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荣格:超验的功能

November 27, 2015

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION 1
超验的功能
Prefatory Note
This essay was written in 1916. Recently it was discovered by stu¬dents of the C. G . .lung Institute, Zurich, and was brought out in a private edition in its first, provisional form, in an ‘English transla¬tion. In order to prepare it for publication, I have worked over the manuscript, while preserving the main trend of thought and the un¬avoidable limitedness of its horizon. After forty-two years, the prob¬lem has lost nothing of its topicality, though its presentation is still in need of extensive improvement, as anyone can see who knows the material.
这篇论文在1916年被写成。最近,苏黎世,荣格研究所的学生发现它。以私人的版本被出版,照它的第一次的暂时的形式,作为英译本。为了准备让它出版。我曾经修正原稿。虽然我保存它思想的倾向与它的视阔的无法避免的有限性。经过42年,这个难题并没有丧失它的主题。虽然它的呈现依旧还需要广泛的修正。如同任何人都会看出,是谁知道这个材料。

The essay may therefore stand, with all its imperfections, as an historical document. It may give the reader some idea of the efforts of understanding which were needed for the first attempts at a syn¬thetic view of the psychic process in analytical treatment. As its basic argument is still valid today, it may stimulate the reader to a broader and deeper understanding of the problem. This problem is identical with the universal question: How does one come to terms in practice with the unconscious?

尽管它的不完美,这篇论文因此充当是历史的文件。它可能给予读者努力要理解的观念。这些理解的努力是需要的,因为这是首次的企图,要综合地理解心灵的过程,在精神分析的治疗里。因为它的基本的论点今天依旧有效。它可能激发读者更加广泛,更加深入地理解这个难题。这个难题认同普世的问题:我们如何跟无意识达成妥协?

1 [Written in 1916 under the title “Die Transzendente Funktion,” the ms. lay in Professor Jung’s files until 1953. First published in 1957 by the Students Associa¬tion, C. G. Jung Institute, Zurich, in an English translation by A. R. Pope. The German original. considerably revised by the author. was published in Geist lJnd Werk … %Urn 75. Geburtstag van Dr. Daniel Brady (Zurich, 1958), together with a prefatory note of more general import specially written for that volume. The author has partially rewritten the note for publication here. The present transla¬tion is based on the revised German version, and Mr. Pope’s translation has been consulted.-EDlTORS.]
67

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
This is the question posed by the philosophy of India, and par¬ticularly by Buddhism and Zen. Indirectly, it is the fundamental question, in practice, of all religions and all philosophies. For the unconscious is not this thing or that; it is the Unknown as it immedi¬ately affects us.

这是印度哲学提出的这个问题,特别是佛教与禅宗。间接地,这是所有的宗教与所有的哲学,实践时的基本的问题。因为无意识并不是这个东西,或那个东西。无意识是未知者,因为它立即影响我们。

The method of “active imagination,” hereinafter described, is the most important auxiliary for the production of those contents of the unconscious which lie, as it were, immediately below the thres¬hold of consciousness and, when intensified, are the most likely to irrupt spontaneously into the conscious mind. The method, there¬fore, is not without its dangers and should, if possible, not be em¬ployed except under expert supervision.

因此而被描述的“积极想像”的方法,是最重要的辅助,对于无意识的那些内容的产生。也就是说,立即隐藏在意识的门槛底下的的无意识。当它被强化时,是最有可能自动自发地爆发进入意识的心灵。因此,这个方法,并不是没有它的危险。假如可能的话,这个方法不应该被使用,除了在专家的监督之下。

One of the lesser dangers is that the procedure may not lead to any positive result, since it easily passes over into the so-called “free association” of Freud, whereupon the patient gets caught in the sterile circle of his own complexes, from which he is .in any case unable to escape. A further danger, in itself harmless, is that, though authentic contents may be produced, the patient evinces an exclusively aesthetic interest in them and con¬sequently remains stuck in an all-enveloping phantasmagoria, so that once more nothing is gained. The meaning and value of these fan¬tasies are revealed only through their integration into the personality as a whole-that is to say, at the moment when one is confronted not only with what they mean but also with their moral demands.

其中一个次要的危险是,这个程序可能不会导致任何的积极的结果。因为它很容易被传递成为弗洛伊德的所谓的“自由联想”。在“自由联想”里,病人被套陷于他自己的各种情结的贫瘠的圈子里。更加深入的危险,本身是无害的。虽然它的真诚的内容可能被产生,病人逃避对于它们的专属美学的興趣,并且结果,始终被卡陷在涵盖一切的巨大幻影里。所以,再一次,并没有任何东西被获得。这些幻见的意义与价值,被显示出来,仅是凭借体它们的融合进入整体的人格里。换句话说,就在当我们不但面临它们的意义,而且面临它们的道德的要求。

Finally, a third danger-and this may in certain circumstances be a very serious matter-is that the subliminal contents already possess such a high energy charge that, when afforded an outlet by active imagination, they may overpower the conscious mind and take pos¬session of the personality. This. gives rise to a condition which¬temporarily, at least-cannot easily be distinguished from schizo¬phrenia, and may even lead to a genuine “psychotic interval.” The method of active imagination, therefore, is not a plaything for chil¬dren. The prevailing undervaluation of the unconscious adds con¬siderably to the dangers of this method. On the other hand, there can be no doubt that it is an invaluable auxiliary for the psycho¬therapist.

最后,第三个危险。在某些的情况,这可能是一个非常严肃的事情。第三个危险是,升华的内容已经形成如此高的能源负荷量。当它被积极想像给予一个出口,它们可能压倒意识的心灵,并且拥有人格。这会产生一个情况。这个情况暂时,至少不容易跟精神分裂症区别出来。甚至可能导致真诚的“精神病的间隔期间”。因此,积极想像的方法,并不是儿戏之物。目前流行对于无意识的低估,对这个方法的危险,更是雪上加霜。在另一方面,无可置疑地,对于精神病的治疗师,这是个宝贵的辅助之物。

C. G. J.
KiisnachtJ July I958 / September I959
68

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION
1111 There is nothing mysterious or metaphysical about the term
“transcendent function.” It means a psychological function com-parable in its way to a mathematical function of the same name, which is a function of real and imaginary numbers. The psy-chological “transcendent function” arises from the union of conscious and unconscious contents.

关于“超验的功能”,没有什么神秘或形上学之处。“超验的功能”意味著心理的功能,它的方式可类比相同名称的数学的功能。这个数学的功能是实在而想像的数字的功能。心理学的“超验的功能”起源于意识与无意识的内容的统合。

132 Experience in analytical psychology has amply shown that
the conscious and the unconscious seldom agree as to their con¬tents and their tendencies. This lack of parallelism is not just accidental or purposeless, but is due to the fact that the uncon¬scious behaves in a compensatory or complementary manner towards the conscious. We can also put it the other way round and say that the conscious behaves in a complementary manner towards the unconscious. The reasons for this relationship are:

分析心理学的经验充分显示,意识与无意识很少同意一致,关于他们的内容与它们的倾向。相提并论的这个欠缺并不仅是偶然,或没有目的。而是由于这个事实:无意识的行为,是以补偿或辅助的方式,朝向意识。我们也能够将它倒转过来,并且说,意识的行为,是以辅助的方式,朝向无意识。这个关系的理由是:

(1) Consciousness possesses a threshold intensity which its contents must have attained, so that all elements that are too weak remain in the unconscious.

意识拥有一个门槛的张力,意识的内容一定已经获得这个门槛的张力。这样,所有太过于微弱的元素,始终留在无意识里。

(2) Consciousness, because of its directed functions, exercises an inhibition (which Freud calls censorship) on all incompatible material, with the result that it sinks into the unconscious.

因为它的被引导的功能,意识运用一种压抑(弗洛伊德称之为审查),施加在所有不和谐的材料。结果是:意识沉落进入无意识。

(3) Consciousness constitutes the momentary,process of ad-aptation; .•. •whereas the unconscious contains not only all the forgotten material of the individual’s own past, but all the in¬herited behaviour traces constituting the structure of the mind.

意识构成适应的暂时的过程。而无意识包含不但是所有被个人自己的过去遗忘的材料,而且包含所有的被遗传的行为的痕迹,它们组成心灵的结构。

(4) The unconscious contains all the fantasy combinations which have not yet attained the threshold intensity, but which in the course of time and under suitable conditions will enter the light of consciousness.

无意识包含所有的幻见的组合,这些组合还没有获得门槛的张力。但是随著时间过去,在合适的情况之下。所有的幻想的组合将会进入意识的光辉里。

133 This readily explains the complementary attitude of the
unconscious towards the conscious.

这迅速地解释无意识朝向意识的辅助的态度。

134 The definiteness and directedness of the conscious mind are
qualities that have been acquired relatively late in the history of the human race, and are for instance largely lacking among primitives today. These qualities are often impaired in the neurotic patient, who differs from the normal person in that his threshold of consciousness gets shifted more easily; in other words, the partition between conscious and unconscious is much more permeable. The psychotic, on the other hand; is under the direct influence of the unconscious.

意识心灵的明确性与方向感,是已经被获得的特质,在人类种族的历史的比较晚晴。譬如,在今天的原始种族,主要是欠缺明确性与方向感。这些特质经常受到伤害,在神经症的病人身上。神经症病人遭受正常人的痛苦,因为他的意识的门槛更加容易被转移。换句话说,在意识与无意识之间的间隔,更加被渗透。另一方面,精神病者则是在无意识的直接的影响之下。

135
69

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE

The definiteness and directedness of the conscious mind are extremely important acquisitions which humanity has bought at a very heavy sacrifice, and which in turn have rendered hu¬manity the highest service. Without them science, technology, and civilization would be impossible, for they all presuppose the reliable continuity and directedness of the conscious process. For the statesman, doctor, and engineer as well as for the simplest labourer, these qualities are absolutely indispensable. We may say in general that social worthlessness increases to the degree that these qualities are impaired by the unconscious. Great artists and others distinguished by creative gifts are, of course, exceptions to this rule. The very advantage that such individuals enjoy consists precisely in the permeability of the partition separating the conscious and the unconscious. But, for those professions and social activities which require just this continuity and reliability, these exceptional human beings are as a rule of little value.

意识心灵的明确性与方向感是极端重要的获得之物。人类曾经耗费重大的牺性,才买到的重要的获得之物。然后轮到它们提供人类最崇高的服务。假如没有它们,科学,科技,与文明将是不可能的。因为它们都预先假设意识的过程,具有这个可靠的连续性与方向感。对于政治家,医生,与工程师,以及对于纯朴的劳工,这些特质绝对是无可避免的。我们通常说,社会的没有价值感,随着这些特质的受到无意识的伤害而增加。伟大的艺术家与其他凭借创造的天赋而显著的人们,当然是这个常规的例外。这些个人享受的利益,确实主要是在于分开意识与无意识的间隔的可渗透性。但是,对于那些专业与社会的活动,它们仅是要求这个连续性与可靠性。这些特别的人类,通常并没有多大的价值。

136 It is therefore understandable, and even necessary, that in
each individual the psychic process should be as stable and definite as possible, since the exigencies of life demand it. But this im’olves a certain disadvantage: the quality of directedness makes for the inhibition or exclusion of all those psychic ele¬ments which appear to be, or really are, incompatible with it, ie., likely to bias the intended direction to suit their purpose and so lead to an undesired goal. But how do we know that the concurrent psychic material is “incompatible”? We know it by an act of judgment which determines the direction of the path that is chosen and desired.
因此,这是可以理解的,甚至是必要的。在每个个人身上,心灵的过程应该尽可能地稳的与明确。因为生命的迫切性要求它。但是这牵涉到某个不利:方向感的品质朝向压抑或排除所有那些心灵的元素。表面上,或实际上跟它格格不入的心灵的元素。譬如,很可能让这个意图的方向产生偏见,以适应他们的目的,因此,导致一个并不被欲望的目标。但是,我们如何知道,这个同时发生的心灵的材料是“不相和谐”?我们知道它,凭借判断的行动。这个判断的行动决定被选择,被欲望的途径的方向。

This judgment is partial and preju¬diced, since it chooses one particular possibility at the cost of all the others. The judgment in its turn is always based on experience, i.e., on what is already known. As a rule it is never based on what is new, what is still unknown, and what under certain conditions might considerably enrich the directed proc¬ess. It is evident that it cannot be, for the very reason that the unconscious contents are excluded from consciousness.

这个判断是部分,而且具有偏见。因为它选择一个特殊的可能,牺牲所有其他的可能。然后轮到这个判断总是以经验作为基础。譬如,以已经被知道的东西作为基础。通常,它从来没有以新的东西作为基础,以依旧未被知道的东西,以在某些的情况里,可能会丰富被引导方向的过程作为基础。显而易见地,它不可能是这样。理由是,无意识的内容从意识里被排除出来。

137 Through such acts of judgment the directed process neces-
sarily becomes one-sided, even though the rational judgment may appear many-sided and unprejudiced. The very rationality of the judgment may even be the worst prejudice, since we call reasonable what appears reasonable to us. What appears to us unreasonable is therefore doomed to be excluded because of its
70

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION
irrational character. It may really be irrational, but may equally well merely appear irrational without actually being so when seen from another standpoint.

凭借判断的这些行动,被引导方向的过程必然会成为是单边,即使理性的判断可能看起来是许多边与没有偏见。判断的理性化甚至可能是最糟糕的偏见。因为我们称我们看起来是合理的东西,为合理。我们看起来是不合理的东西,因此注定会被排除,因为它的非理性的特性。它可能确实是非理性的,但是它同样很有理由仅是外表是非理性。但是实际上,从另外一个观点来看,它实际上并没有非理性。

138 One-sidedness is an unavoidable and necessary characteristic
of the directed process, for direction implies one-sidedness. It is an advantage and a drawback at the same time. Even when no outwardly visible drawback seems to be present, there is always an equally pronounced counter-position in the unconscious, unless it happens to be the ideal case where all the psychic components are tending in one and the same direction. This possibility cannot be disputed in theory, but in practice it very rarely happens. The counter-position in the unconscious is not dangerous so long as it .does not possess any high energy-value. But if the tension increases as a result of too great one-sidedness, the counter-tendency breaks through into consciousness, usually just at the moment when it is most important to maintain the conscious direction. Thus the speaker makes a slip of the tongue just when he particularly wishes not to say anything stupid. This moment is critical because it possesses a high energy ten¬sion which, when the unconscious is already charged, may easily “spark” and release the unconscious content.

