Archive for February, 2013

Ethic 142

February 24, 2013

Ethic 142

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XI
第11章

THE SUBLIMATION OF THE FATHER
父亲的升华

ON THE SUBJECT OF BERNFELD
论泼费德的主体

THE VACUOLE AND THE INHUMAN PARTNER
身体罅隙与非人的伴侣

NEGOTIATING THE DETOUR
谈判妥协

2
It is remarkable that the experience of what goes on in the neurotic caused
Freud to leap to the level of the poetic creation of art, to the drama of Oedipus,
insofar as it is something datable in the history of culture. You will see
this when we take up Moses and Monotheism, which I asked you to read during
our break. There is in Freud no distance from the facts of the Judeo-
Greek experience, and I mean by that those that characterize our culture in
its most modern everyday life.

引人注意的是,在神经症所经历的事情的经验,引起弗洛依德跳跃到艺术的诗意的创造,跳跃到伊狄浦斯的戏剧,因为在文化的历史,那是可找出日期的事情。你们将会看出这个,当我们从事探讨「摩西与一神教」。我要求你们在我们休息时阅读它。在弗洛依德,它跟犹太-希腊的经验并没有距离。我的意思是,那些表现我们的文化特色的那些事实,在我们最现代的日常生活。

It is equally striking that Freud couldn’t fail to pursue his reflection on the
origins of morality to the point of examining Moses’ action. When you read
the astonishing work that is Moses and Monotheism, you will see that Freud
cannot help revealing the duplicity of his reference, of the reference that I
have declared to you over the years to be the essential reference, namely, the
No / Name-of-the-Father in its signifying function.

这是同样引人注意,弗洛依德一定会追求他的反思,对于道德的起源,直到检视摩西的行动。当你们阅读「摩西与一神教」这个令人惊奇的著作,你们将会看出,弗洛依德忍不住显示他的指称的复制,过去几年来,我曾经跟你们宣布的基本的指称。换句话说,在它的能指化的功用,父亲的命名与非命名。

From a formal point of view, Freud makes recourse to paternal power for
a structuring purpose that appears to be a sublimation. He emphasizes, in
the same text in which he leaves at a distance the primordial trauma of the
murder of the father – and without worrying about the contradiction – that
this sublimation emerges at a given historical date against the background of
a visible, evident fear that she who engenders is the mother. There is, he tells
us, genuine progress in spirituality in affirming the function of the father,
namely, of him of whom one is never sure. This recognition implies a whole
mental elaboration. To introduce as primordial the function of the father
represents a sublimation. But, Freud asks, how can one conceive of this leap,
this progress, since, in order to introduce it, it was necessary that something
appear that imposes its authority and its reality from outside?

从正式的观点,弗洛依德诉诸于父亲的权力,作为结构性的看起来是升华的目的。他在同样的文本强调,在那里,他将弑父的谋杀的原始创伤,留置一段距离—请不用担心这个矛盾—这种升华出现在某个历史的日期,以一个可见的明显恐惧作为背景:生产的她是母亲。他告诉我们,在精神上有真正的进展,来肯定父亲的功用。换句话说,我们并不确定的父亲的功用。这个体认暗示整个的精神的建构。介绍父亲的功用作为原始的功用,代表一种升华。但是,弗洛依德询问,我们如何构型这个跳跃,这个进展,因为,为了介绍它,这是必要的,某件东西出现,赋加它的权威与它的现实界从外面?

He himself underlines the impasse constituted by the fact that sublimation
exists, but that such sublimation can only be motivated historically by means
of the myth to which it has recourse. At that point the function of myth
becomes evident. In truth, this myth is nothing other than something that is
inscribed in the clearest of terms in the spiritual reality of our time, namely,
the death of God. It is as a function of the death of God that the murder of
the father which represents it in the most direct way is introduced by Freud
as a modern myth.

他自己强调由升华存在的这个事实形成的这个僵局,但是这样的僵局仅能够从历史上被激发动机,凭借这个神话,它曾经诉诸于的神话。在那个时刻,神话的功用变得显而易见。事实上,这个神话实实在在就是用最清楚的术语,被铭记在我们当代精神现实界的东西。换句话说,上帝死亡。作为上帝死亡的功用,弑父的谋杀代表它,以最直接的方式,被弗洛依德介绍,作为是现代的神话。

It is a myth that has all the properties of a myth. That is to say that it
doesn’t explain anything, any more than any other myth. As I pointed out in
citing Levi-Strauss and especially in referring to that which buttresses his
own formulation of the issue, myth is always a signifying system or scheme,
if you like, which is articulated so as to support the antimonies of certain
psychic relations. And this occurs at a level which is not simply that of individual
anguish and which is not exhausted either in a construction presupposing
the collectivity, but which assumes its fullest possible dimension.

这一个神话拥有一个神话的所有的特性。换句话说,它跟任何其他神话一样,并没有解释任何事情。如同我指出,当我们引述列文,史特劳斯,特别是是提到作为他对这个问题的阐述的支持。神话总是一种能指化的系统或计划,它被表达,为了要支持某种的心灵关系的镝。这发生在并不单纯是个人的痛苦的层次,它也没有被穷尽,在预先假定集体性的建构,而是假定它的尽可能充分的维度。

We suppose that it concerns the individual and also the collectivity, but
there is no such opposition between them at the level involved. For it is a
matter here of the subject insofar as he suffers from the signifier. It is in this
passion of the signifier that the critical point emerges, and its anguish is no
more than an intermittent emotion that plays the role of an occasional signal.
Freud brought to the question of the source of morality the invaluable
significance implied in the phrase Civilization and Its Discontents or, in other
words, the breakdown by means of which a certain psychic function, the
superego, seems to find in itself its own exacerbation, as the result of a kind
of malfunctioning of the brakes which should limit its proper authority. It
remains to be seen how within this breakdown in the depths of the psychic
life the instincts may find their proper sublimation.

我们认为它跟个人,也跟集体有关系,但是在牵涉的层次,它们之间并没有对立。因为在此的问题是主体,因为他遭受这个能指的痛苦。关键时刻出现在这个能指的激情,而它的痛苦仅仅是一种间歇的情感,扮演偶然的讯息的角色。弗洛依德用「文明及其不满」的词语所暗示的宝贵的意义,提出道德的来源的问题。或换句话,凭借这个崩溃,某种的心灵的功用,超我似乎在它的本身发现它自己的恶化。由于某种煞车的功用不良,应该限制它的适当的权威。在心灵生活的深处的崩溃之内,本能如何找到它们的适当的升华,则是有待观察。

But to begin with, what is the possibility we call sublimation? Given the
time at our disposal, I am not in a position to take you through the virtually
absurd difficulties that authors have encountered every time they have tried to give a meaning to the term “sublimation.” I would nevertheless like one of you to go to the Bibliothique Nationale, look up Bernfeld’s article in volume VIII of Imago entitled “Bemerkungen iiber Sublimierung,” [“Observations on Sublimation”], and give us a summary of it here.

但是首先,我们所谓的升华的可能性是什么?假如考虑到我们能够支配的时间,我并没有立场引导你们通过这个虚拟的荒谬的困难,作者曾经遭遇的困难,每次他们尝试要给予意义,给「升华」这个术语。可是,我想要你们其中一位前去「全国索引」,查阅博费德的文章,在Imago的第八册,标题是「对升华的观察」,并且在此给予我们简述大要。

Bernfeld was a particularly powerful mind of the second generation, and
in the end the weaknesses of his articulation of the problem of sublimation
are of a kind that will prove illuminating. He is first of all quite troubled by
Freud’s reference to the fact that the operations of sublimation are always
ethically, culturally, and socially valorized. This criterion, external to psychoanalysis,
certainly creates a difficulty, and on account of its extra-psychological
character clearly merits to be emphasized and criticized. But as we
will see, this character causes less difficulty than at first appears.

博费德是第二代特别具有力量的心灵。最后,他对升华的问题的表达的弱点,是属于证明是具有启发性的种类。他首先相当受到弗洛依德的提到这个事实所困扰。升华的运作总是伦理地,文化地,社会地被推崇。这个标准,外在于精神分析,确实创造一种困难。因为它的特别的心灵的特性,清楚地应该值得强调与批评。但是我们将会看出,这个特性引起的困难,不然表面看起来那么大。

On the other hand, the contradiction between the Zielablenkung side of the
Strebung, of the Trieb or drive, and the fact that that takes place in a domain
which is that of the object libido, also poses all kinds of problems for Bernfeld
– problems that he resolves with the extreme clumsiness which characterizes
everything that has so far been said on the analysis of sublimation.

在另一方面,在冲动的Zielablenkung 的这一面,发生在客体力比多的领域的这个事实也通过各种的困难,对于博费德。他极端笨拙解决的这些问题,表现一切都特色,迄今曾经被说过的有关升华的分析的特色。

According to him, at the point he reached around 1923-1924, we must
start from the part of the instinct that may be employed for the ends of the
ego, for the Ichziele, in order to define sublimation. And he goes on to give
examples whose naivete is striking. He refers to a certain little Robert Walter,
who like many children tries his hand at poetry even before puberty. And
what does he tell us on the subject? That to be a poet is an Ichziel for the
boy. It is in relation to that choice fixed very early that everything that follows
will be judged, namely, the way in which at the onset of puberty the upheaval
of his libidinal economy, which is clinically perceptible although quite confused
in this case, will be seen to be gradually integrated into the Ichziel. In
particular, his activity as a little poet and his fantasms, which were quite
separate at the beginning, come to be progressively coordinated.

博费德认为,在大约1923-1924年左右的时刻,我们必须从本能的这个部分开始。本能可以被运用作为自我的目的,为了定义升华。他继续给予例子,这些例子的天真引人注意。他提到某个喜欢许多小孩的小罗勃、瓦特。他甚至在青春期之前,尝试写诗。关于这个主题,他告诉我们什么?成为诗人对于这个男孩是自我。每一样随后发展的事情都被判断,跟那个选择有关。换句话说,在青春期的开始,他的力比多的活动的颠覆,在临床上是可以感觉出来,虽然在这个情况是相当困淆。它将会被看见逐渐地被合并到这个自我。特别,他作为小诗人与他的幻想的活动,在开始时完全分开,它逐渐地被调和。

Bernfeld thus assumes the primordial, primitive character of the goal set
by the child to become a poet. And a similar argument is to be found in the
other, equally instructive examples he gives us – some of which concern the
function of the Vemeimmgen, of the negations that occur spontaneously among
groups of children. He was, in effect, very interested in this question in a
publication devoted to the problems of youth for which he was responsible
at the time.

博费德因此认为目标的这个原初的原始的特色,被这个小孩指定成为诗人的目标。同样的论点应该被找到,在他给与我们的其他同样具有启发性的例子。有些例了跟否定的功用息息相关,这些否定自动自发地发生在小孩群中。事实上,它对于出版物的这个问题非常感到興趣,这个出版物专注于探讨年轻人的问题。他当时负责照料这些年轻人。

The important point to note on the subject is the following, and it is something
that is to be found in all formulations of the problem, including Freud’s.
Freud points out that once the artist has carried out an operation on the level
of sublimation, he finds himself to be the beneficiary of his operation insofar
as it is acclaimed after the fact; it brings in its wake in the form of glory,
honor, and even money, those fantasmic satisfactions that were at the origin of the instinct, with the result that the latter finds itself satisfied by means of
sublimation.

对于这个主题,要注意的重点如下:某件东西能够被找到,在这个问题的各种阐释,包括弗洛依的的阐释。弗洛依德指出,一旦艺术家在升华的层次,实现一种运作。他发现他自己成为他的运作的受益人。因为在这个事实之后,它被宣称。它随后带来光荣,荣耀,甚至是金钱的形式。那些幻想的满足处于本能的起源,结果是,后者发现它自己凭借升华获得满足。

That is all well and good as long as we assume that the already established
function of poet exists on the outside. It seems to be taken for granted that
especially among those whom Bernfeld calls eminent men, a little child might
choose to become a poet as an ego goal. It is true that he hastens to add
parenthetically that, in using the expression “hervorragender Mensch,” eminent
man, he is divesting it as much as possible of all connotations of value
– something that is very strange as soon as one starts to talk of eminence. To
be frank, the dimension of the eminent personality cannot be eliminated.
And we see that, in fact, in Moses and Monotheism it isn’t eliminated by Freud,
but thrust into the foreground.

只要我们认为,已经被诗人建立的功用存在于外面,那一切都进行顺畅。这似乎被视为是当然,特别是在那些博费德称为所杰出的人当中,有个小孩可能选择成为诗人,作为自我的目标。他确实匆促括弧补充,当他使用「杰出的人」这个术语,他尽可能替它剥除所有的价值的内涵。某件东西是非常奇怪的,当我们开始谈论杰出。我们看见,事实上,在「摩西与一神教」,它并没有被弗洛依德减少,而是被投掷到前景。

What needs to be justified is not simply the secondary benefits that individuals
might derive from their works, but the originary possibility of a function
like the poetic function in the form of a structure within a social consensus.
Well now, it is precisely that kind of consensus we see born at a certain
historical moment around the ideal of courtly love. For a certain highly
restricted circle, that ideal is to be found at the origin of a moral code, including
a whole series of modes of behavior, of loyalties, measures, services, and
exemplary forms of conduct. And if that interests us so directly, it is because
its central point was an erotics.

需要自圆其说的是,不仅个人可能从他们的作品获得的次要利益,而且获得一个功用的原创的可能性,譬如,诗的功用,以在社会的共识之内结构的形式。呵呵,确实就是那种共识,我们看见诞生于某种的历史的时刻,环绕骑士之爱的理想。对于某种高度受到限制的圈子,那个理想能够被发现,在道德符码的起源,包括整个系列的行为,忠诚,规范,服务,与行为的典范形式的符码。假如我们对于那个直接感到興趣,那是因为它的中心点是性爱。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 139

February 23, 2013

Ethic 139

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XI
第11章

Courtly love as anamorphosis
作为变形的骑士之爱

ON THE H I S TORY AND ENDS OF ART
论艺术的历史与目标

THE SUBLIMATION OF THE FATHER
父亲的升华

ON THE SUBJECT OF BERNFELD
论泼费德的主体

THE VACUOLE AND THE INHUMAN PARTNER
身体罅隙与非人的伴侣

NEGOTIATING THE DETOUR
谈判妥协

Why is this example of anamorphosis on this table?’ It is here to illustrate
my ideas.

为什么变形的这个例子在这个表格上?它在此是为了说明我的观念。

Last Time I sketched out the meaning or the goal of art in the usual sense
we give that term – the fine arts, for example. I’m not the only psychoanalyst
to have been interested in that. I’ve already mentioned Ella Sharpe’s article
on the subject of sublimation, an article that starts out with the cave walls of
Altamira, which is the earliest decorated cave to have been discovered. Perhaps
what we described as the central place, as the intimate exteriority or
“extimacy,” that is the Thing, will help us to shed light on the question or
mystery that remains for those who are interested in prehistoric art, namely,
its site as such.

上次我描述艺术的目标的意义,用我们通常给予那个术业的意义。譬如,美好的艺术。我并不是仅有的艺术家,曾经对那个感到興趣。我已经提到阿拉、夏普的文章,探讨升华的主题。这一篇文章从阿达米拉的洞穴墙壁开始。那个洞穴墙壁是已经被发现的最早的被装饰的洞穴。或许,我们所描述的,作为中心位置,作为是亲密的外在性或「外亲性」,那就是「物象」。它将会帮助我们启蒙这个问题或是始终保持的神秘,对于那些对于史前历史感的興趣的人们,也就是说,对于它的地点本身。

1
It is surprising that an underground cavern was chosen. Such a site only
creates obstacles to the viewing that one assumes is presupposed by the creation
and observation of the striking images which decorate the walls. The
production of images and their viewing could not have been easy given the
forms of lighting available to primitive men. Yet in the beginning those paintings
that we take to be the earliest productions of primitive art were thrown
up on the walls of a cavern.

令人惊奇的是,选择的是地下的山洞。这样一个地点仅会形成观看的阻碍。我们假定,创造与观察用来装饰这些墙壁的这些生动的形象时,他们预先假设的观看的阻碍。这些形象的产生及对它们的观看当时并非容易,假如我们考虑到原始人们採用的採光形式。可是,开始时,我们认为是产生原始艺术的早期那些图画,被制作在山洞的墙壁上。

One could call them tests in both senses of the word, subjective and objective.
Tests no doubt for the artist, for, as you know, these images are often
painted over each other; it’s as if in a consecrated spot it represented, for
each subject capable of undertaking such an exercise, the opportunity to draw
or project afresh what he needed to bear witness to, and to do so moreover
over what had already been done before. That suggests the idea of something
like the updating of a certain creative potential. Tests also in the objective
sense, for these images cannot fail to seize us as being deeply linked both in
a tight relationship to the world – and by that I mean to the very subsistence
of populations that seem to have been composed chiefly of hunters – and to
something that in its subsistence appears as possessing the character of a
beyond of the sacred – something that we are precisely trying to identify in
its most general form by the term, the Thing. I would say it is primitive
subsistence viewed from the perspective of the Thing.

我们能够称它们是考验,就这个字词的主观性与客观性的意义而言。对于艺术家而言,无可置疑是考验。因为如你们所知,这些形象往往被互相重叠地被绘画。好像在一个被奉为神圣的地方,它代表这个机会,对于每个能够从事如此运作的主体,能够绘画或重新投射他所需要作为见证的东西,而且这样做,是赋加在先前曾经被做过的东西之上。那暗示着这个观念:某件东西像是在更新某种的创造的潜力。考验的客观的意义—因为这些形象一定会给予我们这个印象,一方面跟世界的紧密关系息息相关,我的意思是似乎以狩猎人为主组成的人口的生存方式。在另一方面,这些形象跟某件看起来似乎用拥有某种神圣的超越的特性的存在东西息息相关。我们确实尝试辨认的某件东西,以它的最一般的形式,根据「物象」的这个术语。我不妨说,它是原始的生存,从物象的观点来看。

There is a line which runs from that point to the other end, infinitely closer
to us, in the exercise of anamorphosis, probably around the beginning of the
seventeenth century. And I pointed out the interest that exercises of this kind
had for the constructive thought of artists. I tried to make you understand
briefly how the genesis of this tradition might be sketched.

有一个线条从那点开始,延伸到另外一端,无限地靠近我们,在变形的运用。可能环绕着十七世纪的开始。我指出那种的运作拥有的这个興趣,对于艺术家的建设性的思想。我尝试让你们简短地理解,这种传统的开始是如何被描绘。

In the same way that the exercise on the wall consists in fixing the invisible
inhabitant of the cavern, we see the link forged between the temple, as a
construction around emptiness that designates the place of the Thing, to the
figuration of emptiness on the walls of this emptiness itself – to the extent
that painting progressively learns to master this emptiness, to take such a
tight hold of it that painting becomes dedicated to fixing it in the form of the
illusion of space.

正如墙壁上的这种运作组成修补山洞的隐形的居民,我们看见庙寺之间的被铸造的这种关联,作为一种环绕空洞的建设,它指明「物象」的这个位置,跟这个空洞本身的墙壁上的空洞的形象的关联。甚至,图画逐渐学习掌控这个空洞,如此紧密地掌控它,以致于图画致力于修补它,以空间的幻觉的形式。

I am moving fast and I just throw out these crumbs so that you can put
them to the test of whatever you may subsequently read on the subject.

进行得很快,我仅是抛出一些零碎片段,这样你们能够将它们付之验证,用你们随后对于这个主题阅读的东西。

Before the systematic establishment of geometrical laws of perspective formulated
at the end of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth centuries,
painting passed through a stage in which various artifices made it possible
to structure space. The double band that appears in the sixth and seventh
centuries on the walls of Santa Maria Maggiore is one way of treating certain
stereognoses. But let’s leave that aside. The important thing is that at a given
moment one arrives at illusion. Around it one finds a sensitive spot, a lesion,
a locus of pain, a point of reversal of the whole of history, insofar as it is the
history of art and insofar as we are implicated in it; that point concerns the
notion that the illusion of space is different from the creation of emptiness.
It is this that the appearance of anamorphoses at the end of sixteenth and the
beginning of the seventeenth centuries represents.

