏在这个面向的背后。

As against this I have long maintained that we have no right to accuse the dream of, so to speak, a deliberate ma¬noeuvre calculated to deceive. Nature is often obscure or im¬penetrable, but she is not, like man, deceitful. We must there¬fore take it that the dream is just what it pretends to be, neither more nor less.lO If it shows something in a negative light, there is no reason for assuming that it is meant positively. The arche¬typal “danger at the ford” is so patent that one is almost tempted to take the dream as a warning.

对照之下,我长久以来曾经主张,我们没有权利控诉梦,具有所谓的刻意的操作,被估算来欺骗。自然经常是模糊或是无法贯穿。但是自然不会像人一样会欺骗。我们因此必须认为,梦仅是它伪装成为的东西。不多也不少。假如梦显示某件作为负面的观点的东西,我们没有理由假定:梦具有正面的意义。原型的“渡口的危险”是如此的特殊,以致我们几乎被引诱要将梦视为一个警告。
9 Those of my readers who have a deeper interest in the problem of opposites and its solution, as well as in the mythological activity of the unconscious, are referred to Symbols of Transformation, Psychological Types, and The Arche¬types and the Collective Unconscious. [Cf. also Mysterium Coniunctionis.¬EDITORS.]
10 Cf. “General Aspects of Dream Psychology.” 100

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
But I must discounte¬nance all such anthropomorphic interpretations. The dream it¬self wants nothing; it is a self-evident content, a plain natural fact like the sugar in the blood of a diabetic or the fever in a patient with typhus. It is only we who, if we are clever and can unriddle the signs of nature, turn it into a warning.

但是,对于所有这些人类形态的解释,我必须表示不敢苟同。梦的本身并不需要任何东西,梦是一个不证自明的内容,一个清楚的自然的事实,就像糖尿病患者的血液里的糖分一样,或是病人患伤寒时的发高烧一样。只是我们自己将梦转换成为警告,假如我们聪明并且能够解开自然的讯号的谜团。

163 But-a warning of what? Of the obvious danger that the un-
conscious might overpower the dreamer at the moment of cross¬ing. And what would being overpowered mean? An invasion by the unconscious may very easily occur at moments of critical change and decision. The bank from which she approaches the river is her situation as known to us so far. This situation has precipitated her into a neurotic deadlock, as though she had come up against an impassable obstacle. The obstacle is repre¬sented by the dream as a perfectly passable river. So things do not seem to be very serious.

但是一个关于什么的警告?关于这个明显的危险,无意识可能在跨越的时刻,掌控作梦者。被掌控将会是什么意思?受到无意识的侵犯很容易发生,就是关键改变与决定的时刻。她从岸边接近河流,这个岸边就是她的处境,迄今被我们所知道的。这个处境将她突然陷入神经症的僵局。好像她遭遇一个无法通过的阻碍。这个阻碍被梦所代表,作为是完全可以通过的河流。所以,事情看起来没有非严重。

But in the river, most unexpectedly, the crab is hiding, and this represents the real danger on ac¬count of which the river is, or appears to be, impassable. For had she only known beforehand that the dangerous crab was lurking at this particular spot, she might perhaps have ventured to cross somewhere else, or have taken other precautions. In the dream¬er’s present situation it is eminently desirable that a crossing should be made.

但是,在河流里,出乎意料之外,螃蟹隐藏著。这代表真实的危险。因为这个真实的危险,河流无法通过,或是看起来无法通透。因为假如她只要事先知道,危险的螃蟹潜藏在这个特殊的地点,她或许可能冒险跨越某个其它地方。或是她本来可能採取其他的预防措施。在作梦者的目前的处境,跨越应该被从事,显而易见是被渴望的。

The crossing means in the first place a carrying over-a transference-of the earlier situation to the doctor. That is the new feature. Were it not for the unpredictable uncon¬scious, this would not involve such a great risk. But we saw that through the transference the activity of archetypal figures is li¬able to be let loose, a fact we had not banked on. We have reck¬oned without our host, for we “forgot the gods.”

跨越首先意味着早先的处境的移情到医生。那是新的特征。假如那不是因为无法被预测的无意识,这个特征不会牵手如此大的冒险。但是,我们看见,通过这个移情,原型的人物的活动,很容易被松放。这是我们没有预先依靠的事实。我们没有考虑到我们的主人,因为我们“忘记众神”。

164 Our dreamer is not a religious person, she is “modern.” She
has forgotten the religion she was once taught, she knows noth¬ing of those moments when the gods intervene, or rather she does not know that there are age-old situations whose nature it is to stir us to the depths. One such situation is love, its passion and its danger. Love may summon forth unsuspected powers in the soul for which we had better be prepared. “Religio” in the sense of a “careful consideration” of unknown dangers and agencies-that is what is in question here. From a simple projec¬tion love may come upon her with all its fatal power, some daz¬zling illusion that might throw her life off its natural course.

我们的作梦者并不是信仰宗教的人。她是“现代人”。她曾经忘记宗教,她曾经被教导的宗教。她对那些时刻一无所知,当众神介入的时刻。或者说,她并不知道,在有限古老的情境,这些情境的特性就是要激发我们到达深渊。一个这样的情境就是爱,爱的激情与爱的危险。爱可能召唤在灵魂里没有被怀疑具有的各种力量。我们最好对这些力量要有所准备。“宗教”的意涵就是“仔细地准备”对于未知的危险与代理者。它就是在此受到质疑的东西。从一个简单的投射,爱可能降临她身上,带着爱的致命的力量。某个令人晕眩的幻觉可能将她的生命抛开,脱离它的自然的途径。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型100

September 24, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

101

168
169
ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
Is it a good thing or a bad, God or devil, that will befall the dreamer? Without knowing which, she feels that she is already in its clutches. And who can say whether she will be able to cope with this complication! Until now she had managed to circum¬vent such an eventuality, but now it threatens to seize hold of her. That is a risk we should avoid, or, if we must take the plunge, we need a good deal of “trust in God” or “faith” in a successful issue. Thus, unsought and unexpected, the question creeps in of one’s religious attitude to fate.

将会降临到作梦者身上,这是好事,或是坏事?是上帝,还是恶魔?她没有知道是哪一个,她感觉她已经是在它的掌控当中。有谁能够说,她将是否能够处理这个併发症!直到现在,她曾经成功地规避一种最后结局。但是现在,这个最后结局威胁要掌控她。那是一个我们应该避免的冒险,或是,假如我们必须孤注一掷,我们需要许多的“对上帝的信任”,或是“信仰”,作为成功的结果。因此,没有受到询问,也出乎意料之外,我们对于命运的宗教的态度的这个问题偷偷地出现。

165 The dream as it stands leaves the dreamer no alternative at
present but to withdraw her foot carefully; for to go on would be fatal. She cannot yet leave the neurotic situation, because the dream gives her no positive indication of any help from the un¬conscious. The unconscious powers are still inauspicious and obviously expect more work and a deeper insight from the dreamer before she can really venture across.

梦的本质让作梦者目前没有选择的余地,除了小心地撤退她的脚步。因为继续前进是致命的。她依旧无法离开神经症的情境,因为这个梦并没有给予她任何的指示:从无意识会给予任何的帮助。无意识的力量依旧是不吉祥的。显而易见地,无意识期望作梦者,要有更多的工作,更加深入的洞察力。这样,她才能确实冒险地跨越。

166 I certainly do not wish, by this negative example, to convey
the impression that the unconscious plays a negative role in all cases. I will therefore add two fu;-ther dreams, this time of a young man, which illuminate another and more favourable side of the unconscious. I do this the more readily since the solution of the problem of opposites can be reached only irrationally, by way of contributions from the unconscious, i.e., from dreams.

我确实没有愿望要凭借这个负面的例子,来传递这个印象:无意识在任何情况都扮演负面的角色。我因此补充两个更多的梦。这一次,是年轻人的梦。这个梦启蒙无意识具有另外一个,更加有利的一面。我更加迅速地这样做,因为对立力量的难题的解决,仅能够以非理性的方式来获得。凭借从无意识而来的各种贡献,也就是从梦而来。

167 First I must acquaint the reader in some measure with the
personality of the dreamer, for without this acquaintance he will hardly be able to transport himself into the peculiar atmosphere of the dreams. There are dreams that are pure poems and can therefore only be understood through the mood they convey as a whole. The dreamer is a youth of a little over twenty, still en¬tirely boyish in appearance. There is even a touch of girlish¬ness in his looks and manner of expression. The latter betrays a very good education and upbringing.

