Archive for October, 2014

梦的特质 3

October 31, 2014

梦的特质 3
The Nature of Dreams

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

If, therefore, we establish that the “table” in the dream
means just that fatal table, with all that this implies, then,
although we have not explained the dream, we have at least
interpreted one important motif of it; that is, we have
recognized the subjective context in which the word “table” is
embedded.

因此,假如我们证实,梦中的这个桌子,就是指那个致命的桌子,具有这个桌子的意涵。那么,虽然我们没有解释这个梦,我们至少解释这个梦的一个重要的母题。换句话说,我们已经承认这个主体的内容,在那里,「桌子」这个字词被镶嵌在那里。

We arrived at this conclusion by a methodical
questioning of the dreamer’s own associations. The further
procedures to which Freud subjects the dream-contents I have
had to reject, for they are too much influenced by the
preconceived opinion that dreams are the fulfillment of
“repressed wishes.”

我们凭借方法论的质疑作梦者的联想,而获得这个结论。弗洛依德将梦的内容隶属于的更加深入的程序,我必须予以排斥。因为它们太过于受到先入为主的意见的影响。弗洛依德将梦视为是「被压抑的愿望」的满足。

Although there are such dreams, this is far
from proving that all dreams are wish-fulfillments, any more
than are the thoughts of our conscious psychic life. There is no
ground for the assumption that the unconscious processes
underlying the dream are more limited and one-sided, in form
and content, than conscious processes. One would rather expect
that the latter could be limited to known categories, since they
usually reflect the regularity or even monotony of the conscious
way of life.

虽然是有这样的梦,但是这根本就没有证明,梦是愿望的满足,正如我们的意识心灵的生活的思想,并不是愿望的满足。没有理由这样假设:作为梦的无意识的过程,比起意识的过程,在形式与内容,是更加受到限制及单边。我们宁愿期望意识过程受到已知范畴的限制,因为它们通常反映意识生活方式的规律,或甚至单调。

On the basis of these conclusions and for the purpose of
ascertaining the meaning of the dream, I have developed a
procedure which I call “taking up the context.” This consists in
making sure that every shade of meaning which each salient
feature of the dream has for the dreamer is determined by the
associations of the dreamer himself.

根据这些结论的基础,并且为了确定梦的意义,我已经发展成一套程序,我称之为「探索内文」。这个程序在于确定,梦的令人注目的特征,对于作梦者,具有的每个意义的色度,是受到作梦者自己的联想所决定。

I therefore proceed in the
same way as I would in deciphering a difficult text. This method
does not always produce an immediately understandable result;
often the only thing that emerges, at first, is a hint that looks
significant. To give an example: I was working once with a
young man who mentioned in his anamnesis that he was happily
engaged, and to a girl of a “good” family.

我因此以相同的方式前进,如同我在诠释困难的文本时的方式。这个方法未必总是产生当下可理解的结果。经常,唯一出现的东西首先就是看起来具有意义的暗示。我举个例子:我有一次正在跟一位年轻人工作,他在病历中提到:他很快乐地订婚,而且跟一位「良好」的家庭的女孩订婚。

In his dreams she
frequently appeared in a very unflattering guise. The context
showed that the dreamer’s unconscious connected the figure of
his bride with all kinds of scandalous stories from quite other
sources—which was incomprehensible to him and naturally also
to me.

在他的梦里,她经常出现,以不令人恭维的伪装。这个内容显示:作梦者的无意识将他的新娘的人物,跟其他来源的各种丑闻的故事联想一块。他无法理解,我当然也无法理解。

But, from the constant repetition of such combinations, I
had to conclude that, despite his conscious resistance, there
existed in him an unconscious tendency to show his bride in this
ambiguous light. He told me that if such a thing were true it
would be a catastrophe. His acute neurosis had set in a short
time after his engagement.

但是,从这些组合的经常重复,我必须获得结论:尽管他的意识的抗拒,在他身上存在著无意识的倾向于显示他的新娘,从这个暧昧的观点。他告诉我,假如这样的事情是真实的,那将是个灾难。在他订婚后不久,他的强烈的神经症就发作。

Although it was something he could
not bear to think about, this suspicion of his bride seemed to me
a point of such capital importance that I advised him to instigate
some inquiries. These showed the suspicion to be well founded,
and the shock of the unpleasant discovery did not kill the
patient but, on the contrary, cured him of his neurosis and also
of his bride.

虽然这是某件他无法忍受不去思维的事情,我觉得,对于他的新娘的怀疑似乎是非常重要的一点,我建议他应该从事某些的探究。这些探究显示这个怀疑是有凭有据的。这个不愉快的发现的震撼,并没有让病人崩溃。相反地,治疗好他的神经症,也治疗好他的新娘的神经症。

Thus, although the taking up of the context resulted
in an “unthinkable” meaning and hence in an apparently
nonsensical interpretation, it proved correct in the light of facts
which were subsequently disclosed, This case is of exemplary
simplicity, and it is superfluous to point out that only rarely do
dreams have so simple a solution.