在十五世纪末与十六世纪初,被阐释的几何学的透视法的法则被系统化建立之前,图画经历一个阶段。在这个阶段,各种的人为的技巧让空间的架构成为可能。在十六与十七世纪,出现在桑塔、玛丽亚 玛吉奥瑞修女院的墙壁的这个双重的宽带,是一种处理立体触感的方式。但是让我们将那个放置一旁。重要的事情是,在某个特定时刻,我们获得幻象。环绕这个幻象,我们找到一个敏感的地点,一个病变地区,痛苦的焦点,整个历史的倒转点。因为它是艺术的历史,因我们被牵涉到它里面。那个点跟这个观念有关:空间的幻象不同于空洞的创造。在十六世纪末与十七世纪初的变形的出现,就是代表这个。

I spoke last time of a Jesuit convent; it was a mistake. I checked in Baltrusaitis’s
excellent dictionary of anamorphoses, and it is a convent of the Minim
Friars in Rome as well as in Paris. I don’t know why I also placed Holbein’s
Ambassadors in the Louvre, when the painting is in the National Gallery in
London. You will find in Baltrusaitis’s book a subtle study of that painting
and of the skull that emerges when, having passed in front of it, you leave
the room by a door located so that you see it in its sinister truth, at the very
moment when you turn around to look at it for the last time.

我上次谈到耶稣教会的修女院,那是个错误。我查阅Baltrusaitis 的优秀字典,有关变形。那是在罗马与巴黎的Minim修道院。我不知道为什么我也将霍宾Holbein的「大使」放置在罗浮宫,实际上,这幅图画是在伦敦的国家美术陈列馆。你们将会在Baltrusaitis的字典找到一个详细的研究,对于那幅图画,以及出现的头颅。当你们从它的前面经过,你们从当地的门边离开房间,你们以一个古怪的真相看见它,就在你们转过头,最后一次看见它。

Thus, as I say, the interest of anamorphosis is described as a turning point
when the artist completely reverses the use of that illusion of space, when he
forces it to enter into the original goal, that is to transform it into the support
of the hidden reality – it being understood that, to a certain extent, a work
of art always involves encircling the Thing.

因此,如我所说,变形的这个興趣被描述作为一个转捩点,当艺术家完全倒转那个空间的幻象的使用。当他强迫它进入这个原先的目标。那就是要将它转变成为隐藏的现实的支持。因为它被理解,到达某个程度,艺术的作品总是牵涉到环绕着这个「物象」。

This also allows us to approach a little closer to the unanswered question
on the ends of art: is the end of art imitation or non-imitation? Does art
imitate what it represents? If you begin by posing the question in those terms,
you are already caught in the trap, and there is no way out of remaining in
the impasse in which we find ourselves between figurative and so-called abstract
art.

这也让我们能够稍微靠近这个没有被回答的问题,对于艺术的目的:艺术的目的是模仿?或是非模仿?艺术模仿它所代表的东西吗?假如你们开始用那些术业提出这个问题,你们已经陷套在那个陷阱里。不可能逃离这个僵局,在那里,我们发现我们自己处于比喻与所谓的抽象的艺术。

We can only sense the aberradon that is articulated in the unyielding position
of the philosopher; Plato places art at the lowest level among human
works, since for him everything that exists only exists in relation to the idea,
which is the real. Everything that exists is already no more than an imitation
of a more-than-real, of a surreal. If art imitates, it is shadow of a shadow,
imitation of an imitation. You can, therefore, see the vanity of the work of
art, of the work of the brush.

我就仅能理解这种被表达的偏离,在哲学家的不屈服的立场。柏拉图将艺术放置在人类作品的最低的层次,因为对于他,每样存在的东西,仅存在于跟这个理型的关系,这个理型就是实在界。存在的每样东西,已经仅仅就是超过现实,超现实的模拟。假如艺术模拟,艺术是阴影的阴影,模拟的模拟。因此,你们能够看见艺术作品,画笔作品的虚荣徒劳,

That’s a trap one must not enter. Of course, works of art imitate the objects
they represent, but their end is certainly not to represent them. In offering
the imitation of an object, they make something different out of that object.
Thus they only pretend to imitate. The object is established in a certain relationship
to the Thing and is intended to encircle and to render both present and absent.

那是一个我们一定不要掉入的陷阱。当然,艺术作品模拟它们代表的客体,但是它们的目的确实并不是要代表它们。当它们提供一个客体的模拟时,它们用那个客体创造某件不同的东西。因此,它们仅是伪装模拟。这个客体被建立,跟这个物象的某种关系,它被用来环绕并且凸显出席与缺席。

Everybody knows this. At the moment when painting turns once again
upon itself, at the moment when Cizanne paints his apples, it is clear that in
painting those apples, he is doing something very different from imitating
apples – even though his final manner of imitating them, which is the most
striking, is primarily oriented toward a technique of presenting the object.
But the more the object is presented in the imitation, the more it opens up
the dimension in which illusion is destroyed and aims at something else.
Everyone knows that there is a mystery in the way Cezanne paints apples,
for the relationship to the real as it is renewed in art at that moment makes
the object appear purified; it involves a renewal of its dignity by means of
which these imaginary insertions are, one might say, repetitively restated.
The fact is, as has been noted, such insertions cannot be detached from the
efforts of earlier artists to realize the ends of art in their own way.

对于这个,众所周知。在那个时刻,当图画再一次转向它自己,在塞尚绘画他的蘋果时,显而易见地,当他绘画那些蘋果,他正在从事某件非常不同的事情,跟模拟蘋果不同的事情。即使他最后的模拟它们的方式,这是最引人注意的地方,原初是用来朝向呈现客体的技巧。但是这个客体越是在模拟里被呈现,它就越展开幻象被毁灭的这个维度,目标朝着某件其它东西。众所周知,在塞尚绘画蘋果的方式,有一种神秘,因为跟实在界的关系,依照它在那个时刻,从艺术里更新,使得这个客体看起来纯净化。它牵涉它的尊严的更新,我们不妨说,凭借它的尊严,这些想象的插入重复地被重新陈述。事实上,有人注意到,这些插入无法跟早期的艺术家的努力隔离,他们努力要用他们自己的方式实现艺术的目的。

Obviously, the notion of historicity should not be used here without great
caution. The expression “history of art” is highly misleading. Every appearance
of this way of proceeding consists in overthrowing the illusory operation
so as to return to the original end, which is to project a reality that is not that
of the object represented. In the history of art, on the other hand, by virtue
of the necessity that supports it, there is only substructure. The relation of
the artist to the time in which he appears is always a contradictory one. It is
against the current, in opposition to reigning norms – including, for example,
political norms, or indeed, systems of thought – that art attempts to operate
its miracle once more.

显而易见地,历史感的观念在此被使用,应该特别谨慎。「艺术的历史」的这个表达式非常误导的。这种进行的方式的每个表象都在用推翻幻觉的运作,为了要回到原初的目标。那就是要投射一个现实界,并不是被代表的客体的现实界。在另一方面,在艺术的历史,凭借这个支持它的必要性,仅有一个次级的结构。艺术家跟他出现的时代的关系,总是一个矛盾的关系。这是违背潮流,违背统治的命名,譬如,包括政治的命名,或贴切地说,思想的系统。艺术企图要再次运作它的奇迹。

With the anamorphosis I have here, we find ourselves faced with a game
that may seem futile to you, when you think of the sophisticated operational
techniques required for the success of such a little artifact. And yet how can
one not be touched or even moved when faced with this thing in which the
image takes a rising and descending form? When faced with this sort of syringe
which, if I really let myself go, would seem to me to be a kind of apparatus
for taking a blood sample, a blood sample of the Grail? But don’t forget that
the blood of the Grail is precisely what is lacking.

使用我在此拥有的这个变形,我们发现自己面对一场你们可能觉得是徒劳的遊戏,当你们想到这个精致的运作的技巧,它被要求来从事如此一个小技艺的成功。可是,我们如何能够不被感染,甚至感动,当我们面对这个物象,在那里,形象採取一个逐渐上升,逐渐升华的形式?当我们面对这种注射,请容我放肆地说,我觉得那是一种採取血液样本的针筒,一种圣杯的血液的样本?但是请不要忘记,圣杯的血液确实是所欠缺的东西。

The argument I have been developing thus far in my lecture should be
interpreted only in a metaphorical way. I have only been following this line
of argument because I want to discuss today that form of sublimation which
appeared at a certain moment in the history of poetry, and which interests us
in an exemplary way in connection with something that Freudian thought
has placed at the center of our interest in the economy of the psyche, namely,
Eros and eroticism.

我迄今在我的演讲一直在开展的这个论点,应该仅能够用比喻的方式来解释。我仅是一直在追逐这个论点的脉络,因为我今天想要讨论升华的那种形式,它出现在诗的历史的某个时刻。它让我们感到興趣,以一个典范的方式,关于弗洛依德思想曾经放置在我们对于心灵的活动的興趣的核心东西,换句话说,性爱与性爱主义。

I just wanted to point it out to you at the beginning: you might almost
structure around this anamorphosis the ideas I am sketching out for you on
the subject of the ethics of psychoanalysis. It is something that is wholly
founded on the forbidden reference that Freud encountered at the terminal
point of what in his thought one might call the Oedipus myth.

我仅是从开始想要跟你们指出它:你们可能环绕这个变形从事架构这个观念,我正在跟你们描绘的这个观念,对于精神分析的伦理学的主题。这个东西完全以被禁止的指称作为基础。弗洛依德遭遇这种被禁止的指称,在他的思想,我们可以称为所伊狄浦斯神话的终端。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 134

February 21, 2013

Ethic 134
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康
χ Marginal comments
第十章 边缘的评论

ANAMORPHOSIS AND ARCHITECTURE
变形与艺术

THE PRIMACY OF THE ES
Es 的原初性

3
Neither science nor religion is of a kind to save the Thing or to give it to us,
because the magic circle that separates us from it is imposed by our relation
to the signifier. As I have told you, the Thing is that which in the real suffers
from this fundamental, initial relation, which commits man to the ways of
the signifier by reason of the fact that he is subjected to what Freud calls the
pleasure principle, and which, I hope it is clear in your minds, is nothing else
than the dominance of the signifier – I, of course, mean the true pleasure
principle as it functions in Freud.

科学与宗教均非是合适种类,来拯救这个物象,或是将它给予我们。因为分开我们跟物象的这个魔术圈,是由我们跟跟能指的关系所赋加。如同我曾经告诉过你们,这个物象是在实在界遭受这个基本的最初的关系的痛苦的东西。这个关系让人类奉献于能指的方式,凭借这个事实:他隶属于弗洛依德所谓的快乐原则。我希望你们心里明白,这个关系实实在在就是这个能指的支配。当然,我指的是真实的快乐原则,依照它在弗洛依德充当的功用。

In brief, it is the effect of the influence of the signifier on the psychic real
that is involved, and it is for this reason that the activity of sublimation is not
purely and simply senseless in all its forms – one responds with whatever is
at hand.

总之,牵涉到的就是这个能指的影响对于心灵实在界的效应。因为这个理由,升华的活动并不单纯在各个形式上无意义。我们用任何我们用得到的东西来回应。

I wanted to have here today, so as to be able to show it to you at the end
of the Seminar, an object that to be understood, if not to be described, demands
a long commentary on the history of art. That one managed to construct such
an object and to find pleasure in it requires that we make a significant detour.
I will describe it to you. It is an object that embodies an anamorphosis. I
assume that many of you know what that is. It is any kind of construction
that is made in such a way that by means of an optical transposition a certain
form that wasn’t visible at first sight transforms itself into a readable image.
The pleasure is found in seeing its emergence from an indecipherable form.
Such a thing is extremely widespread in the history of art. Just go to the
Louvre; you will see Holbein’s painting of The Ambassadors and at the feet
of one of the two men, who is just as well built as you or I, you will see an
enigmatic form stretched out on the ground. It looks roughly like fried eggs.
If you place yourself at a certain angle from which the painting itself disappears
in all its relief by reason of the converging lines of its perspective, you
will see a death’s head appear, the sign of the classic theme of vanitas. And
this is found in a proper painting, a painting commissioned by the ambassadors
in England, who must have been very pleased with his work; and what
was at the bottom must have amused them a lot, too.

为了要在这个研讨班结束时,能够跟你们显示它,今天在此我想要拥有一个目标。为了被理解,估且不说是被描述,这个目标要求对于艺术的历史从事漫长的评论。我们成功于建构这样一个目标,并且在它里面找到快乐,要求我们应该从事一个重要的迂迴。我将跟你们描述它。这一个目标具体表现一个变形图像。我假定你们许多人都知道那个变形图像是什么。这是任何种类的建构以这样一种方式形成。凭借着视觉的调换,乍然一看,某种无法看见的形式,转变自己成为可阅读的意象。这种快乐被找到,当我们看见它以无法解释的形式出现。在艺术的历史上,这样一种事情是极端广泛的。你们只要前往罗浮宫,你们就会发现霍宾的「大使」画像。在两位大使的其中一位,他们跟你们或我一样身体魁梧。你们将会看出一个谜团一般的形状伸展在地上。它看起来有点像是煎蛋。假如你们放在自己处于某个角度,从那个角度,图像本身消失,以它所有的浮雕,由于它的透视法的汇集的线条。你们将会看见一个死人的头颅出现。这是「浮世绘」vanitas 的古典的主题的迹象。在典型的浮世绘图画都可发现,在英国,大使们委任的一幅图像。这些大使当时对他的作品一定非常满意。对于图像底端的东西,他们一定也颇感興趣。

This phenomenon is datable. It was in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
that things reached this point of heightened interest and even of fascination.
In a chapel built by order of the Jesuits in Descartes’s time, there
existed a whole wall some eighteen meters long that represented a scene from
the life of the saints or a nativity scene, and that was completely unreadable
from any point in the room, but if one entered by a certain corridor, you can
see for a brief moment the extraordinarily dispersed lines come together and
perceive the body of the scene.

这种现象可找出时期。那是在十六与十七世纪,事情到达强烈興趣,甚至是著迷的这个时期。在笛卡尔的时代,耶稣教会所建造的一所小教堂,存在着一整个墙壁,大约十八公尺长,呈现圣人的生活场景,或自然场景。从房间的任何角度,都完全无法览阅,但是假如我们从某个走道进入,你能够瞬间看见这个特别扩散的线条聚集一块,然后感受到这个场景的实体。

The anamorphosis I wanted to bring here is much less voluminous. It belongs
to the collector I have already referred to. It is formed of a polished cylinder
that has the function of a mirror, and around it you put a kind of bib or flat
surface on which there are also indecipherable lines. When you stand at a
certain angle, you see the image concerned emerge in the cylindrical mirror;
in this case it is a beautiful anamorphosis of a painting of the crucifixion
copied from Rubens.

我在此想要带来的这个变形,比较没有那么龐大。它属于我已经提到的那位收集家。它由一个光滑的圆筒所形成,这个圆筒拥有镜子的功用。环绕它,你们放置一种围布或平坦的表面。在它们上面,也有无法解释的线条。当你们站在某个角度,你们看见这个相关的意象出现在那个圆筒的镜子。在这种情况,这是一种耶稣钉上十字架的美丽的图像的变形,从鲁宾森仿真而来。

This object could never have been produced, never have had a necessary
meaning without a whole preceding development. There is behind it the whole
history of architecture as well as that of painting, their combination and the
history of this combination.

这个目标本来永远无法被产生,它本来无法拥有必须的意义,假如没有先前的整个历史的发展。在它背后是这整个的建筑的历史,以及图画的历史。它们的组合以及这种组合的历史。

To put it briefly, primitive architecture can be defined as something organized
around emptiness. That is also the authentic impression that the forms of a cathedral like Saint Mark’s give us, and it is the true meaning of all architecture. Then subsequently, for economic reasons, one is satisfied with
painting images of that architecture, one learns to paint architecture on the
walls of architecture; and painting, too, is first of all something that is organized
around emptiness. Since it is a matter of finding once more the sacred
emptiness of architecture in the less marked medium of painting, the attempt
is made to create something that resembles it more and more closely, that is
to say, perspective is discovered.

简短地说,原始的建筑能够被定义为某件环绕空无组织的东西。那也是像圣马可的大教堂的形态给予我们的真实的印象。那是所有的建筑的真实的意义。因此随后,因为经济的理由,我们满足于那个建筑的图画的意象。我们学习绘画建筑在建筑的墙壁上。图画首先也是某件被组织环绕空无的东西。因为问题是要再次找出建筑的这个神圣的空无,在比较没有那么明显的图画的媒体,从事这种企图,是为了创造某件东西,更加仔细地类似它,换句话说,透视法被发现。

The following stage is paradoxical and quite amusing; it shows how one
strangles oneself with one’s own knots.

以下的阶段是矛盾,而且相当有趣。它显示为们如何用自己的环结勒死自己。

From the moment when perspective was discovered in painting, a form of
architecture appears that adopts the perspectivism of painting. Palladio’s art,
for example, makes this very obvious. Go and see Palladio’s theater in Vicenze,
a little masterpiece of its kind that is in any case instructive and exemplary.
Neoclassical architecture submits itself to the laws of perspective, plays with
them, and makes them its own. That is, it places them inside of something
that was done in painting in order to find once again the emptiness of primitive
architecture.

从透视法在图画中被发现的那个时刻开,一种採用图画透视法的建筑的形式出现,譬如,帕拉迪欧的艺术,让这点被凸显出来。请你们前去维琴察的帕拉迪欧戏院,无论如何,属于它那种的一点小杰作具有启发性及典范性。新古典的建筑屈从于透视法的法则,玩弄它们,并且将它们据为己有。换句话说,它将它们放置在用图画做的某件东西里面,为了再次找到原始建筑的空洞。

From that point on one is entangled in a knot which seems to flee increasingly
from the meaning of this emptiness. And I believe that the Baroque
return to the play of forms, to all manner of devices, including anamorphosis,
is an effort to restore the true meaning of artistic inquiry; artists use the
discovery of the property of lines to make something emerge that is precisely
there where one has lost one’s bearings or, strictly speaking, nowhere.

从那点开始,我们被纠缠在一个似乎逐渐逃离这个空洞的意义的环结。我相信,巴洛克回答形式的遊戏,回到各色各样的设计,包括变形。这个回转是一种努力要恢复艺术的探究的真实的意义,艺术家使用线条的特性的发现,让某件东西出现。这个东西确实在我们已经丧失关联的那里,或严格地说,在空无之处。

Rubens’ painting that suddenly appears in the place of the unintelligible
image reveals what is at issue here. At issue, in an analogical or anamorphic
form, is the effort to point once again to the fact that what we seek in the
illusion is something in which the illusion as such in some way transcends
itself, destroys itself, by demonstrating that it is only there as a signifier.
And it is this which lends primacy to the domain of language above all,
since with language we only ever have to do with the signifier in all cases.
That is why in raising the problems of the relationship of art to sublimation,
I will begin with courtly love. One finds there texts which show in an exemplary
way its conventional side, in the sense that language always involves
artifice relative to anything intuitive, material or lived.

鲁宾森的图画突然出现在无法理解的意象的位置,显示在此受到争议的东西。受到争议的是这种努力,以一种类比或变形的形式,努力要再一次指向这个事实:我们在幻想所寻求的东西,是某件东西那里,这个幻想本身以某种方式超越它自己,毁灭它自己,凭借证明,它仅有在那里,作为一个能指。就是这个能指,特别借助原初性,给于语言的领域。因为使用语言,我们无论在任何情况,都仅会跟这个能指有关系。那就是为什么当我提出艺术跟升华的关系的这个问题,我将会开始从骑士之爱开始。我们在那里发现一些文本,以作为典范的方式,显示它的传统的面向。意义是:语言总是跟技艺有关,相对于任何直觉,材料或生活过得东西。

This phenomenon is all the more striking since we see it develop at a period
of uninhibited fucking. I mean that they didn’t attempt to hide it, didn’t
mince their words.

这个现象更加引人注意,因为我们看见它发展,在纵情欢爱的高潮。我的意思是,他们并没有企图隐藏它,并没有委婉他们的话语。

The coexistence of two styles on the subject is the remarkable thing.
You introduce the idea of the Thing and the Non-Thing. It is, if you like,
true that the Thing is also the Non-Thing. In reality, the Non- as such is
certainly not individualized in a significant way. Exactly the same problem is
posed by the Freudian notion of Todestrieb, whereas Freud tells us at the
same time that there is no negation in the unconscious.

在主体身上, 两种风格的共存是明显的事情。你们介绍物象与这个「非存在物象」的这个观念。不妨说,这个物象确实是「非存在物象」。实际上,这个「非存在」的本身,确实没有以重要的方式个体化。确实是相同的问题被提出,作为浮洛依德的死亡冲动Todestrieb 的观念。虽然浮洛依德同时告诉我们,在无意识并没有否定。

We don’t make a philosophy out of it. I remind you of the notion that I
modified the other day, so as not to give the impression that I don’t accept
my responsibilities: when I talk about the Thing, I am certainly talking about
something. But I am, of course, talking operationally, with reference to the
place that it occupies in a certain logical stage of our thought and of our
conceptualization, with reference to its function in what concerns us.

