Archive for September, 2015

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型104

September 27, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格



In these associations the patient is describing a very impor-
tant experience of his childhood. As in nearly all cases of this kind, he had a particularly close tie with his mother. By this we are not to understand a particularly good or intense conscious relationship, but something in the nature of a secret, subterra-nean tie which expresses itself consciously, perhaps, only in the retarded development of character,.i.e., in a relative infantilism. The developing personality naturally veers away from such an unconscious infantile bond; for nothing is more obstructive to development than persistence in an unconscious-we could also say, a psychically embryonic-state. For this reason instinct seizes on the first opportunity to replace the mother by another object.


If it is to be a real mother-substitute, this object must be, in some sense, an analogy of her. This is entirely the case with our patient. The intensity with which his childish fantasy seized upon the symbol of Cologne Cathedral corresponds to the strength of his unconscious need to find a substitute for the mother. The unconscious need is heightened still further in a case where the infantile bond could become harmful. Hence the enthusiasm with which his childish imagination took up the idea of the Church; for the Church is, in the fullest sense, a mother.


11 The idea of compensation has already been extensively used by Alfred Adler.

of the Ch
We speak not only of Mother Church, but even of the Church’s womb. In the ceremony known as the benedictio fontis) the bap¬tismal font is apostrophized as “immaculatus divini fontis uterus”-the immaculate womb of the divine font. We naturally think that a man must have known this meaning consciously be¬fore it could get to work in his fantasy, and that an unknowing child could not possibly be affected by these significations. Such analogies certainly do not work by way of the conscious mind, but in quite another manner.


172 The Church represents a higher spiritual substitute for the
purely natural, or “carnal,” tie to the parents. Consequently it frees the individual from an unconscious natural relationship which, strictly speaking, is not a relationship at all but simply a condition of inchoate, unconscious identity. This, just because it is unconscious, possesses a tremendous inertia and offers the utmost resistance to any kind of spiritual development. It would be hard to say what the essential difference is between this state and the soul of an animal.


Now, it is by no means the special prerogative of the Christian Church to try to make it possible for the individual to detach himself from his original, animal¬like condition; the Church is simply the latest, and specifically Western, form of an instinctive striving that is probably as old as mankind itself. It is a striving that can be found in the most varied forms among all primitive peoples who are in any way developed and have not yet become degenerate: I mean the in• stitution or rite of initiation into manhood. When he has reached puberty the young man is conducted to the “men’s house,” or some other place of consecration, where he is system• atically alienated from his family.

现在,这决非是基督教教堂的特权,尝试让个人有可能将自己更他的原初的像动物一样的情况隔离开来。教堂仅是最近,明确是西方的形式,作为本能的追寻的形式。这个形式可能更人类本身一样的古老。这一种追寻能够被找到,以各色各样的形式,在原始的民族当中。他们以任何方式被发展,而且还没有变得恶化。我指的是由入会到成年的体制与仪式。当他到达青春期时,年轻柔被引导到” 成年人之屋“,或是某个奉献的地方。在那里,他跟他的家庭制度方面被隔离。

At the same time he is initi¬ated into the religious mysteries, and in this way is ushered not only into a wholly new set of relationships, but, as a renewed and changed personality, into a new world, like one reborn (quasimodo genitus). The initiation is often attended by all kinds of tortures, sometimes including such things as circumci• sion and the like. These practices are undoubtedly very old. They have almost become instinctive mechanisms, with the re¬sult that they continue to repeat themselves without external compulsion, as in the “baptisms” of German students or the even more wildly extravagant initiations in American students’ fraternities. They are engraved on the unconscious as a primor¬dial image.




173 When his mother told him as a little boy about Cologne Ca-
thedral, this primordial image was stirred and awakened to life. But there was no priestly instructor to develop it further, so the child remained in his mother’s hands. Yet the longing for a man’s leadership continued to grow in the boy, taking the form of homosexual leanings-a faulty developmeJ;1t that might never have come about had a man been there to educate his childish fantasies.

作为小孩时, 当他的母亲告诉他关于科伦尼大教堂,这个原初的意象被触动,并且甦醒复活。但是,并没有僧侣的教师来更加深入地发展它。所以,小孩始终留在他的母亲的手中。可是,对于男人的领导的渴望继续在男孩身上成长,採取同性恋的习性的形式—错误的发展。假如当时有人在那里教育他的童年的幻想,这样的错误的发展本来可能不会发生。

The deviation towards homosexuality has, to be sure, numerous historical precedents. In ancient Greece, as also in certain primitive communities, homosexuality and education were practically synonymous. Viewed in this light, the homosex¬uality of adolescence is only a misunderstanding of the otherwise very appropriate need for masculine guidance. One might also say that the fear of incest which is based on the mother-complex extends to women in general; but in my opinion an immature man is quite right to be afraid of women, because his relations with women are generally disastrous.


174 According to the dream, then, what the initiation of the
treatment signifies for the patient is the fulfilment of the true meaning of his homosexuality, i.e., his entry into the world of the adult man. All that we h<l¥e been forced to discuss here in such tedious and long-winded detail, in order to understand it properly, the dream has condensed into a few vivid metaphors, thus creating a picture which works far more effectively on the imagination, feeling, and understanding of the dreamer than any learned discourse.


Consequently the patient was better and more intelligently prepared for the treatment than if he had been overwhelmed with medical and pedagogical maxims. (For this reason I regard dreams not only as a valuable source of in¬formation but as an extraordinarily effective instrument of edu¬cation.)



From an other to the other 66

September 26, 2015

From an other to the Other 66

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康
Seminar 10: Wednesday 5 February 1969
I am going to restart from where I left you the last time. I said a lot of things the last
time, and in particular I succeeded in touching some people by the mathematical
evidence that I believe I succeeded in giving of the genesis of what is involved in o,
through the simple virtue of the One qua mark.