单边性是被引导的过程的一个无可避免而且必要的特性。因为方向感暗示单边性。它既是利用,又是挫折。甚至,当没有外在的可看见的挫折似乎存在时,还是总是有一个同被宣告的反对-立场,在无意识里。除非,它恰好就是理想的情况。当所有的心灵的成分倾向于朝相同的方向。这个可能性无法用理论来争辩。但是实际上,它很少发生。无意识的反对-立场并不危险,只要它没有拥有高度的能源的价值。但是,假如这个紧张增加,由于太过强烈的单边性的结果。反对的倾向会突破进入意识,通常就是这个时刻,要维持意识的方向是非常重要的时刻。因此,言说者会有口误,正当他特别愿望不要说出任何愚蠢的事情。这个时刻是非常重要的,因为它拥有高度能源的紧张。当无意识已经被负荷,它可能“触发”并且释放无意识的内容。

139 Civilized life today demands concentrated, directed con-
scious functioning, and this entails the risk of a considerable dissociation from the unconscious. The further we are able to remove ourselves from the unconscious through directed func¬tioning, the more readily a powerful counter-position can build up in the unconscious, and when this breaks out it may have disagreeable consequences.

今天的文明生活要求专注的被引导的意识的功能。这涵盖这个冒险:跟无意识解离的冒险。我们越是能够将自己从无意识移除越远,通过被引导的功能,一个反动的离场越是迅速地累积起来。当发生这样的状况时,那可能拥有不和谐的结果。

14° Analysis has given us a profound insight into the importance
of unconscious influences, and we have learnt so much from this for our practical life that we deem it unwise to expect an elimination or standstill of the unconscious after the so-called completion of the treatment. Many patients, obscurely recogniz¬ing this state of affairs, have great difficulty in deciding to give up the analysis, although both they and the analyst find the feeling of dependency irksome. Often they are afraid to risk standing on their own feet, because they know from experience that the unconscious can intervene again and again in their lives in a disturbing and apparently unpredictable manner.

精神分析给予我们深刻的内省,洞察到无意识的影响的重要性。我们从这里学习众多,作为我们的生活,以致我们认人这是不明智的,期望无意识的减少或停滞,经过所谓的知疗的完成。许多病人,模糊地体认事情的这个状态,他们遭遇许多困难,当他们要决的放弃精神分析。虽然他们与分析家发现依靠的感觉是乏味的。经常,他们是害怕独立行事的冒险。因为他们根据经验知道,无意识能够一再地介入他们的生活,用一个令人困扰与明显无法被预测的方式。

141
71

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE

It was formerly assumed that patients were ready to copewith normal life as soon as they had acquired enough practical self-knowledge to understand their own dreams. Experience has shown, however, that even professional analysts, who might be expected to have mastered the art of dream interpretation, often capitulate before their own dreams and have to call in the help of a colleague. If even one who purports to be an expert in the method proves unable to interpret his own dre~ms satis-factorily, how much less can this be expected of the patient. Freud’s hope that the unconscious could be “exhausted” has not be’en fulfilled. Dream-life and intrusions from the unconscious continue-m utatis m utan dis-unim peded.

先前,我们假定,病人准备要处理正常的生活,当他们已经获得足够的实践的自性-知识,为了理解他们自己的梦想。可是,我们根据经验知道,即使是专业的精神分析家,他们被期望已经掌控梦的解释的技艺,他们经常束手无策于他们自己的梦,并且必须召唤同事的帮忙。假如被认为是这个方法的专家,都没有能力令人满意地解释他自己的梦,对于病人,那就更没有什么奢望。 弗洛伊德的希望,无意识能够被“穷尽理解”,并没有被实现。梦与无意识的闯入继续排山倒海而来。

142 There is a widespread prejudice that analysis is something
like a “cure,” to which one submits for a time and is then dis¬charged healed. That is a layman’s error left over from the early days of psychoanalysis. Analytical treatment could be described as a readjustment of psychological attitude achieved with the help of the doctor. Naturally this newly won attitude, which is better suited to the inner and outer conditions, can last a con¬siderable time, but there are very few cases where a single “cure” is permanently successful

有一个广泛的偏见;精神分析是某件像是治疗的东西。我们有一阵子,接受这种治疗,因此被疗愈出院。那是外行人的错误,从精神分析的早期遗留下来。精神分析的治疗能够被描述,作为重新调整心理的态度,凭借医生而获得。当然,这个刚刚被赢得的态度,比较能够适合内在与外在的情况。能够维持相当长久的时间。但是,单一的“治疗”是永久的成功,这样的个案是很少的。

It is true that medical optimism has never stinted itself of publicity and has always been able to report definitive cures. We must, however, not let ourselves be deceived by the all-t0
o-human attitude of the practitioner. but should always remember that the life of the unconscious goes on and continually produces problematical situations. There is no need for pessimism; we have seen too many excellent results achieved with good luck and honest work for that. But this need not prevent us from recognizing that analysis is no once¬and-for-all “cure”; it is no more, at first, than a more or less thorough readjustment. There is no change that is uncondi¬tionally valid over a long period of time. Life has always to be tackled anew.

的确,医学的乐观主义从来没有不引起大众注意,并且总是能够报导明确的治疗。可是,我们一定不要让自己被欺骗,被执业医师的太过于人性的态度欺骗。相反地,我们应该总是记住:无意识的生活继续下去,并且继续产生问题重重的情况。没有悲观主义的需要。我们曾经看见太多的优秀的结果,非常幸运地,而且诚实工作地被获得。但是,这并不需要阻止我们不去体会出,精神分析并没有一劳永逸地被“治疗”。起初,它仅是相当彻地被调整。没有任何改变是无条件地有效漫长的时间。生命总是必须重新被克服。

There are, of course, extremely durable collec¬tive attitudes which permit the solution of typical conflicts. A collective attitude enables the individual to fit into society without friction, since it acts upon him like any other condition of life. But the patient’s difficulty consists precisely in the fact that his individual problem cannot be fitted without friction into a collective norm; it requires the solution of an individual conflict if the whole of his personality is to remain viable. No rational solution can do justice to this task, and there is abso-
72

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION
lutelyno collective norm that could replace an individual solu¬tion without loss.
当然,会有极端耐久度集体的态度容许典型的冲突的解决。集体的态度让个人能够适应进入社会,而没有冲突。因为它依靠他来行动,就像任何其他的生活的情况。但是,病人的困难确实是在于这个事实:个人的难题无法没有冲突地被调适成为集体的名称。它要求个人的冲突的解决,假如他的人格的整体想要保持行得通。对于这项工作,任何理性的解决都无法彻底。绝对没有一个集体名称能够取代个人的解决,而没有丧失。

143 The new attitude gained in the course of analysis tends
sooner or later to become inadequate in one way or another, and necessarily so, because the constant flow of life again and again demands fresh adaptation. Adaptation is never achieved once and for all. One might certainly demand of analysis that it should enable the patient to gain new orientations in later life, too, without undue difficulty. And expe’rience shows that this is true up to a point. We often find that patients who have gone through a thorough analysis have considerably less difficulty with new adjustments later on.

在精神分析的过程被获得的这个新的态度,倾向于迟早会变成不足够,用某种的方式,而且必然是不足够。因为生命的经常的流动一再地要求新鲜的调适。 调适从来没有一劳永逸地被获得。我们确实可能要求精神分析应该让病人能够获得新的方向,在以后的生活,而没有过分的困难。经验告诉我们,这到达某个时刻是真实的。我们经常发现,曾经经历彻底的精神分析的病人,遭遇较少的困难,对于后来的调适。

Nevertheless, these difficulties prove to be fairly frequent and may at times be really trouble¬some. That is why even patients who have had a thorough analy¬sis often turn to their old analyst for help at some later period. In the light of medical practice in general there is nothing very unusual about this, but it does contradict a certain misplaced enthusiasm on the part of the therapist as well as the view that analysis constitutes a unique “cure.” In the last resort it is highly improbable that there could ever be a therapy that got rid of all difficulties. Man needs difficulties; they are necessary for health. What concerns us here is only an excessive amount of them.

可是,这些困难证明是相当频繁,有时,可能确实引起麻烦。那就是为什么即使是曾经做过彻底的精神分析的病人,经常求助于他们的有经验的分析家帮忙,在某个后来的时期。从一般的医学实践的观点,关于这点,并没有任何不寻常之处。但是,它确实抵触某个误置位置的热忱,在治疗师方面,以及这个观念:精神分析组成一个独特的“治疗”。最后,这会变得非常不可能,要找到一个排除一切困难的治疗方法。人需要困难,困难对于健康是必要的。我们在此关心的事情是,仅是困难的数量过于庞大。

144 The basic question for the therapist is not how to get rid of
the momentary difficulty, but how future difficulties may be successfully countered. The question is: what kind of menta] and moral attitude is it necessary to have towards the disturbing influences of the unconscious, and how can it be conveyed to the patient?

对于治疗师,基本的问题并不是如何排除暂时的困难,而是未来的困难可能如何成功地被应付。这个问题是:必须要拥有什么种类的精神与道德的态度,对待无意识的这个令人困扰的影响?以及它如何被传达给病人?

Collected 7 集体无意识的原型100

September 24, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

101

168
169
ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
Is it a good thing or a bad, God or devil, that will befall the dreamer? Without knowing which, she feels that she is already in its clutches. And who can say whether she will be able to cope with this complication! Until now she had managed to circum¬vent such an eventuality, but now it threatens to seize hold of her. That is a risk we should avoid, or, if we must take the plunge, we need a good deal of “trust in God” or “faith” in a successful issue. Thus, unsought and unexpected, the question creeps in of one’s religious attitude to fate.

将会降临到作梦者身上,这是好事,或是坏事?是上帝,还是恶魔?她没有知道是哪一个,她感觉她已经是在它的掌控当中。有谁能够说,她将是否能够处理这个併发症!直到现在,她曾经成功地规避一种最后结局。但是现在,这个最后结局威胁要掌控她。那是一个我们应该避免的冒险,或是,假如我们必须孤注一掷,我们需要许多的“对上帝的信任”,或是“信仰”,作为成功的结果。因此,没有受到询问,也出乎意料之外,我们对于命运的宗教的态度的这个问题偷偷地出现。

165 The dream as it stands leaves the dreamer no alternative at
present but to withdraw her foot carefully; for to go on would be fatal. She cannot yet leave the neurotic situation, because the dream gives her no positive indication of any help from the un¬conscious. The unconscious powers are still inauspicious and obviously expect more work and a deeper insight from the dreamer before she can really venture across.

梦的本质让作梦者目前没有选择的余地,除了小心地撤退她的脚步。因为继续前进是致命的。她依旧无法离开神经症的情境,因为这个梦并没有给予她任何的指示:从无意识会给予任何的帮助。无意识的力量依旧是不吉祥的。显而易见地,无意识期望作梦者,要有更多的工作,更加深入的洞察力。这样,她才能确实冒险地跨越。

166 I certainly do not wish, by this negative example, to convey
the impression that the unconscious plays a negative role in all cases. I will therefore add two fu;-ther dreams, this time of a young man, which illuminate another and more favourable side of the unconscious. I do this the more readily since the solution of the problem of opposites can be reached only irrationally, by way of contributions from the unconscious, i.e., from dreams.

我确实没有愿望要凭借这个负面的例子,来传递这个印象:无意识在任何情况都扮演负面的角色。我因此补充两个更多的梦。这一次,是年轻人的梦。这个梦启蒙无意识具有另外一个,更加有利的一面。我更加迅速地这样做,因为对立力量的难题的解决,仅能够以非理性的方式来获得。凭借从无意识而来的各种贡献,也就是从梦而来。

167 First I must acquaint the reader in some measure with the
personality of the dreamer, for without this acquaintance he will hardly be able to transport himself into the peculiar atmosphere of the dreams. There are dreams that are pure poems and can therefore only be understood through the mood they convey as a whole. The dreamer is a youth of a little over twenty, still en¬tirely boyish in appearance. There is even a touch of girlish¬ness in his looks and manner of expression. The latter betrays a very good education and upbringing.

首先,我必须让读者对于作梦者的人格有某个程度上的熟悉。因为假如没有这个熟悉,读者将几乎无法能够转移他自己,进入梦的氛围。有些的梦是纯粹的诗,因此,仅能凭借它们作为整体时表达的心情,它们才能被理解。作梦者是一位稍微超过二十岁的年轻人。外表上还完全是孩子气。甚至有点娘娘腔,在他的外表与表达的方式上。他的表达方式透露出,他受过良好教育与教养。

He is intelligent, with pro¬nounced intellectual and aesthetic interests. His aestheticism is very much in evidence: we are made instantly aware of his good taste and his fine appreciation of all forms of art. His feelings are tender and soft, given to the enthusiasms typical of puberty, but somewhat effeminate. There is no trace of adolescent callow¬ness. Undoubtedly he is too young for his age, a clear case of retarded development. It is quite in keeping with this that he should have come to me on account of his homosexuality.

他是聪明的,具有显著的知识与美学的興趣。他的美学主义非常明显。马上就让我们知道他的良好的品味与他对于各色各样的艺术的鉴赏能力。他的感觉是温柔体贴,耽溺于青春期的典型的热情,但是相当的女性化。他丝毫没有青年人的少不更事的迹象。无可怀疑地,就他的年纪而言,他太过于年轻。很清楚是迟缓发展的案例。他因为同性恋的缘故,前来就诊于我,完全符合这种的迟缓的发展。

The
102

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
night preceding his first visit he had the following dream: “I am in a lofty cathedral filled with mysterious twilight. They tell me that it is the cathedral at Lourdes. In the centre there is a deep dark well) into which I have to descend.”