我们并没有将死亡冲动形成一门哲学。我提醒你们这个观念,我前天修正的这个观念。为了不要给予这个印象: 我没有接受我的责任,当我谈论这个物象。我确实是谈论到某件东西。但是当然,我是运作性地谈论,提到它佔据的位置,以我们思想与我们的观念的某个逻辑的阶段,提到它的功用,在跟我们相关的东西。

Yesterday evening I referred to and denounced the substitution for Freud’s
whole classic topology of the term “ego” – something that is particularly
regrettable in someone as deeply immersed in analytical thought as Spitz.
It is indeed difficult to recognize in that concept the essential function with
which analytical experience began, that was its shock value as well as its echo
and suite. Let us not forget that Freud, in effect, immediately countered it
with the invention of the term das Es. That primacy of the Es is now completely
forgotten.

昨天晚上,我提到并且抨击,弗洛依德的整个的古典的「自我」这个术语的拓扑图形的升华。这是某件特别令人遗憾的东西,在某人身上,作为是深深陶醉于像史匹兹的精神分析的思想。这确实是困难的,要在那个观念体认出这个基本的功用,精神分析经验以它作为开始的功用,那就是它的惊吓价值,以及它的迴响与配套。让我们不要忘记,实际上,弗洛依德立即反驳它,用「本我das Es.」的这个术语的杜撰。这个本我Es」 优先性现在完全被忘记。

To some extent, the Es is not sufficiently emphasized by the way it is
presented in the texts of the second topic. It is to remind us of the primordial
and primary character of this intuition in our experience at the level of ethics
that this year I am calling a certain zone of reference “the Thing.”

到某个程度,这个本我Es并没有充分地被强调,由于它被呈现的方式,在第二个议题的文本里。那是要提醒我们,在我们精神分析经验的伦理学层次,这个直觉具有原初与初级的特性。今年,我将称某个指称的地区,为这个「物象」。

Mr. Laplanche: I would like to ask a further question on the relationship of
the pleasure principle to the play of the signifier.

拉普兰奇先生:我想要询问一个更深入的问题,关于快乐原则与能指的遊戏的关系?

This relationship is founded on the fact that the pleasure principle basically
involves the sphere of investment, Besetzung, and its Bahnungen, and it is
facilitated by the Vorstellungen and even more by what Freud calls the Vorstellungsreprasentanzen- a term that appears very early, before the article on
the Unconscious. Each time a state of need arises, the pleasure principle tends
to provoke a reinvestment in its content – in inverted commas, that is, since
at this metapsychological level clinical practice is not involved – an hallucinated
reinvestment of what had previously been a satisfying hallucination.

这个关系的基础是这个事实:快乐原则基本上牵涉到投注佔领Besetzung的领域,及其神经的便利Bahnungen 。这是由于想象Vorstellungen 给予的便利,甚至是由于弗洛依德所谓的幻想再现 Vorstellungsreprasentanzen。这一个术语出现很早,在探讨无意识的文章之前。每次,一种需要的状态出现,快乐原则就倾向于召唤一种重新投注于它的内容,用倒转的引号。换句话说,因为在形上心理学的层次,临床的实践并没有被牵涉–一种幻觉化的重新投注,对于先前曾经令人满足的幻觉的东西。

The diffuse energy of the pleasure principle tends toward this reinvestment
of representation. The intervention of the reality principle can only therefore
be a radical one; it is never a second stage. Naturally, there is no adaptation
to reality that doesn’t involve a phenomenon of tasting, of sampling, by means
of which the subject manages to monitor, one might almost say with his
tongue, that which enables him to be sure that he isn’t dreaming.

快乐原则的丰沛能源倾向于这种符号再现的重新投注。现实原则的重新投注因此仅会上一个强烈的投注。它永远不是一个第二阶段。当然,对于现实的适应,并没有牵涉到品尝,样品的现象。凭借这个现象,主体成功地监控,我们几乎要用他的语言说,让他能够确定他并不是正在做梦的东西。

This is what constitutes the originality of Freud’s thought and no one,
moreover, has been mistaken about that. It is both paradoxical and provocative.
Before Freud no one has ever dared articulate the functioning of the
psychic apparatus in that way. He describes it on the basis of his experience of the irreducible element he saw emerge at the core of hysterical substitutions;
the first thing that poor, defenseless man can do when he is tortured
by need is to begin to hallucinate his satisfaction, and after that he can only
monitor the situation. Fortunately, he more or less makes at the same time
the gestures required to attach himself to the zone in which this hallucination
coincides with the real in an approximative form.

这是形成弗洛依德的思想的原创性的东西,而且,对于那一点,每个人都确定无疑。那既是矛盾,有具有挑衅性。在弗洛依德之前,没有人曾经胆敢以那镇方式表达心灵工具的功用。他描述它,根据他看见的经验:无法还原的元素,从歇斯底里症的替换的核心出现。那位可怜的,无法防卫的人所能够做到第一件事,当他被需要所折磨,就是开始幻想他的满足。在此之后,它仅能够监控这个情况。幸运地,他同时表现出被要求的姿态,为了跟这个地区连系。在这个地区,这个幻觉跟实在界巧合,以大约的形式。

If the basic texts are to be respected, that’s the miserable beginning from
which the whole dialectic of experience is articulated in Freudian terms. That’s
what I told you when I discussed the relationship between the pleasure principle
and the signifier.

假如这些基本的文本应该被尊敬,那是这个悲惨的开始。从这个开始,精神分析经验的整个的辩证法用弗洛依德的术语被表达。那就是我告诉你们的东西,当我讨论快乐原则跟这个能指的关系。

Thus the Vorstellungen have right from the beginning the character of a
signifying structure.

因此这个想象Vorstellungen 从一开始,就拥有能指的结构的这个特性。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 131

February 13, 2013

Ethic 131
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康
χ Marginal comments
第十章 边缘的评论

ART, RELIGION, SCIENCE
艺术、宗教、科学

ON THE SUBJECT OF SPITZ
论史匹兹的主体

ANAMORPHOSIS AND ARCHITECTURE
变形与艺术

THE PRIMACY OF THE ES
Es 的原初性
2
I would like now to make sure that today’s meeting might be of some use to
those who have travelled some distance to get here.

我现在想要确定,今天的演讲可能有些用途,对于那些远道而来的那些人。

Given the point we have reached in my Seminar, it seems likely that some
of you may have questions to ask me or answers to give, so as to suggest the
meaning for them of some element or other in my argument.

假如考虑在我的研讨班,我们已经到达的这个点。这似乎是可能的,你们有些人,可能会有问题要问问,或有些答案要给予。为了建议在我的论点,对于他们,在某些元素的这个意义。

I know that it is never easy to break the silence in a crowd, to ring one’s
little bell, so to speak. I will, therefore, give you the opportunity to ask me a
written question. The only disadvantage there is that I am free to read it as I
see fit.

我知道,要在群众中打破这个沉默并不容易,也就是,要摇响这个小铃。因此,我将给予你们这个机会用文字书写问我。唯一的不方便是,我可以随我方便自由地来阅读。

At the same time we are going to do something unexpected that strikes me
as a good idea. Some of you attended the scientific meeting of our Society
yesterday. I don’t know how it ended because I had to leave after having
responded at some length to the lecturers, people for whom I have the greatest
affection, and after I had expressed my deep interest in their work. They
are here today and I would like to ask Smirnov for some clarification on the
subject of Spitz’s “No and Yes.”1‘

同时,我们正要做某件意料之外的事情。这个事情给我的印象是一个好点子。昨天,你们有些人出现我们社团的科学的会议。我并不知道它如何结束,因为我必须离开,在详细回答一些演讲者之后。我对那些演讲者非常敬爱。在我表达对他们的研究深感興趣之后。他们今天在此,我想要要求史莫诺夫来做一些澄清,对于史匹兹的「不要与是的」

Why did you not tackle the “Yes”? [Mr. Smirnov’s answer.]
你们为什不克服这个「是的」?(史莫诺夫的回答)

Let me explain to those who do not know the text that it is a book belonging
to a series of investigations founded on the direct observation of newborn
babies or more precisely of infants, that is to say, up to the point of the
appearance of articulated language as such. Within this dimension, Spitz claims
to find the “No” as a “pattern,” as a semantic form in a certain number of
gestures and expressions, and primarily in “rooting” – that is to say, in the
oscillating gesture of the head that the infant makes in its approach to the
breast. The word is very difficult to translate into French, but there is a
correlative in the English text in the word “snout,” which clearly indicates
what is involved.

让我解释,对那些不知道这个文本的人,这是一本书属于一系列的研究,以新生的婴儿的直接观察作基础,或是更确实地说,以婴儿的观察。换句话说,一直到被表达的语言本身的出现。在这个维度里,史匹兹宣称发现这个「不要」,作为一个「模式」,作为一个语意的形式,这某些的姿态与表达。最初是在footing。换句话说,在头的摇摆的姿态,婴儿在接近乳房时,低下的头。这个footing很难翻译成为法文,但是在英文文本有一个相关字snout(鼻子探前)。很清楚地指示所牵涉的东西。

I am far from being critical of Spitz. I intend rather to defend him. I don’t
mean he is right, but the work is good and sharply articulated. And I would
fault you with failing to have brought out the fact that the phenomenon is
analogous to what occurs in traumatic neurosis – it is, he says, the last memory
before the emergence of the catastrophic reaction.

我丝毫并不是在批评史匹兹。相反地,我打算替他辩护。我并不说他是正确的,但是这个研究是好的,而且清楚地被表达。我将责怪你们,因为没有揭露这个事实:这个现象跟创伤的神经症所发生的事情类似。他说,那是最后的记忆,在灾难的反应出现之前。

I embarrassed you by asking you to comment on Spitz’s other works, namely,
his fiction on The Primal Cavity or at the very least his references to the
screen of the dream.

我让你们感到尴尬,要求你们评论史匹兹的其他著作。换句话说,他的对「原初的空洞」的想象,或是至少,他提到梦的帘幕。

Spitz doesn’t on the whole elaborate on the fact that a form of reaction
deriving from an earlier stage may be used in a critical situation. That seems
to be a very useful idea, however, something that should always be emphasized.
I think you made the point, unless it was Laplanche.

大体上,史匹兹并没有建构这个事实:从早期阶段获得的反应的形式,可以被使用在批评的情况。可是,那似乎是一个有用的观念,某件应该总是被强调的东西。我认为你们表达这个要点,除非是拉普兰奇。

Spitz is reduced to having a mechanism as passive as that of traumatic
neurosis intervene. He thus implies some preceding frustration of the infant.
He considers the act of “rooting” to be a trace which remains inscribed after
something like the refusal or withdrawal of the breast that immediately precedes
it. It is surprising that he expresses it in an isolated form, on the basis
of a given case, and not in general.

史匹兹被沦落到将一个机制,充当像是创伤的神经症的机制介入一样地被动。他因此暗示婴儿具有某种先前的挫折。他认为rooting(鼻头探触)的这个行动,是一种始终被铭记的痕迹,在某件像是立即在他之前的乳房的拒绝或撤退的东西。令人惊奇的是,婴儿表达它,用一个孤立的形式,以一个特定的情况为基础,而不是一般的情况。

[Statements by Mr. Smirnov and Laplanche; a question from Mr. Audouard:
“Why do you speak to us about the Thing instead of simply speaking about
mediation?”]

(史莫诺夫与拉普兰奇的陈述,由奥道尔德提的问题:「为什么你跟我们谈论这个「物象」,而不仅谈论有关中介?

To answer you briefly right away, I note that you have always been attentive
to the note of what one might call Hegelian reinterpretations of analytical
experience. We are concerned here with the Freudian experience as an ethics,
which is to say, at its most essential level, since it directs us towards a therapeutic
form of action that, whether we like it or not, is included in the register
or in the terms of an ethics. And the more we deny this, the more it is
the case. Experience demonstrates this: a form of analysis that boasts of its
highly scientific distinctiveness gives rise to normative notions that I characterize
by evoking the curse Saint Matthew utters on those who make the
bundles heavier when they are to be carried by others. Strengthening the
categories of affective normativity produces disturbing results.

要立刻简短地回答你的问题,我注意到,你总是专注于所谓的精神分析经验的黑格尔的解释的重要性。我们在此关心弗洛依德的精神分析经验,作为一门伦理学。换句话说,在它的最基本的层次,因为它引导我们朝向一个治疗的行动的形式。无论我们喜欢与否,它被包括在这个铭记,或是伦理学的术语。我们越是否认这个,情况越是如此。精神分析经验证明这点:自夸它具有高度的科学的杰出的精神分析的形式,产生命名观念,我表现它们的特征,凭借召唤圣马修表达的诅咒,对于那些将那些负担变得沉重的人,当它们应该由别人来承载。强调情感命名的范畴,产生令人困扰的结果。

It is clear that we put the accent on the irreducible element in the instinct,
on that which appears at the limit of a mediation and that reification is unable
to encompass. But in encircling that something whose limits we explore, we
are encircling the empty image.

显而易见,我们强调本能的这个无法还原的因素,强调出现在中介的限制的东西,以及物化不能够涵盖的东西。但是当我们环绕我们探索的东西的限制,我们环绕这个空洞的意象。

The deliberate intention to emphasize this notion has never been absent
from what I have said thus far. If you look up the texts I referred you to on
this subject, you will see that there is no ambiguity. That Hegelian radicalism
that was rashly attributed to me somewhere by a contributor to Les Temps
Modemes should in no way be imputed to me. The whole dialectic of desire
that I developed here, and that I was beginning at the very moment the rash
individual was writing that particular sentence, is sharply distinguished from
such Hegelianism. It is even more marked this year. The inevitable character
seems to me to be especially marked in the effect of sublimation.

这个刻意的意图,要强调这个观念,从来没有欠缺,从迄今我曾经说过的东西。假如你们查阅我跟你们推荐有关这个主题的文本。你们将会看出,并没有模糊暧昧。一位投稿给Les Temps Modemes的作者,轻率地将黑格尔的激进主义归属于我。我根本就不应该承受这个归属。我在此发展的欲望的整个的辩证法,我逐渐开始的辩证法,在那个轻率的作者写出那个特别的句子的时刻,明显地不同于黑格尔的辩证法。今年,这个现象更加显著。我觉得这个无可避免的特性,在探讨升华的影响时,特别显著。

Mr. X: The formula for sublimation that you have given us is to raise the
object to the dignity of the Thing. This Thing doesn’t exist to start with,
because sublimation is going to bring us to it. The question I have is, therefore,
isn’t this Thing not really a thing, but on the contrary a Non-Thing,
and isn’t it through sublimation that one comes to see it as being the Thing (. . .)?

X 先生:你曾经给予我们的升华的公式,就是要将客体提升到「物象」的尊严。这个物象并没有一开始就存在,因为升华将会带领我们去它那里。我的问题因此是,这个物象其实并不是一个东西,而是相反地,是一个「非物象」。难道不是通升华,我们逐渐看见它,作为是这个物象?

What you are saying strikes me as on the right track; it’s obvious you follow
my presentation of these questions without difficulty. Something is offered
to us as analysts, if we follow the sum of our experience and if we know how
to evaluate it. You state that the attempt at sublimation tends in the end to
realize the Thing or to save it. It’s true and it’s not true. There’s an illusion
there.

你所正在说的内容,给我的印象是正确的途径。显而易见,你对于我呈现这些问题,接受并无困难。某件东西被提供给于我们,作为精神分析家。假如我们遵照我们精神分析经验的这个总数,假如我们知道如何评估它。你陈述,升华的企图最后倾向于实现这个物象,或是拯救它。这确实并非是真实。在那里,有一个幻象。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 128

February 12, 2013

Ethic 128
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康
χ Marginal comments
第十章 边缘的评论

GNOMIC PROPOSITIONS
侏儒的命题

ART, RELIGION, SCIENCE
艺术、宗教、科学

ON THE SUBJECT OF SPITZ
狮毛狗的主题

ANAMORPHOSIS AND ARCHITECTURE
变形与艺术

THE PRIMACY OF THE ES
Es 的原初性

I am not this morning in the state of readiness I consider necessary for me to
conduct my seminar in the usual manner. And this is especially the case,
given the point we have reached, when I particularly want to be able to present
you with some very precise formulas. You will thus allow me to put it
off until next time.

今天早上,我并不是处于有备而来的状态,为了以寻常的方式从事我的研讨班,我认为准备是有需要的。这特别是这个情况,考虑到我们到达的这个时刻,当我特别想要能够呈现给与你们某些明确的公式。你们因此容许我们拖延它,直到下次。

The break caused by my absence of two weeks comes at a bad time, since
I would have liked to go beyond what I announced last time that I would be
dealing with – after having dealt with it, of course.

我缺席两个星期引起的中断,来得真不是时刻,因为我本来想要超越我上次宣布我将要处理的东西。当然,在我已经处理它之后。

1
Courtly love is, in effect, an exemplary form, a paradigm, of sublimation.
We only have essentially the documentary testimony of art, but we still feel
today the ethical ramifications.

事实上,骑士之爱是一个典范的形式,一个升华的典范。我们仅是拥有基本上是艺术的文件的证词,但是我们今天依旧感觉伦理学的分枝。

If on the subject of courtly love, apart from the lively archaeological interest
in the matter, we still only have the documentary testimony of art in a
form that is almost dead, it is obvious that its ethical ramifications are still
felt in the relations between the sexes.

假如探究骑士之爱的主题,除了对于此事具有生动的考古学興趣,我们依旧仅拥有艺术的文件的证词,用几乎是死掉的形式。显而易见,它的伦理学的分枝依旧被感觉到,在两性之间的关系。

The long-lasting influence of the effects of a phenomenon that one might
think is little more than an issue of aesthetics is thus of a kind to make us
aware of the importance of sublimation – something that psychoanalysis has
specifically foregrounded.

这一个现象的影响持续久远,我们可能认为,仅是美学的议题。这种影响因此是相同种类,让我们知道升华的重要性。精神分析曾经明确地作为先前基础的某件东西。

I would like to be at the top of my form in order to show you how the
question has been posed historically, and how it is posed from the point of
view of method, for I believe that there again we are in a position to throw
some light on admitted difficulties that historians, Romance scholars, philologists,
and various specialists who have approached the problem have
encountered. They apparently recognize that they have in no way managed
to reduce the phenomenon of courtly love in its historical emergence to an
identifiable form of conditioning.

我想要处于我的形式的顶端,为了要跟你们显示,这个问题在历史上如何被提出,以及它从方法论的观点,如何被提出。因为我相信,我们再次处于这个立场,要启明被承认的这些困难,历史学家,浪漫主义的学者,语言学家,以及曾经探究这个问题的各种的专家,他们曾经遭遇的困难。他们显而易见体认出,他们根本就没有成功过将骑士之爱的现象,在它出现于历史中,还原成为可辨认的制约的形式。

The recognition of the fact is common, and I would say almost uniform.
One encounters a paradoxical phenomenon, one that is almost taken for
granted; in every example of this kind scholars have often been led to examine
influences – something that in many cases is only a way of displacing the
problem. They tell us that the origin of the problem is to be found in the
transmission of something that happened somewhere else. Yet we still need
to know how that happened somewhere else. But in the event that is precisely
what gets lost.

这个事实的体认是普遍的。我甚至说几乎是一致的。我们遭遇一种悖论的现象,这个现象几乎被视为是当然,在每一个这种的例子,学者们时常被引导检视影响。在某些情况,某件东西仅是一种替代这个问题的方式。他们告诉我们,这个问题的起源应该被找到,在某件东西的传递,它发生在某个其他地方。可是,我们依旧需要知道,那件事情在某个其他地方是如何发生。但是在确实是已经迷失的事情那里。

In this case, the recourse to influences is far from having illuminated the
problem. We will try to approach the problem at its very center, and we will
see that Freudian theory is of a kind to shed a certain light there. Thus in
this way I take up the problem not only for its value as example but also for
its value relative to method.

在这个情况,诉诸于影响根本就没有启明这个问题。我们将会尝试探究这个问题在它的核心。我们将会看出,弗洛依德的理论在那里很能够有所启蒙。因此,以这种方式,我探讨这个问题,不但因为它作为典范的价值,而且因为它相对于方法的价值。

To start out from this very specific point doesn’t mean that everything that
concerns sublimation is to be considered from the perspective developed here,
namely, from the point of view of the man / woman relation, of the couple. I
do not claim to reduce sublimation to that, nor even to center it on that. I
believe on the contrary that to start out from this example is essential in order
to arrive at a general formula, whose beginnings we can find in Freud, if we
know where to look for it – and I don’t mean search for this or that detail.