因此,虽然从事内容的探索造成「匪夷所思」的意义,因此,造成明显是无意义的解释,但是从随后被揭露的事实的观点,它证明是正确。这个个案的简单可作为范例。我们无需再指出,仅有在罕见的情况,梦才有如此简单地解决。

The examination of the context is, to be sure, a simple,
almost mechanical piece of work which has only a preparatory
significance. But the subsequent production of a readable text,
i.e. the actual interpretation of the dream, is as a rule a very
exacting task.

的确,对于内容的检查是简单到几乎是机械化的工作。但是随后产生可阅读的文本,譬如,对于梦的实际解释,通常是令人兴奋的工作。

It needs psychological empathy, ability to
coordinate intuition, knowledge of the world and of men, and
above all a special “canniness” which depends on wide
understanding as well as on a certain “intelligence de cúur.” All
these presupposed qualifications, including even the last, are
valuable for the art of medical diagnosis in general. No sixth
sense is needed to understand dreams.

它需要心理的同理心,协调直觉的能力,对于世界与人们的知识,尤其重要的,它需要特别的「明智」,依靠广泛理解与依靠某个「人的智慧」的「明智」。所有这一切预先假设某些的特质,甚至包括最后的特质。它们对于一般的医学的判诊的技艺是很有价值的。为了理解梦,并不需要第六感。

But more is required than
routine recipes such as are found in vulgar little dream-books, or
which invariably develop under the influence of preconceived
notions. Stereotyped interpretation of dream-motifs is to be
avoided; the only justifiable interpretations are those reached
through a painstaking examination of the context. Even if one
has great experience in these matters, one is again and again
obliged, before each dream, to admit one’s ignorance and,
renouncing all preconceived ideas, to prepare for something
entirely unexpected.

但是,需要不仅是这些例行的药方,诸如在通俗的梦的小书所发现的那些例行药方。或是在预先构想的观念的影响下一成不变地发展的例行药方。对于梦的母题的定型化的解释应该被避免。唯一能自圆其说的这些解释,是通过努力地检视文本而获得的解释。即使对于这些事情,我们经验丰富,在每个梦面前,我们一再地被迫要承认我们的无知,并且准备要面临完全意料之外的东西,当我们已经放弃所有预先构想的观念。

Even though dreams refer to a definite attitude of
consciousness and a definite psychic situation, their roots lie
deep in the unfathomably dark recesses of the conscious mind.
For want of a more descriptive term we call this unknown
background the unconscious. We do not know its nature in and
for itself, but we observe certain effects from whose qualities we
venture certain conclusions in regard to the nature of the
unconscious psyche. Because dreams are the most common and
normal expression of the unconscious psyche, they provide the
bulk of the material for its investigation.

即使梦提到意识的明确的态度,以及明确的心灵的情况,它们的根源深入于意识心灵的深不可测的黑暗的隐匿处。因为欠缺更加描述的术语,我们称这个未知的背景为无意识。我们并不知道属于它自己与为了它自身的它的特性。但是我们观察某些的影响。从那些影响的特质,我们冒险提到某些结论,关于无意识心灵的特质。因为梦是无意识心灵的最共同,最正常的表达,梦供应许多的材料,作为对无意识的研究。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

弗洛伊德的技术性著作

October 31, 2014

弗洛伊德的技术性著作
1953—1954

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康
Introduction to the commentaries on Freud’s Papers on Technique
弗洛伊德的技术性著作的评论的导言

THE SEMINAR
CONFUSION IN ANALYSIS
HISTORY IS NOT THE PAST
THEORIES OF THE EGO
研讨班
精神分析的混淆
历史并非过去
自我的理论

I would very much like to start off this new year, for which I offer you my best wishes, by telling you – The fun is over!

这新的一年,我诚恳祝福你们,开始时,我想要告诉你们:「乐趣结束了!」

Last term you had little else to do but listen to me. I declare that this term now starting, I trust, I hope, I venture to hope that I too will hear from you a bit.

上个学期,你们几乎就是听我演讲,没有别的。我宣佈,现在开始的这个学期,我信任,我希望,我大胆地希望,我也要稍微聆听你们。

It’s actually the law, and tradition, of the seminar that those who participate in it bring more to it than a purely personal effort – a contribution through effective communication. This can only come from those involved in the work in the most direct manner, from those for whom these seminars on texts take on their full meaning, from those who are involved in a variety of capacities in our practice. All this does not exclude your obtaining from me answers that I will be in a position to give you.

这实际上就是研讨班的规矩与传统。那些参加研讨班的人们,贡献给研讨班的,不仅是个人的努力而已。而是通过有效的沟通所做的贡献。这种贡献仅有亲身参与这件工作的那些人们才能够做到。对于他们,探讨弗洛伊德文本的这些研讨班,具有它们的完整的意义。在我们精神分析的实践里,他们参与各色各样的技术才能。尽管所有这一切,你们仍然能够从我这里,获得我能够给予你们的解答。

It would be particularly appreciated if everyone were to give, according to his or her resources, his or her utmost, in contributing to this new phase of the seminar. Your utmost consists in not replying with a long face, saying it just so happens that this week you are particularly heavily burdened, when I call upon one or other of you and consign a specific segment of our common task to him or her.