This depends on this factum, this
fabrication that results from the simplest use of this One in so far as it multiplies once
it is repeated, since it is only posited in order to attempt the repetition of, to rediscover
enjoyment in so far as it has already fled. The first One, by rediscovering what was
not marked at the origin, already alters it, since at the origin it was not marked. It is
already posited then by grounding a difference that it does not constitute as such but
in so far as it produces it. This is this original point that makes of repetition the key of
a process about which the question is posed, once it has been opened up, of whether
or not it can find its term.


You see that we are immediately brought to the question that is only terminal when
applied to a single career, that of Freud, in so far as subject on the one hand, he was
also a man of action, let us say a man who inaugurated a path. How did he inaugurate
it? This is something that is worthwhile recalling perhaps at a detour in what I will
say to you today. But every man’s career is committed to something that has death as
its limit, and it is only from this point of view that we can find the term of the path
traced by Freud in the question that he poses, of the end of analysis, terminable or


This only marks the phase of the question that I am opening up in
saying: is what is engaged for the subject by the fact of repetition as origin, itself a
process that has its limit or not? This is what I left open, in abeyance, but
nevertheless advanced, by showing on the board the last time in the clearest possible
fashion what I was able to express as the division, the bi-partition of two infinities,
marking that this is what is fundamentally in question in Pascal’s wager. The infinity
on which it is based is the infinity of number. Now, by taking this infinity, as I might
say, by further accelerating by setting up the Fibonacci series, which it is easy to show
is exponential, that the numbers that it generates grow not arithmetically but


This is the very thing that generates, and precisely in the measure that
we are more distant from its origin, the proportion articulated in o. In the measure
that these numbers grow, o intervenes there under its inverted form in a more
circumscribed and constant fashion. This is all the more striking in that it ties the 1 to
o, that it is l/o, that this proportion of one number to another ends up in the more and
more rigorous constant of this l/o, in the measure that the numbers increase.
I also wrote, taking it at its origin, the series that results from taking things in the other sense.


There, because of the fact that o is less than 1, you see the process ends up not
simply in a proportion but in a limit. Whatever you add of what is produced,
inversely, by proceeding through subtraction, in such a way that it is always true that,
in this chain, by taking things in an ascending way, each term is the sum of the two
preceding ones, you will find again the function of o in so far as this time it reaches a
limit That in whatever numbers you add these terms, you will not go beyond 1 + o,
which seems to indicate that by taking things in this direction, what repetition
generates has a term.

这是因为这个事实:0少于1. 你们看见这个过程结果,不仅是一个比例,而是一个限制。关于所被产生的东西,无论你们增加什么,逆转地,凭借扣除继续前进,用它总是真实的这样的方式。在这个锁链里,凭借以上升的方式接纳事情。每个项目都是前面的两个项目的总和。你们再次发现0的这个功能。因为在这个时候,它到达一个限制。不管用什么数字,你们增加这些项目。你们将不会超越1+0.那似乎指示,凭借朝这个方向接纳事情,重复产生的东西拥有一个项目。

This is where there intervenes the well known table in which those, in short, who miss
what is involved in Pascal’s wager, write what is involved in terms of games*theory.
Namely, in a matrix that is constructed from distinct boxes, formulate what is
involved, if God exists, and write as zero what results from the observation of these
commandments, confused here with the renunciation of something. Whether we call it
pleasure or something else, it nevertheless remains that here, in appreciating it by a
spontaneity whose astonishing aspect we will see, that they write what is left in this
life for believers as zero.


As a result of which a future life is marked by the term
infinity, an infinity of lives promised to be infinitely happy. In other words, by
supposing that God does not exist, the subject, which we write as o, is presumed to be
still caught up in the game, make no mistake, literally to know the limited and
moreover problematic happiness that is offered him in this life. It is not groundless to
choose this if, since God does not exist, it seems clear that there is nothing to expect
from the other life.



Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 98

September 24, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格


161 I must now emphasize the not unimportant fact, which must
also have struck the reader, that in the dream the collective un¬conscious appears under a very negative aspect, as something dangerous and harmful. This is because the patient has a richly developed, indeed positively luxuriant, fantasy life, possibly due to her literary gift. Her powers of fantasy are a symptom of ill¬ness in that she revels in them far too much and allows real life to slip by. Any more mythology would be exceedingly danger¬ous for her, because a great chunk of external life stands before her, still unlived. She has too little hold upon life to risk all at once a complete reversal of standpoint. The collective uncon¬scious has fallen upon her and threatens to bear her away from a reality whose demands have not been adequately met. Accord¬ingly, as the dream indicates, the collective unconscious had to be presented to her as something dangerous, otherwise she would have been only too ready to make it a refuge from the demands of life.


162 In judging a dream we must observe very carefully how the
figures are introduced. For example, the crab that personifies the unconscious is negative in that it “walks backwards” and, in addition, holds back the dreamer at the critical moment. Misled by the so-called dream mechanisms of Freudian manufacture, such as displacement, inversion, etc., people have imagined they could make themselves independent of the “facade” of the dream by supposing that the true dream-thoughts lay hidden behind it.


As against this I have long maintained that we have no right to accuse the dream of, so to speak, a deliberate ma¬noeuvre calculated to deceive. Nature is often obscure or im¬penetrable, but she is not, like man, deceitful. We must there¬fore take it that the dream is just what it pretends to be, neither more nor less.lO If it shows something in a negative light, there is no reason for assuming that it is meant positively. The arche¬typal “danger at the ford” is so patent that one is almost tempted to take the dream as a warning.