从这个明确点开始,并不意味着,每样跟升华有关的东西,应该被考虑,从在此发展的观点。换句话说,从男人与女人,夫妻的关系的观点。我并没有宣称要将升华还原到那里,甚至也没有将它集中在那里。相反地,我相信,从这个例子开始是重要的,为了到达一般的公式。这个公式的开始,我们在弗洛依德那里找到。假如我们知道如何去寻找它。我的意思并不是要寻找这个或那个细节。

If I proceed sometimes by emphasizing one of Freud’s sentences, an isolated
formula, or, I was about to say, some gnomic proposition, then I am
very conscious of making that gnomic proposition work for me. When I give
you a formula such as “The desire of man is the desire of the Other,” it is a
gnomic formula, although Freud didn’t seek to present it as such. But he
does so from time to time without doing it on purpose. Thus I once quoted
a very short formula which brought together the respective mechanisms of
hysteria, obsessional neurosis and paranoia with three forms of sublimation,
art, religion and science. At another point he relates paranoia to scientific
discourse. These clues will help us articulate in all its generality the formula
in which we will in the end order the function of sublimation with reference
to the Thing.

假如我们有时继续,凭借强调弗洛依德的其中一个句子,一个孤立的公式,或者,我即将要说,某个简洁的命题。那么我清楚知道,让这个简洁命题为我工作。当我给予你们一个公式,譬如,「人的欲望就是大他者的欲望。」这是一个简洁的公式,虽然弗洛依德并没有尝试呈现它的本身。但是他有时这样做,将歇斯底里症的各别的机制汇集一块,妄想症的神经症与具有三种升华形式的偏执狂,那就是艺术,宗教,与科学。在另外一点,它将偏执狂跟科学的辞说相提并论。这些线索将有助于非常一般性地表达这个公式。在那里,我们最后将会规划秩序,给升华的功用,提到这个「物象」。

This Thing is accessible in very elementary examples, which are almost of
the type of the classic philosophical demonstration, including a blackboard
and a piece of chalk. I referred last time to the schematic example of the vase,
so as to allow you to grasp where the Thing is situated in the relationship that
places man in the mediating function between the real and the signifier. This
Thing, all forms of which created by man belong to the sphere of sublimation,
this Thing will always be represented by emptiness, precisely because
it cannot be represented by anything else – or, more exactly, because it can only be represented by something else. But in every form of sublimation, emptiness is determinative.

这个「物象」在一些基本例子是可接近的。这些例子几乎属于古典哲学的证明的那种,包括黑板与一枝粉笔。我上次提到花瓶的这个基模的例子,为了让你们能够理解,在那里,这个物象被定位在将人放在在实在界与能指之间的仲介的功用的这个关系。这个物象,被人类创造的所有它的形式,属于升华的范围。这个物象将总是被代表,由空洞,确实是因为它无法被代表,用任何其他东西。或者更加确实地说,因为它仅能够是被代表,有某件其他的东西。但是在升华的每个形式,空洞是具有决定性。

I will point out right away three different ways according to which art,
religion and the discourse of science turn out to be related to that; I will point
this out by means of three formulas that I don’t say I will retain at the end,
when we have completed our journey together.

我将立刻指出三个不同的方式。依照这三个方式,艺术,宗教,与科学的辞说,结果跟那个相关。我将指出这点,凭借我并没有说我最后将保留的三个公式,当我们已经一起完成我们的旅途。

All art is characterized by a certain mode of organization around this emptiness.
I don’t believe that that is a vain formula, in spite of its generality, in
guiding those who are interested in explaining the problems of art; and I
believe I have the means of illustrating that to you in a variety of striking
ways.

所有的艺术的特色是某种的组织的模式环绕空无。我并不相信,那是一个空洞的公式,尽管它的一般性。当它引导那些对解释艺术的问题感到興趣的人。我相信我拥有这个工具,用各种生动的方式,跟你们解释。

Religion in all its forms consists of avoiding this emptiness. We can illustrate
that in forcing the note of Freudian analysis for the good reason that
Freud emphasized the obsessional traits of religious behavior. Yet although
the whole ceremonial phase of the body of religious practices, in effect, enters
into this framework, we can hardly be fully satisfied with this formula. A
phrase like “respecting this emptiness” perhaps goes further. In any case, the
emptiness remains in the center, and that is precisely why sublimation is
involved.

各式各样的宗教主要在于避免这个空无。我们能够用弗洛依德的精神分析说明那一点。理由很充分:弗洛依德强调宗教行为的妄想症的特征。可是,虽然宗教实践的整个仪式的部分,实际上进入到这个架构,我们几乎无法充分地满足这个公式。像「尊重这个空无」的词语,或许更加深入。无论如何,这个空无始终是在中心。这确实是为什么升华被牵涉在内。

As for our third term, the discourse of science, to the extent that it finds
its origin in our tradition in the discourse of wisdom or of philosophy, the
term Freud uses in connection with paranoia and its relation to psychic reality,
the term, Unglauben, finds its full meaning there.

至於我们第三个术业,科学的辞说,甚至它找到它的起源,在我们智慧或哲学的辞说的传统。弗洛依德使用的术语,关于偏执狂与它跟心灵现实的关系,Unglauben(不信仰) 这个术语在那里找到它的充分的意义。

I emphasized this fact in passing in a recent Seminar; Unglauben is not the
negation of the phenomenology of Glauben, of belief. Freud never returned
to the subject in a comprehensive and definitive way, yet it nevertheless runs
throughout his work, and he gives extreme importance to this function in the
Entwurf. The phenomenology of belief remained for him an obsession to the
end; thus Moses and Monotheism is constructed in its entirety in order to
explain the fundamental phenomena of belief.

在最近的研讨班,我顺便强调这个事实:「不信仰」并不是「信仰」的现象的否定。弗洛依德从来没有回到这个主题,用完整而明确的方式。可是它仍然偏佈在他的著作里。他非常重视Entwurf (架构)的这个功用。对于他而言,信仰的现象学始终是一种著迷。因此「摩西与单一神教」完整地被建构,为了解释信仰的基本现象。

More profound and more dynamically significant for us is the phenomenon
of unbelief. It is not the suppression of belief, but it has to do with man’s
relationship to the world and to truth that is specific to man, a relationship
he inhabits.

对于我们而言,更加强烈重要的是不信仰的这个现象。不信仰并不是信仰的压抑。不信仰跟人与世界的关系,跟人的明确的真理息息相关,人驻居在这一个关系里。

In this connection you would be wrong to trust in summary oppositions or
to think that history has known sensational turning points, such as the supposed
passage from the theocratic age to so-called humanist forms of liberation
of the individual and of reality. The conception of the world is not decisive
here. On this occasion, it has nothing to do with something resembling a
Weltanschauung – and certainly not mine. I am only pointing the way here, I
am only trying to help you orientate yourself in the bibliography of significant
works on the subject, works by specialist who in their different fields are
equipped with some talent for analysis. I advise you to look up the work of
an historian, Lucien Febvre, who is the author of the widely accessible, The
Problem of Unbelief in the Sixteenth Century. It is a work that enables you to
see how the thoughtful use of historical methods allows us to pose more precisely
the question of the forms of development of thinking on the subject of
problems of faith.

关于这点,你们将是错误,假如你们信任结论的相反,或是假如你们认为历史已经知道耸动的转捩点,譬如,从被认为是神权的时代,经过到所谓的个人与现实解放的人道的形式。世界的观念在此并不是决定性。在这个场合,它跟某件类似Weltanschauung(世界观)东西根本没有关系。那确实并不是我的世界观。我仅是指示这里的途径,我仅是尝试帮忙你们定位你们自己,在这个主题的重要的著作的索引。那些专家的著作,在不同的领域里,它们都具备有精神分析的某些天赋。我劝告你们查阅一位历史学家的著作,鲁新、费布瑞。他是这本广泛流传的「十六世纪的不信仰的问题」这本书的作者。这本著作让你们能够看出,历史方法的思维的使用,让我们能够更加确实地提出思想的发展的形式的问题,对于信仰的问题这个主题。

If you have the time and you would like to read something amusing, you
should read a little book by the same author that is supplementary but not
secondary, not a little boat bobbing in the wake of a ship; it is called Concerning
the Heptameron. The author of the Heptameron is Marguerite de Navarre,
whom, I hope, you will not mix up with Queen Margot, the wife of Henry
IV. She is not just a libertine author, but turns out to have written a treatise
that is mystical in kind. But that is not something which excites the astonishment
of the historian.

假如你们有时间,你们想要阅读某件有趣的东西,你们应该阅读相同作者的一本小书。这本书是补充,但是并非是次要,不是跟随在大船后面的起伏的小舟。书名被称为「七日谈」。这本「七日谈」的作者是玛格丽特、拿瓦瑞。我希望,你们不要跟玛格特皇后混为一谈,那是亨利四世的妻子。她并不是一位放荡的作家,但是她证明曾写过一篇神秘性质的论文。但是那并不是某件激发历史学家的惊奇的东西。

He tries to show us what the collections of tales that go under the title of
the Heptameron might mean in the context of the time and of the psychology
of their author. And he does it in such a way as to allow us to read that work
with not so much a more informed eye as an eye that doesn’t censure the text
or, in particular, the reflections of each of the characters after each of the
tales that are supposed to be true, and that certainly are for the most part.
The thoughts of the respondents that belong to the register of moral and even
formal religious reflection are usually censured because one assumes at the
beginning that they are no more than the accompanying sauce. But that is
something it is important not to get wrong – in any dish it is the sauce that
is the essential ingredient. Lucien Febvre teaches us how to read the Heptameron.
Yet if we knew how to read, we wouldn’t need him.

他尝试跟我们显示,在「七日谈」的标题之下,那些故事的收集意味著什么,在当代的内涵与它们的作者的心理。他用这样一种方式这样做,为了让我们能够阅读那个著作,不是用更加清楚明白的眼光,而是用并不苛评那个文本,或并没有特别苛评每一位人物的反思,在被认为是真实的故事之后。故事确实大部分是真实的。属于道德,甚至是正式的宗教的省思的铭记的回应者的思想,通常受到苛评,因为我们开始时认为,它们仅是陪伴滋味的酱油。但是那是某件重要的东西,为了不要犯错。在任何盘子里,这个酱油才是基本的成分。鲁新、费布瑞教导我们,如何阅读「七日谈」。可是,假如我们知道如何阅读,我们不会需要他。

As far as unbelief is concerned, it is from our point of view a place in
discourse that is to be conceived precisely in relation to the Thing – the
Thing is repudiated or foreclosed in the proper sense of Verwerfung.

就不信仰而言,从我们的观点,在被构想跟「物象」有关的辞说中的位置。这个「物象」被排斥,或除权弃绝,用Verwerfung.(除权弃绝)的适当意义来说。

In the same way that in art there is a Verdrangung, a repression of the
Thing, and in religion there is probably a Verschiebung or displacement, it is
strictly speaking Verwerfung that is involved in the discourse of science. The
discourse of science repudiates the presence of the Thing insofar as from its
point of view the ideal of absolute knowledge is glimpsed, that is, something
that posits the Thing while it pays no attention to it. As everyone knows, this
point of view has historically proved in the end to be a failure.

同样地,在艺术方面,有这个「物象」的压抑。在宗教方面,可能有一种替换。严格来说,「除权弃绝」牵涉到科学的辞说。科学的辞说排斥「物象」的存在。因为从它的观点,绝对知识的理想被瞥见。换句话说,某件东西提出这个「物象」,虽然它并没有注意到它。众所周知,这个观点从历史上最后证明是失败。

The discourse of science is determined by this Verwerfung, and, in the light
of my formula that what is foreclosed in the symbolic reappears in the real,
this is probably why it leads to a situation in which, at the end of physics, it
is something as enigmatic as the Thing that is glimpsed.

科学的辞说受到这个「除权弃绝」所决定。从我的公式的观点,在象征界被除权弃绝的东西,在真实界重新出现。这可能是为什么它导致一种情况。在物理学的结束,那是某件迷团的东西,就像被瞥见的「物象」。

I will postpone until next time a discussion of my paradigm of courtly love,
an example of sublimation in art whose vital effects we still come across. We
will take note of them after I come back from my trip; we will take a sampling of these traces, of the indisputable effects of the primary signifying construction that is determinative in the phenomenon of courtly love. And we will attempt to recognize in contemporary phenomena something that can only
be explained through recourse to such an origin.

我将骑士之爱的典范的讨论,拖延到下次。这是艺术升华的一个例子,它的重要的影响,我们依旧会碰到。我们将会注意到它们,在我从的旅行回来。我们将会尝试探索这些痕迹,那是原初的能指化的建构的无可置疑的理想,在骑士之爱的现象。我们将会企图在当代的现象,体认出某件东西,仅有凭借诉诸于如此的起源,才能够解释的东西。

Since I am engaged in marginal commentary today, let me point out in
passing that you would be wrong to think that this concept of the Thing to
which I am giving a new development this year wasn’t, in fact, immanent in
our discussions of previous years.

因为我今天从事边缘的评论,让我们顺便指出,你们将会是错误的,假如你们认为,今年我正在新的发展的「物象」的这个观念,事实上,在我们前几年的讨论,它并不是内在性。

Moreover, since there are those who question certain characteristics of my
style, let me remind you for example of the expression “The Freudian Thing”
that was the title of something I wrote, and it wouldn’t be a bad idea for you
to look it up. That text and that title surprised because if one starts to analyze
my intentions from a philosophical point of view, one comes to relate them
to a concern that was very popular at one time, namely, the resistance to
reification. Of course, I never said anything about reification. But intentions
can always be wrapped around a discourse. It is clear that if I chose such a
title, I did so deliberately. If you reread the text, you will see that I am
essentially speaking of the Thing. And I speak about it in a way that was
evidently the cause of the undoubted discomfort the text provoked at the
time. The fact is I sometimes make the Thing itself speak.

而且,因为那些质疑我的风格的某些特性的人,譬如,让我提醒你们「弗洛依德物象」的这个术语。那是我写的某件东西的标题。你们最好去查阅它一下。那个文本与那个标题令人惊奇,因为假如我们想要开始分析我的意图,从哲学的观点,我们渐渐将它们跟某个时刻的很受欢迎的关心扯上关系。换句话说,对于人被物化的抗拒。当然,我对于人被物化,并没有任何评论。但是有些意图总是被包裹在一个辞说里。显而易见地,假如我选择这样一个标题,我是刻意为之。假如你们重新阅读这个文本,你们将会看出,我基本上提到这个「物象」。我谈论到它,显而易见地,我的方式将是这个文本在当时会引起无可置疑的不舒服的原因。事实上,我有时让这个「物象」本身谈话

February 3, I960

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 113

February 7, 2013

Ethic 113

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析的伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VIII
第八章

The object and the thing
客体与物象

THE FABLE OF JACOUES PREVERT, COLLECTOR
雅克、普瑞博特的寓言:收集者

4
I will end today with a little fable in which I would like you just to see an
example, albeit a paradoxical and demeaning one, that is yet significant for
what goes on in sublimation. Since we have remained today on the level of
the object and the Thing, I wanted to show you what it means to invent an
object for a special purpose that society may esteem, valorize, and approve.
I draw on my memories for this fable, that you can, if you like, place in
the psychological category of collecting. Someone who recently published a
work on collectors and those sales thanks to which collectors are presumed
to get rich, has long asked me to give him some ideas on the meaning of
collecting. I didn’t do it because I would have had to tell him to come to my
seminar for five or six years.

我今天将用一个小寓言作为结束。在这个寓言,我想要你们看出一个例子,虽然是一个悖论而减损的例子。可是同样的重要,对于升华所进行的东西。因为我们今天始终处于客体与物象的层次,我想要跟你们显示,那是什么意思,杜撰一个客体,充当社会可能尊敬,推崇,与认同的特别的目的。我依靠我对于这个寓言的记忆,你们不妨将它放入收集的心理学范畴。某个人最近出版一本著作,探讨收集者跟收集者被认为赖以致富的那些销售。这个人长久以来曾经要求我给他一些点子,对于收集的意义。我并没有给予这样做,因为我本来必须要求他前来我的研讨班,参加个个五或六年。

There’s a lot to say on the psychology of collecting. I am something of a
collector myself. And if some of you like to think that it is in imitation of
Freud, so be it. I believe my reasons are very different from his. I have seen
the remains of Freud’s collections on Anna Freud’s shelves. They seemed to
me to have to do with the fascination that the coexistence of [. . .]’ and of
Egyptian civilization exercised over him at the level of the signifier rather
than for the enlightened taste of what is called an object.

对于收集的心理学,有许多话可说。我自己就是个收集者。假如你们有些人喜欢认为,那是模仿弗洛依德,那也未妨不可。我相信,我的理由跟他的理有不同。我曾经在安娜、弗洛依德的书架,看见过弗洛依德收集的遗物。我觉得它们似乎跟某某与埃及文明的存在的著迷有关,在能指的层次,他所受的影响。而不是因为所谓的客体的开明的品味。

What is called an object in the domain of collecting should be strictly distinguished from the meaning of object in psychoanalysis. In analysis the object
is a point of imaginary fixation which gives satisfaction to a drive in any
register whatsoever. The object in collecting is something entirely different,
as I will show in the following example, which reduces collecting to its most
rudimentary form. For one usually imagines that a collection is composed of
a diversity of elements, but it is not necessarily true at all.

在收集的领域,所谓的客体应该严格地被区别,跟精神分析的客体的意义。在精神分析,客体是想象的固著的点,给予满足给任何铭记的冲动。收集的这个客体是某件完全不同的东西。如同我将显示,在以下的例子。它将收集减少到它的最基本的形式。因为我们通常想象:收集是有各色各样的东西组成,但是这根本未必是真实。

During that great period of penitence that our country went through under
Petain, in the time of “Work, Family, Homeland” and of belt-tightening, I
once went to visit my friend Jacques Prévert in Saint-Paul-de-Vence. And I
saw there a collection of match boxes. Why the image has suddenly resurfaced
in my memory, I cannot tell.

在忏悔过去的那个伟大时期,在培添在主政下,我们的国家经历这段时期,
那是「工作,家庭,祖国」与缩减裤带的时代。我有一次前期拜访我的朋友雅克、普瑞维特,在圣保罗教区。我在那里看见一堆火柴盒的收集。为什么这个意象突然地重新浮现在我的记忆?我也说不出来。

It was the kind of collection that it was easy to afford at that time; it was
perhaps the only kind of collection possible. Only the match boxes appeared
as follows: they were all the same and were laid out in an extremely agreeable
way that involved each one being so close to the one next to it that the little
drawer was slightly displaced. As a result, they were all threaded together so
as to form a continuous ribbon that ran along the mantlepiece, climbed the
wall, extended to the molding, and climbed down again next to a door. I
don’t say that it went on to infinity, but it was extremely satisfying from an
ornamental point of view.

在当时,这种收集是他们供应得起的。那或许是仅有可能的一种收集。只是这些火柴盒出现如下:它们形状都相同,以极端令人愉悦的方式安排。这种方式让每个火柴盒如此的靠近它旁边的火柴盒,以致小小的抽屉稍微被更换。结果,它们都被串在一块,为了形成一条连续的带,沿着火炉架,攀爬到墙壁,延伸到转角,然后再次往下延伸到门边。我没有说,它继续到永恒。但是从装饰的观点,这是极端令人满意的。

Yet I don’t think that that was the be all and end all of what was surprising
in this “collectionism,” nor the source of the satisfaction that the collector
himself found there. I believe that the shock of novelty of the effect realized
by this collection of empty match boxes – and this is the essential point –
was to reveal something that we do not perhaps pay enough attention to,
namely, that a box of matches is not simply an object, but that, in the form
of an Erscheinung, as it appeared in its truly imposing multiplicity, it may be
a Thing.