假如每个人想要依照他或她自己的资源,对于研讨班的这个新的部分,提供他或她的贡献,那将是特别让人感激。你们充其量可以摆臭脸地避不回应,托词这个星期你们巧好课业负担特别沉重。当我要求你们一些人,并且指定明确部分的我们共同的工作给他或她。

I am talking here to those who are part of the psychoanalytic group that we represent. I would like you to realise that if it is constituted as such, as an autonomous group, it is for a task that for each of us brings with it nothing less than the future – the meaning of everything which we do and will have to do for the rest of our lives. If you are not coming to put into question everything you do, I don’t see why you’re here. Why would those who do not sense the meaning of this task remain tied to us, rather than joining up with some sort of bureaucracy or other?

我在此演讲,是针对我们所代表的那些精神分析群体的部分人员。我想要你们体会到,假如它的组成是作为这样一种自主的群体,对于我们每一个人,这样的工作随之带来的实实在在就是未来—我们所做与将必须做的每件事情的意义,就是为了我们的馀生。假如你们对于你们所做的每件事情,没有逐渐给予置疑,我不明白你们为什么要在这里。那些没有理解这件工作的意义的那些人们,为什么会始终愿意跟我们息息相关,而不是加入从事某种的行政工作?

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

梦的特质 2

October 31, 2014

梦的特质 2
The Nature of Dreams

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

The dream is a fragment of involuntary psychic activity,
just conscious enough to be reproducible in the waking state. Of
all psychic phenomena the dream presents perhaps the largest
number of “irrational” factors.

梦是不自主的心灵活动,在清醒状态,仅是足够意识到可复制。在所有的心灵现象当中,梦呈现或许是最大数量的「非理性」的因素。

It seems to possess a minimum of
that logical coherence and that hierarchy of values shown by the
other contents of consciousness, and is therefore less transparent
and understandable. Dreams that form logically, morally, or
aesthetically satisfying wholes are exceptional.

梦似乎拥有最小量的那种逻辑一贯性,根据意识的其他内容显示的价值的阶层,因此比较不那么透明而能够被理解。逻辑上,道德上,或美学上形成的令人满意的整体的梦,是个例外。

Usually a dream is
a strange and disconcerting product distinguished by many “bad
qualities,” such as lack of logic, questionable morality, uncouth
form, and apparent absurdity or nonsense. People are therefore
only too glad to dismiss it as stupid, meaningless, and worthless.

通常梦是奇怪而令困窘的产物,由于有许多「坏的特质」,譬如,欠缺逻辑,可质疑的道德,粗糙的形式,明显的荒谬或无意义。人们因此非常乐意排斥它,作为愚笨,无意义,与没有价值。

Every interpretation of a dream is a psychological
statement about certain of its contents.

对于梦的每个解释是心理的陈述,关于某些它的内容。

This is not without
danger, as the dreamer, like most people, usually displays an
astonishing sensitiveness to critical remarks, not only if they are
wrong, but even more if they are right.

这并非没有危险,因为作梦者,像大部分人们一样,通常展示令人惊奇的敏感,对于批评的评论。不但是假如他们犯错误,而且即使他们是对的,他们更加是错误。

Since it is not possible,
except under very special conditions, to work out the meaning
of a dream without the collaboration of the dreamer, an
extraordinary amount of tact is required not to violate his self respect
unnecessarily.

因为除了在特殊的情况之下,每当我们解释梦的意义,我们总是需要作梦者的合作,才有可能。这需要特殊数量的技巧,才不会没有必要地违背他的自尊心。

For instance, what is one to say when a
patient tells a number of indecent dreams and then asks:
“Why should I have such disgusting dreams?”

譬如,当一个病人说出许多不正当的梦,然后问:「为什么我竟然会有如此令人讨厌的梦?」

To this sort of
question it is better to give no answer, since an answer is
difficult for several reasons, especially for the beginner, and
one is very apt under such circumstances to say something
clumsy, above all when one thinks one knows what the answer
is.

对于这个问题,我们最好不要回答。因为回答有好几个理由是困难的,特别是对于刚开始的人。在这些情况下,我们很容易说出某件笨拙的东西。尤其是,我们认为我们知道那个回答是什么。

It is so difficult to understand a dream that for a long time I
have made it a rule, when someone tells me a dream and asks
for my opinion, to say first of all to myself: “I have no idea
what this dream means.” After that I can begin to examine the
dream.

要理解一个梦是如此困难,以致于长久以来,我已经养成习惯。当某个人告诉我一个梦,并且寻求我的意见,我首先会对自己说:「我不知道这个梦是什么意思。」毕竟,我能够开始检视这个梦。

Here the reader will certainly ask: “Is it worth while in
any individual case to look for the meaning of a dream—
supposing that dreams have any meaning at all and that this
meaning can be proved?”