首先,我必须让读者对于作梦者的人格有某个程度上的熟悉。因为假如没有这个熟悉,读者将几乎无法能够转移他自己,进入梦的氛围。有些的梦是纯粹的诗,因此,仅能凭借它们作为整体时表达的心情,它们才能被理解。作梦者是一位稍微超过二十岁的年轻人。外表上还完全是孩子气。甚至有点娘娘腔,在他的外表与表达的方式上。他的表达方式透露出,他受过良好教育与教养。

He is intelligent, with pro¬nounced intellectual and aesthetic interests. His aestheticism is very much in evidence: we are made instantly aware of his good taste and his fine appreciation of all forms of art. His feelings are tender and soft, given to the enthusiasms typical of puberty, but somewhat effeminate. There is no trace of adolescent callow¬ness. Undoubtedly he is too young for his age, a clear case of retarded development. It is quite in keeping with this that he should have come to me on account of his homosexuality.

他是聪明的,具有显著的知识与美学的興趣。他的美学主义非常明显。马上就让我们知道他的良好的品味与他对于各色各样的艺术的鉴赏能力。他的感觉是温柔体贴,耽溺于青春期的典型的热情,但是相当的女性化。他丝毫没有青年人的少不更事的迹象。无可怀疑地,就他的年纪而言,他太过于年轻。很清楚是迟缓发展的案例。他因为同性恋的缘故,前来就诊于我,完全符合这种的迟缓的发展。

The
102

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
night preceding his first visit he had the following dream: “I am in a lofty cathedral filled with mysterious twilight. They tell me that it is the cathedral at Lourdes. In the centre there is a deep dark well) into which I have to descend.”

在前来我这里就诊的前一个晚上,他作了以下的梦:「我正处于一栋崇高的大教堂,里面充满了神秘的微光。他们告诉我,那是劳帝斯的大教堂。在中心,有一口深深的黑暗的井。我必须走下这口井。」

The dream is clearly a coherent expression of mood. The
dreamer’s comments are as follows: “Lourdes is the mystic fount of healing. Naturally I remembered yesterday that I was going to you for treatment and was in search of a cure. There is said to be a well like this at Lourdes. It would be rather unpleasant to go down into this water. The well in the church was ever so
deep.”

梦显而易见地是心情的一贯的表达。作梦者的评论如下:「劳帝斯大教堂是治疗的神秘的泉源。当然,我昨天记得,我将要去你那里就诊。我当时寻求治疗。据说在劳帝斯教堂那里,有一口这样的井。这将是相当令人不愉快,假如我们走下这个井水。教堂的这口井是如此深。

Now what does dream tell us? On the surface it seems clear
enough, and we might be content to take it as a kind of poetic formulation of the mood of the day before. But we should never stop there, for experience shows that dreams are much deeper and more significant. One might almost suppose that the dreamer came to the doctor in a highly poetic mood and was entering upon the treatment as though it were a sacred religious act to be performed in the mystical half-light of some awe-inspir¬ing sanctuary.

现在,这个梦告诉我们什么?表面上,似乎足够清楚. 我们可以满足地接受它,作为一种诗意,前天的心情的阐释. 但是我们永远不应该停在那里。因为精神分析经验告诉我们,作梦者前来就诊于医生,带着诗意的心情。并且正要从事这个治疗,好像那是一个神圣的宗教的行动,要被执行,从让人肃然起敬的圣堂的神秘的微光里。

But this does not fit the facts at all. The patient merely came to the doctor to be treated for that unpleasant matter, his homosexuality, which is anything but poetic. At any rate we cannot see from the mood of the preceding day why he should dream so poetically, if we were to accept so direct a causa¬tion for the origin of the dream. But we might conjecture, per¬haps, that the dream was stimulated precisely by the dreamer’s impressions of that highly unpoetical affair which impelled him to come to me for treatment.

但是,这根本就没有符合这些事实。病人仅是前来医生这里,为了被治疗,因为那个令人不愉快的事情,他的同性恋。这个同性恋绝非是诗意的。无论如何,我们无法从前一天的心情看出,为什么他竟然如此诗意地作梦。但是,我们或许可以推测,这个梦确实是受到作梦者的印象所触发。那个非常没有诗意的事情逼迫他前来我这里就诊。

We might even suppose that he dreamed in such an intensely poetical manner just because of the unpoeticalness of his mood on the day before, much as a man who has fasted by day dreams of delicious meals at night. It cannot be denied that the thought of treatment, of the cure and its unpleasant procedure, recurs in the dream, but poetically transfigured, in a guise which meets most effectively the lively aesthetic and emotional needs of the dreamer.

我们甚至认为,他用如此强烈诗意的方式作梦。仅是因为他的心情在前一天没有诗意。就像一位白天斋戒的人,晚上梦见美味的食物。我们无法否认,就诊的想法,治疗以及治疗的不愉快的过程的想法,在梦里重新出现。但是经过诗意地被转变形状,作为伪装,非常有效地满足作梦者的生动的美感与情感的需求。

He will be drawn on irresistibly by this inviting picture, despite the fact that the well is dark, deep, and cold. Something of the dream-mood will persist after sleep and will even linger on into the morning of the day on which he has to submit to the unpleasant and unpo¬etical duty of visiting me. Perhaps the drab reality will be
103

170
171

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
touched by the bright, golden after-glow of the dream feeling.
Is this, perhaps, the purpose of the dream? That would not be impossible, for in my experience the vast majority of dreams are compensatory.u

他将会受到这个引诱人的画面,无可抗拒地被吸引前进。尽管这个事实:这口井水黑暗,深邃,与寒冷。梦-心情的某件东西将会在清醒之后还持续下来。甚至还会一直留连到这天早晨,他必须履行令人不愉快而且没有诗意的这个责任:拜访我就诊。或许,这个阴暗的现实将会被梦的感觉的灿烂的黄金般的余辉所感动。或许,这难道就是梦的目的吗?那将不会是不可能的。因为在我的经验里,大多数的梦都具有补偿性质。

They always stress the other side in order to maintain the psychic equilibrium. But the compensation of mood is not the only purpose of the dream picture. The dream also provides a mental corrective. The patient had of course nothing like an adequate understanding of the treatment to which he was about to submit himself. But the dream gives him a picture which describes in poetic metaphor’s the nature of the treatment before him. This becomes immediately apparent if we follow up his associations and comments on the image of the cathedral: “Cathedral,” he says, “makes me think of Cologne Cathedral. Even as a child I was fascinated by it. I remember my mother telling me of it for the first time, and I also remember how, whenever I saw a village church, I used to ask if that were Cologne Cathedral. I wanted to be a priest in a cathedral like
that.”

这些梦总是强调另外一面,为了维持心灵的平衡。但是,心情的补偿作用并不是梦的画面的唯一的目的。梦也供应一种“精神的改正”。病人当然并没有像是治疗的充分的理解的东西。他即将要让自己承受治疗。但是这个梦给予他一个画面。这个画面用诗意的隐喻描述在他面前的治疗的特性。这当下变得非常明显,假如我们遵循他的联想与评论大教堂的这个意象:他说,「大教堂让我想到科伦尼大教堂。即使当我小时候,我就被它著迷。我记得我的母亲第一次告诉我,有关这个大教堂。我也记得,每当我看见一个村庄的教堂,我过去经常询问,是否那就是科伦尼大教堂。我想要成为像那样的大教堂的僧侣。」

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

From an other to the Other 65

September 22, 2015

From an other to the Other 65
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康
29.1.69 IX 14

At the start the father is dead. Only there you are. There remains the
Name of the Father and everything turns around that. If that was the way
I began the last time it is also with that that l am ending. The virtue of the
Name of the Father, is not something I am inventing, I mean that it is not
something I made up; it is written in Freud. The difference, he says
somewhere, between the field of man and that let us say of animality,
consists, wherever it may be, even when this only happens in a masked
form, namely, when it is said that there are some people who have no idea
of what is the role of the male in generation, why not?