可是,我并不认为那就是最重要的目的,对于这种「收集狂」令人惊奇的东西,收集者在那找到的,也不是满足的来源。我相信,空洞火柴盒的这种收集,造成的这种效果的新奇的震撼,这才是基本的重点。这种新奇的震撼,是要揭露我们或许并没有充分注意的某种东西。换句话说,火柴盒不仅是一个客体,而是以一种Erscheinung 的形式,如同它出现,以它确实富丽的多重性,它可能是一个「物象」。

In other words, this arrangement demonstrated that a match box isn’t simply
something that has a certain utility, that it isn’t even a type in the Platonic
sense, an abstract match box, that the match box all by itself is a thing with
all its coherence of being. The wholly gratuitous, proliferating, superfluous,
and quasi absurd character of this collection pointed to its thingness as match
box. Thus the collector found his motive in this form of apprehension that
concerns less the match box than the Thing that subsists in a match box.

换句话说,这种安排证明,火柴盒并不仅是某件具有某实用性的东西。它甚至并不是一种柏拉图意义的抽象的火柴盒。火柴盒的本身是具有所有它的生命实存的一致性。这种收集的没有缘故,多产,多馀,而且类似荒谬的特性,指向它作为火柴盒的物象。因此,收集者找到他的动机,在这种理解的形式,与其说是跟火柴盒有关,不如说是跟存在于火柴盒的这个物象有关。

Whatever you do, however, you don’t find that in a random way in any
object whatsoever. For if you think about it, the match box appears to be a
mutant form of something that has so much importance for us that it can
occasionally take on a moral meaning; it is what we call a drawer. In this
case, the drawer was liberated and no longer fixed in the rounded fullness of
a chest, thus presenting itself with a copulatory force that the picture drawn
by Prévert’s composition was designed to make us perceive.

可是,无论你们怎么做,你们并没有用任意的方式,在任何的客体,找到那个物象。因为假如你们思考到它,火柴盒似乎是一种变种的东西,对于我们,它具有如此的重要性,以致于它有时会具有一种道德的意义。它是我们所谓的抽屉。在这个情况,抽屉被解放,不再固著于一种箱子的饱满充实。因此呈现它自己,用一种性交的冲力,由普瑞维特所画的这幅图画,被设计来让我们感受到这些性交的冲力。

So now, that little fable of the revelation of the Thing beyond the object
shows you one of the most innocent forms of sublimation. Perhaps you can
even see something emerge in it that, goodness knows, society is able to find
satisfaction in.

现在,超越客体的物象的启示的那个小寓言跟你们显示,其中一种最纯真的升华的形式。或许,你们甚至能够看见某件东西出现在那里面,上天知道,社会能够在那里找到满足。

If it is a satisfaction, it is in this case one that doesn’t ask anything of
anyone.
January 20, 1960

假如这是一种满足,在这个情况,这种满足并没有对任何人要求任何东西。
1960年,1月20日

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 110

February 7, 2013

Ethic 110

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析的伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VIII
第八章

The object and the thing
客体与物象

SUBLIMATION AND PERVERSION
升华与变态

THE FABLE OF JACOUES PREVERT, COLLECTOR
雅克、普瑞博特的寓言:收集者

3
We are only stumbling along here, following the paths of analytical good
sense, which isn’t, in fact, a very different good sense of the common or
garden kind. What one finds at the level of das Ding once it is revealed is the
place of the Triebe, the drives. And I mean by that the drives that, as Freud
showed, have nothing at all to do with something that may be satisfied by
moderation – that moderation which soberly regulates a human being’s relations
with his fellow man at the different hierarchical levels of society in a
harmonious order, from the couple to the State with a capital S.

在此我们仅是跌跌撞撞前进,遵循精神分析明智的途径。事实上,这种明智跟通俗或是炫耀的那种明智迴然不同。我们在物象一旦被揭露的层次所发现的东西,就Triebe 的位置,冲动的位置。我的意思是指弗洛依德显示的那些冲动。它们跟某件靠着调节来满足的东西,没有丝毫关系。能在调节清醒地规范人跟他的同胞的关系,处于社会的不同的阶层的层次,依照和谐的秩序,从夫妻到用大写字母S标示的国家。

We must return now to the meaning of sublimation as Freud attempts to
define it for us.

我们现在必须回答升华的意义,依照弗洛依德企图跟我们定义的。

He attaches sublimation to the Triebe as such, and that’s what makes its
theorization difficult for psychoanalysts.

他将升华跟冲动Triebe连接一块。那就是为什么精神分析家很困难跟它理论化。

Please forgive me if I don’t today read given passages of Freud that might
perhaps bore you and that I will take up at the right moment, when you will
understand the value of going in one direction or another, of confirming if
we are really aligned with Freudian theory. But I don’t believe I can hold the
interest of most of you here without explaining what my aim is or where I’m
taking you.

请原谅我,假如我今天没有朗读或许会让你们感到沉闷的弗洛依德的特定段落,我将在适当的时刻从事探讨那些段落,当你们愿意理解朝着某个方向进行的价值,肯定我们确实跟遵循弗洛依德的理论的价值。但是我并不相信,我能够保持你们大部分人的興趣,而不先解释我的目的是什么,或是我将要引导你们去哪里。

Sublimation, Freud tells us, involves a certain form of satisfaction of the
Triebe, a word that is improperly translated as “instincts,” but that one should
translate strictly as “drives” (pulsions) – or as “drifts” (derives), so as to mark
the fact that the Trieb is deflected from what he calls its Ziel, its aim.
Sublimation is represented as distinct from that economy of substitution
in which the repressed drive is usually satisfied. A symptom is the return by
means of signifying substitution of that which is at the end of the drive in the
form of an aim. It is here that the function of the signifier takes on its full
meaning, for it is impossible without reference to that function to distinguish
the return of the repressed from sublimation as a potential mode of satisfaction
of the drive. It is a paradoxical fact that the drive is able to find its aim
elsewhere than in that which is its aim – without its being a question of the
signifying substitution that constitutes the overdetermined structure, the ambiguity,
and the double causality, of the symptom as compromise formation.

弗洛依德告诉我们,升华牵涉某种的冲动Triebe的满足,这一个字词,很不适当地被翻译成为「本能」。但是它应该严谨地被翻译为「冲动」–或是「浮动」drifts,为了标示这个事实:冲动Trib 是从他所谓的它的Ziel ,它的目标,词类衍化,升华sublimation被代表,作为跟替代substitution的活动力不同。在替代那里,被压抑的冲动通常被满足。病征就是凭借能指的替代的回转,替代在目标的形式冲动的结束的东西。就是在此,能指点功用具有它的充分的意义,因为我们不可能没有提到那个功用,为了要区别被压抑的形式的回转,跟升华作为冲动的满足的潜在的模式。这是一个悖论的事实:冲动能够找到它的目标,在跟它的目标的东西的不同的地方。这必然会让它成为是能指化的替代的问题。这个能指化替代,将病症视为是妥协的形成,构成这个过分的决定的结构,这种模糊暧昧,这个双重的因果关系。

The latter notion has never failed to cause problems for theoreticians and
analysts alike. What can this change of aim mean? It is a matter of aim and
not strictly speaking of object, although, as I emphasized last time, the latter
soon enters into consideration. Don’t let us forget that Freud points out early
on that it is important not to confuse the notion of aim with that of object. And there is a special passage that I will read you at the appropriate moment,
but I will give you the reference right away. If I remember correctly, in
Einfiihrung des Narzissmus Freud emphasizes the difference that exists between
sublimation and idealization as far as the object is concerned. The fact is that
idealization involves an identification of the subject with the object, whereas
sublimation is something quite different.

后者的观念始终引起这些难题,对于理论家与精神分析家。目标的这个转变意味着什么?严格来说,这是目标aim的问题,而不是目的物object的问题。虽然我上次强调,后者不久就要列入考虑。请大家不要忘记,弗洛依德很早就提出,重要的是不要混淆目标的这个观念,跟目的物的这个观念。有一个特别的段落,我将在适当的时刻朗读给你们听,但是我将立即提到它。假如我记忆正确的话,在 Einfiihrung des Narzissmus,弗洛依的强调这个差异,存在于升华与理想化的差异,就目的物而言。事实上,理想化牵涉主体对于客体一种认同,而升华则是某件完全不同的东西。

To those who know German I suggest you read a little article by Richard
Sterba that appeared in Internationale Zeitschrift in 1930, “Zur Problematik
der Sublimierungslehre” [“On the Problematic of the Doctrine of Sublimation”];
it summarizes the difficulties that analysts found in the notion at the
time – that is after an essential article by Bernfeld on the subject and also
one by Glover in the International Journal of Psychoanalysis of 1931, “Sublimation,
Substitution and Social Anxiety.”

对于懂得德文的人,我跟你们建议一篇李察、史特巴的小文章,出现在1930年的Internationale Zeitschrift ,「论升华的难题与信条」。这篇文章总结精神分析家当时发现的那些困难—先前还有一篇重要的文章,博费德所写,探讨这个主题,以及格罗维的文章,在1931年的「国际精神分析杂志」,「升华,替代,与社会焦虑」。

This article in English will cause you much more difficulty. It’s very long
and difficult to follow because it literally parades the standard of sublimation
across all the notions known to analysis at that time in order to see how one
might apply it to this or that level of the theory. The result of this survey is
surprising. It gives rise to a review of the whole of psychoanalytic theory from
one end to the other, but it clearly shows, at least, the extraordinary difficulty
that exists in using the notion of sublimation in practice without giving rise
to contradictions, and this text is riddled with them.

英文的这篇文章将会引起你们更多的困难。文章长得难以卒读,因为它实质上展示升华的标准,跨越当时精神分析知道的所有的观念,为了要看出我们如何可能将它应用到理论的层次。这个研究的结果是令人惊奇的。它产生对于全部的精神分析理论,从头到尾的评论,但是它至少清楚地显示这个特别的困难,在实践中的升华的观念存在的困难。它必然会产生悖论。这篇文本就充满这些悖论。

I would like to try now to show you in what way we are going to posit
sublimation, if only so as to be able to allow you to appreciate its functioning
and value.

我现在想要尝试跟你们显示,我们将以怎样的方式来提出升华。即使是为了要能够容许你们欣赏它的功用与价值。

The satisfaction of the Trieb is, then, paradoxical, since it seems to occur
elsewhere than where its aim is. Are we going to be satisfied with saying, like
Sterba for example, that, in effect, the aim has changed, that it was sexual
before and that now it is no longer? That is, by the way, how Freud describes
it. Whence one has to conclude that the sexual libido has become desexualized.
And that’s why your daughter is dumb.

冲动Trieb的满足因此是悖论,因为它似乎发生在跟它的目标所在不同的地方。我们将要满足于这种说法吗?譬如,史特巴的说法?实际上,目标已经改变,以前那是性,现在则不再是性吗?换句话说,顺便提一下,弗洛依德如何描述它?我们必须从哪里获得这个结论:性的力比多已经变得被除掉性化。那就是为什么你的女儿沉默不语。

Are we going to be satisfied with the Kleinian register, which seems to me
to contain a certain though partial truth, and speak of the imaginary solution
of a need for substitution, for repair work with relation to the mother’s body?
These formulae will provoke anyone who is not content with verbal solutions
– that is, solutions without real meaning – into questioning more closely
what sublimation is all about.

我们将要满足于克莱恩的铭记吗?我觉的克莱恩铭杰包括某些虽然是部分的真理,并且提到想象的解决,对于替代的需要,为了修补跟母亲的身体的关系?这些公式将会激怒任何对文词的解决不满意的人。换句话说,没有真实意义的解决—他们将会更加仔细地质疑升华究竟是啥东西?

You should sense immediately which direction I intend to take. The sublimation
that provides the Trieb with a satisfaction different from its aim –
an aim that is still defined as its natural aim – is precisely that which reveals
the true nature of the Trieb insofar as it is not simply instinct, but has a
relationship to das Ding as such, to the Thing insofar as it is distinct from the
object.

你们应该立即感觉到我打算採取怎样的方向。升华供应冲动Trieb一种不同于它的目标的满足,这个目标依旧被定义为它的自然的目标—那确实就是揭露冲动的真实的特性。因为它不仅是本能,而且拥有跟物象das Ding本身的关系,跟这个物象的关系,它跟这个客体不同。

We have to guide us the Freudian theory of the narcissistic foundations of
the object, of its insertion in the imaginary register. The object that specifies
directions or poles of attraction to man in his openness, in his world, and
that interests him because it is more or less his image, his reflection – precisely
that object is not the Thing to the extent that the latter is at the heart
of the libidinal economy. Thus, the most general formula that I can give you
of sublimation is the following: it raises an object – and I don’t mind the
suggestion of a play on words in the term I use – to the dignity of the Thing.

我们必须引导我们,用弗洛依德的理论: 客体是自恋基础,被插入于想象的铭记。这个客体指明那些方向,或对于人的吸引的两极,在他的开放,在他的世。人对这个客体感到興趣,因为这是他的意象,他的省思。确实地,那个客体并不是这个物象,因为后者是处于力比多的活动的核心。因此,我能够给予你们的关于升华的最通用的公式如下: 升华提升一个客体,成为「物象」的尊严,在我使用的这术语,你们若用其他文字玩弄一下,我不在乎。

That is significant, for example, in relation to something that I alluded to
at the limit of our discussion, something I will get to next time, the sublimation
of the feminine object. The whole theory of the Minne or of courtly
love has, in effect, been decisive. Although it has completely disappeared
nowadays from the sociological sphere, courtly love has nevertheless left traces
in an unconscious that has no need to be called “collective,” in a traditional
unconscious that is sustained by a whole literature, a whole imagery, that we
continue to inhabit as far as our relations with women are concerned.

那是很重要的,譬如,关于我提到的东西,在我们讨论的限制,某件我下次要到达的东西,女性客体的升华。骑士之爱的整个理论,实际上具有关键性。虽然它今天已经从社会的领域完全消失,骑士之爱仍然留下痕迹,在并没有需要被称为的「集体」的无意识,在传统的无意识,它受到整个文学所维持,整个的意象,我们继续生活在这个传统的无意识,就我们跟女人的关系而言。

This mode was created deliberately. It was by no means a creation of the
popular soul, of that famous great soul of the blessed Middle Ages, as Gustave
Cohen used to say. The rules of polite conduct were articulated deliberately
in a small literary circle and, as a result, the celebration of the object
was made possible – the absurdity of which I will show you in detail; a German
writer who is a specialist of this medieval German literature has used the
expression “absurd Minne.” This moral code instituted an object at the heart
of a given society, an object that is nevertheless completely natural. Don’t
imagine they made love in those days any less than we do.

这个模式刻意地被创造。它绝非是通俗灵魂的创造,那个幸福的中世纪的著名的伟大的灵魂的创造,如同格斯塔夫、柯恩过去常说。彬彬有礼的行为的规则刻意地被表达,在小小的文学圈,结果,让客体的庆祝成为可能。我将跟你们显示那个荒谬。一位德国的作家是中世纪德国文学的专家,他曾经使用这个词语「荒谬的骑士之爱」。这个道德符码成为特定社会的核心的客体,这个客体仍然完全是自然的。请不要想象他们当时的做爱次数会比我们现在少。

The object is elevated to the dignity of the Thing as we define it in our
Freudian topology, insofar as it is not slipped into but surrounded by the
network of Ziele. It is to the degree that this new object is raised to the
function of the Thing at a certain historical moment that one is able to explain
a phenomenon which, from a sociological point of view, has always struck
those who considered it as frankly paradoxical. We will certainly not be able
to exhaust the totality of signs, rites, themes and exchange of themes, especially
of literary themes, that have constituted the substance and effective
influence of this human relation, which has been defined in different terms
according to the times and places of its occurrence – courtly love, Minne, and
all the other forms. Just remember that the circle of male and female precieux
at the beginning of the seventeenth century is the last manifestation of the
phenomenon in our own cycle.

这个客体被提升到物象的尊严。如同我们在我们的弗洛依德的拓扑图形定义它。因为它并没有被滑入这个目标Ziele的网络,而是被它包围。甚至,这个新的客体被提升到这个物象的功用,在某个历史的时刻,我们能够解释一个现象,从社会学的观点,这个现象总是让那些人印象深刻。他们认为它是显著的悖论。我们确实不能够穷尽全部的符号,仪式,主题与主题的交换,特别是文学的主题的全部。它们已经构成这个人类关系的物质与有效的影响。它曾经被定义,用不同的术语,依照它发生的时间与地方。骑士之爱,以及所有的其他的形式。请你们记住,在十七世纪的开始,男性与女性的交往的圈子,就是在我们自己的圈子的这个现象的最后展示。

That is nevertheless not the last word on the subject, for it is not enough
to say, “They did that” or “That’s how it is,” for the matter to be solved, for
the object to come and play the required role. I am not concerned only with
giving you the key to that historical event; what I seek in the end, thanks to
that distant affair, is both to get a better grasp of something that has happened
to us, relative to the Thing, as the result of a collective education that
remains to be defined and is called art, and to understand how we behave on
the level of sublimation.

那仍然并不是对于主体的最后论断。因为我们并不足够这样说:「他们做那样」,或是「那就是它的样子」,为了让事情被解决,为了让这个客体前来扮演被要求的角色。我关心的不仅是要给予你们对于这个历史事件的解答。我最后寻求的东西,由于那件遥远的事情,既是要更加理解某件曾经发生在我们身上的事情,关于这个物象,由于集体教育的结果,这个集体教育始终被定义,被称为是艺术,又是要理解为们应该如何行为,在升华的层次。

The definition I gave you doesn’t close the debate, first, because I must
confirm and illustrate it for you, and, second, because I have to show you
that, if the object is to become available in that way, something must have
occurred at the level of the relation of the object to desire; it is quite impossible
to explain it correctly without reference to what I had to say last year
on the subject of desire and its behavior.

我给予你们的这个定义,并没有封闭这场辩论。首先,因为我必须肯定而且跟你们说明。其次,因为我必须跟你们显示,假如这个客体想要以那种方式成为可利用,某件东西一定曾经发生,在这个客体跟欲望的关系的层次。这是完全不可能的,要正确地解释它,而没有提到我去年必须说的东西,探究欲望的主体与它的行为。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 105

February 6, 2013

Ethic 105

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析的伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VIII
第八章

The object and the thing
客体与物象

THE KLEINIAN MYTH OF THE MOTHER
克莱恩的母亲的神话

KANTIAN FABLES
康德的寓言

SUBLIMATION AND PERVERSION
升华与变态

THE FABLE OF JACOUES PREVERT, COLLECTOR
雅克、普瑞博特的寓言:收集者

2
It is not just a matter of drawing close to das Ding, but also to its effects, to
its presence at the core of human activity, namely, in that precarious existence
in the midst of the forest of desires and compromises that these very
desires achieve with a certain reality, which is certainly not as confused as
one might imagine.

问题并不仅是靠近「物象」,而且更加靠近它的影响,靠近它的存在,在人类活动的核心。换句话说,在那个不稳定的存在,在欲望与它们跟某种现实界获得的妥协的森林当中。这确实并不像我们可能想象的那么混淆。

The demands of reality, in effect, present themselves readily in the form
of social demands. Freud cannot not consider them seriously, but one has to
indicate immediately the special approach he adopts; it permits him to transcend
the simple opposition between individual and society, in which the
individual is straightway posited as the eventual site of disorder.

事实,现实界的要求迅速地呈现它自己,以社会要求的形式。弗洛依德无法认真地思考它们,但是我们必须立即指示他採用的这个特别的方法。它让他能够超越个人与社会的这个简单的对立。在这个对立当中,个人立即被提出,作为是混乱的最后地点。

Note right off that it is quite unthinkable nowadays to speak abstractly of
society. It is unthinkable historically, and it is unthinkable philosophically,
too, for the reason that a certain Hegel revealed to us the modern function of
the state, and the link between a whole phenomenology of mind and the
necessity which renders a legal system perfectly coherent. A whole philosophy
of law, derived from the state, encloses human existence, up to and
including the monogamous couple that is its point of departure.

请立刻注意,这是相当不可思议的,今天抽象地谈论社会。从历史而言,那是不可思议的,从哲学而言,也是不可思议的。理由是,黑格尔的某些东西跟我们显示国家的现代功用,精神现象学与让司法系统成为一贯性的必要的这个关联。从国家衍化而来的整个的法律哲学,封闭了人类的经验,甚至包括一夫一妻的婚姻,那就是它的出发点。

I am concerned with the ethics of psychoanalysis, and I can’t at the same
time discuss Hegelian ethics. But I do want to point out that they are not the
same. At the end of a certain phenomenology, the opposition between the
individual and the city, between the individual and the state, is obvious. In
Plato, too, the disorders of the soul are also referred to the same dimension
– it’s a matter of the reproduction of the disorders of the city at the level of the psyche. All of that is related to a problematic that is not at all Freudian.