在此,读者将确实会问:「这是值得的吗?在个人身上,寻求梦的意义—假定梦拥有任何的意义,并且这个意义能够被证实。」

It is easy to prove that an animal is a vertebrate by
laying bare the spine. But how does one proceed to lay bare
the inner, meaningful structure of a dream? Apparently the
dream follows no clearly determined patterns or regular modes
of behavior, apart from well-known “typical” dreams, such as
nightmares.

我们很容易证明,动物是脊椎动物,由于脊椎显露出来。但是我们如何继续下去,将梦的内部,有意义的结构显露出来?显而易见地,梦并没有遵循清楚决定的模式或规律的行为模式,除了那些著名的「典型」的梦,譬如,梦魇。

Anxiety dreams are not unusual but they are by
no means the rule. Also there are typical dream-motifs known
to the layman, such as of flying, climbing stairs or mountains,
going about with insufficient clothing, losing your teeth,
crowds of people, hotels, railway stations, trains, airplanes,
automobiles, frightening animals (snakes), etc. These motifs
are very common but by no means sufficient to confirm the
existence of any regularity in the structure of a dream.

焦虑的梦并不寻常,但是他们绝非是常规。而且,外行人也知道一些典型的梦的母题,譬如,飞行,爬楼梯,或爬山,衣服不整地到处走动,掉落牙齿,一群人们,旅馆,火车站,火车,飞机,汽车,令人害怕的动物(蛇),等等。这些母题非常普遍,但是绝对不足够来证实梦的结构的任何规律的存在。

Some people have recurrent dreams. This happens
particularly in youth, but the recurrence may continue over
several decades. These are often very impressive dreams which
convince one that they “must surely have a meaning.”

有些人们拥有重复的梦。这特别发生在年轻人身上。但是梦的重复可能继续好几十年。这些梦经常非常生动,让我们相信,它们「一定确实拥有意义」。

This feeling is justified in so far as one cannot, even taking the most
cautious view, avoid the assumption that a definite psychic
situation does arise from time to time which causes the dream.

这种感觉是合理的,因为即使是最谨慎的观点,我们也无法避免这个假设:明确的心灵的情况确实起源于引起梦的不同时间。

But a “psychic situation” is something that, if it can be
formulated, is identical with a definite meaning—provided, of
course, that one does not stubbornly hold to the hypothesis
(certainly not proven) that all dreams can be traced back to
stomach trouble or sleeping on one’s back or the like. Such
dreams do indeed suggest that their contents have a causal
meaning. The same is true of so-called typical motifs which
repeat themselves frequently in longer series of dreams. Here
again it is hard to escape the impression that they mean
something.

但是「心灵的情况」是某件等同于明清意义的东西,假如它能够被说明的话—当然,只要一个人没有顽固地坚持这个假设(确实没有经过证明的假设):所有的梦都能够被追溯到胃的病痛或俯卧睡觉,等等。这些梦确实暗示:它们的内容具有因果的意义。就所谓的典型的母题而言,情况也是一样。这些典型的母题经常重复在一长连串的梦里。在此,我们很难逃避这个印象:它们具有某个意义。

But how do we arrive at a plausible meaning and how
can we confirm the rightness of the interpretation? One
method—which, however, is not scientific—would be to predict
future happenings from the dreams by means of a dream-book
and to verify the interpretation by subsequent events assuming
of course that the meaning of dreams lies in their anticipation of
the future.

但是,我们如何能够获得一个似乎合理的意义,我们如何能够证实解释的正确?有一个方法—可是,并非科学的方法—将可以根据梦预测未来发生的事,凭借解梦的书。并且验证解释,凭借随后的事件。当然,他们假设梦的意义就在于他们对未来的预测。

Another way to get at the meaning of the dream directly
might be to turn to the past and reconstruct former experiences
from the occurrence of certain motifs in the dreams. While this
is possible to a limited extent, it would have a decisive value only
if we could discover in this way something which, though it had
actually taken place, had remained unconscious to the dreamer
or at any rate something he would not like to divulge under any
circumstances.

直接获得梦的另外一个方法,可能就是转向过去,并且重构以前的经验,根据梦里的某些母题的发生。虽然在某个程度上,这是可能的,只有当我们能够以这种方式发现某件作梦者始终是无意识的东西,而它确实曾经发生,它才具有决定性的价值。或为他发现某件无论在任何情况下,他都不想要揭露的事情。

If neither is the case, then we are dealing simply
with memory-images whose appearance in the dream is (a) not
denied by anyone, and (b) completely irrelevant so far as a
meaningful dream function is concerned, since the dreamer
could just as well have supplied the information consciously.
This unfortunately exhausts the possible ways of proving the
meaning of a dream directly.

假如都不是这个情况,那么我们仅是在处理记忆-意象。它们在梦里的外表并没有被任何人否认,并且完全没有关联,因为就有意义的梦的功能而言,既然作梦者很有可能有意识地供应这个资讯。不幸地,这并没有穷尽各种可能直接证明梦的方式。

It is Freud’s great achievement to have put dream interpretation
on the right track. Above all, he recognized that
no interpretation can be undertaken without the dreamer. The
words composing a dream narrative have not just one meaning,
but many meanings.