一开始,父亲死了。这是你们的情况。父亲的名字依旧在那里。每样事情都绕着那件事旋转。假如那就是我上次开始的方式。我也是用那个方式来结束。父亲之名的品德并不是我正在发明的某件东西。我指的是,父亲之名并非是我杜撰的东西。它在弗洛依德那里就被书写。他在某个地方说过,人的领域与动物的领域之间的差异,就在无论那是什么,即使是当它仅是以被遮蔽的形式发生,换句话说,据说,于有些人们并不知道,在传宗接代方面,男性扮演的角色是什么。为什么不知道呢?

What it demonstrates, I mean the importance of this function of the Name of the
Father, is that even the very people who have no idea of it invent spirits to
fill it. In a word, what is characteristic is that Freud in a very precise
place articulates it – 1 am not going to waste my time telling you on what
page and what edition because now there are places where Freudian
readings are done and there are all the same competent people to indicate
it to those that are interested in it – the essence, in a word, and the
function of the father as Name, as pivot of discourse, depends precisely on
the fact that after all, you can never know who the father is. You can
always look, it is a question of faith.

它所证明的东西,我指的是,父亲之名的功能的重要性。即使是那些并不知道它的人们,杜撰各种精神来填补它。总之,表现特性的东西是,在一个非常明确的地方,弗洛依德表达它。我并不是要浪费我的时间,来告诉你们在哪一页以及什么版本,因为现在弗洛伊德的读书会举行的地方,仍然有些胜任的人们指示它,对那些感到興趣的人们。总之,父亲作为名字的本质与功能,作为辞说的枢纽,确实是依靠这个事实:毕竟,你们永远不知道父亲是谁。你们总是寻找,这是信仰的问题。

With the progress of science, you
manage to get to know in certain cases who he is not, but in any case he
remains all the same an unknown. It is altogether certain that this
introduction moreover of biological research into paternity cannot be
without an impact on the function of the Name of the Father.
Therefore, it is here, at the point where it is precisely only by maintaining
oneself in the symbolic, that there is the pivot around which turns a whole
field of subjectivity.

随着科学的进展,你们设法变得知道,在某些情况,父亲并不存在,但是无论如何,他始终是一个未知。这是完全确定的,而且,生物研究的这个介绍进入父亲,不可能没有影响,对于父亲之名的功能。因此,就在这里,在确实仅是凭借维持自己在象征界,总是有个枢纽。主体的领域就是环绕这个枢纽旋转。

We have to take the other aspect of what is involved
in the relationship to enjoyment and, in a word, to be able to advance,
which is our object this year, a little further into what is involved in the
transmission of the Name of the Father. Namely, what is involved in the
transmission of castration. I will end today, as usual, at the point that one
gets to one way or another and I will see you the next time.

我们必须接纳,在跟享乐的关系,所牵涉的东西的另外一个层面。总之,我们必须能够前进,这是今年我们的目标,稍微更加深入前进,进入父亲之名的传递牵涉的东西。换句话说,在阉割的传递所被牵涉的东西。我今天将结束,如同平常一样,在我们到达某个方式的时刻。下次我将再见你们。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 96

September 22, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

156 That would be to create a permanent state of dissociation, a
split between the individual and the collective psyche. On the one side we should have the differentiated modern ego, and on the other a sort of negroid culture, a very primitive state of affairs. We should have, in fact, what actually exists-a veneer of civilization over a dark-skinned brute; and the cleavage would be clearly demonstrated before our eyes. But such a dissociation requires immediate synthesis and the development of what has remained undeveloped.

那将是要创造一个永久的解离的状态,个人与无意识心灵的分裂。在一方面,我们应该拥有差异化的现代的自我。另一方面,一种黑人的文化,一种原始的事物的状态。事实上,我们应该拥有实际上存在的东西—文明的装饰外表。盖在黑皮肤的野蛮人身上。这个分裂将会清楚地被展示在我们的眼前。但是,这样的解离要求当下的综合,以及发展那些始终没有被发展的东西。

There must be a union of the two parts; for, failing that, there is no doubt how the matter would be de¬cided: the primitive man would inevitably lapse back into re¬pression. But that union is possible only where a still valid and therefore living religion exists, which allows the primitive man adequate means of expression through a richly developed sym¬bolism. In other words, in its dogmas and rites, this religion must possess a mode of thinking and acting that harks back to the most primitive level. Such is the case in Catholicism, and this is its special advantage as well as its greatest danger.

这两个部分一定要有一个结合。因为,当结合失败时,无可置疑地,事情将会如何被决定:原始的人必然会倒退进入压抑。但是,那个结合是可能,仅有存在著依旧有效,因此具有活力的宗教的地方。这个宗教容下原始的人拥有足够的表达的工具,通过丰富发展的象征主义。换句话说,在宗教的教条与仪式里,宗教必须拥有一个思维与行为的模式。这些思想与行为回溯到最原始的层次。这就是天主教的情况。这就是天主教的特别的优势,以及它的最大的危险。

157 Before we go into this new question of a possible union, let
us return to the dream from which we started. This whole dis¬cussion has given us a wider understanding of the dream, and particularly of one essential part of it-the feeling of fear. This fear is a primitive dread of the contents of the collective uncon¬scious. As we have seen, the patient identifies herself with Mrs. X, thereby showing that she also has some relation to the myste¬rious artist. It proved that the doctor was identified with the artist, and further we saw that on the subjective level I became an image for the figure of the magician in the collective uncon¬scious.

在我们探讨可能的结合的这个新的问题之前,让我们回到我们开始谈论的这个梦。整个的讨论给予我们更加宽广地理解这个梦。特别是梦的一个重要的部分:恐惧的感觉。这个恐惧是原始人的恐惧集体无意识的内容。我们已经看出,病人自己认同X夫人。因此,病人显示,她也拥有某个关系,跟这个神秘的艺术家。这证明,医生被认同为艺术家。更进一步,我们看见,在主观的层次,我变成魔法师的人物的意象,在集体无意识里。

6 Cf. “Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious,” pars. 74ff.
97

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
All this is covered in the dream by the symbol of the crab, which walks backwards. The crab is the living content of the unconscious, and it cannot be exhausted or made ineffective by analysis on the objective level. We can, however, separate the mythological or collective psychic contents from the objects of consciousness, and consolidate them as psychological realities outside the individual psyche. Through the act of cognition we “posit” the reality of the archetypes, or, more precisely, we pos¬tulate the psychic existence of such contents on a cognitive basis. It must emphatically be stated that it is not just a question of cognitive contents, but of transubjective, largely autonomous psychic systems which on that account are only very condition-ally under the control of the conscious mind and for the most part escape it altogether.

所有这一切被涵盖在螃蟹的象征里, 螃蟹往后行走。螃蟹是无意识的活生生的内容。客观层次的精神分析无法穷尽它的涵义或让它没有效力。可是,我们能够分开神话或集体的心灵的内容,跟意识到客体,并且将它们团结,作为心灵的现实,外在于个人的心灵。通过认知的行动,我们“假设”原型的现实。或者,更加确实地说,我们假设这些内容具有心灵的存在,在认知的基础上。我们必须强调地陈述:问题并不仅是认知的内容,而是跨越主观性的内容,主要是具有自主权的心灵的系统。因为那个缘故,具有自主权的心灵的内容仅是有条件地受到意识心灵的控制。它们大部分也一块逃避意识心灵的控制。

So long as the collective unconscious and the individual psyche are coupled together without being differentiated, no progress can be made; or, to speak in terms of the dream, the boundary cannot be crossed. If, despite that, the dreamer makes ready to cross the border-line, the unconscious becomes acti-vated, seizes her, and holds her fast. The dream and its material characterize the collective unconscious partly as a lower animal that lives hidden in the depths of the water, and partly as a dan¬gerous disease that can be cured only by a timely operation. To what extent this characterization is apt has already been seen.

只要集体无意识与个人的心灵结合一块,没有被差异化,就没有任何的进展形成。或者,用梦的术语来说,这个边界无法被跨越。假如,尽管是那样,作梦者准备要跨越这个边界线,无意识变成被触动起来,捉住她,然后紧紧地抱着她。梦与梦的材料表现集体无意识的特性,部分是作为低等的动物,隐藏地生活在水的深处,部分作为危险的疾病,仅能够凭借及时的手术,才能够被治疗。这个特性合宜到什么程度,已经被看成。

As we have said, the animal symbol points specifically to the extra¬human, the transpersonal; for the contents of the collective un¬conscious are not only the residues of archaic, specifically human modes of functioning, but also the residues of functions from man’s animal ancestry, whose duration in time was infinitely greater than the relatively brief epoch of specifically human existence.