9 Those of my readers who have a deeper interest in the problem of opposites and its solution, as well as in the mythological activity of the unconscious, are referred to Symbols of Transformation, Psychological Types, and The Arche¬types and the Collective Unconscious. [Cf. also Mysterium Coniunctionis.¬EDITORS.]
10 Cf. “General Aspects of Dream Psychology.” 100

But I must discounte¬nance all such anthropomorphic interpretations. The dream it¬self wants nothing; it is a self-evident content, a plain natural fact like the sugar in the blood of a diabetic or the fever in a patient with typhus. It is only we who, if we are clever and can unriddle the signs of nature, turn it into a warning.


163 But-a warning of what? Of the obvious danger that the un-
conscious might overpower the dreamer at the moment of cross¬ing. And what would being overpowered mean? An invasion by the unconscious may very easily occur at moments of critical change and decision. The bank from which she approaches the river is her situation as known to us so far. This situation has precipitated her into a neurotic deadlock, as though she had come up against an impassable obstacle. The obstacle is repre¬sented by the dream as a perfectly passable river. So things do not seem to be very serious.


But in the river, most unexpectedly, the crab is hiding, and this represents the real danger on ac¬count of which the river is, or appears to be, impassable. For had she only known beforehand that the dangerous crab was lurking at this particular spot, she might perhaps have ventured to cross somewhere else, or have taken other precautions. In the dream¬er’s present situation it is eminently desirable that a crossing should be made.


The crossing means in the first place a carrying over-a transference-of the earlier situation to the doctor. That is the new feature. Were it not for the unpredictable uncon¬scious, this would not involve such a great risk. But we saw that through the transference the activity of archetypal figures is li¬able to be let loose, a fact we had not banked on. We have reck¬oned without our host, for we “forgot the gods.”


164 Our dreamer is not a religious person, she is “modern.” She
has forgotten the religion she was once taught, she knows noth¬ing of those moments when the gods intervene, or rather she does not know that there are age-old situations whose nature it is to stir us to the depths. One such situation is love, its passion and its danger. Love may summon forth unsuspected powers in the soul for which we had better be prepared. “Religio” in the sense of a “careful consideration” of unknown dangers and agencies-that is what is in question here. From a simple projec¬tion love may come upon her with all its fatal power, some daz¬zling illusion that might throw her life off its natural course.



Collected 7 集体无意识的原型100

September 24, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格



Is it a good thing or a bad, God or devil, that will befall the dreamer? Without knowing which, she feels that she is already in its clutches. And who can say whether she will be able to cope with this complication! Until now she had managed to circum¬vent such an eventuality, but now it threatens to seize hold of her. That is a risk we should avoid, or, if we must take the plunge, we need a good deal of “trust in God” or “faith” in a successful issue. Thus, unsought and unexpected, the question creeps in of one’s religious attitude to fate.


165 The dream as it stands leaves the dreamer no alternative at
present but to withdraw her foot carefully; for to go on would be fatal. She cannot yet leave the neurotic situation, because the dream gives her no positive indication of any help from the un¬conscious. The unconscious powers are still inauspicious and obviously expect more work and a deeper insight from the dreamer before she can really venture across.


166 I certainly do not wish, by this negative example, to convey
the impression that the unconscious plays a negative role in all cases. I will therefore add two fu;-ther dreams, this time of a young man, which illuminate another and more favourable side of the unconscious. I do this the more readily since the solution of the problem of opposites can be reached only irrationally, by way of contributions from the unconscious, i.e., from dreams.


167 First I must acquaint the reader in some measure with the
personality of the dreamer, for without this acquaintance he will hardly be able to transport himself into the peculiar atmosphere of the dreams. There are dreams that are pure poems and can therefore only be understood through the mood they convey as a whole. The dreamer is a youth of a little over twenty, still en¬tirely boyish in appearance. There is even a touch of girlish¬ness in his looks and manner of expression. The latter betrays a very good education and upbringing.


He is intelligent, with pro¬nounced intellectual and aesthetic interests. His aestheticism is very much in evidence: we are made instantly aware of his good taste and his fine appreciation of all forms of art. His feelings are tender and soft, given to the enthusiasms typical of puberty, but somewhat effeminate. There is no trace of adolescent callow¬ness. Undoubtedly he is too young for his age, a clear case of retarded development. It is quite in keeping with this that he should have come to me on account of his homosexuality.



night preceding his first visit he had the following dream: “I am in a lofty cathedral filled with mysterious twilight. They tell me that it is the cathedral at Lourdes. In the centre there is a deep dark well) into which I have to descend.”


The dream is clearly a coherent expression of mood. The
dreamer’s comments are as follows: “Lourdes is the mystic fount of healing. Naturally I remembered yesterday that I was going to you for treatment and was in search of a cure. There is said to be a well like this at Lourdes. It would be rather unpleasant to go down into this water. The well in the church was ever so


Now what does dream tell us? On the surface it seems clear
enough, and we might be content to take it as a kind of poetic formulation of the mood of the day before. But we should never stop there, for experience shows that dreams are much deeper and more significant. One might almost suppose that the dreamer came to the doctor in a highly poetic mood and was entering upon the treatment as though it were a sacred religious act to be performed in the mystical half-light of some awe-inspir¬ing sanctuary.

现在,这个梦告诉我们什么?表面上,似乎足够清楚. 我们可以满足地接受它,作为一种诗意,前天的心情的阐释. 但是我们永远不应该停在那里。因为精神分析经验告诉我们,作梦者前来就诊于医生,带着诗意的心情。并且正要从事这个治疗,好像那是一个神圣的宗教的行动,要被执行,从让人肃然起敬的圣堂的神秘的微光里。

But this does not fit the facts at all. The patient merely came to the doctor to be treated for that unpleasant matter, his homosexuality, which is anything but poetic. At any rate we cannot see from the mood of the preceding day why he should dream so poetically, if we were to accept so direct a causa¬tion for the origin of the dream. But we might conjecture, per¬haps, that the dream was stimulated precisely by the dreamer’s impressions of that highly unpoetical affair which impelled him to come to me for treatment.