这是弗洛依德的伟大成就,将梦的解析导引进入正确的轨道。尤其重要的是,他体认出:假如没有作梦者,梦的解析无法进行。组成梦的叙述的文字不仅有一个意义,而且拥有许多意义。

If, for instance, someone dreams of a table
we are still far from knowing what the “table” of the dreamer
signifies, although the word “table” sounds unambiguous
enough. For the thing we do not know is that this “table” is the
very one at which his father sat when he refused the dreamer all
further financial help and threw him out of the house as a good for-
nothing.

譬如,假如某个人梦见桌子,我们依旧无法知道作梦者的「桌子」意味着什么。虽然「桌子」这个字词听起来足够暧昧。我们并不知道的东西是,这个「桌子」就是他的父亲坐的桌子,当他拒绝作梦者一切财政方法的帮助,将他从屋里抛出,当作没有用的人。

The polished surface of this table stares at him as a
symbol of his catastrophic worthlessness in his daytime
consciousness as well as in his dreams at night. This is what our
dreamer understands by “table.”

这张桌子的亮丽的外表瞪视他,作为他灾难的没有价值的象征,在白天的意识里,以及在夜晚的梦里。这就是我们的作梦者理解的「桌子」。

Therefore we need the
dreamer’s help in order to limit the multiple meanings of the
words to those that are essential and convincing. That the “table”
stands as a mortifying landmark in the dreamer’s life may be
doubted by anyone who was not present. But the dreamer does
not doubt it, nor do I. Clearly, dream-interpretation is in the
first place an experience which has immediate validity for only
two persons.

因此,我们需要作梦者的帮助,为了将文字的多重意义,限制于那些基本而令人信服的东西。「桌子」作为作梦者的生平里令人羞辱的标志,可能会被怀疑,对于任何不在现场的人。但是作梦者并没有怀疑它,我也没有怀疑。显而易见,梦的解析首先就是具有当下正确性的经验,仅是对两个人而言。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

论自恋 l

October 30, 2014

论自恋 l
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论

Further, it is easy to observe that libidinal object-cathexis does not
raise self-regard. The effect of dependence upon the loved object is to
lower that feeling: a person in love is humble. A person who loves has, so to speak, forfeited a part of his narcissism, and it can only be replaced by his being loved. In all these respects self-regard seems to remain related to the narcissistic element in love.

而且,我们很容易观察到,力比多的客体-投注并没有引起自我-关注。依靠被爱恋的客体的影响,会降低那种感觉,一位恋爱中的人是谦卑的。一位恋爱中的人,可以说是伪装一种自恋。尽凭借着他被爱恋而被取代。在所有的这些层面,自我-关注似乎跟恋爱中的自恋因素始终息息相关。

The realization of impotence, of one’s own inability to love, in
consequence of mental or physical disorder, has an exceedingly lowering effect upon self-regard. Here, in my judgement, we must look for one of the sources of the feelings of inferiority which are experienced by patients suffering from the transference neuroses and which they are so ready to report.

无能为力的体会,自己没有能够恋爱,由于精神或生理疾病的结果,具有特别降低的影响,对于自我-关注。在此,依我判断,我们必须寻找一个自卑感觉的资源。这些感觉被病人经验,他们遭受移情神经症的痛苦,他们准备要报答这个自卑的感觉。

The main source of these feelings is, however, the impoverishment of the ego, due to the extraordinarily large libidinal cathexes which have been withdrawn from it—due, that is to say, to the injury sustained by the ego through sexual trends which are no longer subject to
control.

可是,这些感觉到主要来源,是自我的贫瘠,由于特殊大量的力比多的投注,从它那里被撤回。换句话说,由于自我所维持的伤害,通过不再隶属于控制的性的倾向。

Adler [1907] is right in maintaining that when a person with an active
mental life recognizes an inferiority in one of his organs, it acts as a spur
and calls out a higher level of performance in him through
overcompensation. But it would be altogether an exaggeration if, following Adler’s example, we sought to attribute every successful achievement to this factor of an original inferiority of an organ. Not all artists are handicapped with bad eyesight, nor were all orators originally stammerers.

阿德勒是正确的,当他主张,当一个拥有主动精神生活的人,体会出他的一个器官的自卑,它行动作为一种激励,并且召唤出他身上更高的表现,通过过度的补偿。但是那将会完全是一种夸张,假如当我们遵循阿德勒的例子,我们尝试将每个成功的成就,归功于器官的原初的自卑感的因素。并不是所有的艺术家都是因为眼力不佳的阻碍,也并不是所有的演说家原初都是口给。

And there are plenty of instances of excellent achievements springing from superior organic endowment. In the aetiology of neuroses organic
inferiority and imperfect development play an insignificant part—much the same as that played by currently active perceptual material in the formation of dreams.