如同我们已经说过,动物的象征明确地指向特殊的人,这个跨越个人的人,集体无意识的内容的人,并不仅是过时的残留物。明确地说,它们不但是是人类的功能的模式,而且是从人的动物的祖先的残留物。祖先存在的时间的期间,比起明确是人类的存在的比较短暂的时代,无限地更加长久。

7 In his philosophical dissertation on Leibniz’s theory of the unconscious (Das Unbewusste bei Leibniz in Beziehung zu modernen Theorien), Canz has used the engram theory of R. W. Semon to explain the collective unconscious. The concept of the collective unconscious advanced by me coincides only at certain points with Semon’s concept of the phylogenetic mneme. Cf. Semon, Die Mneme als erhaltendes Prinzip im Wechsel des organischen Geschehens (1904); trans. by L. Simon as The Mneme.
98

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS

These residues, or “engrams,” as Semon calls them,7 are extremely liable, when activated, not only to retard the pace of development, but actually to force it into regression until the store of energy that activated the unconscious has been used up. But the energy becomes serviceable again by being brought into play through man’s conscious attitude towards the collective un¬conscious. The religions have established this cycle of energy in a concrete way by means of ritual communion with the gods.

这西残余物,或“记忆痕迹”,如同西门称呼它们。当它们被触动时,它们不但极端地容易迟缓发展的步调,而且实际上容易强迫发展进入倒退,直到触动无意识的能源的储存已经被耗尽。但是,能源变得再次可以服务,凭借被运作,通过人的意识的态度,朝向集体的无意识。宗教已经证实能源的这个循环,用具体的方式,凭借仪式跟众神沟通。

This method, however, is too much at variance with our intel¬lectual morality, and has moreover been too radically sup¬planted by Christianity, for us to accept it as an ideal, or even possible, solution of the problem. If on the other hand we take the figures of the unconscious as collective psychic phenomena or functions, this hypothesis in no way violates our intellectual conscience. It offers a rationally acceptable solution, and at the same time a possible method of effecting a settlement with the activated residues of our racial history. This settlement makes the crossing of previous boundaries altogether feasible and is therefore appropriately called the transcendent function. It is synonymous with progressive devc!opment towards a new atti¬tude.

可是,这个方法跟我们的知识点道德太过于背离。而且,这个方法已经被基督教强烈地取代。为了让我们接纳作为一种理想,或甚至是难题的可能的解决。假如另一方面,我们接纳无意识的人物,作为是集体的心灵的现象或功能,这个假设丝毫没有违背知识的良心。它提供理性能够接纳的解决,同时接纳一个可能的方法,跟我们的种族的历史的被触动的残渣达成妥协。这个妥协让先前的各个边界的跨越成为完全可行。并且因此合宜地被称为是“超验的功能”。它更朝向新的态度的进展的发展是同义词。

160 The parallel with the hero-myth is very striking. More often
than not the typical struggle of the hero with the monster (the unconscious content) takes place beside the water, perhaps at a ford. This is the case particularly in the Redskin myths with which Longfellow’s Hiawatha has made us familiar. In the deci¬sive battle the hero is, like] onah, invariably swallowed by the monster, as Frobenius has shown8 with a wealth of detail.

英雄神话的对比是非常有趣的。经常,英雄跟怪物的典型的奋斗(无意识的内容),发生在水的旁边,或许在渡口。在雷斯金的神话里,特别是这个情况。朗费罗的“希瓦萨”让我们对这个神话耳熟能详。在决定性的战斗里,像奥那这样的英雄,必然是被怪物吞没。如同弗洛边尼斯曾经用许多细节显示的。

But, once inside the monster, the hero begins to settle accounts with the creature in his own way, while it swims eastwards with him towards the rising sun. He cuts off a portion of the viscera, the heart for instance, or some essential organ by virtue of which the monster lives (i.e., the valuable energy that activates the uncon¬Kious). Thus he kills the monster, which then drifts to land, where the hero, new-born through the transcendent function (the “night sea journey,” as Frobenius calls it), steps forth, sometimes in the company of all those whom the monster has previously devoured. In this manner the normal state of things is restored, since the unconscious, robbed of its energy, no longer occupies the dominant position. Thus the myth graphi¬8 Frobenius, Das Zeitalter des Sonnengottes.
ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
cally describes the problem which also engages our patient.9

但是,一旦在怪物里面,英雄开始用他自己的方式,跟怪物达成妥协。当怪物带着它游泳朝向东边,朝向上升的太阳。他切割掉他的内脏的一部分,譬如,心脏。或某个基本的器官。凭借这个基本的器官,怪物活着( 也就是,触动无意识的宝贵的来源)。因此,他杀死怪物,这怪无因此漂浮到岸边。在那里,经由超验的功能,英雄重新诞生(‘夜晚的海洋之旅“如同弗洛边尼斯称呼它,)步走出来,有时被怪物先前吞没的那些人们伴随。以这种方式,事情的正常状态被恢复,因为无意识被剥夺掉它的能源,不再佔据优势的位置。因此,神话生动地描述也让我们的病人著迷的难题。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 94

September 21, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology

分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

151 There is nothing for it but to recognize the irrational as a
necessary, because ever-present, psychological function, and to take its contents not as concrete realities-that would be a regres¬sion!-but as psychic realities, real because they work. The col¬lective unconscious, being the repository of man’s experience and at the same time the prior condition of this experience, is an image of the world which has taken aeons to form. In this image certain features, the archetypes or dominants, have crystallized out in the course of time.

对于它,没有别的办法,除了就是体认这个非理性,作为是必要性。因为永远存在,心理的功能,接纳它的内容,不是做为具体的现实,那将会是倒退—而是当作心理的现实。它们是真实的,因为它们运作得通。集体无意识是人的经验的贮藏室,同时也是这个经验的早先的情况。集体无意识是世界的意象,它花费永恒纪元才形成。在这个意象里,某些的特征,原型,或统治的东西,随着时间过去,已经成为具体。

They are the ruling powers, the gods, images of the dominant laws and principles, and of typical, regu¬larly occurring events in the soul’s cycle of experience.s In so far as these images are more or less .faithful replicas of psychic events, their archetypes, that is, their general characteristics which have been emphasized through the accumulation of simi¬lar experiences, also correspond to certain general characteristics of the ph ysical world. Archetypal images can therefore be taken metaphorically, as intuitive concepts for physical phenomena. For instance, aether) the primordial breath or soul-substance, is a concept found all over the world, and energy) or magical power, is an intuitive idea that is equally widespread.

它们是统治的权力,众神,统治的法则与原则的意象,是典型的,规律地发生的事件,在灵魂的经验的循环里。因为这些意象相当忠实地复制心灵的事件,他们的原型,换句话说,他们的一般的特征曾经被强调,经由类似经验的累积,他们也对应于物理世界的某些一般的特征。原型的意象因此能够用隐喻方式来看待。作为直觉的观念,对于物理的现象。譬如,“以太”,灵魂-物质的原初的呼吸,这是全世界都被发现的观念。“能源”,活魔法的力量,是一个直觉的观念,同他广泛流传。

152 On account of their affinity with physical phenomena,4 the
archetypes usually appear in projection; and, because projec¬tions are unconscious, they appear on persons in the immediate environment, mostly in the form of abnormal over- or under¬valuations which provoke misunderstandings, quarrels, fanati¬cisms, and follies of every description. Thus we say, “He makes a god of so-and-so,” or, “So-and-so is Mr. X’s bete noire.” In this way, too, there grow up modern myth-formations, Le., fantastic rumours, suspicions, prejudices.

因为它们跟物理现象的亲密关系,原型通常出现在投射里。因为投射是无意识,它们出现在个人身上,在当下的环境,大部分是以不正常的形式,过分高估,或过分低估,都会引起误解,争吵,狂热行为,与各色各样的愚蠢行为。“他成为某某人的上帝”,或“某某人是X夫人的讨厌的人“。以这种方式,现代的神话-形态成长出来,譬如,幻想的谣言,怀疑,偏见。

The archetypes are therefore exceedingly important things with a powerful effect, meriting our closest attention. They must not be suppressed out of hand, but must be very carefully weighed and considered, if only because of the danger of psychic infection they carry with them.