在前来我这里就诊的前一个晚上,他作了以下的梦:「我正处于一栋崇高的大教堂,里面充满了神秘的微光。他们告诉我,那是劳帝斯的大教堂。在中心,有一口深深的黑暗的井。我必须走下这口井。」

The dream is clearly a coherent expression of mood. The
dreamer’s comments are as follows: “Lourdes is the mystic fount of healing. Naturally I remembered yesterday that I was going to you for treatment and was in search of a cure. There is said to be a well like this at Lourdes. It would be rather unpleasant to go down into this water. The well in the church was ever so
deep.”

梦显而易见地是心情的一贯的表达。作梦者的评论如下:「劳帝斯大教堂是治疗的神秘的泉源。当然,我昨天记得,我将要去你那里就诊。我当时寻求治疗。据说在劳帝斯教堂那里,有一口这样的井。这将是相当令人不愉快,假如我们走下这个井水。教堂的这口井是如此深。

Now what does dream tell us? On the surface it seems clear
enough, and we might be content to take it as a kind of poetic formulation of the mood of the day before. But we should never stop there, for experience shows that dreams are much deeper and more significant. One might almost suppose that the dreamer came to the doctor in a highly poetic mood and was entering upon the treatment as though it were a sacred religious act to be performed in the mystical half-light of some awe-inspir¬ing sanctuary.

现在,这个梦告诉我们什么?表面上,似乎足够清楚. 我们可以满足地接受它,作为一种诗意,前天的心情的阐释. 但是我们永远不应该停在那里。因为精神分析经验告诉我们,作梦者前来就诊于医生,带着诗意的心情。并且正要从事这个治疗,好像那是一个神圣的宗教的行动,要被执行,从让人肃然起敬的圣堂的神秘的微光里。

But this does not fit the facts at all. The patient merely came to the doctor to be treated for that unpleasant matter, his homosexuality, which is anything but poetic. At any rate we cannot see from the mood of the preceding day why he should dream so poetically, if we were to accept so direct a causa¬tion for the origin of the dream. But we might conjecture, per¬haps, that the dream was stimulated precisely by the dreamer’s impressions of that highly unpoetical affair which impelled him to come to me for treatment.

但是,这根本就没有符合这些事实。病人仅是前来医生这里,为了被治疗,因为那个令人不愉快的事情,他的同性恋。这个同性恋绝非是诗意的。无论如何,我们无法从前一天的心情看出,为什么他竟然如此诗意地作梦。但是,我们或许可以推测,这个梦确实是受到作梦者的印象所触发。那个非常没有诗意的事情逼迫他前来我这里就诊。

We might even suppose that he dreamed in such an intensely poetical manner just because of the unpoeticalness of his mood on the day before, much as a man who has fasted by day dreams of delicious meals at night. It cannot be denied that the thought of treatment, of the cure and its unpleasant procedure, recurs in the dream, but poetically transfigured, in a guise which meets most effectively the lively aesthetic and emotional needs of the dreamer.

我们甚至认为,他用如此强烈诗意的方式作梦。仅是因为他的心情在前一天没有诗意。就像一位白天斋戒的人,晚上梦见美味的食物。我们无法否认,就诊的想法,治疗以及治疗的不愉快的过程的想法,在梦里重新出现。但是经过诗意地被转变形状,作为伪装,非常有效地满足作梦者的生动的美感与情感的需求。

He will be drawn on irresistibly by this inviting picture, despite the fact that the well is dark, deep, and cold. Something of the dream-mood will persist after sleep and will even linger on into the morning of the day on which he has to submit to the unpleasant and unpo¬etical duty of visiting me. Perhaps the drab reality will be
103

170
171

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
touched by the bright, golden after-glow of the dream feeling.
Is this, perhaps, the purpose of the dream? That would not be impossible, for in my experience the vast majority of dreams are compensatory.u

他将会受到这个引诱人的画面,无可抗拒地被吸引前进。尽管这个事实:这口井水黑暗,深邃,与寒冷。梦-心情的某件东西将会在清醒之后还持续下来。甚至还会一直留连到这天早晨,他必须履行令人不愉快而且没有诗意的这个责任:拜访我就诊。或许,这个阴暗的现实将会被梦的感觉的灿烂的黄金般的余辉所感动。或许,这难道就是梦的目的吗?那将不会是不可能的。因为在我的经验里,大多数的梦都具有补偿性质。

They always stress the other side in order to maintain the psychic equilibrium. But the compensation of mood is not the only purpose of the dream picture. The dream also provides a mental corrective. The patient had of course nothing like an adequate understanding of the treatment to which he was about to submit himself. But the dream gives him a picture which describes in poetic metaphor’s the nature of the treatment before him. This becomes immediately apparent if we follow up his associations and comments on the image of the cathedral: “Cathedral,” he says, “makes me think of Cologne Cathedral. Even as a child I was fascinated by it. I remember my mother telling me of it for the first time, and I also remember how, whenever I saw a village church, I used to ask if that were Cologne Cathedral. I wanted to be a priest in a cathedral like
that.”

这些梦总是强调另外一面,为了维持心灵的平衡。但是,心情的补偿作用并不是梦的画面的唯一的目的。梦也供应一种“精神的改正”。病人当然并没有像是治疗的充分的理解的东西。他即将要让自己承受治疗。但是这个梦给予他一个画面。这个画面用诗意的隐喻描述在他面前的治疗的特性。这当下变得非常明显,假如我们遵循他的联想与评论大教堂的这个意象:他说,「大教堂让我想到科伦尼大教堂。即使当我小时候,我就被它著迷。我记得我的母亲第一次告诉我,有关这个大教堂。我也记得,每当我看见一个村庄的教堂,我过去经常询问,是否那就是科伦尼大教堂。我想要成为像那样的大教堂的僧侣。」

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
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Collected 7 个人无意识与集体无意识 75

September 15, 2015

Collected 7
V
The
Personal, and the Collective (OR TRANSPERSONAL) UNCONSCIOUS
个人无意识与集体无意识(或跨越个人无意识)

uS We mentioned earlier that the unconscious contains, as it
were, two layers: the personal and the collective. The personal layer ends at the earliest memories of infancy, but the collective layer comprises the pre-infantile period, that is, the residues of ancestral life. Whereas the memory-images of the personal un¬conscious are, as it were, filled out, because they are images per¬sonally experienced by the individual, the archetypes of the col¬lective unconscious are not filled out because they are forms not personally experienced. When, on the other hand, psychic en¬ergy regresses, going beyond even the period of early infancy, and breaks into the legacy of ancestral life, the mythological im¬ages are awakened: these are the archetypes.15 An interior spirit¬ual world whose existence we never suspected opens out and dis¬plays contents which seem to stand in sharpest contrast to all our former ideas.

我们早先提到,无意识包括所谓的两层:个人无意识与集体无意识。个人无意识的层面结束于婴孩的最早的记忆。但是集体无意识的层面包含前-婴孩时期。换句话说,祖先生活的残渣。虽然个人无意识的记忆意象会被所谓的填满,因为它们是个人被经验的意象,被个人经验。而集体无意识的原型并没有被填满,因为它们并不是个人经验的形式。当另一方面,心灵的能源退转,甚至退到超过早期婴孩的时期,并且闯入祖先生活的遗产。神话的意象被唤醒,这些都是原型。我们从来没有怀疑,我们拥有较低劣的精神的世界的存在。这个世界的存在现在展开,并且展示内容。这些内容跟我们以前的一切观念,处于明显的对照。

These images are so intense that it is quite under¬standable why millions of cultivated persons should be taken in by theosophy and anthroposophy. This happens simply because such modern gnostic systems meet the need for expressing and formulating the wordless occurrences going on within ourselves better than any of the existing forms of Christianity, not ex¬cepting Catholicism. The latter is certainly able to express, far more comprehensively than Protestantism, the facts in question through its dogma and ritual symbolism. But neither in the past nor in the present has even Catholicism attained anything like the richness of the old pagan symbolism, which is why this symbolism persisted far into Christianity and then gradually went underground, forming currents that, from the early Middle Ages to modern times, have never quite lost their vitality.

这些意象如此强烈,以致于这是相当可理解的,为什么好几百万具有文化素养的人们竟然被欺骗,被神智学与人智学所欺骗。这种事情发生,仅是因为这些现代诺斯教派的系统满足这个需求,表达与铨释这些无声的发生事件,在我们内部进行,胜过于基督教的现存的形式,天主教也不例外。天主教确实能够表达,比起基督教更加全面西,表达受到质疑的这些事实,经由它的教条与仪式的象征。但是,在过去与现在,甚至连天主教也没有获得任何像是古老异教徒的象征主义的丰富的东西。这就是为什么象征主义持续进入基督教,并且缓慢地潜入地下,形成一些潜流。从早期的中世纪的到现代,它们都没有完全丧失它们的精力。
15 The reader will note the admixture here of a new element in the idea of the archetypes, not previously mentioned. This admixture is not a piece of uninten¬tional obscurantism, but a deliberate extension of the archetype by means of the karmic factor, which is so very important in Indian philosophy. The karma aspect is essential to a deeper understanding of the nature of an archetype. Without entering here into a closer description of this factor, I would like at least to mention its existence. I have been severely attacked by critics for my idea of archetypes. I admit at once that it is a controversial idea and more than a little perplexing. But I have always wondered what sort of idea my critics would have used to characterize the empirical material in question.
77

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
To a large extent they vanished from the surface; but, changing their form, they come back again to compensate the one-sidedness of our conscious mind with its modern orientation.16 Our con¬sciousness is so saturated with Christianity, so utterly moulded by it, that the unconscious counter-position can discover no foot¬hold there, for the simple reason that it seems too much the antithesis of our ruling ideas. The more one-sidedly, rigidly, and absolutely the one position is held, the more aggressive, hostile, and incompatible will the other become, so that at first sight there would seem to be little prospect of reconciling the two. But once the conscious mind admits at least the relative validity of all human opinion, then the opposition loses something of its irreconcilable character. In the meantime the conflict casts round for appropriate expression in, for instance, the oriental religions-Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism. The syncretism of theosophy goes a long way towards meeting this need, and that explains its numerous successes.

有很大程度,它们从表面消失。但是,当它们改变它们的形式时,它们再次回来补偿我们的意识心灵的单边性,带着它的现代的定向。我们的意识是如此饱满著基督教,如此完全地被基督教塑造,以致于无意识的相反的立场无法在那里找到立足点。理由很简单,它是我们的统辖的各种观念的对立。这一个立场被採取越是单边性质,越是僵化与成为绝对化,另外一个立场就会变成更加的侵凌性,更加具有敌意,更加不和谐。所以,乍然一看,要将这两个立场调和似乎没有多大展望。但是,一旦意识的心灵至少承认所有人类的意见的相对地正确,那么,这个对立就丧失某件属于它的不可调和的特性的东西。同时,这个冲突投向四周,寻求适当的表达。譬如,东方的宗教–佛教,印度教,道教。神智学的融合有很大的进步,朝向满足这个需求,并且解释它的无数的成功。

19 The work involved in analytical treatment gives rise to ex-
periences of an archetypal nature which require to be expressed and shaped. Obviously this is not the only occasion for experi¬ences of such a kind; often they occur quite spontaneously, and by no means only in the case of “psychological-minded” people. I have heard the most curious dreams and visions from the lips of people whose mental sanity not even the professional psychol¬ogist could doubt. The experience of the archetype is frequently guarded as the closest personal secret, because it is felt to strike into the very core of one’s being. It is like a primordial experi-ence of the non-ego, of an interior opponent who throws down a challenge to the understanding.

在精神分析治疗时被牵涉到的工作产生具有原型特质的各种经验。这些经验要求被表达与被塑造。显而易见地,这并不是唯一的场合,表达诸如其类的各种经验。它们往往相当自动自发地发生。并且绝非仅是发生在“具有心理学的心灵”的人们的个案。我曾经听过最耐人寻味的梦境与幻境,从那些人们的嘴中。他们的精神的清醒,即使是专业的心理学家也无法怀疑。原型的经验经常被防卫著,作为是最密切的个人的秘密。因为它被感觉敲打进入我们的生命实存的这个核心。就像是一位自卑对手的非-自我的原始的经验。他抛出一个挑战,看看我们是否能够理解。

Naturally enough we then look round for helpful parallels, and it happens all too easily that the original occurrence is interpreted in terms of derivative ideas. A typical instance of this kind is the Trinity vision of Brother Nicholas of Fliie,17 or again, St. Ignatius’ vision of the snake with multiple eyes, which he interpreted first as a divine apparition and then as a visitation from the devil. Through these peri¬phrastic interpretations the authentic experience is replaced by images and words borrowed from a foreign source, and by views, ideas, and forms that have not grown on our soil and have no ties with our hearts, but only with our heads.

当然,我们因此四周观看,寻求帮助的并列。非常容易发生的事情是,原初的发生被解释,用延伸的观念的术语。属于这种的典型的例子,就是尼古拉兄弟的三位一体的幻景。或是圣 伊格那修斯的多重眼睛的蛇的幻景。他首先解释,作为是神性的魅影。因此作为是恶魔的拜访。通过这些累赘的解释,真诚的经验被取代,被从外国来源借用过来的意象与文字所取代,被一些观点,观念,与形式所取代。它们已经在我们的灵魂身上成长,并且跟我们的心没有关系,而仅是跟我们的头。
16 Cf. “ParaceIsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon” and Psychology and Alchemy.
17 Cf. “Brother Klaus,”
78

THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS

Indeed, not even our thought can clearly grasp them, because it never invented them. It is a case of stolen goods that bring no prosperity. Such substitutes make men shadowy and unreal; they put empty words in the place of living realities, and slip out of the painful tension of opposites into a wan, two-dimensional, phantasmal world where everything vital and creative withers and dies.

的确,即使是我们的思想也无法清楚地理解它们。因为我们的思想从来没有杜撰它们。这是一个偷窃的东西的状况,它们没有带来所有权。这样的替换让人们成为阴影,而且不真实。它们将空洞的话语替代活生生的关系。然若从对立力量的令人痛苦的紧张里,滑溜进入苍白,两个维度的幻影的世界,在那里,每样有生命与创造力的东西都枯萎,然后死去。

120 The wordless occurrences which are called forth by regression
to the pre-infantile period need no substitutes; they demand to be individually shaped in and by each man’s life and work. They are images sprung from the life, the joys and sorrows, of our ancestors; and to life they seek to return, not in experience only, but in deed. Because of their opposition to the conscious mind they cannot be translated straight into our world; hence a way must be found that can mediate between conscious and un¬conscious reality.