还有很多优秀成就的例子,是起源于优秀的器官的秉赋。在神经症的病因学,器官的自卑与不完美的发展,扮演微不足道的角色。跟梦的形成,目前活跃的感觉的材料,扮演的角色差不多。

Neuroses make use of such inferiorities as a pretext, just as they do of every other suitable factor. We may be tempted to believe a neurotic woman patient when she tells us that it was inevitable she should fall ill, since she is ugly, deformed or lacking in charm, so that no one could love her; but the very next neurotic will teach us better—for she persists in her neurosis and in her aversion to sexuality, although she seems more desirable, and is more desired, than the average woman.

神经症利用这些自卑感,作为藉口。正如他们利用每个其他适当的因素作为藉口。我们可能被引诱去相信,一位神经症的女病人,当她告诉我们,她无可避免地会生病,因为她长得丑,畸形,欠缺魅力。所以,没有人会爱上她。但是另外一位神经症可能更加教导我们—因为她坚持她的神经症,与她对性的厌恶。虽然她似乎更加具有魅力,并且更加被欲望,比起普通的女人。

The majority of
hysterical women are among the attractive and even beautiful
representatives of their sex, while, on the other hand, the frequency of
ugliness, organic defects and infirmities in the lower classes of society
does not increase the incidence of neurotic illness among them.

大多数的歇斯底里症都是她们性别的具有魅力与美丽的代表。另一方面,在下阶层的社会,丑陋,有机缺点与弱者的频率,并没有增加神经症在他们身上发作的意外。

The relations of self-regard to erotism—that is, to libidinal objectcathexes— may be expressed concisely in the following way. Two cases must be distinguished, according to whether the erotic cathexes are egosyntonic, or, on the contrary, have suffered repression. In the former case (where the use made of the libido is ego-syntonic), love is assessed like any other activity of the ego. Loving in itself, in so far as it involves longing and deprivation, lowers self-regard; whereas being loved, having one’s love returned, and possessing the loved object, raises it once more.

自我-关注跟爱欲的关系—换句话说,跟力比多的客体-投注的关系—可能以下面的方式明确地表达。两个个案必须被区别,依照爱欲的投注是自我-协调,或是相反地,遭受到压抑。在前者,(力比多的利用是自我-协调),爱被评估,就像自我的任何其他行动。恋爱的自身,因为它牵涉渴望与丧失,会降低自我-关注。而被爱,由于让自己的爱被回报,与拥有被爱的客体,会再次提升自我-关注。

When libido is repressed, the erotic cathexis is felt as a severe depletion of the ego, the satisfaction of love is impossible, and the re-enrichment of the ego can be effected only by a withdrawal of libido from its objects.

当力比多被压抑,爱欲的投注被感觉,作为是严重的自我的废除,爱的满足是不可能的。自我的重新-充实,仅有凭借从它的客体撤退力比多,才能够被形成。

The return of the object-libido to the
ego and its transformation into narcissism represents,1 as it were, a happy love once more; and, on the other hand, it is also true that a real happy love corresponds to the primal condition in which object-libido and egolibido cannot be distinguished.

客体-力比多的回到自我,与其转变成为自恋,可以说,代表再次快乐的恋爱。另一方面,同样确实的是,真正快乐的恋爱对应于原初的情况,客体-力比多与自我-力比多,在那里无法被区别.

The importance and extensiveness of the topic must be my justification
for adding a few more remarks which are somewhat loosely strung
together.

因为这个议题的重要性与广泛,我才有理由增添更多的评论,虽然这些评论相当松散串在一块。

The development of the ego consists in a departure from primary
narcissism and gives rise to a vigorous attempt to recover that state.

自我的发现在于脱离原初的自恋,并且产生热烈的企图,想要恢复那个状态。

This departure is brought about by means of the displacement of libido on to an ego ideal imposed from without; and satisfaction is brought about from fulfilling this ideal.

这种脱离被形成,凭借力比多的替换到由外部赋加的自我-理想。满足被形成,则是由于满足这个理想。

At the same time the ego has sent out the libidinal object-cathexes. It
becomes impoverished in favour of these cathexes, just as it does in
favour of the ego ideal, and it enriches itself once more from its
satisfactions in respect of the object, just as it does by fulfilling its ideal.
One part of self-regard is primary—the residue of infantile narcissism;
another part arises out of the omnipotence which is corroborated by
experience (the fulfilment of the ego ideal), whilst a third part proceeds
from the satisfaction of object-libido.

同时,自我已经送出力比多-投注。它因为偏爱这些投注而成为贫瘠。正如它偏爱自我-理想而变得贫济。它再次充实它自己,则是从它对于客体的方面的满足。正如它满足它的理想,而获得满足。其中一部分的自我关注是原初—婴孩自恋的残渣。另外一个部分则是起源于经验合作的无所不能(自我-理想的满足)。第三个部分则是从客体-力比多的满足继续下去。

The ego ideal has imposed severe conditions upon the satisfaction of
libido through objects; for it causes some of them to be rejected by means of its censor,2 as being incompatible. Where no such ideal has been formed, the sexual trend in question makes its appearance unchanged in the personality in the form of a perversion. To be their own ideal once more, in regard to sexual no less than other trends, as they were in childhood—this is what people strive to attain as their happiness.