这些原型因此过分地重要的事情,具有强烈的影响,获得我们最密切的注意。它们一定不要无法控制地被压抑,而是必须要仔细的衡量与考虑。即使仅是因为它们与之俱来的心灵的传染的危险。

S As indicated earlier (par. 109), the archetypes may be regarded as the effect and deposit of experiences that have already taken place, but equally they appear a& the factors which cause such experiences.
4 Cf. “The Structure of the Psyche,” pars. 325ff•
95

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
Since they usually occur as projections, and since these only at¬tach themselves where there is a suitable hook, their evaluation and assessment is no light matter. Thus, when somebody pro¬jects the devil upon his neighbour, he does so because this person has something about him which makes the attachment of such an image possible. But this is not to say that the man is on that account a devil; on the contrary, he may be a particularly good fellow, but antipathetic to the maker of the projection, so that a “devilish” (i.e., dividing) effect arises between them.

因为他们通常发生作为投射,因为这些投射仅是联接它们自己,在有合适的挂钩的地方。对于它们的评估与估价并不是容易的事情。因此,当某个人投射恶魔在他的邻居身上,他这样做,确实是因为他的个人身上具有某件让这样的意象的联接成为可能。但是,这并不是要说,因为这个缘故,这个人就是恶魔。相反地,他可能是一位特殊的好人。但是对于投射的制造者对立反感。所以,一个“恶魔”(分裂)的影响,出现在它们之间。
Nor need the projector necessarily be a devil, although he has to recognize that he has something just as devilish in himself, and has only stumbled upon it by projecting it. But that does not make him a devil; indeed he may be just as decent as the other man. The appearance of the devil in such a case simply means that the two people are at present incompatible: for which reason the uncon¬scious forces them apart and keeps them away from each other. The devil is a variant of the “shadow” archetype, i.e., of the dangerous aspect of the unrecognized dark half of the personal¬ity.

投射者也未必就是一位恶魔。虽然他必须体认:在他身上,他拥有某件东西,作为恶魔的东西。并且仅有在投射它时,他才已经遭遇到它。但是,那并没有让他成为恶魔,的确,他可能同样地正当,跟另一个人一样。在这个个案里,恶魔的外表仅是意味着,这两个人目前是不相和谐的。因为这个理由,无意识强迫它们分开。并且保持它们互相离开。恶魔是“阴影原型”的一个变数。也就是,人格的没有被体认的黑暗的一半的危险的层面。

One of the archetypes that is almost invariably met with in the projection of unconscious collective contents is the “magic demon” with mysterious powers. A good example of this is Gus¬tav Meyrink’s Golem) also the Tibetan wizard in the same au¬thor’s Fledermiiuse) who unleashes world war by magic. N atu¬rally Meyrink learned nothing of this from me; he brought it independently out of his unconscious by clothing in words and imagery a feeling not unlike the one which my patient had pro¬jected upon me. The magician type also figures in Zarathustra) while in Faust he is the actual hero.

其中一个原型几乎一成不变地在无意识的集体内容的投射里被遭遇到。那就是“魔术的恶魔”,具有神秘的力量。关于这个原型的一个好例子是梅林克的“假人”,在相同作者的弗列得米斯,也是西藏的巫师,他凭借魔法开启战争。当然,梅林克并不是从我这里学习到任何东西。他独立地从他的无意识将这个东西带出来。凭借用文字与意象装饰一种感觉,相当类似我的病人投射到我身上的感觉。魔法师的类型也是尼采的“札拉图斯特拉“的人物。而在”浮士德“那里,他说实际的英雄。

The image of this demon forms one of the lowest and most ancient stages in the conception of God. It is the type of primi¬tive tribal sorcerer or medicine-man, a peculiarly gifted person¬ality endowed with magical power.5 This figure often appears as dark-skinned and of mongoloid type, and then it represents a negative and possibly dangerous aspect. Sometimes it can hardly be distinguished, if at all, from the shadow; but the more the magical note predominates, the easier it is to make the distinc¬tion, and this is not without relevance in so far as the demon can also have a very positive aspect as the “wise old man.” 6

这个恶魔的意象形成其中一个最低,最古老的阶段,在上帝的观念里。就是这种的原初的部落的召魂师或药师,一个特殊天赋的人格,被秉赋著魔法的力量。这个人物经常出现,作为黑皮肤,属于蒙古人种。因此,它代表一个负面而且可能的危险的层面。有时,它几乎无法被区别,跟阴影。但是,随着魔法的调子更加佔优势,从事这个区别就越加地容易。其中并非没有关联。因为恶魔也能够拥有一个非常积极的层面。作为“智慧老人“。
5 The idea of the medicine-man who communes with spirits and wields magical powers is so deeply ingrained in many primitives that they even believe “doc¬tors” are to be found among animals. Thus the Achomawi of northern Califor• nia speak of ordinary coyotes and of “doctor” coyotes.
96

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS

155 The recognition of the archetypes takes us a long step for-
wards. The magical or daemonic effect emanating from our neighbour disappears when the mysterious feeling is traced back to a definite entity in the collective unconscious. But now we have an entirely new task before us: the question of how the ego is to come to terms with this psychological non-ego. Can we rest content with establishing the real existence of the archetypes, and simply let things take care of themselves?

原型的这个体认带领我们向前迈进一大步。从邻居散发出来的魔法或恶魔的影响会消失,当神秘的感觉被追溯回答明确的实体,在集体无意识那里。但是,现在,我们拥有完全新的工作,在我们面前:自我如何能够更心灵的非自我互相妥协的这个问题。我们能够满足于建立原型的真实的存在,然后就仅是让事情自然发展吗?

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

From an other to the Other 64

September 21, 2015

From an other to the Other 64
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

You must think that here this becomes very interesting, namely, that this
minus infinity that you see appearing in the top right hand box, this is……..
expressed in the little writings of Pascal by the name of hell. Only this
S t –
– II
= — oG
II
– 0
presupposes that there should be examined why the function of the o
culminated in this most questionable idea that there is a beyond of death.

你们一定认为,在此,这变得有趣。换句话说,这个负的无限,你们看见它出现在右手边的盒子的顶端,这是、、、在巴斯卡的小著作里被表达,以地狱的名字。只是这个预先假定,应该被检视一下,为什么这个0的功能在这个可疑的观念达到顶峰,存在着一个死亡的超越。

29.1.69 IX 12

No doubt because of its indefinite, mathematical slippage, in any kind of
signifying chain wherever you pursue the final circumscribing, it always
subsists intact as I already articulated at the beginning of the year in a
certain schema of the relationships of S and 0. But then this may induce
us to ask ourselves what is meant by the emergence under the form of
minus infinity of something on this table.

无可置疑地,因为它的不明确的数学的失误,以任何一种能指化的锁链,无论你在哪里追寻这个最后的划定范围。它总是保持完整,如同我已经被表达,在这年的开始,用S与0的关系的某个基模。但是,因此,这可能引导我们询问我们自己,这个出现是什么意思,在这个表格上面,某件东西的负-无限。

Is this minus not to be
expressed in a way more homologous to its arithmetical function, namely,
that when it appears, the series of whole numbers is duplicated which
means is divided. There is here the sign of this something that appeared
to me the only thing worth recalling at the end of my last discourse. It is
that by taking as an o-object and not otherwise what is brought into play
(117) in the renunciation proposed by Pascal there is just as much infinity
where there is a limit as where it does not encounter this operation of o.
In any case, it is a half infinity that we engage with which singularly
balances out the chances in the first matrix.

这个“负”难道不是应该被表达,用某种更加类同的方式,类同算术的功能?换句话说,当它出现时,整数的这个系列被复制,这意味着,整数被区分。在此,有这个某件东西的符号,我觉得那是唯一的东西值得提醒一下,在我上次的研讨班的结束。凭借接纳作为o的客体,而不是别的,接纳巴斯卡所建议的放弃,被运作的东西,同样存在着一个无限。在这个无限那里,有一个限制,作为它没有遭遇0的这个运作的地方。无论如何,这是一半的无限,我们参与的无限,它独异地平衡在第一个基模的各种机率。

Only it may well be that we should remember differently what is
represented in this myth which, even though it forms part of dogma does
nothing, as Pascal reminds us, but bear witness that the mercy of God is
greater than his justice since he plucks out some chosen ones, while they
ought all to be in hell.