我关心精神分析的伦理学。我无法同时讨论黑格尔的伦理学。但是我确实想要指出,他们并不相同。在某个现象学的结束,个人与城邦之间的对立,个人与国家之间的对立是很明显的。在柏拉图也是一样,灵魂的混乱也被提到相同的维度—问题是在心灵的层次,城邦的混乱是如何复制。所有这些息息相关的问题,根本不是弗洛依德的问题。

The sick individual whom Freud is concerned with reveals another dimension
than that of the disorders of the state and of hierarchical disturbances.
Freud addresses the sick individual as such, the neurotic, the psychotic; he
addresses directly the powers of life insofar as they open onto the powers of
death; he addresses directly the powers that derive from the knowledge of
good and evil.

弗洛依德所关怀的生病的个人,显示另外一个维度,跟国家的混乱与阶层制度的困扰的维度不同。弗洛依的处理这个生病的个人本身,神经症,精神疾病,它直接处理生命的各种力量。因为它们展开死亡的力量。他直接处理从善与恶的知识获得的力量。

Here we are then in the company of das Ding, trying to get along with it.
What 1 am saying should in no way surprise, for I am only trying to point
out to you what is going on in the psychoanalytical community. The analysts
are so preoccupied with the field of das Ding, which responds so well to the
internal necessity of their experience, that the development of analytic theory
is dominated by the existence of the so-called Kleinian school. And it is striking
to note that whatever reservations or even scorn another branch of the
analytic community may express for that school, it is the latter that polarizes
and orients the whole development of analytic thought, including the contribution
of our group.

在此,我们处于「物象」的陪伴,尝试跟它相处和谐。我所正在说的内容,根本不足为奇,因为我仅是跟你们指出,在精神分析的社团,所正在进行的东西。精神分析家是如此地专注于「物象」的领域,这个领域如此清楚地回应他们的经验的内部必要性,以致于精神分析理论的发展,受到所谓的克莱恩学派的存在的支配。耐人寻味的是注意到,精神分析社团的另外一个学派,可能对那个学派表示多么的保留或甚至是藐视。后者将精神分析思想的整体的发展两极化与定位,包括我们的团体的贡献。

Let me suggest then that you reconsider the whole of Kleinian theory with
the following key, namely, Kleinian theory depends on its having situated
the mythic body of the mother at the central place of das Ding.

让我建议,你们应该重新考虑克莱恩整个理论,用以下的解答。换句话说,克莱恩理论依靠将母亲的神秘的身体,定位为「物象」的中心位置。

To begin with, it is in relation to that mythic body that the aggressive,
transgressive, and most primordial of instincts is manifested, the primal
aggressions and inverted aggressions. Also in that register which currently
interests us, namely, the notion of sublimation in the Freudian economy, the
Kleinian school is full of interesting ideas – not only Melanie Klein herself
but also Ella Sharpe, insofar as on this point she follows Klein completely.
Recently, an American author, who isn’t at all Kleinian, has written on sublimation
as the principle of creation in the fine arts. In an article that I shall
come back to later, entitled “A Theory Concerning Creation in the Free Arts,”
after a more or less exhaustive critical examination of Freudian formulations
on sublimation and of Kleinian attempts to explain its full meaning, the author,
M. Lee, ends up attributing to it a restitutive function. In other words, she
finds there more or less of an attempt at symbolic repair of the imaginary
lesions that have occurred to the fundamental image of the maternal body.

首先,这个侵凌,逾越,与最原初的本能,被展示在跟神秘的身体的关系,这个原初的侵凌性与倒错的攻击性。我们目前感到興趣的那个铭记,换句话说,升华的观念, 在弗洛依德的力比多,克莱恩学派充满有趣的观念。不是梅兰妮、克莱恩自己,而是艾拉、夏普,因为在这一点,她完全遵循克莱恩。最近,一位美国的作者,她根本不是克莱恩学派,他曾经写到探讨升华,作为是高雅艺术的创造的原则。有一篇文章,我等一下会会头谈论,标题上「关于高雅艺术的创作理论」。这篇文章钜细靡遗地批判性检视弗洛依德的阐述升华,与克莱恩的企图解释升华的意义,作者,李先生的结论是归功于它具有一种恢复的功用。换句话说,她在那里发现相当多的企图,要用象征修复想象的病变。这些病变曾经发生在母亲的身体的基本的意象。

I will bring the texts involved, if you don’t know them. But I can tell you
right away that the reduction of the notion of sublimation to a restitutive
effort of the subject relative to the injured body of the mother is certainly not
the best solution to the problem of sublimation, nor to the topological,
metapsychological problem itself. There is nevertheless there an attempt to
approach the relations of the subject to something primordial, its attachment
to the fundamental, most archaic of objects, for which my field of das Ding,
defined operationally, establishes the framework. It allows us to conceive of the conditions that opened onto the blossoming of what one might call the
Kleinian myth, allows us also to situate it, and, as far as sublimation is concerned,
to reestablish a broader function than that which one necessarily arrives
at if one accepts Kleinian categories.

我将带来相关的那些文本,假如你们不知道它们。但是我能够立刻告诉你们,将升华的观念还原到主体的恢复的努力,关于母亲的受到损伤的身体,确实并不是升华的问题的最佳解决。也不是拓扑形上心理学的问题本身的最佳解决。那里,仍然会有一个企图要探究主体跟某件原初的东西的关系。主体跟各种基本的,最过时的客体的关系。我对于运作性被定义的「物象」的领域,建立这个架构。它让我们能够构想这些情况,展开进入我们所谓的克莱恩神话的興盛。它让我们也能够定位它,就升华而言,它让我们能够重新建立一个更加广泛的功用,比起我们必然会到达的功用,假如我们接受克莱恩学派的范畴。

The clinicians who do on the whole accept them end up – I will tell you so
now and explain why later – with a rather limited and puerile notion of what
might be called an atherapy. All of that which is included under the heading
fine arts, namely, a number of gymnastic, dance and other exercises, is supposed
to give the subject satisfactions, a measure of solution to his problems,
a state of equilibrium. That is noted in a number of observations that are still
rewarding. I am thinking especially of Ella Sharpe’s articles, which I am far
from depreciating – “Certain Aspects of Sublimation and Delirium” or “Similar
and Divergent Unconscious Determinants, which Subtend the Sublimations
of Pure Art and Pure Science.”

大体上都接受它们的临床医生结果会具有相当有限而且初级的观念,对于所谓的「非治疗」–我现在先告诉你们,以后再解释为什么。所有那些被包括在高雅艺术的这个标题之下的东西,换句话说,许多的体操,舞蹈,与其他的运作被认为是给予主体满足,解决他的问题的策略,一种平衡的状态。在许多仍然很有价值的观察,这点被注意到。我特别想的艾拉、夏普的那些文章—我丝毫没有贬低它们—升华与狂喜的某些层面」,或是「类似与差异的无意识的决定因素,作为纯粹艺术与纯粹科学的升华的对立」。

To read these papers is to realize how such an orientation reduces the
problem of sublimation and yields somewhat puerile results. The approach
involves valorizing activities that seem to be located in the register of a more
or less transitory explosion of supposedly artistic gifts, gifts which appear in
the cases described to be highly doubtful. Completely left out is something
that must always be emphasized in artistic production and something that
Freud paradoxically insisted on, to the surprise of many writers, namely,
social recognition. These objects play an essential role in a question that Freud
doesn’t perhaps take as far as one would like, but which is clearly linked to
the championship of a certain progress – and God knows that such a notion
is far from being unilinear in Freud – to the celebration of something that
achieves social recognition. I won’t go any further for the moment. It is enough
to note that Freud articulates it in a way that may seem completely foreign
to the metapsychological register.

阅读这些论文,就是要体会到,这样的定位方向,会将升华的问题还原并且产生相当初期的结果。这种方法牵涉到推崇一些似乎被找出位置的活动,在被认为是艺术的天赋相当转变中的爆炸。这些天赋出现在那些被描述为相当可疑的个案例。某件东西则是完全地受到忽视,在艺术的创作,那个东西必须总是被强调。弗洛依的矛盾地坚持那个东西,令许多作家大为吃惊,换句话说,让社会承认大为吃惊。这些客体扮演一个重要的角色,弗洛依德或许没有将这个问题,如我们想要地发挥。但是这个问题显而易见跟某种的进步的捍卫息息相关。天晓得,这样一种观念在弗洛依的根本就是单一直线发展—庆幸获得社会承认的某件东西。我目前就适可而止。我们只要注意,弗洛依德表达它,用的方式跟形上心理想的铭记完全陌生的东西。

Note that no correct evaluation of sublimation in art is possible if we overlook
the fact that all artistic production, including especially that of the fine
arts, is historically situated. You don’t paint in Picasso’s time as you painted
in Velazquez’s; you don’t write a novel in 1930 as you did in Stendhal’s time.
This is an absolutely essential fact that does not for the time being need to be
located under the rubric of the collectivity or the individual – let’s place it
under the rubric of culture. What does society find there that is so satisfying?
That’s the question we need to answer.

请注意,对于艺术的升华,没有任何评估师可能的,假如我们忽视这个事实:所有的艺术的创作都在被定位在历史,包括特别是高雅艺术的创作。你们在毕卡索的时代并没有绘画,如同你们在维拉奎兹的时代。在1930年代,你们写的小说,跟你们在史坦达尔的时代也不一样。这是一个绝对基本的事实,目前并没有需要被定位在集体或个人的架构之下。让我们将它放置在文化的架构之下。社会发现什么令人满意的东西?那个问题,我们需要回答。

The problem of sublimation is there, of sublimation insofar as it creates a
certain number of forms, among which art is not alone – and we will concentrate
on one art in particular, literary art, which is so close to the domain of
ethics. It is after all as a function of the problem of ethics that we have to
judge sublimation; it creates socially recognized values.

升华的这个问题,因为它创造某些的形式,在这些形式当中,艺术并不是单独的。我们将会专注讨论艺术,特别是文学的艺术。它是如此的靠近伦理学的领域。它毕竟是作为伦理学的问题的功用,我们必须判断升华。它创造被社会承认的价值。

In order to refocus our discussion onto the level of ethics, one could hardly do better than to refer to that which, however paradoxical it may seem, has proved to be pivotal, namely, the Kantian perspective on the field.

为了重新集中焦点于伦理学的层次,我们最好是提到已经证明是枢纽的东西,无论它似乎是多么矛盾。换句话说,康德对这个领域的观点。

Alongside das Ding, however much we may hope that its weight will be
felt on the good side, we find in opposition the Kantian formula of duty.
That is another way of making one’s weight felt. Kant invokes the universally
applicable rule of conduct or, in other words, the weight of reason. Of course,
one still has to prove how reason may make its weight felt.

无论我们多么希望「物象」的份量将会在善的这边被感觉到,我们发现康德的对责任的公式,可以跟「物象」相提并论。那是另外一种方法,让我们自己的份量被感觉到。康德召唤行为的普遍性运用的规则,换句话说,理性的份量。当然,我们依旧必须证明,理性如何让它的分量被感觉到。

There is always an advantage to reading authors in the original. The other
day I brought to your attention the passage on the theme of Schmerz, of pain,
as a correlative of the ethical act. I observed then that even some of you to
whom these texts were once familiar didn’t pick up on the reference. Well
now, if you open up The Critique of Pure Reason, you will see that in order to
impress upon us the influence of the weight of reason, Kant invents for his
didactic purposes an example which is magnificent in its freshness. A double
fable is involved that is designed to make us feel the weight of the ethical
principle pure and simple, the potential dominance of duty as such against
all, against all that is conceived as vitally desirable.

阅读原创性的作者,总是有个利益。前天,我提醒你们注意关于痛苦的这个主题的段落,作为是伦理行动的相关。我当时观察到,你们有些人即使对这些文本曾经耳熟能详,却对我的指称感到茫然。呵呵,现在,假如你们打开「理性的批判」,你们将会看见,为了让我们对有理性的份量的影响有印象,康德为了他的教学目的,杜撰一个辉煌而新鲜的例子。一个有关的双重的寓言被设计来让我们感觉伦理的简单纯净的原则。责任本身具有潜在的支配力量,对抗所有被构想作为非常被渴望的东西。

The key to the proof lies in a comparison between two situations. Suppose,
says Kant, that in order to control the excesses of a sensualist, one produces
the following situation. There is in a bedroom the woman he currently lusts
after. He is granted the freedom to enter that room to satisfy his desire or his
need, but next to the door through which he will leave there stands the gallows
on which he will be hanged. But that’s nothing, and is certainly not the
basis of Kant’s moral; you will see in a moment where the key to the proof
is. As far as Kant is concerned, it goes without saying that the gallows will
be a sufficient deterrent; there’s no question of an individual going to screw
a woman when he knows he’s to be hanged on the way out. Next comes a
situation that is similar as far as the tragic outcome is concerned, but here it
is a question of a tyrant who offers someone the choice between the gallows
and his favor, on the condition that he bear false witness against his friend.
Kant quite rightly emphasizes here that one can conceive of someone weighing
his own life against that of bearing false witness, especially if in this case
the false witness is without fatal consequences for the person bearing it.

这个证据的解答就在于比较两种情境。康德说,假如为了控制感官主义的过度,我们产生以下的情境。在寝室,有一个他目前欲望的女人。他被给予这个自由,进入她的房间满足他的欲望或他的需求。但是在他通过房间的门边,有一个刑架,他将会被吊死在那里。但是那不算什么,那确实并不是康德的道德的基础。你们不久将会看出,这个证据的解答是什么。就康德而言,自不待言的是,刑架将会是足够吓阻力量。不可能有一个人愿意跟女人做爱,当他知道他出来时,他将会被吊死。就悲剧的结局而言,有第二个类似的情境。这里的问题是,一位暴君提供给某个人这个选择:要上刑架?或是要获得他的恩宠?条件是,他应该作虚假的证词,背叛他的朋友。康德在此相当振振有词地强调:我们能够构型某个人衡量他的生命,对抗作虚假证词的生命,特别是假如在这个情况,虚假的证词并没有致命的后果,对于作这个虚假证词的人。

The striking point is that the power of proof is here left to reality – to the
real behavior of the individual, I mean. It is in the real that Kant asks us to
examine the impact of the weight of reality, which he identifies here with the
weight of duty.

耐人寻味的重点是,证据的力量在此听任于现实界,我的意思是,听任于个人的真实行为。在这个实在界,康德要求我们检视现实界的份量的影响。在此,它认同于责任的份量。

To follow him onto this ground is to discover that he misses something. It
is after all not impossible that under certain conditions the subject of the first
scenario will not so much offer himself up to be executed – at no point is the
fable taken to this point – but will at least consider doing so.

遵循他进入这个领域,就是发现他漏掉某件东西。这毕竟并非是不可能的事,在某些的情况下,第一个情况的主体愿意提供自己接受吊刑。无论如何,这个寓言并没有推到这个程度。但是至少会考虑到这样做。

Our philosopher from Konigsberg was a nice person, and I don’t intend to
imply that he was someone of limited stature or feeble passions, but he doesn’t
seem to have considered that under certain conditions of what Freud would
call Ubersckatzung or overevaluation of the object – and that I will henceforth
call object sublimation – under conditions in which the object of a loving
passion takes on a certain significance (and, as you will see, it is in this direction
that I intend to introduce the dialectic through which I propose to teach
you how to identify what sublimation really is), under certain conditions of
sublimation of the feminine object or, in other words, the exaltation we call
love – a form of exaltation that is historically specific, and to which Freud
gives us the clue, in the short note I spoke to you about the other day, in
which he says that in the modern period the emphasis of the libido is on the
object rather than on the instinct (which is in itself something that poses an
important question, one that, with your permission, I will be introducing
you to, one that requires you to spend a few sessions on something in German
history whose form I referred to the other day in connection with Hamlet,
namely, the Mime, or, in other words, a certain theory and practice of courtly
love – and why wouldn’t we spend some time on that given the time we give
to ethnographic research? – especially if I assure you that it concerns certain
traces within us of the object relation that are unthinkable without these
historical antecedents), under certain conditions of sublimation, then, it is
conceivable for such a step to be taken. After all, a whole corpus of tales
stands for something from a fantasmic, if not from a strictly historical point
of view; moreover, there are a great many stories in the newspapers that are
relevant. All of which leads to the conclusion that it is not impossible for a
man to sleep with a woman knowing full well that he is to be bumped off on
his way out, by the gallows or anything else (all this, of course, is located
under the rubric of passionate excesses, a rubric that raises a lot of other
questions); it is not impossible that this man coolly accepts such an eventuality
on his leaving – for the pleasure of cutting up the lady concerned in
small pieces, for example.

我们的哲学家出生于孔尼博格,他是个好人。我并没有打算暗示,他是身材不高,欠缺热情的人。但是他似乎并没有考虑到,在某些的情况下,弗洛依德所谓的「对客体的过高评估」。我因此称之为「客体的升华」。在某些情况下,一个热爱的激情的客体会具有某种的意义,(如同你们将会看出,就是朝着这个方向,我打算介绍这个辩证法,通过这个辩证法,我建议教导你们如何辨认升华确实是什么),在女性的客体的升华的某些的情况下,或换句话说,我们所谓的爱的升华—这一种升华的形式历史上是明确的,弗洛依德给予我们这个线索。前天,我跟你们谈论到的这个注释,在那里,他说,在现代的时期,力比多是强调客体,而不是强调本能,(本能的本身是某件会形成重要的问题的东西,假如你们容许的话,我将跟你们介绍,这个问题要求你们花几堂课探讨德国历史的某件东西。前天,我提到这个历史的形式,关于哈姆雷特,换句话说,这个Minne,也就是说,骑士之爱的某种理论与实践—为什麽我们不花一些时间来探讨那个特定的时代,我们给予少数种族研究的时代?特别是假如我告诉你们,它关系到我们内部客体关系的痕迹。这些痕迹是不可思议的,假如没有这些历史的先例),在某些的情况下,这是可以构想得到,让这一步骤被採取。毕竟,一整套的故事代表某件从幻想来的东西,即使不是从严格的历史的观点。而且,在报纸有许多相关的故事。所有这些都通往这个结论:这并非是不可能的,让一个男人跟一个女人睡觉,心知肚明,在他出去的时刻,他将会被送死,用吊刑架或其他东西,(当然,所有这一切都被定位在激情过度的架构,这种架构还会引起其他的问题。)这并非是不可能的,这个人冷静地接受如此的结局,当他离开时—譬如,为了获得这种快乐,将相关的这个女士切成粉碎。

The latter is the other case that one can envisage, and the annals of criminology
furnish a great many cases of the type. It is something that obviously
changes the facts of the situation, and at the very least the demonstrative
value of Kant’s example.

后者是我们能够构想的另外一个案例。犯罪学的年鉴提供许多这种的案例。这是某件显而易见改变这个情况的事实。至少,康德的例子具有证明的价值。

I have outlined then two cases that Kant doesn’t envisage, two forms of
transgression beyond the limits normally assigned to the pleasure principle
in opposition to the reality principle given as a criterion, namely, excessive
object sublimation and what is commonly known as perversion. Sublimation
and perversion are both a certain relationship of desire that attracts our attention
to the possibility of formulating, in the form of a question, a different
criterion of another, or even of the same, morality, in opposition to the reality
principle. For there is another register of morality that takes its direction
from that which is to be found on the level of das Ding; it is the register that
makes the subject hesitate when he is on the point of bearing false witness against das Ding, that is to say, the place of desire, whether it be perverse or sublimated.

我已经描绘两个康德没有构想到的案例,两种逾越的形式,超越这些限制,正常被指定给快乐原则,跟被给予作为标准的现实原则对立。换句话说,过分的客体的升华,众所周知的倒错。升华与倒错两者都是欲望的某种关系,吸引我们注意阐释的可能性的欲望,用问题的方式,另外一种,或属于相同道德的不同的标准,跟现实原则对立。因为,还有另外一种道德的铭记,获得它的指导,从「物象」的层次,应该被找到的东西。就是这个铭记让主体犹豫,当他正要做虚假的证词,来违背「物象」。换句话说,欲望的位置,无论它是倒错,或是升华。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 101

February 5, 2013

Ethic 101

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析的伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VIII
第八章

The object and the thing
客体与物象

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF AFFECTS
情意的心理学

THE KLEINIAN MYTH OF THE MOTHER
克莱恩的母亲的神话

KANTIAN FABLES
康德的寓言

SUBLIMATION AND PERVERSION
升华与变态

THE FABLE OF JACOUES PREVERT, COLLECTOR
雅克、普瑞博特的寓言:收集者

We are progressing this year around an axis that I take to be essential, namely,
that Ding, which is not without causing problems, indeed, not without causing
some doubts to emerge as to its Freudian legitimacy, at least among those
who reflect and who retain their critical intelligence, as they should, in the
presence of what I formulate here before you.