这个沉默的发生事情,被退转召唤到这个前-婴孩时期,这些事情并被需要替代品。它们要求被各别地塑造,在每个人都生活与工作里,也被它们所塑造。它们是一些意象从生活,快乐与悲伤里,诞生出来。从我们的祖先诞生出来。它们寻求回转到生命,不仅是在经验里。而是在行为里。因为它们跟意识心灵的的对立里,它们无法被直接翻译进入我们的世界。因此,必须找到一个方法能够作为中介,处于意识与无意识的现实。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 个人无意识与集体无意识 69

September 11, 2015

Collected 7
V
The
Personal, and the Collective (OR TRANSPERSONAL) UNCONSCIOUS
个人无意识与集体无意识(或跨越个人无意识)

109 So this idea has been stamped on the human brain for aeons.
That is why it lies ready to hand in the unconscious of every man. Only, certain conditions are needed to cause it to appear. These conditions were evidently fulfilled in the case of Robert Mayer. The greatest and best thoughts of man shape themselves upon these primordial images as upon a blueprint. I have often been asked where the archetypes or primordial images come from~ It seems to me that their origin can only be explained by assuming them to be deposits of the constantly repeated experi¬ences of humanity.

所以,这个观念已经被烙印在人类的脑部有好几纪元了。那就是为什么它现成地躺在每个人都无意识里。只是,某些的情况被需要,为了引起它出现。这些情况显而易见地被实践,在罗伯特 梅尔的情况里。人类的最伟大与最佳的思想塑造它们自己,在这些原始的意象里,如同在蓝图上面。我经常被询问,这些原型或原始的意象从何而来。我觉得,它们的起源仅能够被解释,凭借假设它们是人类的不断地被重复的经验的贮藏物。

One of the commonest and at the same time most impressive experiences is the apparent movement of the sun every day. We certainly cannot discover anything of the kind in the unconscious, so far as the known physical process is concerned. What we do find, on the other hand, is the myth of the sun-hero in all its countless variations. It is this myth, and not the physical process, that forms the sun archetype. The same can be said of the phases of the moon. The archetype is a kind of readiness to produce over and over again the same or similar mythical ideas. Hence it seems as though what is im¬pressed upon the unconscious were exclusively the subjective fantasy-ideas aroused by the physical process.

其中一个最普遍,同时也是最令人印象深刻的经验是每天太阳的明显的运作。我们确实无法发现任何这类的东西,在无意识里。就已知道物理的过程而言。另一方面,我们确实找到的东西,就是太阳-英雄的神话,在所有它的无数的变数里。就是这个神话,而不是物理的过程,形成太阳原型。就月亮岛盈蚀而言,相同的原则也是真实。原型是一种现成的东西,可以一再地产生相同或类似神秘的观念。因此,似乎好像让无意识产生印象的东西,专注地是受到物理过程引起的主体的幻想-观念。

We may therefore assume that the archetypes ‘are recurrent impressions made by subjective reactions.ll Naturally this assumption only pushes the problem further back without solving it. There is nothing to prevent us from assuming that certain archetypes exist even in animals, that they are grounded in the peculiarities of the liv¬ing organism itself and are therefore direct expressions of life whose nature cannot be further explained. Not only are the Jl Ct. “The Structure of the Psyche,” pp. 152ff.

69

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
archetypes, apparently, impressions of ever-repeated typical ex¬periences, but, at the same time, they behave empirically like agents that tend towards the repetition of these same experiences. For when an archetype appears in a dream, in a fantasy, or in life, it always brings with it a certain influence or power by vir¬tue of which it either exercises a numinous or a fascinating effect, or impels to action.

我们因此假设:这些重复发生的原型仅是将这个难题逼退回去,而没有解决它。没有任何东西能够阻止我们不去假设:某些的原型甚至存在于动物。它们的基础上这些活生生的有机体自身的特殊性。因此是生命的直接表达。这些直接表达的特性无法进一步被解释。显而易见,这些原型不但是不断重复的典型的经验的印象。而且,同时地,它们的行为经验上像是代理者,倾向于朝向这些相同的经验的重复的代理者。因为当原型出现在梦里,在幻想里,在生命里,它总是随之带来某些的影响,或力量。凭着它们,它要就是运用神性或迷人的影响,要不就是逼迫採取行动。

110 Having shown, in this example, how new ideas arise out of
the treasure-house of primordial images, we will proceed to the further discussion of the transference process. We saw that the libido had, for its new object, seized upon those seemingly ab¬surd and singular fantasies, the contents of the collective uncon¬scious. As I have already said, the projection of primordial im¬ages upon the doctor is a danger not to be underrated at this stage of the treatment. The images contain not only all the fine and good things that humanity has ever thought and felt, but the worst infamies and devilries of which men have been capa¬ble.

譬如,我们已经显示,有多少新的观念起源于这个原初意象的财宝屋。我们继续到更深入的讨论移情的过程。我们看见,力比多曾经掌握那些表面看起来荒谬而独异的幻想,作为它的新的客体,集体的无意识的内容。如同我已经说过,原初的意象的投射在医生身上是一个危险,在治疗的这个阶段无法被理解的危险。这些意象不但包含所有的精致而美好的东西,人类曾经思想与感觉过得东西,而且也包含人类能够作为的最糟糕的卑劣与邪恶的东西。

Owing to their specific energy-for they behave like highly charged autonomous centres of power-they exert a fascinating and possessive influence upon the conscious mind and can thus produce extensive alterations in the subject. One can see this in religious conversions, in cases of influence by suggestion, and particularly at the onset of certain forms of schizophrenia.12 Now, if the patient is unable to distinguish the personality of the doctor from these projections, all hope of an understanding is finally lost and a human relationship becomes impossible.

由于它们的明确的能源—因为它们行为像是高度装载电力的自动的中心—它们运用一个令人著迷与著魔豆影响力,对于意识的心灵,并且因此产生广泛的轮替在主体身上。我们能够看见这个轮替,在宗教的改变信仰,凭借暗示产生影响的个案。并且特别是在某些精神分裂的形式的开始。现在,假如病人不能够区别医生的人格,跟这些投射的差异。所有的理解的希望最后会丧失,人类的关系变得不可能。

But if the patient avoids this Charybdis, he is wrecked on the Scylla of introjecting these images-in other words, he ascribes their peculiarities not to the doctor but to himself. This is just as dis¬astrous. In projection, he vacillates between an extravagant and pathological deification of the doctor, and a contempt bristling with hatred. In introjection, he gets involved in a ridiculous self¬deification, or else in a moral self-laceration.

但是假如病人避免这个旋涡,他会被毁灭,在内射这些意象的女妖史库拉身上。换句话说,他归咎它们的特殊性,不是归于医生,而是归于他自己。这是同样具有毁灭性。在投射里,他摇摆于豪华与病态的将医生神圣化,与充满仇恨的藐视之间。在内射时,他牵涉到荒谬的自我-神化,要不然就是处理道德的自我-伤害。

The mistake he makes in both cases comes from attributing to a person the con¬tents of the collective unconscious. In this way he makes himself or his partner either god or devil. Here we see the characteristic effect of the archetype: it seizes hold of the psyche with a kind of
12 One such case is analysed in detail in Symbols of Transformation. Cf. also Nelken, “Analytische Beobachtungen iiber Phantasien dues Schizophrenen” (1912), p. 5°4•
70

THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
primeval force and compels it to transgress the bounds of hu¬manity. It causes exaggeration, a puffed-up attitude (inflation), loss of free will, delusion, and enthusiasm in good and evil alike.

在两个个案里,他犯的这个错误来自将集体无意识的内容,归属于一个人。用这个方式,他让他自己或他的伴侣成为神,或成为恶魔。在此,我们看见原型的这个特有的影响:它用一种原始的力量掌握心灵,并且逼迫心灵逾越人类的边界。它引起夸张,一种自我夸张的态度(自我膨胀)的丧失自由意志,幻觉与热忱,无论是善良与邪恶。

This is the reason why men have always needed demons and cannot live without gods, except for a few particularly clever specimens of homo occidentalis who lived yesterday or the day before, supermen for whom “God is dead” because they them¬selves have become gods-but tin-gods with thick skulls and cold hearts. The idea of God is an absolutely necessary psychological function of an irrational nature, which has nothing whatever to do with the question of God’s existence.

就是这个理由,为什么人们总是需要恶魔,并且无法生活,假如没有众神。除了少数的特殊的聪明的西方原人的品种,他们生活在昨天或前天。他们是超人。对于他们,“上帝已死”,因为他们自己已经成为众神。但是他们是妄自尊大的人,具有厚的头颅与冷酷的心。神的这个观念是绝对必要的心理的功能,具有非理性的特性。它更上帝的存在的问题没有丝毫关系。

The human intellect can never answer this question, still less give any proof of God. Moreover such proof is superfluous, for the idea of an all-powerful divine Being is present everywhere, unconsciously if not consciously, because it is an archetype. There is in the psyche some superior power, and if it is not consciously a god, it is the “belly” at least, in St. Paul’s words. I therefore consider it wiser to acknowledge the idea of God consciously; for, if we do not, something else is made God, usually something quite inap¬propriate and stupid such as only an “enlightened” intellect could hatch forth.

人类的知识永远无法回答这个问题,遑论给予上帝的证据。而且,这样的证据是多余的。因为这样一个全能的神性存在的观念出现在每个地方,无意识地,即使不是意识地。因为这是一个原型。在心灵里,存在着某个崇棠的力量。即使在意识方法,它并不是一个神,至少,它是这个“肚子”,用圣保罗的话来说。我因此认为我们最好还是意识上承认上帝这个观念。因为,假如我们不承认,某件其他的东西会被充当是上帝。通常是某件相当不合适与愚蠢的东西,如同仅有“开明”的知识份子才构想得出来。

Our intellect has long known that we can form no proper idea of God, much less picture to ourselves in what manner he really exists, if at all. The existence of God is once and for all an unanswerable question. The consensus gen¬tium has been talking of gods for aeons and will still be talking of them aeons hence. No matter how beautiful and perfect man may believe his reason to be, he can always be certain that it is only one of the possible mental functions, and covers only that one side of the phenomenal world which corresponds to it. But the irrational, that which is not agreeable to reason, rings it about on all sides.

我们的知识份子长久以来就知道,我们无法能够形成上帝的任何观念。更不用说要跟我们自己描绘,用他确实存在的样子,假如是有的话。几纪元来,一般的共识一直谈论众神,并且将会仍然是谈论众神,在以后的纪元。无论人可能信任他的理性是多么美丽与完美,人总是能够确实,理性仅是可能的精神功能的其中一个。仅是涵盖现象世界对应于它的一边。但是,这个非理性,跟理性并不相一致的东西,则是到处响亮。

And the irrational is likewise a psychological function-in a word, it is the collective unconscious; whereas the rational is essentially tied to the conscious mind. The conscious mind must have reason, firstly to discover some order in the chaos of disorderly individual events occurring in the world, and secondly to create order, at least in human affairs. We are moved by the laudable and useful ambition to extirpate the chaos of the irrational both within and without to the best of our ability. Apparently the process has gone pretty far. As a mental patient once told me: “Doctor, last night I disinfected the whole heav-
71

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
ens with bichloride of mercury, but I found no God.” Some¬thing of the sort has happened to us as well.

非理性同样都是一个心理的功能—总之,它是集体无意识。而理性则是基本上跟意识心灵息息相关。意识的心灵一定具有理性,首先是要发现某个秩序,在混乱的个人事件的混乱里,这些事件发生在世界上。其次,为了创造秩序,至少在人类的事物里。我们被这个可称赞的,有用的企图心所感动,要尽我们的能力,里里外外,将非理性的混乱消灭。显而易见地,这个过程已经进展已久。当一位精神病病人有一次对我说:「医生,昨天晚上,我解除整个的天空的污染水银的二录化合物。但是,我找不到上帝。」类似的某件东西也发生到我们身上。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

From an other to the Other 55

September 8, 2015

From an other to the Other 55
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

22.1.69 Vin 7
Because of course our experience, as they say, in analysis confronts us at
every instant with this effect of loss. And if one does not grasp what is at
stake, one attributes it, under the name of narcissistic wound, to an
imaginary injury. This is how innocent experience testifies that this effect
of loss is met with at every step.

当然,因为我们精神分析的经验,如人们所说,在精神分析,我们无时无刻都面临这个丧失的结果。假如我们不理解什么东西岌岌可危,我们归咎它,在自恋的伤痕的名字之下,归咎于想像的伤害。这就是纯真的精神分析测试的方式:丧失的这个结果,在每个步骤都被遭遇。

It bears witness to it in an innocent way,
namely, in the most harmful way, by referring it to this schema of
narcissistic wound, namely, from a relationship to one’s fellow that on
this occasion has absolutely nothing to do with it.

精神分析以纯真的方式见证这个失落的结果。换句话说,以最令人伤害的方式。凭借将它推荐给自恋伤痕的基模。换句话说,从跟自己同胞的关系。在这个场合,这个关系跟它一点关系都没有。

It is not because some
fragment that is supposed to be part of the body is detached from it that
the wound in question functions, and every attempt at reparation,
whatever it may be, is condemned to prolong its aberration

那倒不是因为某个碎片被认为是身体的部分。这个碎片跟它隔离起来。以致受到质疑的伤痕发挥功能,尝试补偿的企图被注定要延长它的疏离,无论这个企图是什么。

What is at
stake, the wound, is elsewhere in an effect that at the start, to recall it, I
distinguished from the imaginary as symbolic. It is in the gap that is
produced or aggravated, because we cannot plumb how much of this gap
was already there in the organism, of this gap between the body and its
enjoyment.

岌岌可危的东西,这个伤痕在别处,结果是,在一开始,为了提醒它,我区别它跟想像界不同,作为是象征界。就是这个差距被产生,或被恶化,因为我们无法测量这个差距有多少已经在有机体那里,这个差距有多少在身体与它的享乐之间。

In as much as then, as I have said, what determines it or
aggravates it, and it is only this aggravation that is important, is the
incidence of the signifier. The very incidence of the mark, the incidence
of what I earlier called the unary trait, which gives it its consistency.