We might even suppose that he dreamed in such an intensely poetical manner just because of the unpoeticalness of his mood on the day before, much as a man who has fasted by day dreams of delicious meals at night. It cannot be denied that the thought of treatment, of the cure and its unpleasant procedure, recurs in the dream, but poetically transfigured, in a guise which meets most effectively the lively aesthetic and emotional needs of the dreamer.


He will be drawn on irresistibly by this inviting picture, despite the fact that the well is dark, deep, and cold. Something of the dream-mood will persist after sleep and will even linger on into the morning of the day on which he has to submit to the unpleasant and unpo¬etical duty of visiting me. Perhaps the drab reality will be


touched by the bright, golden after-glow of the dream feeling.
Is this, perhaps, the purpose of the dream? That would not be impossible, for in my experience the vast majority of dreams are compensatory.u


They always stress the other side in order to maintain the psychic equilibrium. But the compensation of mood is not the only purpose of the dream picture. The dream also provides a mental corrective. The patient had of course nothing like an adequate understanding of the treatment to which he was about to submit himself. But the dream gives him a picture which describes in poetic metaphor’s the nature of the treatment before him. This becomes immediately apparent if we follow up his associations and comments on the image of the cathedral: “Cathedral,” he says, “makes me think of Cologne Cathedral. Even as a child I was fascinated by it. I remember my mother telling me of it for the first time, and I also remember how, whenever I saw a village church, I used to ask if that were Cologne Cathedral. I wanted to be a priest in a cathedral like



From an other to the Other 65

September 22, 2015

From an other to the Other 65

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康
29.1.69 IX 14

At the start the father is dead. Only there you are. There remains the
Name of the Father and everything turns around that. If that was the way
I began the last time it is also with that that l am ending. The virtue of the
Name of the Father, is not something I am inventing, I mean that it is not
something I made up; it is written in Freud. The difference, he says
somewhere, between the field of man and that let us say of animality,
consists, wherever it may be, even when this only happens in a masked
form, namely, when it is said that there are some people who have no idea
of what is the role of the male in generation, why not?


What it demonstrates, I mean the importance of this function of the Name of the
Father, is that even the very people who have no idea of it invent spirits to
fill it. In a word, what is characteristic is that Freud in a very precise
place articulates it – 1 am not going to waste my time telling you on what
page and what edition because now there are places where Freudian
readings are done and there are all the same competent people to indicate
it to those that are interested in it – the essence, in a word, and the
function of the father as Name, as pivot of discourse, depends precisely on
the fact that after all, you can never know who the father is. You can
always look, it is a question of faith.


With the progress of science, you
manage to get to know in certain cases who he is not, but in any case he
remains all the same an unknown. It is altogether certain that this
introduction moreover of biological research into paternity cannot be
without an impact on the function of the Name of the Father.
Therefore, it is here, at the point where it is precisely only by maintaining
oneself in the symbolic, that there is the pivot around which turns a whole
field of subjectivity.


We have to take the other aspect of what is involved
in the relationship to enjoyment and, in a word, to be able to advance,
which is our object this year, a little further into what is involved in the
transmission of the Name of the Father. Namely, what is involved in the
transmission of castration. I will end today, as usual, at the point that one
gets to one way or another and I will see you the next time.



Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 96

September 22, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格


156 That would be to create a permanent state of dissociation, a
split between the individual and the collective psyche. On the one side we should have the differentiated modern ego, and on the other a sort of negroid culture, a very primitive state of affairs. We should have, in fact, what actually exists-a veneer of civilization over a dark-skinned brute; and the cleavage would be clearly demonstrated before our eyes. But such a dissociation requires immediate synthesis and the development of what has remained undeveloped.


There must be a union of the two parts; for, failing that, there is no doubt how the matter would be de¬cided: the primitive man would inevitably lapse back into re¬pression. But that union is possible only where a still valid and therefore living religion exists, which allows the primitive man adequate means of expression through a richly developed sym¬bolism. In other words, in its dogmas and rites, this religion must possess a mode of thinking and acting that harks back to the most primitive level. Such is the case in Catholicism, and this is its special advantage as well as its greatest danger.


157 Before we go into this new question of a possible union, let
us return to the dream from which we started. This whole dis¬cussion has given us a wider understanding of the dream, and particularly of one essential part of it-the feeling of fear. This fear is a primitive dread of the contents of the collective uncon¬scious. As we have seen, the patient identifies herself with Mrs. X, thereby showing that she also has some relation to the myste¬rious artist. It proved that the doctor was identified with the artist, and further we saw that on the subjective level I became an image for the figure of the magician in the collective uncon¬scious.


6 Cf. “Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious,” pars. 74ff.

All this is covered in the dream by the symbol of the crab, which walks backwards. The crab is the living content of the unconscious, and it cannot be exhausted or made ineffective by analysis on the objective level. We can, however, separate the mythological or collective psychic contents from the objects of consciousness, and consolidate them as psychological realities outside the individual psyche. Through the act of cognition we “posit” the reality of the archetypes, or, more precisely, we pos¬tulate the psychic existence of such contents on a cognitive basis. It must emphatically be stated that it is not just a question of cognitive contents, but of transubjective, largely autonomous psychic systems which on that account are only very condition-ally under the control of the conscious mind and for the most part escape it altogether.