只是,很可能,我们应该用不同方式记住所被代表的东西,在这个神话里。即使它形成部分的教条,这个神话并没有做任何事情,巴斯卡提醒我们,而是见证到:上帝的仁慈大过于他的正义。因为上帝挑选出某些被选择的人们。虽然他们全部都应该在地狱里。

This proposition may appear scandalous. I am
astonished at it since it is quite clear and manifest that we have never been
able to imagine this hell beyond what happens to us every day. I mean
that we are already in it, that this necessity that surrounds us of not being
able, except at a horizon whose limits need to be questioned, to realise the
solid o, except by an indefinite repeated measure of what is involved in
the cut of o.

这个命题看起来像是丑闻。我对它大为吃惊。因为显而易见,我们从来没有能够想像这个地狱,超越我们日常所发生的事情。我的意思是,我们已经是在地狱里。这个环绕我们的必要性,不能够体会出这个固体的0,除了在不需要被询问的地平线的极限,除了凭借不明确的重复的测量,在0的这个切割所牵涉的东西。

Is this not enough, just by itself, to make the most
courageous lose heart? Only there you are. There is no choice. Our desire
is the desire of the Other, and depending on whether grace has been
lacking to us or not, what is played out at the level of the Other, namely,
of everything that has preceded us in this discourse that has determined
our very conception, we are determined or not to the course of stopping up
the o-object.

这难道不足够让即使是最勇敢的人也丧失志气吗?光是凭借它的自。你们就是在地狱那里。没有选择余地。我们的欲望就是大他者的欲望,并且依靠恩典是否欠缺给予我们而定,所被扮演的东西,在大他者的层面。换句话说,在一切早先于我们之前存在的东西的层次。在这个决定我们的观念的辞说,我们决定是否要停止这个0的客体的途径。

So then there remains the fourth box, the lower one. It is not for nothing
that I allowed myself today to smile about them They are just as
numerous, just as divided up as those who are in the field of the top right.

因此,剩余下这第四个盒子,这个下方的盒子。这并非白费力气,我让我自己拖延微笑关于它们。它们同样数目很多,同样被区分,跟处于右上方的领域的那些人们。

I call them, provisionally, the granddads. You would be wrong
nevertheless to minimise the with which they get around, but all the same
what I would like to point to you is that, in any case, it is here that we in
analysis, have placed the proper norm Surplus enjoying is explicitly
modulated as foreign to the question. If the question at stake in what
analysis promises us as a return to the norm, how can we not see that this
norm is well and truly articulated there as the law, the law on which the
Oedipus complex is grounded. And it is quite clear that whatever end one
takes this myth from that enjoyment is absolutely distinguished from the
law.

我暂时称他们为祖父。可是,你们将是错误的,假如你们忽略这个领域,他们用来活动的领域。但是,我仍然想要跟你们指出的东西是,无论如何,就在这里,在精神分析,我们已经放置这个专有名词“剩余享乐”,它明确地被调节,作为是外在于这个问题。假如在精神分析岌岌可危的问题,承诺给予我们作为回归这个名称。我们如何会不能够看出,这个名称清楚地被表达,作为法则。伊狄浦斯情结就是以这个法则作为基础。显而易见地,无论我们从那个享乐来看待这个神话的目的,绝对被区别出来,跟这个法则不同。

To enjoy the mother is forbidden, we are told, and this does not go
far enough. What has consequences is the fact that to enjoy the mother is
forbidden. Nothing is organised except from this first statement. This can
be clearly seen in the fable in which the subject, Oedipus, never thought –
God knows because of what distraction, I mean because of everything that
was developed around him in terms of charm and probably also of
harassment by Jocasta – the idea never came to him, even when proofs
were flooding in. What is forbidden is to enjoy the mother and this is
confirmed in the formulation in another form.

享受母亲是被禁止的,我们被告诉。这并没足够深入。所造成结果的东西是这个事实:享受母亲是被禁止。没有一样东西被组织,除了从这第一个陈述。这显而易见能够被看出,在这个寓言里。在那里,主体,伊狄浦斯,从来没有认为—天晓得,因为怎样的狂乱,我的意思是,因为环绕他每样被发展的东西,用魅力的术语,可能也是周卡达到骚扰的术语—他从来没有这种想法,即使当证据汹涌而来。所别禁止的东西,就是享乐母亲。这是在诠释里,用另外一个形式证实的。

It is indispensable to bring
all of them together in order to grasp what Freud is articulating, that of
Totem and Taboo. The murder of the father blinds all these imbecilic
young bulls that I see circling around me from time to time in ridiculous
arenas. The murder of the father means precisely that you cannot kill him
He has been dead for all time. It is indeed for this reason that something
sensible is attached, even in places where it is paradoxical to see there
being belled: God is dead. It is because obviously, by not thinking about
it, you run the risk of missing one aspect of things.

无可免除的,要将它们所有聚集一块,为了理解弗洛依德正在表达的东西,“图腾与禁忌”的东西。对父亲的杀害让所有这些白痴一般的年轻公牛眼睛盲目,有时,在那些荒谬的斗牛场,我看见他们环绕着我。对父亲的杀害确实意味着,你们无法杀死他。他已经死掉一段时间了。确实是因为这个理由,某件合理的东西被联系。即使是荒谬地看见被大声宣告:上帝死了。因为显而易见地,凭借不去思考它,你们冒的危险是错过事情的某一层面。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 92

September 19, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

46 This remark throws an explanatory light on what has hap-
pened: I have taken the place of the friend. The friend has been overcome. The ice of the repression is broken and the patient has entered a new phase of life without knowing it. Now I know that all that was painful and bad in her relation with her friend will devolve upon me, as well as all the good, but it will be in violent conflict with the mysterious x which the patient has never been able to master. A new phase of the transference has started, although it does not as yet clearly reveal the nature of the x that has been projected upon me.
4
这个谈论对于曾经发生的事情,给予解释性的启明。我已经取代这位朋友。朋友已经被克服。压抑的冰已经破解,病人已经进入一个新的生命的时期,自己却不知道它。现在,我知道,所有的令人痛苦而不好的关系,在她跟她的朋友的关系,将会传递到我身上,以及那些美好的东西。但是它将会处于猛烈的冲突,跟这个神秘的x。病人从来没有掌控的x。移情的新的时期已经开始。虽然它尚没有清楚地显示已经被投射到我身上的这个x的特性。

7 One thing is certain: if the patient gets stuck in this form
of transference, the most troublesome misunderstandings lie ahead, for she will be bound to treat me as she treated her friend
92

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
-in other words, the x will be continually in the air giving rise to misunderstandings. It will inevitably turn out that she will see the demon in me, since she cannot accept it in herself. All insoluble conflicts come about in this fashion. And an insoluble conflict means bringing life to a standstill.

有一件事情是确定: 假如病人被卡陷在移情的这个形式,最麻烦的误解隐藏在前头。因为她将会被迫对待我,如同她对待她的朋友。换句话说,这个x将会继续出现在幻想里,产生误解。结果无可避免地将会是,她将会看见我身上的这个恶魔。因为她无法接受它,在她自己身上。所有无法被解救的冲突以这种方式发生。一个无法解决的冲突意味着,让生命停顿下来。

148 Or another possibility: the patient could use her old defence
mechanism against this new difficulty and could simply ignore the point of obscurity. That is to say, she could begin repressing again, instead of keeping things conscious, which is the necessary and obvious demand of the whole method. But nothing would be gained by this; on the contrary, the x now threatens from the unconscious, and that is far more unpleasant.

或许,另外一个可能是:病人能够使用她的防卫机制,来对抗新的困难,并且仅是忽略模糊暧昧的时刻。换句话说,她能够开始再次压抑。而不是让事情被意识到。这是整个方法的必要而且是明显的要求。但是,没有一样东西将会被这个方法获得。相反地,这个x现在威胁从无意识那里。那是更加令人不愉快。

149 Whenever such an unacceptable content appears, we must
consider carefully whether it is a personal quality at all. “Magi¬cian” and “demon” may well represent qualities whose very names make it instantly clear that these are not human and per¬sonal qualities but mythological ones. Magician and demon are mythological figures which express the unknown, “inhuman” feeling that swept over the patient. They are attributes not in any sense applicable to a human personality, although, as intui¬tive judgments not subjected to closer criticism, they are con¬stantly being projected upon our fellow men, to the very great detriment of human relations.