如同我已经说过,就像是决定它或恶化它的东西。重要的就仅是这个恶化。那是能指的意外。标记的这个意外,我早先所谓的独异性特征的意外,它给予它的一致性。

So then what is at stake is outlined by measuring the effect of this loss, of
this lost object in so far as we designate it by o, at this locus without
which it could not be produced, at this still unknown, still unmeasured
locus called the Other. What does it mean, that one must first take this
measure of which it is enough to have the experience, indeed the passion
for gaming to see its relationship with the way we function as desire.
What is going to be involved between this proportion that we must now
(100) measure? Well then, there is something very strange. This
proportion, this measure, is already there in the figures, I mean in the
written signs with which we articulate the very idea of measure.

所以,岌岌可危的东西被描绘轮廓,凭借测量这个丧失的影响,这个失落的客体的影响。因为我们凭借o指明它,在这个轨迹。假如没有这个轨迹,它无法被产生,在这个依旧不被知道,依旧没有被测量的所谓大他者的轨迹。那是什么意思?为什么我们必须首先採取这个测量,我们才能看见它跟我们发挥作为欲望的功能的方式的关系?我们只要拥有这个测量的经验就足够,的确,拥有对于遊戏的激情就足够看见。什么东西将会被牵涉,在我们现在必须测量的这个比例之间?呵呵,有某件非常奇怪的东西。这个比例,这个测量,已经在这些图形那里。我指的是这些被书写的符号里。我们用这些符号来表达测量的观念。

22.1.69 v in 8
We do not know anything, at this point, about the nature of the loss. I can
behave as if we never give it any particular support. We give points, I will
not say where we are able to scoop things out, where we get the wood
shavings; but there is no need to know.

我们什么都不知道,在这个时刻,关于这个丧失的特性。我能够行为,好像我们从来没有给予它任何特别的支持。我们给予几个要点。我将不会说,我们在哪里能够将东西酌取出来,在哪里我们能够获得这些木屑,但是我们没有必要知道。

As I said, on the one hand we
only know the function of loss and on the other, we undoubtedly do not
know what is involved in the 1 because it is only the unary trait. This not
knowing is only what we are happy to retain of it. And nevertheless it is
enough for us to write l/o in which the proportion is inscribed.

如同我知道,在一方面,我们仅是知道这个丧失的功能。在另一方面,我们无可置疑地并不知道什么被牵涉在这个“我”。里。因为它仅是这个独异性。这个“不知道”仅是我们很快乐要保留它的东西。可是,这足够让我们书写1/0。这个比例就被铭记在那里。

Namely,
that the relationship of this 1, determining for the effect of loss, is equal
and should be, since it seems indeed that it is a loss that is at stake, to
something in which there is connected by an additive “and” this 1 and the
written sign of this loss, l/o = l+o. Because such indeed in effect is the
inscription from which there results what is involved in a certain
proportion whose harmony, if it must be evoked, does not depend
assuredly on aesthetic effects.

换句话说,这个“我”的关系,决定作为丧失的影响,是相等于,也应该相等于某件东西。因为似乎确实就是一个丧失岌岌可危。在这个东西里,有一个增加{+}被连接一块。这个丧失的书写符号是1/0=1+0。 因为这样的东西实际上是这个铭记,在某种的比例,所被牵涉的东西造成的结果。这个比例的和谐并没有确实依靠美学的影响,即使它必须被召唤。

Simply I would ask you, in order to
measure it yourselves, to allow yourselves to be guided first of all by the
examination of what is involved in its mathematical nature. The
harmonies in question are not constructed by luck, from a lucky
encounter. As I think the bringing together of the series that results from
the recurrent function generated from this equality, as I think I can show
you that one finds in it the characteristic note, that of o, in a whole other
series generated from another starting point, but which interests us just as
much.

为了让你们自己测量它,我仅是想要要求你们,容许你们自己首先被引导,根据这个检查,用它的数学的特性检查所被牵涉的东西。受到质疑的这些和谐,并不是偶然地被建构,从偶然的遭遇。因为我认为,这些系列的聚集一块,因为这个平等所产生的重现的功能所造成的这些系列。我认为我能够跟你们显示,我们在它里面找到这个特性的注释,0的特性的注释。在整个的其它系列,从另外一个开始点所产生。这另外一整个其他系列让我们同样感到興趣。

As you will see, it is the one that by taking things from another end
would be generated from what we have called the Spaltung or the original
division of the subject, in other words from efforts to make two disjointed
units connect up. This is a field that must be gone through step by step.
It is necessary to write out in a clear way what is involved in the aforesaid
series.

你们将会看出,凭借从另外一个末端看待事情,这个系列应该被产生,从我们所谓的分裂,或是主体的原初的区分。换句话说,跟努力要让两个分开的单位连接一块。这是一个必须逐步被经历的领域。有必要用清楚的方式书写出所被牵涉的东西,用以上所述的系列。

We write it in the following form We put here the o and here the
1, a direction, this direction only exists, I underlined it in passing, from
the fact of our starting point. After the 1, we put l+o. After the o, l-o.

我们用以下的形式书写它。我们在此放置这个0,在此放置这个1,一个方向,这个方向仅是存在。我顺便强调它,根据我们开始的点的这个事实。在这个1之后,我们放置1-0.在0,1-0之后,

The series is generated from the addition of two terms in order to produce
the following term.

这个系列被产生,从两个术语的增加产生,为了产生以下的术语。

So here we have:
所以,在此,我们拥有:

o 1
1-0 l+o
2o-l 2+o
2-3o 3+2o
5o-3 5+3o
5-8o 8+5o

(101) from which you can see that it does not fail to present some
relationships with the opposite list. I pass on, I pass on because it is easy
for you to check the fact that the continuation of these values represents a
proportion that is maintained, namely, that l+o is to 1 as 2+o is to l+o. It
is very exactly what is written in the initial formula. This might just as
well be written: 1, l/o, l/o2, l/o3, l/o4, etc….

从那里,你们能够看见,它一定会呈现某些的关系,跟相对的名单。我传递,我传递下去,因为你们很容易检查这个事实:这些价值的继续代表一个被维持的比例。换句话说,那个1+0 相对于1,就像2+0相对于1+0。 这确实是在最初的公式被书写的东西。这同样可能被书写为:1, l/o, l/o2, l/o3, l/o4, 等等、、、

a number that, since o is less than 1, will keep on increasing.
Here on the contrary you write o2, o3, o4, o5, o6 a number that as I repeat
since o is less than one, will always decrease.

这一个数字将会继续增加,因为0少于1。在此,相反地,你们书写 02,03,04,05,06,这一个数字,如同我重复的,因为0少于1,它将总是减少。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
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Collected 7 态度与类型的难题8

September 7, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔荣格
IV
第四章
THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
态度-类型的难题

90 The problem for the adult is very different. He has put this
part of the road behind him with or without difficulty. He has cut loose from his parents, long since dead perhaps, and has sought and found the mother in the wife, or, in the case of a woman, the father in the husband. He has duly honoured his fathers and their institutions, has himself become a father, and, with all this in the past, has possibly come to realize that what
6(;’

THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
originally meant advancement and satisfaction has now become a boring mistake, part of the illusion of youth, upon which h looks back with mingled regret and envy, because nothing no> awaits him but old age and the end of all illusions. Here there are no more fathers and mothers; all the illusions he projected upon the world and upon things gradually come home to him jaded and way-worn. The energy streaming back from these manifold relationships falls into the unconscious and activate all the things he had neglected to develop.

对于成年人,这个难题非常不同。他将这个途径的部分留置身后,困难或不困难地。他跟他的父母隔离开来,他们或许死去很久。他尝试在妻子身上找到母亲。或者在女人的情况,在丈夫当中找到父亲。他恰如其分地尊崇他的祖先及其体制。他自己成为一位父亲。由于过去的一切经历,他可能逐渐体会到,原先意味着进步与满足的的东西,现在已经成为一个无聊的错误,青春痘幻觉的部分。他回顾青春的幻觉,悔恨与妒忌交加。因为没有任何东西等待他,除了老年,与所有的幻觉的结束。在此,不再有父亲与母亲。只是他投射在世界上的所有的幻觉,他投射在事物的所有的幻觉,逐渐让他醒悟,冷漠而疲累地。从这些多重的关系汹涌回来的能源,掉入无意识,并且触动所有他曾经忽略去发展的东西。

91 In a young man, the instinctual forces tied up in the neurosi
give him, when released, buoyancy and hope and the chance tl extend the scope of his life. To the man in the second half of life, the development of the function of opposites lying dormant in the unconscious means a renewal; but this development no longer proceeds via the dissolution of infantile ties, the destruction of infantile illusions and the transference of old imagos te new figures: it proceeds via the problem of opposites.

在年轻人身上,跟神经症息息相关的本能的力量,一旦被释放,给予欢喜与希望与机会,它们延伸到他生命的范围。对于这个人,生命的第二部分对立力量的功能的发展,潜藏在无意识里,那意味着更新。但是这个发展不再前进,凭借婴孩关系的瓦解,婴孩幻觉的毁灭与古老意象的移情到新的人物。它继续前进,经由对立力量的难题。

92 The principle of opposition is, of course, fundamental eve I
in adolescence, and a psychological theory of the adolescen psyche is bound to recognize this fact. Hence the Freudian ani Adlerian viewpoints contradict each other only when they clain to be generally applicable theories. But so long as they are con tent to be technical, auxiliary concepts, they do not contradict or exclude one another. A psychological theory, if it is to h more than a technical makeshift, must base itself on the prin ciple of opposition; for without this it could only re-establish; neurotically unbalanced psyche. There is no balance, no systen of self-regulation, without opposition. The psyche is just such: self-regulating system.

当然,对立力量的原则是基本的,即使是青少年身上。有关青少年的心灵的心理学的理论,一定会体认筹这个事实。因此,弗洛依德与阿德勒的观点,仅有在他们宣称是一般通用的理论里,才会互相牴触。但是只要他们满足于充当技术性的辅助的观念。它们并没有互相牴触与排除。心理学的理论,假如它想要成为不仅是技术性的权宜之计,它必须以对立力量的原则作为基础。凡是规范自己的平衡与系统,都会有对立力量。心灵就是这样一个规范自己的系统。
2
93 If at this point we take up the thread we let fall earlier, WI
shall now see clearly why it is that the values which the individual lacks are to be found in the neurosis itself. At this point, too we can return to the case of the young woman and apply the insight we have gained. Let us suppose that this patient is “analysed,” i.e., she has, through the treatment, come to understand the nature of the unconscious thoughts lurking behind the symptoms, and has thus regained possession of the unconscious energy which constituted the strength of those symptoms. The question then arises:What to do with the so-called disposable energy?

假如在这个时刻,我们从事这个脉络,我们早先掉落的脉络。我们想和清楚地看出,为什么个人欠缺的那些价值,能够在神经症里被找到。在这个时刻,我们也回到年轻女人的情况,并且运用我们已经获得的这个洞察力。让我们假设,这位病人是位“被分析者”。譬如,她经由这个治疗,她已经逐渐理解到,无意识的思想的特性,潜藏在症状里面。因此获得拥有这个无意识的能源,它们组成那些症状的力量。问题因此产生:要如何处理这个所谓的可废除的能源?

61

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
question then arises: w

In accordance with the psychological type of the pa¬tient, it would be rational to transfer this energy to an object-to philanthropic work, for example, or some useful activity. With exceptionally energetic natures that are not afraid of wearing themselves to the bone, if need be, or with people who delight in the toil and moil of such activities, this way is possible, but mostly it is impossible.

为了符合病人的心灵的类型,理性的做法是将这个能源转换到一个客体—譬如,转换到慈善的工作,或一些有用的活动。跟这些特殊的能源的天性,它们并不害怕让自己精疲力尽,假如有必要的话。或是,跟一些人们,他们很乐意于如此活动的劳苦疲累。这个途径是可能的,但是大部分,它是不可能。

For-do not forget-the libido, as this psychic energy is technically called, already possesses its object unconsciously, in the form of the young Italian or some equally real human substitute. In these circumstances a sublimation is as impossible as it is desirable, because the real object generally offers the energy a much better gradient than do the most ad¬mirable ethical activities. Unfortunately far too many of us talk about a man only as it would be desirable for him to be, never about the man as he really is. But the doctor has always to do with the real man, who remains obstinately himself until all sides of his reality are recognized. True education can only start from naked reality, not from a delusive ideal.

因为—请你们不要忘记—力比多,作为心灵的能源,是技术性的称谓,它已经无意识地拥有它的客体,以年轻义大利人的形状,或某个同样真实的人的替换。在这些情况里,升华是不可能的,也是被渴望的。因为真实的客体通常提供这个能源一个更佳的渐层,比起那些最令人赞赏的伦理的活动所提供的渐层。不幸地,我们太多的人们谈论到一个人,仅有当他被渴望成为永远不是他确实本质的那个人。但是,医生总是必须处理这个真实的人。这个真实的人始终固执地成为他自己,直到他的现实的各方面被体认出来。真实的教育仅能够从这个赤裸的教育开始,而不是从一个幻觉的理想开始。

94 It is unhappily the case that no man can direct the so-called
disposable energy at will. It follows its own gradient. Indeed, it had already found that gradient even before we set the energy free from the unserviceable form to which it was linked. For we discover that the patient’s fantasies, previously occupied with the young Italian, have now transferred themselves to the doc¬tor.12 The doctor has himself become the object of the uncon¬scious libido. If the patient altogether refuses to recognize the fact of the transference,13 or if the doctor fails to understand it,
or interprets it falsely, vigorous resistances supervene, direct( towards making the relation with the doctor completely impc sible. Then the patient goes away and looks for another doctc or for someone who understands; or, if he gives up the searc he gets stuck in his problem.