所有这一切被涵盖在螃蟹的象征里, 螃蟹往后行走。螃蟹是无意识的活生生的内容。客观层次的精神分析无法穷尽它的涵义或让它没有效力。可是,我们能够分开神话或集体的心灵的内容,跟意识到客体,并且将它们团结,作为心灵的现实,外在于个人的心灵。通过认知的行动,我们“假设”原型的现实。或者,更加确实地说,我们假设这些内容具有心灵的存在,在认知的基础上。我们必须强调地陈述:问题并不仅是认知的内容,而是跨越主观性的内容,主要是具有自主权的心灵的系统。因为那个缘故,具有自主权的心灵的内容仅是有条件地受到意识心灵的控制。它们大部分也一块逃避意识心灵的控制。

So long as the collective unconscious and the individual psyche are coupled together without being differentiated, no progress can be made; or, to speak in terms of the dream, the boundary cannot be crossed. If, despite that, the dreamer makes ready to cross the border-line, the unconscious becomes acti-vated, seizes her, and holds her fast. The dream and its material characterize the collective unconscious partly as a lower animal that lives hidden in the depths of the water, and partly as a dan¬gerous disease that can be cured only by a timely operation. To what extent this characterization is apt has already been seen.


As we have said, the animal symbol points specifically to the extra¬human, the transpersonal; for the contents of the collective un¬conscious are not only the residues of archaic, specifically human modes of functioning, but also the residues of functions from man’s animal ancestry, whose duration in time was infinitely greater than the relatively brief epoch of specifically human existence.


7 In his philosophical dissertation on Leibniz’s theory of the unconscious (Das Unbewusste bei Leibniz in Beziehung zu modernen Theorien), Canz has used the engram theory of R. W. Semon to explain the collective unconscious. The concept of the collective unconscious advanced by me coincides only at certain points with Semon’s concept of the phylogenetic mneme. Cf. Semon, Die Mneme als erhaltendes Prinzip im Wechsel des organischen Geschehens (1904); trans. by L. Simon as The Mneme.


These residues, or “engrams,” as Semon calls them,7 are extremely liable, when activated, not only to retard the pace of development, but actually to force it into regression until the store of energy that activated the unconscious has been used up. But the energy becomes serviceable again by being brought into play through man’s conscious attitude towards the collective un¬conscious. The religions have established this cycle of energy in a concrete way by means of ritual communion with the gods.


This method, however, is too much at variance with our intel¬lectual morality, and has moreover been too radically sup¬planted by Christianity, for us to accept it as an ideal, or even possible, solution of the problem. If on the other hand we take the figures of the unconscious as collective psychic phenomena or functions, this hypothesis in no way violates our intellectual conscience. It offers a rationally acceptable solution, and at the same time a possible method of effecting a settlement with the activated residues of our racial history. This settlement makes the crossing of previous boundaries altogether feasible and is therefore appropriately called the transcendent function. It is synonymous with progressive devc!opment towards a new atti¬tude.


160 The parallel with the hero-myth is very striking. More often
than not the typical struggle of the hero with the monster (the unconscious content) takes place beside the water, perhaps at a ford. This is the case particularly in the Redskin myths with which Longfellow’s Hiawatha has made us familiar. In the deci¬sive battle the hero is, like] onah, invariably swallowed by the monster, as Frobenius has shown8 with a wealth of detail.


But, once inside the monster, the hero begins to settle accounts with the creature in his own way, while it swims eastwards with him towards the rising sun. He cuts off a portion of the viscera, the heart for instance, or some essential organ by virtue of which the monster lives (i.e., the valuable energy that activates the uncon¬Kious). Thus he kills the monster, which then drifts to land, where the hero, new-born through the transcendent function (the “night sea journey,” as Frobenius calls it), steps forth, sometimes in the company of all those whom the monster has previously devoured. In this manner the normal state of things is restored, since the unconscious, robbed of its energy, no longer occupies the dominant position. Thus the myth graphi¬8 Frobenius, Das Zeitalter des Sonnengottes.
cally describes the problem which also engages our patient.9

但是,一旦在怪物里面,英雄开始用他自己的方式,跟怪物达成妥协。当怪物带着它游泳朝向东边,朝向上升的太阳。他切割掉他的内脏的一部分,譬如,心脏。或某个基本的器官。凭借这个基本的器官,怪物活着( 也就是,触动无意识的宝贵的来源)。因此,他杀死怪物,这怪无因此漂浮到岸边。在那里,经由超验的功能,英雄重新诞生(‘夜晚的海洋之旅“如同弗洛边尼斯称呼它,)步走出来,有时被怪物先前吞没的那些人们伴随。以这种方式,事情的正常状态被恢复,因为无意识被剥夺掉它的能源,不再佔据优势的位置。因此,神话生动地描述也让我们的病人著迷的难题。


Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 94

September 21, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology

Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格


151 There is nothing for it but to recognize the irrational as a
necessary, because ever-present, psychological function, and to take its contents not as concrete realities-that would be a regres¬sion!-but as psychic realities, real because they work. The col¬lective unconscious, being the repository of man’s experience and at the same time the prior condition of this experience, is an image of the world which has taken aeons to form. In this image certain features, the archetypes or dominants, have crystallized out in the course of time.


They are the ruling powers, the gods, images of the dominant laws and principles, and of typical, regu¬larly occurring events in the soul’s cycle of experience.s In so far as these images are more or less .faithful replicas of psychic events, their archetypes, that is, their general characteristics which have been emphasized through the accumulation of simi¬lar experiences, also correspond to certain general characteristics of the ph ysical world. Archetypal images can therefore be taken metaphorically, as intuitive concepts for physical phenomena. For instance, aether) the primordial breath or soul-substance, is a concept found all over the world, and energy) or magical power, is an intuitive idea that is equally widespread.