通过客体,自我-理想曾经赋加严重的情况在力比多的满足。因为它引起它们被排斥,凭借它的检查,作为是不相和谐的。在没有这样的理想被形成的地方,受到质疑的性的倾向没有改变地出现在人格里,以变态的方式。再次成为他们自己的理想,关于性跟其他的倾向,如同他们在童年时—这是人们奋斗要保留,作为他们的快乐的东西。

Being in love consists in a flowing-over of ego-libido on to the object. It
has the power to remove repressions and re-instate perversions. It exalts the sexual object into a sexual ideal. Since, with the object type (or attachment type), being in love occurs in virtue of the fulfilment of infantile conditions for loving, we may say that
whatever fulfils that condition is idealized.

处于恋爱当中,在于自我-力比多的流露出到客体那里.它拥有这个力量,将压抑移除,并且重新开启变态。它将性的客体提升到性的理想。用这种客体类型(依附类型),恋爱发生,由于爱的婴孩状态的满足。我们可以说,满足那个情况的东西,都被理性化。

The sexual ideal may enter into an interesting auxiliary relation to the
ego ideal. It may be used for substitutive satisfaction where narcissistic
satisfaction encounters real hindrances. In that case a person will love in
conformity with the narcissistic type of object-choice, will love what he once was and no longer is, or else what possesses the excellences which he never had at all (cf. (c) [p. 90]).

性的理想可能进入跟自我-理想的有趣的辅助的关系。它可能被用来作为替换的满足。在那里,自恋的满足遭遇真实的阻碍。在那个情况,一个人将会爱,依照客体-选择的自恋的型态。他将会爱上他以前曾有而现在不再存在的样子,或是,他拥有他根本就不曾有过的优秀的东西。

The formula parallel to the one there stated runs thus: what possesses the excellence which the ego lacks for making it an ideal, is loved. This expedient is of special importance for the neurotic, who, on account of his excessive object-cathexes, is impoverished in his
ego and is incapable of fulfilling his ego ideal.

跟那里的这个公式并列的公司这样陈述著:拥有这个优秀的东西,自我所欠缺的优秀,为了让它成为理想,这个东西被爱。对于神经症,这个权宜之计非常重要。因为他过分的客体-投注,神经症者在他的自我变得贫济,并且不能够满足他的自我理想。

He then seeks a way back to narcissism from his prodigal expenditure of libido upon objects, by choosing a sexual ideal after the narcissistic type which possesses the excellences to which he cannot attain. This is the cure by love, which he generally prefers to cure by analysis. Indeed, he cannot believe in any other mechanism of cure; he usually brings expectations of this sort with him to the treatment and directs them towards the person of the physician.

他因此寻求一种方法回到自恋,从他浪子般花费力比多在客体上面。凭借选择一个性的理想,遵照自恋的型态,拥有他无法获得的优秀。这就是凭借爱的治疗。他通常宁可凭借精神分析治疗。的确,他无法相信任何其他的治疗的机制。他通常将这种的花费带到治疗,并且引导它们朝向医生这个人。

The patient’s incapacity for love, resulting from his extensive repressions, naturally stands in the way of a therapeutic plan of this kind. An unintended result is often met with when, by means of the treatment, he has been partially freed from his repressions: he withdraws from further treatment in order to choose a love-object, leaving his cure to be continued by a life with someone he loves. We might be satisfied with this result, if it did not bring with it all the dangers of a crippling dependence upon his helper in need.

病人没有能够恋爱,因为广泛的压抑所造成,当然是阻碍这种的治疗的计划。凭借治疗,病人部分地从他的压抑中解放出来,经常会造成出乎意料的结果。他从更进一步的治疗撤退,为了选择爱的客体,留下他的治疗被继续,由于更他所爱的某人的一生。我们可能会满足这种结果,假如它没有随之带来这个危险:瘫痪地依靠他需要的帮助者。

The ego ideal opens up an important avenue for the understanding of
group psychology. In addition to its individual side, this ideal has a social
side; it is also the common ideal of a family, a class or a nation. It binds not only a person’s narcissistic libido, but also a considerable amount of his homosexual libido,1 which is in this way turned back into the ego. The want of satisfaction which arises from the non-fulfilment of this ideal
liberates homosexual libido, and this is transformed into a sense of guilt
(social anxiety).

自我-理想展开一个重要的管道,让我们理解群体心理学。除了它的个人的层面外,这个理想拥有社会的层面。它也是家庭,阶级与国家的共同理想。它不但连接一个人的自恋力比多,而且连接相当数量的同性恋力比多。以这种方式,它被回转到自我。因为这的理想的非-满足而产生的满足的需求,会解放同性恋的力比多。这个同性恋的力比多被转变成为一种罪恶感(社会的焦虑)。

Originally this sense of guilt was a fear of punishment by
the parents, or, more correctly, the fear of losing their love; later the
parents are replaced by an indefinite number of fellow-men. The frequent causation of paranoia by an injury to the ego, by a frustration of
satisfaction within the sphere of the ego ideal, is thus made more
intelligible, as is the convergence of ideal-formation and sublimation in the ego ideal, as well as the involution of sublimations and the possible
transformation of ideals in paraphrenic disorders.