很不幸地,情况是,没有人任意地引导所谓的可废除的能源。这个能源遵循它自己的渐层。的确,这个能源已经找到那个渐层,即使我们让这个能源释放出来,从没有提供服务的形式,跟它息息相关的形式。因为,我们发现,病人的幻想,先前专注于年轻的义大利人,现在已经转移幻想自己到医生身上。医生他自己已经成为无意识的力比多的这个客体。假如病人完全拒绝体认移情的这个事实,或假如医生没有理解这个移情。或错误地解释它。强烈的抗拒就会介入,引导朝向让跟医生的关系变得不可能。因此,病人离开去寻找另外一位医生,或寻找某位理解的人,或假如他放弃这个寻找,他会卡陷在他的难题里。

12 Freud introduced the concept of transference as a designation for the projec¬tion of unconscious contents.
13 Contrary to certain views I am not of the opllllOn that the “transference to the doctor” is a regular phenomenon indispensable to the success of the treat¬ment. Transference is projection, and projection is either there or not there. But it is not necessary. In no sense can it be “made,” for by definition it springs from unconscious motivations. The doctor may be a suitable object for the projection, or he may not. There is absolutely no saying that he will in all circumstances correspond to the natural gradient of the patient’s libido; for it is quite on the cards that the libido is envisaging a much more important object for its projec¬tions. The absence of projections to the doctor may in fact considerably facilitate the treatment, because the real personal values can then come more clearly to the forefront.
62

TH

95 If, however, the transference to the doctor takes place, and is
accepted, a natural form is found which supplants the earlier one and at the same time provides the energy with an outlet relatively free from conflict. Hence if the libido is allowed to run its natural course, it will find its own way to the destined object. Where this does not happen, it is always a question of wilful defiance of the laws of nature, or of some disturbing influence.

可是,假如跟医生的移情确是发生,并且被接纳,一个自然的形式被找到。这个自然的形式替换早先的形式,同时供应能源一个发泄,比较免除冲突的发泄。因此,假如力比多被容许运行它的自然的途径,它将会找到它自己的途径,回到注定的客体。在这件事情没有发生的地方,它总是一个任性地挑衅自然法则的问题,或是挑衅某个令人困扰的影响的问题。

96 In the transference all kinds of infantile fantasies are pro
jected. They must be cauterized, i.e., resolved by reductive an< ysis, and this is generally known as "resolving the transference Thereby the energy is again released from an unserviceabe form, and again we are faced with the problem of its disposabiliity. Once more we shall put our trust in nature, hoping that even before it is sought, an object will have been chosen which will provide a favourable gradient.

在移情里,各色各样的婴孩的幻想被投射。这些幻想必须被瘫痪,譬如,用化简的精神分析予以解决。这通常是众所周知的“解决移情”。因此,能源再次被释放,从没有提供服务的形式。而且,我们面临能源可废除的这个难题。再一次,我们将我们的信任天性,希望在它被寻求之前,一个客体将会已经被选择。这个客体将会供应一个有利的渐层。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 态度与类型的难题

September 6, 2015

The initiative of the extravert likewise held good for the other. Thus the attitude of the one includes the other, and this is always in some degree true if a person happens to be in the attitude natu-ral to him, for this attitude has some degree of collective adapta-tion. The same is true of the introvert’s attitude, although this always starts from the subject. It simply goes from subject to object, while the extravert’s attitude goes from object to subject.
Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔荣格
IV
第四章
THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
态度-类型的难题

But the moment when, in the case of the introvert, the ob-ject overpowers and attracts the subject, his attitude loses its so¬cial character. He forgets the presence of his friend, he no longer includes him, he becomes absorbed into the object and does not see how very bored his friend is. In the same way the extravert loses all consideration for the other as soon as his expectations are disappointed and he withdraws into subjectivity and moodi¬ness.

但是这个时刻,在内倾型的个案,这个客体压倒并且吸引主体。他的态度丧失它的社会的特性。他忘记他的朋友的存在,他不再包含他,他变得专注于这个客体,并且看不出,他的朋友多么无聊。同样地,外倾型的人丧失所有的对于别人的考虑。当他的期待感到失望。它撤退进入主体性与情绪化当中。

We can therefore formulate the occurrence as follows: in the introvert the influence of the object produces an inferior extra¬version, while in the extravert an inferior introversion takes the place of his social attitude. And so we come back to the proposi-tion from which we started: “The value of the one is the nega-tion of value for the other.”

我们因此能够阐述这个事件如下:在内倾型的人,客体的影响产生低劣的外倾型。而在外倾型的人,低劣的内倾型取代他的社会的态度。所以,我们回到这个命题。我们从那里开始的命题。前者的价值是后者的价值的否定。

Positive as well as negative occurrences can constellate the inferior counter-function. When this happens, sensitiveness ap-pears. Sensitiveness is a sure sign of the presenc~ of inferiority. This provides the psychological basis for discord and misunder¬standing, not only as between two people, but also in ourselves. The essence of the inferior functionll is autonomy: it is inde-pendent, it attacks, it fascinates and so spins us about that we are no longer masters of ourselves and can no longer rightly distin-guish between ourselves and others.

正面以及负面的发生事件都会汇集低劣的反向-功能。当发生这样的事情时,敏感性会出现。敏感性是低劣的存在的一个确定的迹象。这供应心理的基础,给杂乱与误解。不但作为两个人们之间,而且在我们自己之间。低劣的功能是自主权。自主权是独立,它攻击,它著迷人,它如此让我们旋转,以致于我们不再掌控我们自己。我们不再正确地区别我们自己跟别人。

And yet it is necessary for the development of character that we should allow the other side, the inferior function, to find expression. We cannot in the long run allow one part of our personality to be cared for symbiotically by another; for the mo-ment when we might have need of the other function may come

可是, 这是必要的,对于人格的发展,我们应该容许另外一面,较低劣的功能,找到表达。追根究底,我们无法容下我们的人格的一部分象征方面被另外一部分照顾。因为当我们本来就可能需要另外一个功能的来临。

58

87
88

THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
In extraversion and introversion it is clearly a matter of two antithetical, natural attitudes or trends, which Goethe once re¬ferred to as diastole and systole. They ought, in their harmoni¬ous alternation, to give life a rhythm, but it seems to require a high degree of art to achieve such a rhythm. Either one must do it quite unconsciously, so that the natural law is not disturbed by any conscious act, or one must be conscious in a much higher sense, to be capable of willing and carrying out the antithetical movements.

在外倾型与内倾型之间,这显而易见是两个对立的自然的态度或倾向的问题。歌德有一次提到一个心室扩张与心室收缩。在它们的和谐的轮替里,它们应该给予生命一个韵律。我们要就是完全无意识地这样做,这样,自然法则才不会被任何的意识的行动扰乱。要不就是,我们必须处于相当程度的意识,我们才能够愿意并且执行这个对立的运动。

Since we cannot develop backwards into animal un-consciousness, there remains only the more strenuous way for-wards into higher consciousness. Certainly that consciousness, which would enable us to live the great Yea and Nay of our own free will and purpose, is an altogether superhuman ideal. Still, it is a goal. Perhaps our present mentality only allows us con-sciously to will the Yea and to bear with the Nay. When that is the case, much is already achieved.

因为我们无法退行发展进入动物的无意识,仅剩馀的就是更加努力地向前发展,进入更高的意识。的确,那个意识将会让我们能够生活于这个伟大的“是”或“否”,出于我们自己的自由的意志与目的。这是一个完全超乎人类的理想。可是,它是一个目标。或许,我们目前的精神仅让我们能够意识地意愿这个“是”,然后忍受这个“否”。当情况是那样时,很多已经被完成。

The problem of opposites, as an inherent principle of hu-man nature, forms a further stage in our process of realization. As a rule it is one of the problems of maturity. The practical treatment of a patient will hardly ever begin “”with this problem, especially not in the case of young people.

作为是人类天性的与生俱来的原则,对立力量的难题形成更进一步的舞台,在我们实践的过程。通常,这是成熟的其中一个难题。病人的实际的治疗几乎还没有从这个难题开始。特别在年轻人们的个案,并没有。

TThe neuroses of the young generally come from a collision between the forces of re¬ality and an inadequate, infantile attitude, which from the causal point of view is characterized by an abnormal dependence on the real or imaginary parents, and from the teleological point of view by unrealizable fictions, plans, and aspirations. Here the reductive methods of Freud and Adler are entirely in place. But there are many neuroses which either appear only at maturity or else deteriorate to such a degree that the patients become inca-pable of work. Naturally one can point out in these cases that an unusual dependence on the parents existed even in youth, and that all kinds of infantile illusions were present; but all that did not prevent them from taking up a profession, from practising it successfully, from keeping up a marriage of sorts until that mo-ment in riper years when the previous attitude suddenly failed. In such cases it is of little help to make them conscious of their childhood fantasies, dependence on the parents, ete., although this is a necessary part of the procedure and often has a not un-favourable result.

年轻人们的个案通常来自这个冲突,处于现实的各种力量与不足够,婴孩般态度之间的冲突。从因果律的观点,这个态度的特征是不正常地依靠实在界或想像界的父母亲。从目的论的观点,其特征是无法被实践的幻想,计划,与渴望。在此,弗洛依德与阿德勒的化简的方法完全可以运用。但是有许多的神经症,他们要将是仅处于成熟状态,要不就是恶化到这个程度,病人变得无法工作。当然,我们能够指出,这些个案里,不寻常地依靠父母亲,甚至存在于在年轻时。各种各样的婴孩的幻觉出现,但是所有这一切并没有阻止他们不去从事专业,不去成功地执行这个专业,不去维持某种的婚姻,直到在更加成熟的这个时刻,当先前的态度突然失败。在这些情况,这是没有多大帮助,要让他们意识到他们的童年的幻想,依靠他们的父母,等等。虽然这是程序的必要的部分,并且经常拥有一个并非不利的结果。

59

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
But the real therapy only begins when the pa¬tient sees that it is no longer father and mother who are standing in his way, but himself-i.e., an unconscious part of his personal¬ity which carries on the role of father and mother. Even this realization, helpful as it is, is still negative; it simply says, “I realize that it is not father and mother who are against me, but I myself.” But who is it/in him that is against him? What is this mysterious part of his personality that hides under the father¬and mother-imagos, making him believe for years that the cause of his trouble must somehow have got into him from outside? This part is the counterpart of his conscious attitude, and it will leave him no peace and will continue to plague him until it has been accepted. For young people a liberation from the past may be enough: a beckoning future lies ahead, rich in possibilities. It is sufficient to break a few bonds; the life-urge will do the rest. But we are faced with another task in the case of people who have left a large part of their life behind them, for whom the future no longer beckons with marvellous possibilities, and nothing is to be expected but the endless round of familiar du¬ties and the doubtful pleasures of old age.

但是仅有当病人看见,阻碍他们的人并非是父亲或母亲,而是他们自己,真实的治疗才开始。他的人格的无意识的部分扮演父亲与母亲的角色。这个体会虽然是有帮助,它甚至依旧是负面的。它仅是说:「我体会到,反对我的人,并不是父亲与母亲,而是我自己。」但是在他身上是谁反对他?他的人格的的对立的这个神秘的部分,隐藏在父亲与母亲的意像之下,让他长年以来相信:他的困扰的原因一定是用某种方法从外面进入他?)这个部分是他的意识的态度的对立部分,它让他无法平静,并且将继续困扰他,直到它已经被接受。对于年轻人们,从过去解放出来可能就足够:一个召唤的未来在前头展望,充满各种的可能性。它足够打破一些约束。生命的渴望将会从事其余的工作。但是我们面临另外一个工作,在那些人们的个案。他们已经留下一大部分的他们的生命在背后。对于他们,前途不再召唤他们,用神奇的各种可能性。没有一样东西能够被期望,除了就是无穷尽的熟悉的责任的循环,与老年的可疑的欢乐。

89 If ever we succeed in liberating young people from the past,
we see that they always transfer the imagos of their parents to more suitable substitute figures. For instance, the feeling that clung to the mother now passes to the wife, and the father’s au¬thority passes to respected teachers and superiors or to institu¬tions. Although this is not a fundamental solution, it is yet a practical road which the normal man treads unconsciously and therefore with no notable inhibitions and resistances.

假如我成功地让年轻人们从过去解放出来,我们看见,他们总是转移他们的父母的意像,转移到更加合适的替换的人物。譬如,紧紧依附母亲的感觉,现在传依到妻子。转移父亲的权威到令人尊敬的老师与长辈,或转移到体制。虽然这并不是一个基本的解决,这是一个实际的途径,正常人们无意识地践踏着,因此没有显著的压抑与抗拒

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Collected 7 态度与类型的难题 3

August 31, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔荣格
IV
第四章
THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
态度-类型的难题

3 Cf. my essay “On Psychic Energy.”

47

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
72 We may allow that this view has a certain justification in so
far as man is at all capable of marking out a definite line along which his life has to go. But we know that there is no human foresight or wisdom that can prescribe direction to our life, ex¬cept for small stretches of the way. This is of course true only of the “ordinary” type of life, not of the “heroic” type. The latter kind also exists, though it is much rarer.

我们可能容许这个观点具有某种的理由,因为人能够标示一个明确的脉络。沿着这个脉络,他的生命必需前进。但是,我们知道,并没有什么人的远见或智慧能够指定方向给我们的生活。除了这个方式的微小的延伸。当然,这仅是就“普通种类的生活”而言,才是真实的,而不是“英雄式”的种类。后者也存在,虽然时期较晚。

Here we are certainly not entitled to say that no marked direction can be given to life, or only for short distances. The heroic style of life is absolute-that is, it is oriented by fateful decisions, and the decision to go in a certain direction holds, sometimes, to the bitter end. Ad¬mittedly the doctor has to do, in the main, only with human beings, seldom with voluntary heroes, and then they are mostly of a type whose surface heroism is an infantile defiance of a fate greater than they, or else a pomposity meant to cover up some touchy inferiority. In this overpoweringly humdrum existence, alas, there is little out of the ordinary that is healthy, and not much room for conspicuous heroism.