152 On account of their affinity with physical phenomena,4 the
archetypes usually appear in projection; and, because projec¬tions are unconscious, they appear on persons in the immediate environment, mostly in the form of abnormal over- or under¬valuations which provoke misunderstandings, quarrels, fanati¬cisms, and follies of every description. Thus we say, “He makes a god of so-and-so,” or, “So-and-so is Mr. X’s bete noire.” In this way, too, there grow up modern myth-formations, Le., fantastic rumours, suspicions, prejudices.


The archetypes are therefore exceedingly important things with a powerful effect, meriting our closest attention. They must not be suppressed out of hand, but must be very carefully weighed and considered, if only because of the danger of psychic infection they carry with them.


S As indicated earlier (par. 109), the archetypes may be regarded as the effect and deposit of experiences that have already taken place, but equally they appear a& the factors which cause such experiences.
4 Cf. “The Structure of the Psyche,” pars. 325ff•

Since they usually occur as projections, and since these only at¬tach themselves where there is a suitable hook, their evaluation and assessment is no light matter. Thus, when somebody pro¬jects the devil upon his neighbour, he does so because this person has something about him which makes the attachment of such an image possible. But this is not to say that the man is on that account a devil; on the contrary, he may be a particularly good fellow, but antipathetic to the maker of the projection, so that a “devilish” (i.e., dividing) effect arises between them.

Nor need the projector necessarily be a devil, although he has to recognize that he has something just as devilish in himself, and has only stumbled upon it by projecting it. But that does not make him a devil; indeed he may be just as decent as the other man. The appearance of the devil in such a case simply means that the two people are at present incompatible: for which reason the uncon¬scious forces them apart and keeps them away from each other. The devil is a variant of the “shadow” archetype, i.e., of the dangerous aspect of the unrecognized dark half of the personal¬ity.


One of the archetypes that is almost invariably met with in the projection of unconscious collective contents is the “magic demon” with mysterious powers. A good example of this is Gus¬tav Meyrink’s Golem) also the Tibetan wizard in the same au¬thor’s Fledermiiuse) who unleashes world war by magic. N atu¬rally Meyrink learned nothing of this from me; he brought it independently out of his unconscious by clothing in words and imagery a feeling not unlike the one which my patient had pro¬jected upon me. The magician type also figures in Zarathustra) while in Faust he is the actual hero.


The image of this demon forms one of the lowest and most ancient stages in the conception of God. It is the type of primi¬tive tribal sorcerer or medicine-man, a peculiarly gifted person¬ality endowed with magical power.5 This figure often appears as dark-skinned and of mongoloid type, and then it represents a negative and possibly dangerous aspect. Sometimes it can hardly be distinguished, if at all, from the shadow; but the more the magical note predominates, the easier it is to make the distinc¬tion, and this is not without relevance in so far as the demon can also have a very positive aspect as the “wise old man.” 6

5 The idea of the medicine-man who communes with spirits and wields magical powers is so deeply ingrained in many primitives that they even believe “doc¬tors” are to be found among animals. Thus the Achomawi of northern Califor• nia speak of ordinary coyotes and of “doctor” coyotes.


155 The recognition of the archetypes takes us a long step for-
wards. The magical or daemonic effect emanating from our neighbour disappears when the mysterious feeling is traced back to a definite entity in the collective unconscious. But now we have an entirely new task before us: the question of how the ego is to come to terms with this psychological non-ego. Can we rest content with establishing the real existence of the archetypes, and simply let things take care of themselves?



From an other to the Other 64

September 21, 2015

From an other to the Other 64

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

You must think that here this becomes very interesting, namely, that this
minus infinity that you see appearing in the top right hand box, this is……..
expressed in the little writings of Pascal by the name of hell. Only this
S t –
– II
= — oG
– 0
presupposes that there should be examined why the function of the o
culminated in this most questionable idea that there is a beyond of death.


29.1.69 IX 12

No doubt because of its indefinite, mathematical slippage, in any kind of
signifying chain wherever you pursue the final circumscribing, it always
subsists intact as I already articulated at the beginning of the year in a
certain schema of the relationships of S and 0. But then this may induce
us to ask ourselves what is meant by the emergence under the form of
minus infinity of something on this table.


Is this minus not to be
expressed in a way more homologous to its arithmetical function, namely,
that when it appears, the series of whole numbers is duplicated which
means is divided. There is here the sign of this something that appeared
to me the only thing worth recalling at the end of my last discourse. It is
that by taking as an o-object and not otherwise what is brought into play
(117) in the renunciation proposed by Pascal there is just as much infinity
where there is a limit as where it does not encounter this operation of o.
In any case, it is a half infinity that we engage with which singularly
balances out the chances in the first matrix.


Only it may well be that we should remember differently what is
represented in this myth which, even though it forms part of dogma does
nothing, as Pascal reminds us, but bear witness that the mercy of God is
greater than his justice since he plucks out some chosen ones, while they
ought all to be in hell.


This proposition may appear scandalous. I am
astonished at it since it is quite clear and manifest that we have never been
able to imagine this hell beyond what happens to us every day. I mean
that we are already in it, that this necessity that surrounds us of not being
able, except at a horizon whose limits need to be questioned, to realise the
solid o, except by an indefinite repeated measure of what is involved in
the cut of o.


Is this not enough, just by itself, to make the most
courageous lose heart? Only there you are. There is no choice. Our desire
is the desire of the Other, and depending on whether grace has been
lacking to us or not, what is played out at the level of the Other, namely,
of everything that has preceded us in this discourse that has determined
our very conception, we are determined or not to the course of stopping up
the o-object.


So then there remains the fourth box, the lower one. It is not for nothing
that I allowed myself today to smile about them They are just as
numerous, just as divided up as those who are in the field of the top right.