每当这样的无法被接受的内容出现,我们必须仔细考虑到,它是否是一个个人的特质。“魔法师”与“恶魔”很有可能代表那些名称当下清楚的特质。它们并不是人类与个人的特质,而是神话的特质。魔法师与恶魔是神话的人物。这些神话表达病人身上充裕的这个未知,“非人类”的感觉。它们作为并不是可以运用到人类的可能性的属性,虽然,作为直觉的判断,并没有隶属于更加仔细的批判。它们不断地被投射到我们的同胞身上,结果多人的关系产生严重的伤害。

15° These attributes always indicate that contents of the trans-
personal or collective unconscious are being projected. Personal memories cannot account for “demons,” or for “wicked magi¬cians,” although everyone has, of course, at one time or another heard or read of these things. We have all heard of rattlesnakes, but we do not call a lizard or a blindworm a rattlesnake and display the corresponding emotions merely because we have been startled by the rustling of a lizard or a blindworm. Simi¬larly, We do not call one of our fellows a demon unless there really is something demonic in his effect upon us.

这些属性总是指示著,移情或集体无意识的内容正在被投射。个人的记忆无法解释“恶魔”,或解释“邪恶的魔法师”。虽然每个人当然在某个时刻曾经听过或阅读过这些事情。我们大家都听过响尾蛇,但是我们并没有称蜥蜴或无脚蜥蜴,为响尾蛇,然若展示对应的情感,仅因为我们曾经被蜥蜴或无脚蜥蜴的沙沙声惊吓到。同样的,我们并没有称我们的其中一位同伴为恶魔,除非在他对于我们的影响,具有某件恶魔的东西。

But if this effect were truly a part of his personal character, it would show itself everywhere, and then the man would be a demon indeed, a Sort of werewolf. But that is mythology, i.e., collective psyche, and not individual psyche. In so far as through our unconscious We have a share in the historical collective psyche, we live natu¬r~lly and unconsciously in a world of werewolves, demons, magi¬Clans, ete., for these are things which all previous ages have in-
93

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
vested with tremendous affectivity. Equally we have a share in gods and devils, saviours and criminals; but it would be absurd to attribute these potentialities of the unconscious to ourselves personally. It is therefore absolutely essential to make the sharp¬est possible demarcation between the personal and the imper¬sonal attributes of the psyche.

但是,假如这个影响确实是他的人格的特质的部分,它将会到处显示它自己。然后,这个人将确实是恶魔,一种荒野之狼。但是,那是神话,也就是,集体无意识。我们参与历史的集体的心灵。我们自然地而且无意识地生活在荒野之狼,恶魔,与魔法师的世界。因为这些都是先前时代曾经带着强烈情感投注的事情。同样地,我们参与众神与恶魔,救赎者与罪犯。但是这将是荒谬的,假如我们将无意识的这些潜力归属于我们个人自己。这因此是绝对必要,尽可能地区别这个分界线,处于个人与非个人的心灵的属性。

This is not to deny the sometimes very formidable existence of the contents of the collective un¬conscious, but only to stress that, as contents of the collective psyche, they are opposed to and different from the individual psyche. Simple-minded folk have never, of course, separated these things from their individual consciousness, because the gods and demons were not regarded as psychic projections and hence as contents of the unconscious, but as self-evident reali¬ties. Only in the age of enlightenment did people discover that the gods did not really exist, but were simply projections. Thus the gods were disposed of. But the corresponding psychological function was by no means disposed of; it lapsed into the uncon¬scious, and men were thereupon poisoned by the surplus of li¬bido that had once been laid up in the cult of divine images.

这并不是要否认集体无意识的内容的这个有时是可怕的存在。而是要强调,作为集体心灵的内容,它们对立于,也不同于个人的心灵。当然,心灵单纯的人们从来没有将这些事情跟他们的个人的意识分开。因为众神与恶魔并没有被认为是心灵的投射,因此被认为是无意识的内容。而是作为不证自明的现实。仅有在启蒙的时代,人们才发现,众神并没有确实存在。而仅是投射。因此,众神被罢黜。但是对应的心灵的功能根本就没有被罢黜。它撤退进入无意识。人们因此被力比多的过剩所中毒。这个力比多曾经累积在各种神性意象的偶像崇拜里。
The devaluation and repression of so powerful a function as the religious function naturally have serious consequences for the psychology of the individual. The unconscious is prodigiously strengthened by this reflux of libido, and, through its archaic collective contents, begins to exercise a powerful influence on the conscious mind. The period of the Enlightenment closed, as we know, with the horrors of the French Revolution.

诸如宗教的功能这样强大的功能的被贬抑价值与压抑,当然会有严重的后果,对于个人的心灵。无意识因为这个力比多的重新流动而变得巨大地增强。通过它的古老的集体的内容,无意识开始运营强烈的影响力来,对于意识的心灵。我们知道,启蒙的时期结束,由于法国大革命的恐怖。
And at the present time, too, we are once more experiencing this uprising of the unconscious destructive forces of the collective psyche. The result has been mass-murder on an unparalleled scale.2 This is precisely what the unconscious was after. Its position had been immeasurably strengthened beforehand by the rationalism of modern life, which, by depreciating everything irrational, precipitated the function of the irrational into the unconscious.

目前也是,我们再次经验到无意识的这个动乱,集体心灵的毁灭性的力量。结果曾经是集体的杀害,以史无前例的规模。这确实是无意识追求的东西。它的立场事先曾经无法测量地被强化,被现代生活的理性主义。凭借贬抑每一样非理性的东西,理性主义将非理性的功能投掷进入无意识。

But once this function finds itself in the unconscious, it works unceasing havoc, like an incurable disease whose focus cannot be eradicated because it is invisible. Individual and nation alike are then compelled to live the irrational in their own lives, even devoting their loftiest ideals and their best wits to expressing its madness in the most perfect form. We see the same thing in 2 Written in 1916; superfluous to remark that it is still true today [1943]•
94

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS miniature in our patient, who fled from a course of life that seemed to her irrational-Mrs. X-only to act it out in patholog¬ical form, and with the greatest sacrifices, in her relations with her friend.

但是,一旦这个功能发现它自己处于无意识,它造成不停的破坏。就像是无法治疗的疾病的焦点,无法被抹除,因为它是看不见的。个人与国际同样都是被迫生活于非理性当中,在他们自己的生活里。他们甚至专注他们的崇高的理想与他们最好的机智,来表达它的疯狂,用最完美的形式。我们看见相同的事情,在我们病人的缩影里。她逃离生命的过程,那个过程她觉得是非理性的—X夫人。结果,她扮演这个非理性,用病态的方式,然后带着重大的牺性,在她跟朋友的关系。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 90

September 19, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型
We are now faced with the task of raising to the subjective level the phenomena which have so far been understood on the objective level. For this purpose we must detach them from the object and take them as symbolical exponents of the patient’s subjective complexes. If we try to interpret the figure of Mrs. X on the subjective level, we must regard it as the personification of a part-soul, or rather of a certain aspect of the dreamer.

我们现在面临这个工作,将这些现象提升到主体的层面。迄今,这些现象在客体的层面被理解。为了这个目的,我们必须将这些现象跟客体隔离开来。并且将它们当作是病人的主体的情结的象征的指数。假如我们尝试解释X夫人的人物,在主体的层面,我们必须将它视为是部分-灵活的具体化身。或者说,是作梦者的某个层面的具体化身。

Mrs. X then becomes an image of what the patient would like to be, and yet fears to be. She represents, as it were, a partial picture of the patient’s future character. The fascinating artist cannot so easily be raised to the subjective level, because the unconscious artistic capacity lying dormant in the patient is already taken up by Mrs. X. It would, however, be correct to say that the artist is the image of the patient’s masculinity which is not consciously realized and therefore lies in the unconscious. 1 This is true in the sense that the patient does in fact delude herself in this mat¬ter. In her own eyes she is quite remarkably fragile, sensitive, and feminine, and not in the least masculine. She was therefore indignantly amazed when I pointed out her masculine traits. But the strange, fascinating element is out of keeping with these traits. It seems to be entirely lacking to them. Yet it must be hiding somewhere, since she produced this feeling out of herself.