今年,我们正在进展,环绕着我认为是基本的轴心。换句话说,那个「物象」,它并非每有引起诸多问题。的确,并非每有引起一些怀疑出现,关于它作为弗洛依德的合法性。至少在那些省思的人们当中,他们保留他们的批判的智慧,如同他们应该,面对我在你们面前阐释的东西。

I take full responsibility for das Ding, whose exact importance you can
imagine to the extent that it has proved to be necessary if we are to make any
progress. You will be able to appreciate its merits in the use made of it. But
I will also be talking about it specifically again.

我负起完全的责任,对于这个「物象」。它的确实的重要性,你们能够想象,甚至它已经证明是需要的,假如我们想要从事任何的进展。你们将能够赏识它的优点,对于它的使用。但是我也要再次明确地谈论它。

1
Some might say or think that I have only taken up a small detail of Freud’s
text in the Entwurf.

有些人可能会说或认为,我仅是从事细节探究弗洛依德架构Entwurf的文本。

But experience tells us precisely that in texts like those of Freud nothing
is outdated, in the sense that it is simply borrowed from somewhere, the
product of scholarly parroting; nothing goes unmarked by that powerful
articulatory necessity that distinguishes his discourse. That’s what makes it
so significant when one notices places where his discourse remains open, gaping,
but nevertheless implying a necessity that I think I have made you sense
on a number of occasions.

但是精神分析经验确实教导我们,像弗洛依德的那些文本,没有一样东西是落伍的。因为它仅是从某个地方借用过来,学术模仿的产物,没有一样样东西逃过他的注意,作为他的辞说显著的特色,就是有必要强力地表达。那就是为什么这是如此的重要,当我们注意到有些地方,他的辞说始终保持开放,有鸿沟,但是仍然暗示着这个必要,我认为我在许多场合让你们感觉到的必要.

And that’s not all. This Ding, whose place and significance I have tried to
make you feel, is absolutely essential as far as Freud’s thought is concerned;
and as we go forward, you will see why.

那并非全部.这个「物象」,它的位置与重要性,我曾经尝试让你们感觉,,它是绝对必要的, 就弗洛依德的思想而言.随着我们的进展,你们将会看出为什么.

What is involved is that excluded interior which, in the terminology of the
Entwurf, is thus excluded in the interior. In the interior of what then? Of
something that is precisely articulated at that moment as the Real-Ich, which
means then the final real of the psychic organization, a real conceived of as
hypothetical, to the extent that it necessarily presupposes the Lust-Ich. It is
in the latter that one finds the first sketches of the psychic organization, that
is to say, of the organism whose development shows us that it is dominated
by the function of Vorstellungsreprasentanzen. And these are not only representations
but the representatives of representation – something that corresponds
very precisely to the path taken by so-called psychological knowledge
before Freud, insofar as it first took its form from atomism. That ideational
elementarily is in brief the truth of the atomism involved.

所牵涉到的东西是,那个被排除的内部,用这个架构的术语,它因此在内部被排除.那么,在什么的内部?在某件东西的内部,这个东西确实被表达,这,在那个时刻,当这个「真实的我」,因此意味着心灵组织的最后的真实,这一种真实被构想作为是假设的,甚至它必然预先假设这个「欲望的自我」。就是在后者,我们发现心灵组织的最初的描绘。换句话说,这个有机体的发展跟我们显示,它受到Vorstellungsreprasentanzen 的支配。这些并不是符号再现,而是符号再现的表象。某件东西确实对应于在弗洛依德之前,所谓的心理的知识採取的途径。因为它首先从原子论获得它的形式。总之,那个理念化的元素就是牵涉到的原子论的真理。

Through a kind of essential need, the whole effort of psychology has been
to try to free itself from that. But it can only free itself or rebel against atomism
by failing to recognize that flocculation which submits its material –
and the material here is psychic – to the texture on which thought is founded,
in other words, the texture of discourse as signifying chain. It is the very web
on which logic rises up, with both the surplus and the essential it brings with
it, which is the negation, the “splitting,” the Spaltung, the division, the rending,
that the inmixing of the subject introduces there. Psychology is subjected
to the atomic condition of having to use Vorstellungsreprasentanzen because
it is in them that psychic material is flocculated. Doubtless psychology attempts
to free itself from this necessity, but its efforts to achieve it have thus far been
crude.

凭借某种的基本需求,心理学的整个努力曾经尝试从那里解放自己。但是它仅能够解放它自己,或是反叛原子论。因为它没有办法体认出呈现它的物质的那种凝结。在此的这个物质是心灵。它呈现它的物质给思想作为基础的那个质料。换句话说,辞说的质料,作为能指的锁链。就是这个网络,从那里延伸出逻辑。具有这个剩余与它所带来的基本东西。那就是主体的融入在这里所介绍的否定,「分裂」,区分,分离。心理学被隶属于原子必须使用符号再现的表象的条件,因为在它们那里,心灵材料被凝结。无可置疑,心理学企图要从那个必要性解放它自己,但是它想要完成它的努力迄今还很简陋。

I don’t need to do more than remind you of the confused nature of the
recourse to affectivity; it reaches a point where, even when the reference is
made within analysis, it always leads us toward an impasse, toward something
that we feel is not the direction in which our research can really make
progress.

我仅是需要提醒你们,诉诸于情感具有混淆的特性。它到达这个点,即使提到的指称是在精神分析之内。它总是引导我们朝向一种僵局,朝向某件东西,我们感觉,它并不是我们的研究确实能够朝向它进展。

Of course, it is not a matter of denying the importance of affects. But it is
important not to confuse them with the substance of that which we are seeking
in the Real-Ich, beyond signifying articulation of the kind we artists of
analytical speech are capable of handling.

当然,问题并不是要否认情感的重要性。重要的是,不要将它们跟我们正在真实的自我里寻找物质混淆一块,超越了我们作为精神分析言说的艺术家所能够处理的那种能指的表达之外。

As far as the psychology of affects is concerned, Freud always manages to
give in passing significant and suggestive hints. He always insists on their
conventional and artificial character, on their character not as signifiers but
as signals, to which in the last analysis they may be reduced. This character
also explains their displaceable significance, and, from the economic point of
view, presents a certain number of necessities, such as irreducibility. But
affects do not throw light on the economic or even dynamic essence which is
sought at the horizon or limit from an analytical perspective. That is something
more opaque, more obscure, namely, analytical metaphysics’s notions
concerning energy.

就情感的心理学而言,弗洛依德总是成功地顺便给予重要而隐含的暗示。他总是坚持它们的传统与人为的特性。对于它们的特性,不是作为能指,而是作为讯号。追根究底,它们被还原成为讯息。这种特性也解释它们的无可替代的重要性。从经济学的观点,某些的必要性,譬如无可还原性。但是情感并没有让人明白经济或甚至动力的本质。从精神分析的观点,它们在地平线或极限处被寻找。那是某件更加模糊,更加隐晦的东西,换句话说,精神分析的形上学的观念,关于生命能源。

It is true that this metapsychology has come nowadays to be organized in
strangely qualitative categories. One only has to remember the function recently
advanced of the term desexualized libido. That reference to a qualitative notion
is increasingly difficult to maintain on the basis of any experience, and even less on the basis of an experience that could be called affective.

这是确实的,形上心理学今天已经逐渐被组织,以奇特品种的范畴。我们只要记住最近被提出的这个功用:除掉性化的的力比多。那个品质观念的指称越来越困难维持,就任何经验的基础而言,即使是根据所谓的情感的经验的基础,更是无法维持。

We will perhaps look into the psychology of affects together someday. In
order to impress upon you the inadequacy of what has so far been done on
the subject, especially in psychoanalysis, I should simply like to propose to
you a few incidental subjects to reflect on – an affect such as anger, for example.
I am giving you there a few practical litde exercises in passing. The use of
precise categories that I invite you to refer to might perhaps explain why
there has been so much interest in anger in the history of psychology and of
ethics, and why we have been so litde interested in it in psychoanalysis.

有朝一日,我们或许将会一起研究情意心理学。为了让你们有这个印:迄今对这个主题所做的研究是不足够的,特别是在精神分析学。我仅是想要跟你们建议一些意外的主题来省思。譬如,像愤怒这样的情感。我正在顺便给予你们一些实用的小练习。我邀请你们提到的确实的范畴的使用,或许可以解释为什么在心理学或伦理学的历史,会对愤怒那样感到興趣,以及为什么我们在精神分析学,对于愤怒,却无动于衷。

Does, for example, what Descartes says about anger satisfy you fully? The
working hypothesis that I am suggesting, and we will have to see whether it
does the trick or not, is that anger is no doubt a passion which is manifested
by means of an organic or physiological correlative, by a given more or less
hypertonic or even elated feeling, but that it requires perhaps something like
the reaction of a subject to a disappointment, to the failure of an expected
correlation between a symbolic order and the response of the real. In other
words, anger is essentially linked to something expressed in a formulation of
Charles Poguy’s, who was speaking in a humorous context – it’s when the
little pegs refuse to go into the little holes.

譬如,笛卡尔所说的关于愤怒,会让你们感到满意吗?我正在建议的使用的假设是,我们将必须看出,它是否行使这个功用:愤怒无可置疑是一种激情,凭借有机体或生理的相关来证明,用一种特定的夸张或甚至高昂的感觉。但是它或许要求某件东西,像是主体对于失望的反应,对于象征秩序与实在界的反应之间的被期望的相关的失败。换句话说,愤怒基本上是跟查理斯、博古的阐释所表达的某件东西息息相关。他在一篇幽默的文本里言说—那是当小小的方枘拒绝插进那些小洞里。

Think about that and see if you find it useful. It has all kinds of possible
applications, up to and including offering a clue as to the possible outline of
a symbolic organization of the world among the rare animal species where
one can, in fact, observe something that resembles anger. It is, after all,
surprising that anger is remarkably absent throughout the animal realm as a
whole.

请你们想想看,你们是否发现它用途。它具有各种的可能的应用,甚至包括提供一个线索,关于世界的象征组织的可能的轮廓,在稀有动物的品种之间。事实上,在那里,我们能够观察某件类似愤怒的东西。毕竟,令人惊奇的是,在整体的动物的领域,愤怒是非常欠缺的。

The direction taken by Freudian thought has involved locating affect under
the heading of a signal. A sufficient indication of this is that, by the end,
Freud came to evaluate anxiety itself as a signal. What we are looking for,
however, is beyond the organization of the Lust-Ich insofar as it is entirely
linked in a phenomenal way to the greater or lesser investment of the system
of the Vorstellungsreprasentanzen, or, in other words, of the signifying elements
in the psyche. This is somediing that is calculated to allow us to define
the field of das Ding at least operationally, as we attempt to advance on the
terrain of ethics. And since Freud’s thought progressed from a therapeudc
starting point, we can try to define the field of the subject insofar as it is not
simply the field of the intersubjecdve subject, the subject subjected to the
mediadon of the signifier, but what is behind this subject.

弗洛依德採取的方向,曾经牵涉将情感定位在讯息的标题之下。一个充分的指标是,在结束之前,弗洛依德逐渐评估焦虑作为一种讯息。可是,我们正在寻找到东西,超越欲望的自我的组织,因为它以显著的方式,符号再现的表象的系统的或多或少的投注息息相关。换句话说,跟心灵的能指化的元素的投注。这是某件被设计的东西,为了让我们能够定义「物象」的这个领域,至少在运作方面。当我们企图在伦理学的平台有所进展。因为弗洛依德的思想从治疗的起始点开始进展,我们尝试定义主体的领域,因为它不仅是互为主体性的主体的领域。这个主体隶属于能指的仲介,但是这个主体的背后是什么?

With this field that I call the field of das Ding, we are projected into something
that is far beyond the domain of affectivity, something moving, obscure
and without reference points owing to the lack of a sufficient organization of
its register, something much more primitive that I have already tried to describe
to you in our previous discussion this year. It isn’t just the register of the Wille in Schopenhauer’s sense of the word, insofar as, in opposition to representation, it is the essence of life whose support it is. It is a register where there is both good and bad will, that volens nolens, which is the true meaning of the ambivalence one fails to grasp, when one approaches it on the level of love and hate.

用我所谓的「物象」的领域的这个领域,我们被投射成为某件远超越情感的领域的东西,某件移动,朦胧,没有指称点的东西。由于对它的铭记欠缺充分的组织,某件更加是原始的东西,我已经尝试跟你们描述,在今年我们的先前讨论。那不仅是叔本华的「意志」的字词的意义,跟表象的对立,那是生命的本质,它是生命的支持。在这个铭记,有善也有恶的意志,那是我们无论理解的爱恨交加的真实意义,当我们从爱与恨的层次接近它。

It is on the level of good and bad will, indeed of the preference for the bad
at the level of negative therapeutic reaction, that Freud at the end of his
thinking discovers once again the field of das Ding, and points out to us the
space beyond the pleasure principle. It is an ethical paradox that the field of
das Ding is rediscovered at the end, and that Freud suggests there that which
in life might prefer death. And it is along this path that he comes closer than
anyone else to the problem of evil or, more precisely, to the project of evil as
such.

就在善与恶的意志的层次,的确,对于恶毒意志的偏爱,在负面的治疗的反动的层次,弗洛依德几经思维结果,再次发现「物象」的领域,并且跟我们指出超越快乐原则的空间。这是一个伦理学的悖论,「物象」的领域结束时重新被发现。弗洛依德在那里建议,在生命中可能偏爱死亡的东西。沿着这条途径,他比起任何其他人,更加靠近邪恶的问题。或者,更加确实地说,更加靠近邪恶的本身。

This is pointed to in everything that we have seen at the beginning of this
year’s seminar. Is it to be found in a corner of Freud’s work where one might
overlook it, might consider it as merely contingent or even outmoded? I believe
that everything in Freud’s thought proves that that is by no means the case.
And in the end Freud refers to this field as that around which the field of the pleasure principle gravitates, in the sense that the field of the pleasure principle is beyond the pleasure principle. Neither pleasure nor the organizing, unifying, erotic instincts of life suffice in any way to make of the living organism, of the necessities and needs of life, the center of psychic development.

这个被指向我们在今年的研讨班的开始曾经看见的一切。它难道不能够被找到,在弗洛依德的著作的角落?在那里,我们可能忽视它,可能认为它,仅仅当作是偶然性,或甚至是落伍。我相信,弗洛依德的一切思想都证明,情况绝非是那样。最后,弗洛依德提到这个领域,当着是快乐原则环绕它旋转的领域。因为快乐原则的领域是超越快乐原则。快乐,或是生命的组织,统一,性爱的本能,都不足够将活生生的有机体,生命的需要与需求,当作是心灵发展的中心。

Clearly, the term “operational” has its value on this occasion as it does in
all thought processes. This Ding is not fully elucidated, even if we make use
of it. The label “operational” may leave you with a certain comic dissatisfaction,
since what we are trying to point to there is precisely that which each
and every one of us has to deal with in the least operational of ways.

显而易见地,在这个场合,「运作性」这个术语拥有它的价值,如同在所有的思想的过程。这个「物象」并没有充分地阐释,即使我们利用它。「运作性」的这个标签可能让你们陷入某种滑稽的不满。因为我们正在尝试指向的东西,确实就是我们每个人必须要处理的东西,以最不具运作性的方式。

I don’t want to indulge in overdramatization. All ages have thought they
had reached the most extreme point of vision in a confrontation with something
terminal, some extra-worldly force that threatened the world. But our
world and society now bring news of the shadow of a certain incredible,
absolute weapon that is waved in our faces in a way that is indeed worthy of
the muses. Don’t imagine that the end will occur tomorrow; even in Leibnitz’s
time, people believed in less specific terms that the end of the world
was at hand. Nevertheless, that weapon suspended over our heads which is
one hundred thousand times more destructive than that which was already
hundreds of thousands of times more destructive than those which came before
– just imagine that rushing toward us on a rocket from outer space. It’s not
something I invented, since we are bombarded everyday with the news of a
weapon that threatens the planet itself as a habitat for mankind.

我并不想要耽溺于过分的戏剧化。每个时代都认为它们已经到达最极端的想象的时刻,当它们跟某件终端的东西冲突,威胁这个世界的某个额外的世俗的力量。但是我们的世界与社会现在带来某种难以置信的绝对的武器的阴影的新闻/这个武器在我们面前挥舞的方式,确实置得我们深思。请你们不要想象,末日明天就会发生。即使在莱布尼兹的时代,人们相信那些比较不那么明确的术语:世界末日即将来临。可是,那个被悬置在我们头上的武器,比起先前的武器,更加千倍地具有毁灭性。请你们想象,那个武器从外太空乘著火箭冲向我们。这并不是我凭空杜撰的东西。因为我们每天都被传播这种新闻:有一种武器威胁行星的本身,作为人类的居住地。

Put yourself in that spot, which has perhaps been made more present for us by the progress of knowledge than it was before in men’s imagination – although that faculty never ceased to toy with the idea; confront that moment when a man or a group of men can act in such a way that the question of existence is posed for the whole of the human species, and you will then see inside yourself that das Ding is next to the subject.

请你们设身处地。对于我们而言,知识的进步让那个地点或许更加存在,比起先前人类的想象。虽然那种能力从来没有停止玩弄那个观念,面对那个时刻,当一个人或一群人能够这样地行为,以致于生命实存的这个问题被提出,对于整个的人类的种族。你们将会在您们自己内部看见,「物象」就是主体的旁边。

You will see that you will beg the subject of knowledge who has given
birth to the thing in question – the other thing, the absolute weapon – to
take stock, and you will also wish either that the true Thing be at that moment
within him (in other words that he not let the other go or, in common parlance,
“let it all blow up”) or that we know why.

你们将会看见,你们将会请求知识的主体停下来三思,因为他产生这个受到质疑的问题,这个他者,这个绝对的武器。你们将也会希望,要就是,这个真实的「物象」在那个时刻,应该在他的内部,(换句话说,他不应该让他者发动,或是用通俗的话说,他不应该「让它爆炸」),要不然,就是我们应该知道为什么。

Well now, after that short digression that was suggested to me by the word
“operational,” and from a less dramatic point of view – one no longer dares
say eschathological, given the very precise materialization of things – I will
take up our discussion again where we are in effect concerned with the essence
of das Ding. Or, more exactly, in what way are we concerned with it in the
domain of ethics?

呵呵,经过那段简短的离题,「运作性」这个字词跟我的建议,从一个比较不那么戏剧性的观点。我们不再胆敢说「人类命运的最后审判」,考虑到事情的确实的物质化。我将再次从事我们的讨论,在那里,我们实际上关心到「物象」的本质。或者,更加确实地说,在伦理学的领域,我们用怎样的方式来关心它?

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Ethic 95

February 5, 2013

Ethic 95

The Ethics of Psychoanlysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII
第七章

Drives and lures
冲动与诱惑

LUTHER
路德

3
In this text that our friend Jean Laplanche has translated for the Society and
that you should look up in the Gesammelte Werke, Volume X, pages 161—
1623, you will find the following comment: “What we have to seek is that
which now presents itself to us concerning the relations of this formulation
of the ideal to sublimation. Sublimation is a process that concerns object
libido.”

在这个文本,我们的朋友拉普兰奇曾经替「社会」杂志翻译,你们应该在
1923年的Gesammelte Werke, 第六册,161页查阅。你们将会找到以下的评论:「你们所必需寻找到东西是,你们现在呈现给我们的东西,关于这个升华的理想的阐释。升华是一种跟客体力比多有关的过程。

I would just point out that the opposition Ichlibido I Objektlibido only begins
to be articulated as such on an analytical level with the Einfuhrung. This text
complements the articulation first given by Freud of the fundamentally conflictual
position of man relative to his satisfaction as such. That is why it is essential to introduce das Ding at the beginning.

我仅是要指出,客体力比多的对立,仅有在具有性器官的精神分析的层次,本身才开始被表达。这个文本补充弗洛依德首先给予的这个表达:人相对应他的满足的本身的冲突的立场。那就是为什么这是重要的,在开始时介绍「物象」。

That is Das Ding insofar as, if he is to follow the path of his pleasure, man
must go around it. One must take one’s time to recognize, to find out for
oneself, to take one’s time to see that Freud is telling us the same thing as
Saint Paul, namely, that what governs us on the path of our pleasure is no
Sovereign Good, and that moreover, beyond a certain limit, we are in a thoroughly
enigmatic position relative to that which lies within das Ding, because
there is no ethical rule which acts as a mediator between our pleasure and its
real rule.