I call them, provisionally, the granddads. You would be wrong
nevertheless to minimise the with which they get around, but all the same
what I would like to point to you is that, in any case, it is here that we in
analysis, have placed the proper norm Surplus enjoying is explicitly
modulated as foreign to the question. If the question at stake in what
analysis promises us as a return to the norm, how can we not see that this
norm is well and truly articulated there as the law, the law on which the
Oedipus complex is grounded. And it is quite clear that whatever end one
takes this myth from that enjoyment is absolutely distinguished from the


To enjoy the mother is forbidden, we are told, and this does not go
far enough. What has consequences is the fact that to enjoy the mother is
forbidden. Nothing is organised except from this first statement. This can
be clearly seen in the fable in which the subject, Oedipus, never thought –
God knows because of what distraction, I mean because of everything that
was developed around him in terms of charm and probably also of
harassment by Jocasta – the idea never came to him, even when proofs
were flooding in. What is forbidden is to enjoy the mother and this is
confirmed in the formulation in another form.


It is indispensable to bring
all of them together in order to grasp what Freud is articulating, that of
Totem and Taboo. The murder of the father blinds all these imbecilic
young bulls that I see circling around me from time to time in ridiculous
arenas. The murder of the father means precisely that you cannot kill him
He has been dead for all time. It is indeed for this reason that something
sensible is attached, even in places where it is paradoxical to see there
being belled: God is dead. It is because obviously, by not thinking about
it, you run the risk of missing one aspect of things.



Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 92

September 19, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格


46 This remark throws an explanatory light on what has hap-
pened: I have taken the place of the friend. The friend has been overcome. The ice of the repression is broken and the patient has entered a new phase of life without knowing it. Now I know that all that was painful and bad in her relation with her friend will devolve upon me, as well as all the good, but it will be in violent conflict with the mysterious x which the patient has never been able to master. A new phase of the transference has started, although it does not as yet clearly reveal the nature of the x that has been projected upon me.

7 One thing is certain: if the patient gets stuck in this form
of transference, the most troublesome misunderstandings lie ahead, for she will be bound to treat me as she treated her friend

-in other words, the x will be continually in the air giving rise to misunderstandings. It will inevitably turn out that she will see the demon in me, since she cannot accept it in herself. All insoluble conflicts come about in this fashion. And an insoluble conflict means bringing life to a standstill.

有一件事情是确定: 假如病人被卡陷在移情的这个形式,最麻烦的误解隐藏在前头。因为她将会被迫对待我,如同她对待她的朋友。换句话说,这个x将会继续出现在幻想里,产生误解。结果无可避免地将会是,她将会看见我身上的这个恶魔。因为她无法接受它,在她自己身上。所有无法被解救的冲突以这种方式发生。一个无法解决的冲突意味着,让生命停顿下来。

148 Or another possibility: the patient could use her old defence
mechanism against this new difficulty and could simply ignore the point of obscurity. That is to say, she could begin repressing again, instead of keeping things conscious, which is the necessary and obvious demand of the whole method. But nothing would be gained by this; on the contrary, the x now threatens from the unconscious, and that is far more unpleasant.


149 Whenever such an unacceptable content appears, we must
consider carefully whether it is a personal quality at all. “Magi¬cian” and “demon” may well represent qualities whose very names make it instantly clear that these are not human and per¬sonal qualities but mythological ones. Magician and demon are mythological figures which express the unknown, “inhuman” feeling that swept over the patient. They are attributes not in any sense applicable to a human personality, although, as intui¬tive judgments not subjected to closer criticism, they are con¬stantly being projected upon our fellow men, to the very great detriment of human relations.


15° These attributes always indicate that contents of the trans-
personal or collective unconscious are being projected. Personal memories cannot account for “demons,” or for “wicked magi¬cians,” although everyone has, of course, at one time or another heard or read of these things. We have all heard of rattlesnakes, but we do not call a lizard or a blindworm a rattlesnake and display the corresponding emotions merely because we have been startled by the rustling of a lizard or a blindworm. Simi¬larly, We do not call one of our fellows a demon unless there really is something demonic in his effect upon us.


But if this effect were truly a part of his personal character, it would show itself everywhere, and then the man would be a demon indeed, a Sort of werewolf. But that is mythology, i.e., collective psyche, and not individual psyche. In so far as through our unconscious We have a share in the historical collective psyche, we live natu¬r~lly and unconsciously in a world of werewolves, demons, magi¬Clans, ete., for these are things which all previous ages have in-

vested with tremendous affectivity. Equally we have a share in gods and devils, saviours and criminals; but it would be absurd to attribute these potentialities of the unconscious to ourselves personally. It is therefore absolutely essential to make the sharp¬est possible demarcation between the personal and the imper¬sonal attributes of the psyche.


This is not to deny the sometimes very formidable existence of the contents of the collective un¬conscious, but only to stress that, as contents of the collective psyche, they are opposed to and different from the individual psyche. Simple-minded folk have never, of course, separated these things from their individual consciousness, because the gods and demons were not regarded as psychic projections and hence as contents of the unconscious, but as self-evident reali¬ties. Only in the age of enlightenment did people discover that the gods did not really exist, but were simply projections. Thus the gods were disposed of. But the corresponding psychological function was by no means disposed of; it lapsed into the uncon¬scious, and men were thereupon poisoned by the surplus of li¬bido that had once been laid up in the cult of divine images.

The devaluation and repression of so powerful a function as the religious function naturally have serious consequences for the psychology of the individual. The unconscious is prodigiously strengthened by this reflux of libido, and, through its archaic collective contents, begins to exercise a powerful influence on the conscious mind. The period of the Enlightenment closed, as we know, with the horrors of the French Revolution.