X夫人因此变成是病人的一种意象:病人想要成为,却又害怕成为的的人物。她代表所谓的病人的未来的人格的部分的画面。这位令人著迷的艺术家无法如此容易地被提升到主体的层面。因为无意识的艺术家的能力潜藏于病人身上,已经被X夫人所接纳。可是,这将是正确的,假如我们说,艺术家就是病人的阳刚男性的意象。病人的阳刚男性并没有意识地被实践,因此,潜藏在无意识里。这是真实的,因为病人事实上在这个事情欺骗她自己。在她自己的眼光里,她很明显是脆弱的,敏感的,与女性化。她根本就不阳刚男性。她因此感到愤怒地大吃一惊,当我指出她的阳刚男性的特征。表面看起来,阳刚男性的特征是完全欠缺的。可是,它一定隐藏在某个地方。因为她从她自己身上产生这种感觉。

Whenever such an element is not to be found in the dreamer himself, experience tells us that it is always projected. But upon whom? Is it still attached to the artist? He has long since disap-peared from the patient’s purview and cannot very well have taken the projection with him, since it lies anchored in the un-
1 I have called this masculine element in woman the animus and the correspond-ing feminine element in man the anima. See infra, pars. 296-340; also Emma Jung, “On the。Nature of the Animus.”
90

143
144
145

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS conscious of the patient, and moreover she had no personal rela¬tion with this man despite his fascination. For her he was more a figure of fantasy. No, a projection of this kind is always topical, that is, somewhere there must be somebody upon whom this content is projected, otherwise she would be palpably aware of it in herself.

每当这样的元素无法被找到,在作梦者他自己身上。精神分析经验告诉我们,那总是被投射。但是,投射到谁的身上?它仍然跟艺术家联接一块吗?他长久以来就已经从病人的视野里消失,不可能清楚地跟他作这样的投射。因为它锚定地藏在病人的无意识里。而且,她跟这个人并没有个人的关系,尽管他具有吸引力。对于她,他更是一个幻想的人物。不,这种的投射总是表面的。换句话说,在某个地方,一定有某个人,这个内容被投射。否则她会具体知道它,在她自身身上。

At this point we come back to the objective level, for with¬out it we cannot locate the projection. The patient does not know any man who means anything special to her, apart from myself; and as her doctor I mean a good deal. Presumably there-fore this content is projected on to me, though I had certainly noticed nothing of the sort. But these subtler contents never ap-pear on the surface; they always come to light outside the con-sulting hour.

在这个时刻,我们回到客体的层面。因为假如没有它,我们无法定位这个投射。病人并不认识任何对她具有特别意义的男人,除了我自己之外。作为她的医生,我具有重大意义。因此,假定这个内容被投射到我身上,虽然我确实并没有注意到任何这样的东西。但是,这些更加微妙的内容从来没有出现在表面。它们总是在看诊时间的外面才令人恍然醒悟。

I therefore asked her cautiously, “Tell me, how do I seem to you when you are not with me? Am I just the same?” She said, “When I am with you, you are quite pleasant, but when I am by myself, or have not seen you for some time, the picture I have of you changes in a remarkable way. Sometimes you seem quite idealized, and then again different.” Here she hesitated, and I prompted her: “In what way different?” Then she said, “Sometimes you seem rather dangerous, sinister, like an evil magician or a demon. I don’t know how I ever get such ideas-you are not a bit like that.”

我因此小心翼翼地询问她,「请你告诉我,当你没有跟我在一块时,你觉得我怎样?我仅是同样的人吗?」她说,「当我跟你在一块时,你是相当令人愉快。但是,当我单独一人时,或有段时间,我没有看见你时,我对于你的画面显著地改变。有时,你似乎完全被理想化。因此不同。在此,她犹豫一下,我引导她说:「在哪方面不同?」然后,她说,「你有时似乎相当危险,古怪,就像邪恶的魔法师,或恶魔。我不知道我如何表达这些观念—你差不多就是那样。」

So the content was fixed on me as part of the transference, and that is why it was missing from her psychic inventory. Here we recognize another important fact: I was contaminated (iden-tified) with the artist, so in her unconscious fantasy she natu-rally plays the role of Mrs. X with me. I could easily prove this to her with the help of the material-sexual fantasies-previously brought to light. But I myself am then the obstacle, the crab that prevents her from getting across. If, in this particular case, we were to confine ourselves to the objective level, the position would be very tricky. What would be the good of my explaining, “But I am not this artist in any sense, I am not in the least sinis-ter, nor am I an evil magician!” That would leave the patient quite cold, for she knows that just as well as I do. The projection continues as before, and I really am the obstacle to her further progress.

所以,这个内容被专注在我的身上,作为部分的移情。那是为什么它从心灵的目录里失落。在此,我们体认出另外一个重要的事实:我跟这位艺术家污染(认同)一块。所以,在她的无意识的幻想里,她自然跟我扮演X夫人的角色。我能够很容易地对她证明这个,凭借先前被揭露出来的性幻想的这些材料的帮助。但是,我自己是当时的这个阻碍。我是那只螃蟹,阻止她不能跨越过。假如,在这个特殊的情况,我们想要限定我们自己在客体的层面,这个立场将是非常诡谲。我的解释有什么益处呢?「但是,我并不是任何意义的艺术家。我根本就不古怪,我也不是邪恶的魔法师!」病人对我的话完全无动于衷。因为她跟我一样清楚。这个投射继续像以前一样。我确实就是这个阻碍,对于她的更进一步的进展。

It is at this point that many a treatment comes to a standstill.
There is no way of getting out of the toils of the unconscious,
91

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
except for the doctor to raise himself to the subjective level and to acknowledge himself as an image. But an image of what? Here lies the greatest difficulty of all. “Well now,” the doctor will say, “an image of something in the unconscious of the pa¬tient.” Whereupon she will say, “What, so I am a man, and a sinister, fascinating man at that, a wicked magician or demon? Not on your life! I cannot accept that, it’s all nonsense. I’d sooner believe this of you!”

就在这个时刻,很多的治疗会停顿下来。我们不可能逃脱无意识的劳苦工作。除了医生要提升他自己到主体的层面,并且承认自己,作为一个意象。但是什么的意象?在此,就是一切最困难的地方。「呵呵,现在,」医生将会说:「在病人的无意识里,某件东西的意象。」然后,她将会说:「我是一位男性,而且还是一位古怪而迷人的男性。那作为邪恶的魔法师或恶魔,是啥意思?绝不可能如此!我无法接受,那纯然是无意义的。我宁可相信,你才是那样!」

She is right: it is preposterous to transfer such things to her. She cannot accept being turned into a demon any more than the doctor can. Her eyes flash, an evil expression creeps into her face, the gleam of an unknown resist¬ance never seen before. I am suddenly faced by the possibility of a painful misunderstanding. What is it? Disappointed love? Does she feel offended, depreciated? In her glance there lurks something of the beast of prey, something really demoniacal. Is she a demon after all? Or am I the beast of prey, the demon, and is this a terrified victim sitting before me, trying to defend her¬self with the brute strength of despair against my wicked spells?

她说得没错:这是荒谬的,假如我们将那些事情转换给她。她无法接受被转换成为一位恶魔,如同医生无法接受。她的眼睛闪亮起来,邪恶的表情出现在她的脸孔,那是以前从未被见过的一个未知的抗拒的闪光。我突然面临被痛苦误解的可能性。那是什么?失望的爱情吗?她难道感觉受到冒犯?被贬抑?在她的眼光里,潜藏着某件猎食的野兽,这个恶魔。这是一个可怕的受害者坐在我的面前吗?她尝试要防卫她自己,用绝对的残酷的力量,对抗我的邪恶的魔法魅力?

All this must surely be nonsense-fantastic delusion. What have I touched? What new chord is vibrating? Yet it is only a passing moment. The expression on the patient’s face clears, and she says, as though relieved, “It is queer, but just now I had a feel¬ing you had touched the point I could never get over in relation to my friend. It’s a horrible feeling, something inhuman, evil, cruel. I simply cannot describe how queer this feeling is. It makes me hate and despise my friend when it comes, although I struggle against it with all my might.”

所有这一切一定都是无意义-幻想的欺骗。我已经碰触到什么?有什么新的共鸣在迴响?可是,这仅是一个瞬间的时刻。病人脸孔上的表情开朗起来。她如释重负地说:「这个古怪,但是刚才,我有一种感觉,你碰触到这个点,我无法跨越的这个点,在跟我的朋友的关系。这是一个可怕的感觉,有某件非人性的东西,邪恶,残酷。我就是无法描述,这种感觉是多么的古怪。它让我恨并且轻视我的朋友,当这种感觉来临时。虽然我奋斗对抗它,用完一切都力量。

雄伯译
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