那就是「物象」,因为人必须环绕它旋转,假如他想要遵循他的快乐的途径。我们必须花点时间,才能够体会到,为了替我们自己找出,必须花点时间,才能够看出,弗洛依德正在告诉我们跟圣保罗所说的相同的事情。换句话说,在我们快乐的途中,统治我们的东西,并不是统辖的善。而且,超越某个限制,我们处于完全谜团一般的立场,相对于「物象」之内所在的东西。因为没有伦理的规则充当一种仲介,处于我们的快乐与它的真实的规则之间。

And behind Saint Paul, you fond the teaching of Christ when he is questioned
just before the final Easter [la dermiere Piques]. There are two versions,
that of the Gospel according to Saint Mathew and that of the Gospels
of Mark and Luke. In Saint Mathew’s Gospel, where it is clearest, he is
asked, “What good must we do to achieve life eternal?” In the Greek version,
he answers, “Why do you speak to me of good? Who knows what is good?
Only He, He who is beyond, our Father, knows what is good. And He told
you, Do this, Do that, Don’t go any further.” One just has to follow his
commandments. Then after that there is the statement, “Thou shalt love thy
neighbor as thyself.” That’s the commandment that appropriately enough,
given its obvious relevance, is the terminal point of Civilization and Its Discontents;
it is the ideal end to which his investigation by necessity leads him
– Freud never held back from anything that offered itself to his examination.

在圣保罗背后,你们发现耶稣基督的教导,当他被询问,就在最后的复活节之前。有两种说法,一是福音书的说法,依照圣马修;另一手马可与路加的福音书。在圣马修的福音,最显而易见,耶稣被询问:「为了获得永生生命,我们必须做什么善行?」在这个希腊文的版本,他回答说:「你为什么跟我谈论善行?谁知道什么是善行?」仅有他,超越的他,我们的天父,知道什么是善行。他告诉你,做这个,做那个,不要逾越过去。」我们只需要遵循他的命令。因此,在那个之后,有这个陈述:「我要你们爱你们的邻居如你自己。」那是足够适当的命令,考虑到它的明显的相关性。这个命令是「文明及其不满」的终点结论。弗洛依德的研究必然引导他到这个理想的目的—对于任何提供自己给他检视的东西,弗洛依德从来不退缩。

I cannot urge you too strongly to appreciate, if you are able, what in Christ’s
answer has for so long been closed to aural apprehension, apart from that of
knowing ears – “They have ears but they hear not,” the Gospel tells us. Try
to read the words of the man who, it is claimed, never laughed; read them
for what they are. From time to time, you will be struck by a form of humor
that surpasses all others.

我不厌其烦地建议你们要赏识,假如你们能够的话,在耶稣基督的回答中,长久以来被大家听而不闻的东西,除了那些用心知晓的耳朵。「他们有耳朵,但是他们没有听见」,福音书告诉我们。请你们尝试阅读这个人的这些字词,据宣称,这个从来没有笑。请你们阅读它们,就它们实质的意义。有时,你们将会为之动容,因为它的幽默的形式超越过所有其它的形式。

The parable of the unfaithful steward, for example. No matter how seldom
one has been to church, one is nevertheless used to having that parable trotted
out. And it occurs to no one to be surprised by the fact that the Son of
Man, the purest of the pure, tells us that the best way to achieve salvation
for one’s soul is to embezzle the funds one is in charge of, since that, too,
may lead the children of light to grant you, if not a reward, then at least a
certain gratitude. From the point of view of a homogeneous, uniform, and
stable morality, there is some contradiction there, but perhaps one could
confirm it with other insights of a similar kind – such as, for example, the
terrific “joke,”4 “Render unto Caesar that which is Caesar’s” – and after that
get on with it! It is a form of paradox that may lead to all kinds of evasions
or ruptures, to all the gaps opened up by nonsense – those insidious dialogues,
for example, in which the interlocutor always manages to slip out of
the traps that are set for him.

譬如,不忠实的管家的寓言。无论我们多么罕见去教堂,我们仍然习惯于让这个寓言被提出了。没有人会想到对这个事实大吃一惊:人之子,最为纯洁的人,告诉我们,获得自己灵魂的救赎的最好方法,是窃用我们负责的基金。因为那也可能引导光明的小孩承诺给你们,即使不是酬劳,至少是某种感激。从同质性的,一致而且稳定的道德的观点,那里是有些矛盾。但是或许我们能够证实它,用类似的其他洞察。譬如,那个巨大的笑话,「将凯撒的归因凯撒」。然后,继续用它!这是一种悖论的形式,导致各种的逃避或断裂,导致这种无意义展开的各种的差距。譬如,那些具有隐患的对话。对谈者总是成功地逃避为他设计的陷阱。

To come back to our subject for the moment, the good as such – something
that has been the eternal object of the philosophical quest in the sphere of
ethics, the philosopher’s stone of all the moralists – the good is radically
denied by Freud. It is rejected at the beginning of his thought in the very
notion of the pleasure principle as the rule of the deepest instinct, of the
realm of the drives. This is confirmed in a thousand different ways, and is
for example consistent with Freud’s central question, which concerns, as you
know, the Father.

回到我们目前的主题,善行的本身。某件东西曾经是哲学追寻的永恒目标,在伦理学的领域,所有道德家的哲学家电宝石。善行被弗洛依德强烈地拒绝。它在他的快乐原则的观念的思想的开始就被拒绝,作为是最深处本能够规则,作为是各种冲动的领域。他用一千个不同的方法来证实。譬如,它跟弗洛依德的中心的问题相一致。如你们所知,这个中心问题是父亲。

To understand Freud’s position relative to the Father, you have to go and
look up the form it is given in Luther’s thought, when he had his nostrils
tickled by Erasmus. Reluctandy, after a great many years, Erasmus had finally
published his De Libero Arbitrio, so as to remind the excitable mad man from
Wittenberg that the authoritative Christian tradition, from the words of Christ
to Saint Paul, Saint Augustine and the Church Fathers, led one to believe
that works, good works, were not nothing, and that to be sure the tradition
of the philosophers on the subject of the Sovereign Good was not to be just
thrown out.

为了理解弗洛依德相对于父亲的立场,你们必须前去查阅在路德思想被给予的形式,当他让阿拉斯莫斯引发好奇心。很不情愿地,好几年以后,阿拉斯莫斯最后出版他的De Libero Arbitrio,为了提醒这位出身维腾堡的激动的疯子:具有权威的基督教的传统,从耶稣基督到圣保罗,圣奥古斯丁与教堂的神父们,他们都引导我们相信:著作,好的著作并非毫无意义,的确,哲学家的传统,探讨统辖的善的主题,不应该被抛弃。

Luther, who up to that point had remained reserved in his relations with
the figure of Erasmus – although he did privately indulge in a little irony on
the subject – then published his De Servo Arbitrio in order to emphasize both
the fundamentally bad character of the relations between men and the fact
that at the heart of man’s destiny is the Ding, the causa, which I described
the other day as analogous to that which is designated by Kant as at the
horizon of his Practical Reason – except that it is a pendant to it. To coin a
phrase whose approximate Greekness I will ask you to forgive, it is the causa
pathomenon, the cause of the most fundamental human passion.

直到当时,路德始终是有所保留,在他跟阿拉斯莫斯这个人物的关系。虽然他私下自我陶醉于对于这个主题的反讽,然后出版他的De Servo Arbitrio ,为了强调,人与这个实之间的关系,基本上是不好的特性。因为「物象」的人的命运的核心,我前天将它描述作为类似于康德所指定的东西,当作是他的「实践理性」的地平线。除了作为它的附属。为了铸造一个词语,它的近似的希腊文,我要求你们忘记。那就是causa pathomenon, 人类最基本的激情的原因。

Luther writes of the following – God’s eternal hatred of men, not simply
of their failures and the works of their free will, but a hatred that existed even
before the world was created. You see that there are reasons why I advise you
to read religious authors from time to time; I mean good ones, of course, not
those who are all sweetness and light, although even they are sometimes
rewarding. Saint Francois de Sales on marriage is, I assure you, better than
Van de Velde on ideal marriage. But in my opinion Luther is much more
interesting. That hatred which existed even before the world was created is
the correlative of the relationship that exists between a certain influence of
the law as such and a certain conception of das Ding as the fundamental
problem and, in a word, as the problem of evil. I assume that it hasn’t escaped
your attention that it is exactly what Freud deals with when the question he
asks concerning the Father leads him to point out that the latter is the tyrant
of the primitive horde, the one against whom the original crime was committed,
and who for that very reason introduced the order, essence, and foundation
of the domain of law.

路德写到以下的内容:上帝对人的仇恨,不仅因为他们的失败,与拥有他们的自由意志的工作,而是这一种仇恨甚至在世界在被创造之前,就已经存在。你们看出,我为什么会有些理由,要劝告你们有时要阅读宗教的作者。当然,我指的是好的作者,不是那些轻浮的夸夸之谈的那些作者,虽然他们有时也有他的价值。容我告诉你们,圣法兰西斯、薛勒斯的论婚姻,就比范、维德的论理想婚姻好很多。但是依我之见,路德是更加有趣。在世界被创造之前就存在的仇恨,跟这个关系息息相关,存在于法则本身的某些影响,与「物象」的某个观念,作为基本的问题之间的关系。总之,作为是邪恶的问题。我认为它并没有讨避你们的注意。那确实是弗洛依的处理的东西,当他询问关于父亲的这个问题。这个问题引导他指出,后者是原始部落的暴君。原初的罪被犯,是为了对抗这个暴君。因为那个理由,那个暴君介绍法律的领域的秩序,本质与基础。

Not to recognize the filiation or cultural paternity that exists between Freud
and a new direction of thought – one that is apparent at the break which
occurred toward the beginning of the sixteenth century, but whose repercussions
are felt up to the end of the seventeenth century – constitutes a fundamental
misunderstanding of the kind of problems Freud’s intellectual project
addresses.

假如没有体认出,存在于弗洛依德与新的思潮方向之间的这种传承与文化父系,会形成一个基本的误解,对于弗洛依的的知识点计划所处理的那些问题。将近十六世纪的开始,发生的一个断裂是显而易见,直到十七世纪的末业,这种断裂的迴响还依旧被感觉到。

I have just finished a digression of some twenty-five minutes. And it was
designed to tell you that, just after 1914 with the Einfuhrung, Freud introduces
us to something that dodges the issue again by articulating things that are, of course, essential, but of which one must know the context, namely, the problem of the object relation.

我刚刚结束大约二十五分钟的离题谈论。它被设计来告诉你们,就在1914年后,使用这个导引,弗洛依德跟我们介绍再次逃避这个问题的某件东西,凭借表达当然是基本的事情,但是我们必须知道这个事情的内容。换句话说,客体关系的问题。

This problem of the object relation has to be read “Freudianly.” You can,
in fact, see it emerge in a narcissistic relation, an imaginary relation. At this
level the object introduces itself only insofar as it is perpetually interchangeable
with the love that the subject has for its own image. Ichlibido and Objektlibido
are introduced by Freud in relation to the difference between Ich-ideal
and Ideal-ich, between the mirage of the ego and the formation of an ideal.
This ideal makes room for itself alone; within the subject it gives form to
something which is preferred and to which it will henceforth submit. The
problem of identification is linked to this psychological splitting, which places
the subject in a state of dependence relative to an idealized, forced image of
itself – something that Freud will emphasize subsequently.

客体关系的这个问题必须被阅读为「弗洛依德的方式」。事实上,你们能够看见它出现,处于一种自恋的关系,一种想象的关系。在这个层次,这个客体介绍它自己,因为它跟主体拥有对它自己的爱,可以永久地互相交换。弗洛依德介绍力比多与力比多客体,类似自我理想与理想自我之间的这个差异,处于自我的幻景与理想的形成。这个理想仅是让出位置给它自己,在主体之内,它给予形式,给受到喜欢的东西,它因此顺服的东西。认同的问题跟心理的分裂息息相关。这种分裂将主体处于依赖的状态,相对于它本身的一个理想化的强迫的意象。这个东西,弗洛依德随后将会强调。

It is through this mirage relation that the notion of an object is introduced.
But this object is not the same as that which is aimed at on the horizon of the
instinct. Between the object as it is structured by the narcissistic relation and
das Ding, there is a difference, and it is precisely on the slope of that difference
that the problem of sublimation is situated for us.

通过这个幻景的关系,客体的观念被介绍。但是这个客体跟本能的领域所瞄准的东西,并不相同。在作为自恋关系的结构的这个客体与物象之间,有一个差异。对于我们而言,确实是在这个差异的斜坡,升华的问题被定位。

In a short note in the Three Essays, Freud gives us a kind of brief summary
in the style of an essay on the difference that strikes us between the love life
of antiquity, of pre-Christians, and our own. It resides, he says, in the fact
that in antiquity the emphasis was on the instinct itself, whereas we place it
on the object. The Ancients feted the instinct, and, through the intermediary
of the instinct, were also ready to honor an object of lesser, common value,
whereas we reduce the value of the manifestation of the instinct, and we
demand the support of the object on account of the prevailing characteristics
of the object.

在「性学理论三篇论文」的一个短注,弗洛依德用论文的文体,给我们一直简短的总结,探讨让我们印象深刻的差异,处于古代,前基督徒,与我们自己的爱情生活之间的差异。他说,这个差异就驻扎在这个事实:在古代,强调点在于本能的本身,而我们则是将它放置在客体。古代人推崇本能,凭借本能的仲介,古代人也准备推崇次要的普通价值的客体。而我们则是减低本能的展示的价值。我们要求客体的支持,因为客体具有佔优势的特性。

Moreover, Freud wrote a great many other pages where he discussed disparaging
commentaries on love life – commentaries made in the name of
what? In the name of an incontestable ideal. You can read the following in
Civilization and Its Discontents: “Among the works of that sensitive English
author, Galsworthy, whose worth is universally acknowledged nowadays, I
once really enjoyed one story. It was called The Apple Tree, and it shows how
there is no room anymore in contemporary civilized life for the simple, natural
love of two human beings of the pastoral tradition.”5

而且,弗洛依德写了许多其他的页数。在那里,他讨论那些探讨爱情生命的贬低的评注。这些评注以怎样的名义发表?以无法争辩的理想的名义。你们能够在「文明及其不满」里阅读以下内容:「在那位敏感的英国作者高尔兹华斯的著作里,他的价值今天受到普遍性的承认。我有一次确实赏识一个故事。篇名叫做「蘋果树」。故事显示,在现代的文明生活里,不再有如此纯朴自然的爱情的空间,在田园传统的两个人的爱情。

The whole passage flows forth spontaneously in a way that I call excessive.
How does Freud know that we emphasize the object, whereas the Ancients
put the accent on the instinct? You will respond that there is no example of
ideal exaltation in any Greek tragedy, unlike our own classical tragedies. Yet
Freud hardly explains the question.

整个的过程自动自发的往前流动,用我所谓的渲染的方式。弗洛依德如何知道,我们强调这个客体,而古代人则是强调本能呢?你们将会回答,不像我们自己的古典的悲剧,在任何的希腊的悲剧里,并没有理想的升华之爱的典范。可是,弗洛依德几乎无法解释这个问题。

Next time we will have to compare our ideal of love with that of the Ancients
by referring to some works of history and to a given historical moment that
will also have to be defined. It is no more or less than a structuralization, a
historical modification of Eros. It is, of course, of great importance that courtly
love, the exaltation of woman, a certain Christian style of love that Freud
himself discusses, mark a historical change. And I will be leading you into
that territory.

下次,我们将必须比较我们的爱的理想,与古代人的爱的理想,凭借提到历史的一些作品,提到也将必须被定义的特定的历史的时刻。那实实在在就是一种结构主义,一种历史对性爱的修正。当然,这是非常重要的,骑士之爱,推崇女人,弗洛依德自己探讨过的某种的基督教风格的爱,标示一个历史的改变。我将会引导你们进入那个领域。

It is nevertheless true, as I will show you, that in certain authors of antiquity
– and interestingly enough in Latin rather than Greek literature – one
finds some and perhaps all the elements that characterize the cult of an idealized
object, something which was determinative for what can only be called
the sublimated elaboration of a certain relationship. Thus what Freud expresses
over-hastily and probably inversely, concerns a kind of degradation which,
when one examines it closely, is directed less at love life than at a certain lost
cord, a crisis, in relation to the object.

可是,这是真实的,如同我将会告诉你们,在古代的某些的作者,足够耐人寻味的,在拉丁文,而不是在希腊文学,我们发现一些因素,或许所有的因素,表现被理想化的客体的崇拜。某件东西具有指标性,对于仅能够被称为是某种关系的升华的建构。因此,弗洛依德所表达的东西,过分匆促,可能逆转地关系到一种堕落。当我们仔细地检视它,它并不是被引导朝向爱的生命,而是朝向某个丧失的线索,跟这个客体的关系。

To set out to find the instinct again is the result of a certain loss, a cultural
loss, of the object. That such a problem exists at the center of that mental
crisis from which Freudianism emerged is a question that we will have to ask
ourselves. The nostalgia expressed in the idea that the Ancients were closer
than we are to the instinct perhaps means no more, like every dream of a
Golden Age or El Dorado, than that we are engaged in posing questions at
the level of the instinct because we do not yet know what to do as far as the
object is concerned.

再次出发找到这个本能是这个客体的某种丧失,文化的丧失的结果。这样一个问题存在于精神危机的中心。从那里,弗洛依德学派出现。这个问题,我们将必须询问自己。比起我们,古代人比较靠近本能的这个观念,所表达的思古之幽情,或许不再具有意义,就像我们对于黄金时代的每个梦想。正如我们从事于提出问题,在本能的层次。因为我们还不知道,应该如何处理,就客体而言。

At the level of sublimation the object is inseparable from imaginary and
especially cultural elaborations. It is not just that the collectivity recognizes
in them useful objects; it finds rather a space of relaxation where it may in a
way delude itself on the subject of das Ding, colonize the field of das Ding
with imaginary schemes. That is how collective, socially accepted sublimations
operate.

在升华的这个层次,这个客体跟想象无法分开,特别是跟文化的建构。这不仅是因为大众在它们那里体认出有用的客体,而且找到一个轻松的空间,在那里,大众可以用某种方式欺骗自己,对于「物象」这个主题,用想象的基模将「物象」的领域殖民化。那就是大众从社会上接受升华的运作的方式。

Society takes some comfort from the mirages that moralists, artists, artisans,
designers of dresses and hats, and the creators of imaginary forms in
general supply it with. But it is not simply in the approval that society gladly
accords it that we must seek the power of sublimation. It is rather in an
imaginary function, and, in particular, that for which we will use the symbolization
of the fantasm ($ ◊a), which is the form on which depends the
subject’s desire.

社会从这些幻景,获得某种的安慰,道德家,艺术家,服装与帽子的设计师,以及想象的形式的创造者,一般供应给它的幻景。但是这不仅是在社会很乐意给予它的认同里,我们必须寻找升华的力量。而且在想象的功用里,特别是在我们将会使用幻想公式($a)的象征里。这个公式是主体的欲望依赖的公式。

In forms that are historically and socially specific, the a elements, the imaginary
elements of the fantasm come to overlay the subject, to delude it, at the
very point of das Ding. The question of sublimation will be brought to bear
here. That is why I shall talk to you next time of courtly love in the Middle
Ages, and, in particular, of Minnesang.

用历史上与社会上明确的形式,这个a小客体的元素,幻想公式的这些想象的元素,前来跟主体重叠,欺骗它,在「物象」的这个点。升华的问题将会引导到这里。那就是为什么我下次将跟你们谈论中世纪的骑士之爱,特别是抒情歌曲Minnesang 的骑士之爱。

In an anniversary way, since last year I talked to you about Hamlet, I shall speak about the Elizabethan theater, which is the turning point in European eroticism, and civilized as well. It is at that moment, in effect, that the celebration of the idealized object occurs that Freud talks about in his note.
Freud left us with the problem of a gap once again at the level of das Ding,
which is that of religious men and mystics, at a time when we could no longer
rely on the Father’s guarantee.
January 13,1960

作为周年纪念,因为去年我跟你们谈论有关「哈姆雷特」,我将谈论伊莉莎白时代的戏院。在欧洲的性爱主义,那是个转捩点,也成为文明。事实上,就在那个时刻,被理想化的客体的庆祝发生,弗洛依德在他的笔记谈论到。
1960年,1月13日

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
http://springhero.worldpress.com