And at the present time, too, we are once more experiencing this uprising of the unconscious destructive forces of the collective psyche. The result has been mass-murder on an unparalleled scale.2 This is precisely what the unconscious was after. Its position had been immeasurably strengthened beforehand by the rationalism of modern life, which, by depreciating everything irrational, precipitated the function of the irrational into the unconscious.


But once this function finds itself in the unconscious, it works unceasing havoc, like an incurable disease whose focus cannot be eradicated because it is invisible. Individual and nation alike are then compelled to live the irrational in their own lives, even devoting their loftiest ideals and their best wits to expressing its madness in the most perfect form. We see the same thing in 2 Written in 1916; superfluous to remark that it is still true today [1943]•

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS miniature in our patient, who fled from a course of life that seemed to her irrational-Mrs. X-only to act it out in patholog¬ical form, and with the greatest sacrifices, in her relations with her friend.



Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 90

September 19, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

We are now faced with the task of raising to the subjective level the phenomena which have so far been understood on the objective level. For this purpose we must detach them from the object and take them as symbolical exponents of the patient’s subjective complexes. If we try to interpret the figure of Mrs. X on the subjective level, we must regard it as the personification of a part-soul, or rather of a certain aspect of the dreamer.


Mrs. X then becomes an image of what the patient would like to be, and yet fears to be. She represents, as it were, a partial picture of the patient’s future character. The fascinating artist cannot so easily be raised to the subjective level, because the unconscious artistic capacity lying dormant in the patient is already taken up by Mrs. X. It would, however, be correct to say that the artist is the image of the patient’s masculinity which is not consciously realized and therefore lies in the unconscious. 1 This is true in the sense that the patient does in fact delude herself in this mat¬ter. In her own eyes she is quite remarkably fragile, sensitive, and feminine, and not in the least masculine. She was therefore indignantly amazed when I pointed out her masculine traits. But the strange, fascinating element is out of keeping with these traits. It seems to be entirely lacking to them. Yet it must be hiding somewhere, since she produced this feeling out of herself.


Whenever such an element is not to be found in the dreamer himself, experience tells us that it is always projected. But upon whom? Is it still attached to the artist? He has long since disap-peared from the patient’s purview and cannot very well have taken the projection with him, since it lies anchored in the un-
1 I have called this masculine element in woman the animus and the correspond-ing feminine element in man the anima. See infra, pars. 296-340; also Emma Jung, “On the。Nature of the Animus.”


THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS conscious of the patient, and moreover she had no personal rela¬tion with this man despite his fascination. For her he was more a figure of fantasy. No, a projection of this kind is always topical, that is, somewhere there must be somebody upon whom this content is projected, otherwise she would be palpably aware of it in herself.


At this point we come back to the objective level, for with¬out it we cannot locate the projection. The patient does not know any man who means anything special to her, apart from myself; and as her doctor I mean a good deal. Presumably there-fore this content is projected on to me, though I had certainly noticed nothing of the sort. But these subtler contents never ap-pear on the surface; they always come to light outside the con-sulting hour.


I therefore asked her cautiously, “Tell me, how do I seem to you when you are not with me? Am I just the same?” She said, “When I am with you, you are quite pleasant, but when I am by myself, or have not seen you for some time, the picture I have of you changes in a remarkable way. Sometimes you seem quite idealized, and then again different.” Here she hesitated, and I prompted her: “In what way different?” Then she said, “Sometimes you seem rather dangerous, sinister, like an evil magician or a demon. I don’t know how I ever get such ideas-you are not a bit like that.”


So the content was fixed on me as part of the transference, and that is why it was missing from her psychic inventory. Here we recognize another important fact: I was contaminated (iden-tified) with the artist, so in her unconscious fantasy she natu-rally plays the role of Mrs. X with me. I could easily prove this to her with the help of the material-sexual fantasies-previously brought to light. But I myself am then the obstacle, the crab that prevents her from getting across. If, in this particular case, we were to confine ourselves to the objective level, the position would be very tricky. What would be the good of my explaining, “But I am not this artist in any sense, I am not in the least sinis-ter, nor am I an evil magician!” That would leave the patient quite cold, for she knows that just as well as I do. The projection continues as before, and I really am the obstacle to her further progress.


It is at this point that many a treatment comes to a standstill.
There is no way of getting out of the toils of the unconscious,

except for the doctor to raise himself to the subjective level and to acknowledge himself as an image. But an image of what? Here lies the greatest difficulty of all. “Well now,” the doctor will say, “an image of something in the unconscious of the pa¬tient.” Whereupon she will say, “What, so I am a man, and a sinister, fascinating man at that, a wicked magician or demon? Not on your life! I cannot accept that, it’s all nonsense. I’d sooner believe this of you!”


She is right: it is preposterous to transfer such things to her. She cannot accept being turned into a demon any more than the doctor can. Her eyes flash, an evil expression creeps into her face, the gleam of an unknown resist¬ance never seen before. I am suddenly faced by the possibility of a painful misunderstanding. What is it? Disappointed love? Does she feel offended, depreciated? In her glance there lurks something of the beast of prey, something really demoniacal. Is she a demon after all? Or am I the beast of prey, the demon, and is this a terrified victim sitting before me, trying to defend her¬self with the brute strength of despair against my wicked spells?


All this must surely be nonsense-fantastic delusion. What have I touched? What new chord is vibrating? Yet it is only a passing moment. The expression on the patient’s face clears, and she says, as though relieved, “It is queer, but just now I had a feel¬ing you had touched the point I could never get over in relation to my friend. It’s a horrible feeling, something inhuman, evil, cruel. I simply cannot describe how queer this feeling is. It makes me hate and despise my friend when it comes, although I struggle against it with all my might.”