在此,我们确实并没有资格说,没有明显的方向能够被给予生活。或仅是给予短的距离。英雄式的生活方式是绝对的,换句话说,英雄式的生活方式被命运的决定所定向。要朝着某个方向前去的决定,有时紧捉住痛苦的结果。大体上,虽然医生仅是必须处理人类,很少处理自愿的英雄。因此,他们大部分是属于那一种英雄式生活方式。他的表妹的英雄主义是婴孩般挑衅,比起他们更强大的命运。要不然,被用来掩盖某些敏锐的自卑的堂皇行为,在这个过份沉闷的生存,没有留下多少空间给显著的英雄主义。

Not that heroic demands are never put to us: on the contrary-and this is just what is so irritating and irksome-the banal everyday makes banal de-mands upon our patience, our devotion, perseverance, self¬sacrifice; and for us to fulfil these demands (as we must) humbly and without courting applause through heroic gestures, a hero¬ism is needed that cannot be seen from the outside.

倒不是因为英雄的要求从来没有跟我们提出。相反地,这恰恰是如此令人愤怒与懊恼的东西。日常生活的陈腐对于我们的耐心,忠诚,毅力,自我牺牲,提出陈腐的要求。为了谦卑地让我们实践这些要求,(如同我们必须),而不是通过英雄式的姿态获取赞美,英雄主义是被需要的,它并不是从外在来观看。

It does not glitter, is not belauded, and it always seeks concealment in ev-eryday attire. These are the demands which, if not fulfilled, are the cause of neurosis. In order to evade them, many a man has dared the great decision of his life and carried it through, even if in the common human estimation it was a great error. Before a fate such as this one can only bow one’s head. But, as I say, such cases are rare; the others are in the vast majority. For them the direction of their life is not a simple, straight line; fate confronts them like an intricate labyrinth, all too rich in possibilities, and yet of these many possibilities only one is their own right way.

这种英雄主义并不闪闪发光,它并不是被赞赏,它总是寻求隐藏,在日常生活的态度里。这些要求假如没有被满足,它们会是神经症的原因。为了逃避它们,许多人们曾经大胆做他的生命的伟大决定,并且贯彻到底。即使在共同的人类的评估里,它是重大的错误。在命运之前,像这样的英雄式行为可能仅是让自己头脑疯掉。但是,如同我所说,这些情况很少见。其余的生活方式则是大多数。对于他们,他们的生活的方向并不是一个简单,直线的生活。他们面临这个命运,就像是复杂的迷宫。往往充满各种可能性。可是,这许多的可能性,仅有一个可能是他们自己的直接到方式。

Who would presume-even though armed with the completest knowledge of his own character-to designate in advance that single possibility? Much indeed can be attained by the will, but, in view of the fate of certain markedly strong-willed personali¬ties, it is a fundamental error to try to subject our own fate at all costs to our will. Our will is a function regulated by reflection; hence it is dependent on the quality of that reflection.

有谁将会大胆地事先指明那个单一的可能性?即使他装备著完整的知识,对于他自己的性格。的确,很多东西能够被获得,凭借这个意志。但是从某个明显强烈意志的人物的命运的观点,这基本上是错误的,假如他尝试将我们自己的命运不计任何代价隶属于我们的意志。我们的意志是一个受到反思规范的功能,因此,它依靠那个反思的品质。,

48

THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
This, if it really is reflection, is supposed to be rational, i.e., in accord with reason. But has it ever been shown, or will it ever be, that life and fate are in accord with reason, that they too are rational? We have on the contrary good grounds for supposing that they are irrational, or rather that in the last resort they are grounded beyond human reason.
假如我们的意志确实就是反思,这被认为是理性,也就是说,符合理性。但是生命与命运符合理想,生命与命运是理性,曾经这样显示,或将会这样显示吗?相反地,我们拥有充分的理由假设,生命与命运是非理性,或者说,追根究底,生命与命运的基础上超越人类的理性。
The irrationality of events is shown in what we call chance, which we are obviously compelled to deny because we cannot in principle think of any process that is not causal and necessary, whence it follows that it cannot happen by chance.4 In practice, however, chance reigns everywhere, and so obtrusively that we might as well put our causal philosophy in our pocket.

事件的非理性被显示出来,在我们所谓的偶然性。我们显而易见地被迫否认这个偶然性,因为我们原则上无法想到任何并非因果律与必然性的过程。因此,我们推论,事件无法偶然地发生。可是,实际上,偶然性到处统辖,如此没有遮拦,以致我们很有理由将我们的因果律哲学束放口袋。

The plenitude of life is governed by law and yet not governed by law, rational and yet irrational. Hence reason and the will that,is grounded in reason are valid only up to a point. The further we go in the direction selected by reason, the surer we may be that we are excluding the irrational possibilities of life which have just as much right to be lived.

生活的丰富受到法则的统辖,可是又没有受到法则的统辖,既是理性,又是非理性。因此,理性与以理性为基础的意志是正确的,仅有到某个程度。我们越深朝着理性选择的方向前进,我们可能越是确定,我们正在排除生命的非理性的可能性。生命的非理性的可能性拥有同样的权利要生活。

It was indeed highly expedient for man to become somewhat more capable of directing his life. It may justly be maintained that the acquisi¬tion of reason is the greatest achievement of humanity; but that is not to say that things must or will always continue in that direction. The frightful catastrophe of the first World War drew a very thick line through the calculations of even the most opti¬mistic rationalizers of culture. In 1913, Wilhelm Ostwald wrote:

这确实是高度权宜之计,让人变得更加能够引导他自己的生命。同样道理,有人主张,理性的获得就是人类的最大的成就。但是那并不是说,事情必须或总是继续朝着那个方向。第一次世界大战的可怕的灾难非常不可能发生,经过即使是文化里最乐观的理性论者的估算。在1913年,维廉 奥斯陆写著:

4 Modern physics has put an _ end to this strict causality. Now there is only “statistical probability.” As far back as ‘9,6, I had pointed out the limitations of the causal view in psychology, for which I was heavily censured at the time. See my preface to the second edition of Collected Papers on Analytical Psychol¬ogy, in Freud and Psychoanalysis, pp. 293ff.
49

The whole world is agreed that the present state of armed peace is untenable and is gradually becoming impossible. It demands tremen¬dous sacrifices from each single nation, far exceeding the expendi¬ture for cultural purposes, yet without securing any positive values.

整个的世界都同意,目前的武装和平的状态是无法自圆其说的,并且逐渐变得不可能。它要求巨大的牺牲,从每一个单一的国家。远超过作为文化的目的的耗费,可是,又没有获得任何正面的价值。
If mankind could discover ways and means for doing away with these preparations for wars which never take place, together with the immobilization of a large part of the nation’s manhood, at the age of maximum strength and efficiency, for the furtherance of war¬like aims, and all the other innumerable evils which the present state of affairs creates, such an immense economy of energy would be effected that from this moment onwards we could look forward to a blossoming of culture hitherto undreamed of. For war, like per¬sonal combat, although the oldest of all possible means of settling contests of will, is on that very account the most inept, and entails the most grievous waste of energy. Hence the complete abolition of warfare, potential no less than actual, is the categorical imperative of efficiency and one of the supremely important cultural tasks of our day.5

假如人类能够找到方法与工具,来废除这些永远不会发生的战争的准备,,以及国家的男人的大部分的动员,在力量与效率极胜的时代。为了提升像战争一样的目的。目前的事情的状态所创造的所有的无数的其他的邪恶,如此巨大的能源的经济将会被形成,以致从那个时刻开始,我们能够期望一个迄今从未被梦想的文化的興盛繁荣。因为,战争,就像个人的争斗一样,虽然是最古老的工具,用来解决意志的争执,却是最拙劣,最令人痛恨的能源的浪费。因此,战争的完全的废除,具有潜在可能,也合乎实际,是效率的范畴的命令,并且是我们当代的任重道远的文化的工作。

73 The irrationality of fate, however, did not concur with the
rationality of well-meaning thinkers; it ordained not only the destruction of the accumulated arms and armies, but, far beyond that, a mad and monstrous devastation, a mass murder without parallel-from which humanity may possibly draw the conclu¬sion that only one side of fate can be mastered with rational intentions.

可是,命运的非理性,并没有同时发生,以符合善意的思想家的理想。它不但支使被累积的武器与军队的毁灭,而且,远超过那样,它支使一个疯狂而怪诞的摧毁,一个史无前例的集体的谋杀。从那里,人类可能获得这个结论:使用理性的意图,仅能掌控命运的一边。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Analytical Psychology

August 25, 2015

Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Karl Jung
卡尔 荣格
III
THE OTHER POINT OF VIEW:
THE WILL TO POWER

另外一个观点:
权力意志

35 So far we have considered the problem of this new psychology essentially from the Freudian point of view. Undoubtedly it has shown us a very real truth to which our pride, our civilized con¬sciousness, may say no, though something else in us says yes. Many people find this fact extremely irritating; it arouses their hostility or even their fear, and consequently they are unwilling to recognize the conflict.

迄今,我们考虑过新的心理学的这个难题,基本上从弗洛依德的观点。无可置疑地,它跟我们显示一个非常真实的真理。对于这个真理,我们的尊严,我们的文明的意识可能会否认,虽然我们身上的某件其他东西会承认。许多人们发现这个事实极端令人愤怒。它引起他们的敌意或甚至他们的恐惧。结果,他们不愿意承认这个冲突。

And indeed it is a frightening thought that man also has a shadow-side to him, consisting not just of little weaknesses and foibles, but of a positively demonic dyna¬mism. The individual seldom knows anything of this; to him, as an individual, it is incredible that he should ever in any circum¬stances go beyond himself. But let these harmless creatures form a mass, and there emerges a raging monster; and each individual is only one tiny cell in the monster’s body, so that for better or worse he must accompany it on its bloody rampages and even assist it to the utmost. Having a dark suspicion of these grim possibilities, man turns a blind eye to the shadow-side of human nature.

的确,这是一个令人害怕的想法,人也拥有属于他的阴影面向,主要的组成不仅是小小弱点或缺点。而是属于强烈的恶魔的动力结构。个人很少会知道任何有关这件事。作为一位个人,匪夷所思地,他竟然会有情况超越自己的控制。但是假如让这些无害的动物成群结队,就会出现暴虐的怪物。每个个人在怪物的身体里,仅是一个小小的细胞。无论好坏,他必须伴随它,依靠它的流血的暴力行为。甚至帮助它充分发挥。因为人对于这些冷酷的可能性拥有黑暗的怀疑,他对于人类天性的阴影的一面视而不见。

Blindly he strives against the salutary dogma of original sin, which is yet so prodigiously true. Yes, he even hesitates to admit the conflict of which he is so painfully aware. It can read¬ily be understood that a school of psychology-even if it be biased and exaggerated in this or that respect-which insists on the seamy side, is unwelcome, not to say frightening, because it forces us to gaze into the bottomless abyss of this problem.

盲目地,他奋斗对抗原罪的这个令人敬畏的教条。可是这个教条又是千真万确地真实。是对,他甚至犹豫地承认,原罪教条的冲突,他如此痛苦地知道。我们就迅速地理解到,一个心理学的学派,即使它在某个方面具有偏见与夸张,它坚持这个污秽的一面。这种心理学派是不受欢迎,估且不说令人害怕。因为它强迫我们正视这个难题的无底的深渊。

A dim premonition tells us that we cannot be whole without this negative side, that we have a body which, like all bodies, casts a shadow, and that if we deny this body we cease to be three¬dimensional and become flat and without substance. Yet this body is a beast with a beast’s soul, an organism that gives un¬questioning obedience to instinct. To unite oneself with this

THE OTHER POINT OF VIEW: THE WILL TO POWER
shadow is to say yes to instinct, to that formidable dynamism lurking in the background. From this the ascetic morality of Christianity wishes to free us, but at the risk of disorganizing man’s animal nature at the deepest level.

一个模糊的预警告诉我们,假如没有这个负面的面向,我们无法成为整体。我们拥有一个身体,就向所有的身体一样,我们的身体投射一个阴影。假如我们否认这个身体,我们就不再是三个维度,而变成平坦,没有物质。可是,这个身体是一个野兽,具有野兽的灵魂,一个有机体,给予毫无质疑的服从本能。为了统合自己,跟这个阴影,那就是要承认这个本能,承认那个巨大的动力结构潜伏在背景。从这个地方,基督教的禁欲的道德希望解放我们,但是冒的危险是:瓦解在最深层们的人的动物的天性。

36 Has anyone made clear to himself what that means-a yea-
saying to instinct? That was what N ietzsche desired and taught, and he was in deadly earnest. With a rare passion he sacrificed himself, his whole life, to the idea of the Superman-to the idea of the man who through obedience to instinct transcends him¬self. And what was the course of that life? It was as N ietzsche himself prophesied in Zarathustra) in that foreboding vision of the fatal fall of the rope-dancer, the man who would not be “sur¬passed.” To the dying rope-dancer Zarathustra says: “Thy soul will sooner be dead than thy body!” and later the dwarf says to Zarathustra, “0 Zarathustra, stone of wisdom! High thou fling¬est thyself, but every stone that is flung must fall! Condemned to thyself and to thine own stoning: 0 Zarathustra, far indeed thou flingest the stone-but upon thyself will it fall.” And when he cried his “Ecce Homo” over himself, again it was too late, as once before when this saying was uttered, and the crucifixion of the soul began before the body was dead.

是否曾经有人跟他自己表达清楚,承认本能存在意味着什么?那就是尼采欲望与教导的东西。尼采真诚得彻底。带着罕见的激情,他牺性他自己,他的整个的一生,奉献给超人的这个观念,奉献给人的这个观念:凭借服从于本能,人超越他自己。那个生命的途径是什么?如同尼采自己预言,在“扎拉特拉图斯如是说”。在那个空中走绳舞者的致命的掉落的恶兆预警里,他是不想要被“超越”的这个人。对于这位垂死的空中走绳舞者,扎拉特拉图斯说:「你的灵魂将会比你的身体还有快死掉!」后来,这位侏儒对扎拉特拉图斯说,「奥,扎拉特拉图斯,这位智慧之石,你将自己投掷向高空,但是每块被投掷的石头,都必然会掉落!因为它注定要成为自己,注定成为它自己的投掷:奥,扎拉特拉图斯,你确实将石头投掷很远,但是,石头将会掉落到你自己身上!」当他对着他自己,喊出“瞧!这个人!”时,再一次,为时已晚。如同先前一样,这个话语被表达出来。灵活被钉上十字架,早先开始于身体死亡之前。

37 We must look very critically at the life of one who taught
such a yea-saying, in order to examine the effects of this teaching on the teacher’s own life. When we scrutinize his life with this aim in view we are bound to admit that Nietzsche lived beyond instinct, in the lofty heights of heroic sublimity-heights that he could maintain only with the help of the most meticulous diet, a carefully selected climate, and many aids to sleep-until the ten¬sion shattered his brain. He talked of yea-saying and lived the nay. His loathing for man, for the human animal that lived by instinct, was too great. Despite everything, he could not swallow the toad he so often dreamed of and which he feared had to be swallowed. The roaring of the Zarathustrian lion drove back into the cavern of the unconscious all the “higher” men who were clamouring to live. Hence his life does not convince us of hi.s teaching. For the “higher” man wants to be able to sleep wIthout chloral, to live in Naumburg and Basel despite “fogs and shadows.” He desires wife and offspring, standing and es¬teem among the herd, innumerable commonplace realities, and not least those of the Philistine. Nietzsche failed to live this in-
31

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
stinct, the animal urge to life. For all his greatness and impor¬tance, Nietzsche’s was a pathological personality.

我们必须批判地观看这个人的一生,他教导对于生命的肯定,为了检查这个教导对于老师自己的生命的影响。当我们审查他的一生,以这个目标作为观点。我们必然要承认,尼采生活超越本能,在崇高的高处,具有英雄式的崇高的高处。这样,他才能够维持,仅是凭借饮食极度讲究的帮助,仔细挑选的气候,还有很多的睡眠的辅助。直到这样的紧张让他的脑神经崩溃。他谈论到肯定生命,但是生活却否定生命。他对于人的厌恶,对于人类作为动物依靠本能而生活的厌恶。这个厌恶太过强烈。尽管一切,他无法吞下这只蛤蟆,他经常梦见自己成为蛤蟆,他害怕这只蛤蟆必须被吞下。扎拉特拉图斯的狮子的漫遊,将所有的“较高”的人们都驱赶回到无意识的洞穴。这些“较高”的人们努力要生活。因此,他的生命并没有说服我们相信他的教导。因为这位“较高的人”想要能够睡觉,不靠安眠药,想要生活于纽伦堡与巴塞尔,尽管“迷雾与阴影”。他欲望妻子与后代,在俗众里独立与享有尊敬,那是无数的共同的现实。特别是那些市俗的那些人物。尼采没有办法过这样的本能的生活,对于生命的动物的渴望。尽管他的伟大与重要,尼采的人格是病态的。

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ON PSYCHIC ENERGY 9

August 20, 2015

ON PSYCHIC ENERGY 9
论心灵能源
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格
3. GENERAL REMARKS ON THE ENERGIC POINT OF VIEW IN PSYCHOLOGY
心理学的能源观点的通论
c. Introduction
导论

(i) THE SUBJECTIVE SYSTEM OF VALUES
The applicability of the energic standpoint to psychology rests, then, exclusively on the question whether a quantitative estimate of psychic energy is possible or not. This question can be met with an unconditional affirmative, since our psyche actually possesses an extraordinarily well-developed evaluating system, namely the system of psychological values. Values are quantitative estimates of energy. Here it should be remarked that in our collective moral and aesthetic values we have at our disposal not merely an objective system of value but an objec¬tive system of measurement. This system of measurement is not, however, directly available for our purpose, since it is a general scale of values which takes account only indirectly of subjective, that is to say individual, psychological conditions.

1. 价值的主观系统
能源的观点的运用到心理学,因此专注于依靠这个问题:数量的评估心理能源是否可能?这个问题能够被回答,用一个无条件的肯定。因为我们的心灵实际上拥有一个额外的充分被发展的评估系统。也就是说,心理价值的系统。价值是能源的数量的评估。在此,应该注意到的是,在我们的集团道德与美学的价值里,我们不但拥有一个客观的价值系统可以使用,而且拥有一个客观的测量的系统。可是,这个测量的系统并不是直接地具有价值,对于我们的目的。因为这是一个通用的价值的衡量,仅是间接地考虑到主观的心理的情况。也就是说,个人的情况。

What we must first of all consider, therefore, is the subjective value system) the subjective estimates of the single individual. We can, as a matter of fact, estimate the subjective values of our psychic contents up to a certain point, even though it is at times extraordinarily difficult to measure them with objective ac¬curacy against the generally established values. However, this comparison is superfluous for our purpose, as already said. We can weigh our subjective evaluations against one another and determine their relative strength. Their measurement is never¬theless relative to the value of other contents and therefore not absolute and objective, but it is sufficient for our purpose inas¬much as different intensities of value in relation to similar qualities can be recognized with certainty, while equal values under the same conditions plainly maintain themselves in equilibrium.

因此,我们首先必须考虑到的东西是,主观性的价值系统,单独个人的主观性的价值系统。事实上,我们能够评估我们的心灵的内容的主观性的价值,到达某个程度。即使有时会有特殊的困难,来衡量它们,用客观的正确性,对抗通俗被建立的价值。可是,这个比较是多余的,对于我们的目的,如同以上所说。我们能够衡量我们的主观的评估,互相对抗。然后决定它们的相对的力量。对于它们的衡量,仍然跟其他内容的价值成为相对,因此,并不是绝对与客观。但是,对于我们的目的而言,它是足够的,因为价值的不同的张力,相关于类似的品质,能够确定地被体认出来。在相同的情况之下的相等的价值,在平衡中维持他们自己。

The difficulty begins only when we have to compare the value intensities of different qualities, say the value of a scien¬tific idea compared with a feeling impression. Here the subjec¬tive estimate becomes uncertain and therefore unreliable. In the same way, the subjective estimate is restricted to the contents
9

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
of consciousness; hence it is useless with respect to unconscious influences, where we are concerned with valuations that go beyond the boundaries of consciousness.

仅有当我们必须比较不同的品质的价值的张力时,这个困难才会开始。譬如说,科学的观念的价值,跟一个感觉的印象比较起来。在此,主观的评估变成不确定,因此不可靠。同样地,主观性的评估,被限制于内容。

17 In view of the compensatory relationship known to exist be-
tween the conscious and the unconscious,16 however, it is of great importance to find a way of determining the value of un¬conscious products. If we want to carry through the energic approach to psychic events, we must bear in mind the exceed• ingly important fact that conscious values can apparently dis¬appear without showing themselves again in an equivalent conscious achievement. In this case we should theoretically expect their appearance in the unconscious. But since the un¬conscious is not directly accessible either in ourselves or in others, the evaluation can only be an indirect one, so we must have recourse to auxiliary methods in order to arrive at our estimates of value. In the case of subjective evaluation, feeling and insight come to our aid immediately, because these are func¬tions which have been developing over long periods of time and have become very finely differentiated. Even the child practises very early the differentiation of his scale of values; he weighs up whether he likes his father or mother better, who comes in the second and third place, who is most hated, ete. This con¬scious evaluation not only breaks down in regard to the mani• festations of the unconscious but is actually twisted into the most obvious false estimates, also described as “repressions” or the “displacement of affect.” Subjective evaluation is therefore completely out of the question in estimating unconscious value intensities. Consequently we need an objective point of depar¬ture that will make an indirect but objective estimate possible.

可是,因为这个补偿的关系,被知道存在于意识与无意识之间,非常重要的是要找到途经,决定无意识的产物的价值。假如我们想要执行能源的途径,到达心灵的事件。我们必须将这个过度重要的事实记在心里:意识的价值很明显会消失,而不再显现它们自己,在相等的意识的成就里。在这个情况,我们应该理论上期待它们的出现在无意识里。但是,因为无意识并无法直接可以接近,无论在我们自己,或者别人身上。这个评估仅能够是间接的评估。所以,我们必须诉诸于辅助的方法,为了获得我们对于价值的评估。在主观性的评估里,感觉与洞见立即前来帮助我们。因为这些都是长时期以来一直在发展的功能。并且已经成为精致地差异化。即使是小孩,他们很早就实践他对价值的衡量的差异化。他衡量他是否更加喜欢他的父亲或母亲?谁占据第二位,或第三位?谁是最被通恨?等等。这种意识的评估不但会瓦解,关于无意识的展示,而是实际上,会被扭曲成为最明显的虚假的评估。它们也被描述作为是“压抑”,或是“情感的替代”。主观性的评估因此完全不可能,当我们评估无意识的价值的张力。结果,我们需要一个客观的离开的点,这样,间接但是客观点评估才能够成为可能。

(ii) OBJECTIVE ESTIMATE OF QUANTITY
18 In my study of the phenomena of association 17 I have shown
that there are certain constellations of psychic elements grouped round feeling-toned 18 contents, which I. have called “corn• plexes.” The feeling-toned content, the complex, consists of a nuclear element and a large num bel’ of secondarily constellated associations, The nuclear element consists of two components: first, a factor determined by experience and causally related to the environment; second, a factor innate in the individual’s character and determined by his disposition.

当我研究联想的现象时,我曾经揭示,有某些的心灵元素的汇集聚集环绕以感觉为色调的内容。我曾经称这些内容为“情结”。这个感觉-色调的内容,这个情结,由核心的元素与许多的次级贷汇集到联想组成。这个核心的元素由两个成分组成:首先,一个因素由经验与环境息息相关的因果律;其次,一个本质上的因素,在个人的性格,并且受到他的性情所决定。

16 The one-sidedness of consciousness is compensated by a counterposition in the unconscious. It is chiefly the facts of psychopathology that show the compensatory attitude of the unconscious most clearly. Evidence for this may be found in the writings of Freud and Adler, also in my “Psychology of Dementia Praecox.” For a theoretical discussion see my “Instinct and the Unconscious,” pars. 263ft., infra. On the general significance of psychological compensation see Maeder, “Regula¬tion psychique et gucrison.”
17 (C£. Vo!. 2, Collected Works (lg18 edn.: Studies in Word Association).-EoITORS.l
10

ON PSYCHIC ENERGY

Ig The nuclear element is characterized by its feeling-tone, the
emphasis resulting from the intensity of affect. This emphasis, expressed in terms of energy, is a value quantity. In so far as the nuclear element is conscious, the quantit.y can be subjec¬tively estimated, at. least relatively. But if, as frequently hap¬pens, the nuclear element is unconscious,19 at any rate in its psychological significance, then a subjective estimate becomes impossible, and one must substitute the indirect method of evaluation. This is based, in principle, on the following fact; 18
[Cf. Psychiatric Studies, par. 168, n. 2a.-EolToRS.]

这个核心的元素以感觉-色调作为特征,因为情感的张力造成的强调。用能源的术语表达的强调,是一个价值系统。因为核心元素是意识,数量能够主观性地被评估。至少相对地被评估。但是,假如,如经常所发生的事情,核心的元素是无意识,无论如何,它具有心灵的意义,那么,主观性的评估就变成不可能。我们必须替换这个间接的评估的方法。原则上,这是以下面的事实作为基础:

19 That a complex or its essential nucleus can be unconscious is not a self• evident fact. A complex would not be a complex at all if it did not possess a cer¬tain, even a considerable, affective intensity. One would expect that this energic value would automatically force the complex into consciousness, that the power of attraction inherent within it would compel conscious attention. (Fields of power attract one another mutually~) That this, as experience shows, is fre¬quently not the case requires a special expl:tnation. The readiest and simplest explanation is given hy Freud’s theory of repression. This theory presupposes a counterposition in the conscious mind: the conscious attitude is, so to speak, hostile to the unconscious complex and does not allow it to reach consciousness. This theory certainly explains very many cascs, but in my experience there are some cases that cannot be so explained. Actually, the repression theory takes account only of those cases in which a content, in itself pcrfectly capable of becoming conscious, is either quite consciously repressed and made unconscious, or has right from the beginning never reached consciousness. It does not take into account those other cases in which a content of high energic intensity is formed out of unconscious material that is not in itself capable of becoming con¬scions, and so cannot be made conscious at all, or only with the greatest difficulty. In these cases the conscious attitude, far from being hostile to the unconscious content, would be most favourably disposed towards it, as in the case of creative products, which, as we know, almost always have their first beginnings in the unconscious. Just as a mother awaits her child witll longing and yet brings it into the world only with effort and pain, so a new, creative content, despite the will. ingness of the conscious mind, can remain for a long time in the unconscious without being “repressed;” Though it has a high energic value it still does not become conscious. Cases of this sort are not too difficult to explain. Because the content is new and therefore strange to consciousness, there are no existing
I 1

20
21
22

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
that the nuclear element automatically creates a complex to the degTee that it is affectively toned and possesses energic value, as I have shown in detail in the second and third chapters of my “Psychology of Dementia Praecox.”

核心元素主动地创造一个情结,甚至,它是情感作为色调,拥有能源的价值。如同我曾经详细显示,在“早发性痴呆症的心理学”第二与第三章节.

The nuclear element has a constellating power corresponding to its energic value. It pro¬duces a specific constellation of psychic contents, thus giving rise to the complex, which is a constellation of psychic contents dynamically conditioned by the energic value. The resultant constell;:.tion, however, is not just an irradiation of the psychic stimulus, but a selection of the stimulated psychic contents which is conditioned by the quality of the nuclear element. This selection cannot, of course, be explained in terms of energy, because the energic explanation is quantitative and not quali-tative. For a qualitative explanation we must have recourse to the causal view.20 The proposition upon which the objective estimate of psychological value intensities is based therefore runs as follows: the constellating power of the nuclear element corresponds to its value intensity) i.e.) to its energy.

核心元素拥有一个汇集的力量,对应于它的能源的价值。它产生一个明确的心灵内容的汇集。因此,产生情结。情结束心灵内容的汇集,动力方面受到能源价值的制约。可是,结果的汇集并不仅是心灵的刺激的焕发。而是被刺激的心灵的内容的选择。它受到核心元素的品质的制约。当然,这个选择无法被解释,用能源的术语。因为能源的解释是数量,而不是品质。对于品质的解释,我们必须诉诸于因果律的观点。客观性的评估心理的价值的张力,根据这个命题作为基础。这个命题运作如下:核心元素的汇集的力量,对应于它的价值的张力,譬如,对应于它的能源。

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