原初,这种罪恶感是恐惧被父母处罚。或者,更加正确地说,恐惧丧失他们的爱,后来父母被无数的其他同伴所取代。对于自我的伤害不断地引起妄想症,因此就变得更加可理解,如同理想-形成与自我-理想的升华的汇集,以及升华的内转,与在精神分裂症的疾病,理想的可能的转变。

雄伯译
32hsing@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Aion 87

October 30, 2014

Aion 87

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格
THE SIGN OF THE FISHES
鱼的讯息

l 42 If, as seems probable, the aeon of the fishes is ruled by the
archetypal motif of the hostile brothers, then the approach of
the next Platonic month, namely Aquarius, will constellate the
problem of the union of opposites.

似乎是可能的,假如双鱼宫的永恒纪元是由敌意的兄弟的原型母题所统治,那么下一个水瓶月份,也就是水瓶宫,将会形成对立的统合的难题。

It will then no longer be
possible to write off evil as the mere privation of good; its real
existence will have to be recognized. This problem can be
solved neither by philosophy, nor by economics, nor by politics,
but only by the individual human being, via his experience of
the living spirit, whose fire descended upon Joachim, one of
many, and, despite all contemporary misunderstandings, was
handed onward into the future.

因此,这将不再是可能,将写邪恶抹除,仅是当著善的被剥夺。恶的真实的存在将必须被体认。这个难题无法被解决,无论是凭借哲学,或经济学,或政治学。而是仅有凭借个体化的人,经由他的经验活生生的精神。这个精神的火降临周奇姆,他是其中一位。尽管一切当代的误解,这个活生生精神的火被传递到未来。

The solemn proclamation of
the Assumptio Mariae which we have experienced in our own
day is an example of the way symbols develop through the ages.

阿三提奥、马力亚的严肃的宣告,在我们的时代,我们已经经验到。这个宣告是象征经过几个世纪来发展的方式的例子。

The impelling motive behind it did not come from the ecclesiastical
authorities, who had given clear proof of their hesitation
by postponing the declaration for nearly a hundred years,60 but
from the Catholic masses, who have insisted more and more
vehemently on this development. Their insistence is, at bottom,
the urge of the archetype to realize itself. 61

在它背后的逼迫的动机,并不是来自教会的权威。他们清楚地证明他们的犹豫,凭借拖延这个宣告,几乎有一百年之久。而是来自天主教的弥撒。他们更加热烈地坚持这个发展。追根究底,他们的发展就是实践它自己的原型的欲望。

43 The repercussions of the Holy Ghost movement spread, in
the years that followed, to four minds of immense significance
for the future. These were Albertus Magnus (1193-1280); his
pupil Thomas Aquinas, the philosopher of the Church and an
adept in alchemy (as also was Albertus); Roger Bacon (c. 1214-c.
1294), the English forerunner of inductive science; and finally
Meister Eckhart (c. 1260-1327), the independent religious
thinker, now enjoying a real revival after six hundred years of
obscurity.

在随后的几年,圣魂运动的后续影响扩大到四位对于未来非常重要的心灵。他们是阿伯图、马格纳斯
(1193-1280);他的学生汤玛斯、阿奎那,教会哲学家,他精通炼金术;罗杰、培根(c. 1214-c.
1294),英国演绎科学的前驱者;最后,梅斯特、欧哈特(c. 1260-1327),独立宗教思想家。经过六百年的默默无名后,他现在确实复活起来。

Some people have rightly seen the Holy Ghost movement
as the forerunner of the Reformation. At about the time
of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries we find also the beginnings
of Latin alchemy, whose philosophical and spiritual content
I have tried to elucidate in my book Psychology and Alchemy.

有些人们将圣魂运动合理地视为宗教改革的先驱。大约在十二与十三世纪,我们也发现拉丁炼金术的开始。他们的哲学与精神的内容,我曾经阐述,在我论「心理学与炼金术」的书里。

The image mentioned above (par. 139) of “immutability
in the new rock” bears a striking resemblance to the central idea
of philosophical alchemy, the lapis philosophorum, which is
used as a parallel to Christ, the “rock,” the “stone,” the “corner-
stone.” Priscillian (4th cent.) says: “We have Christ for a rock,
Jesus for a cornerstone.” 62

以上被提到的意象「新岩石的不动」生动地类似哲学炼金术的中心观念,哲学家的石头。它被用来当作耶稣基督的对比,岩石,石头,基石。普利西力(第四世纪)说:「我们以基督作为磐石,耶稣作为基石」。

An alchemical text speaks of the
“rock which is smitten thrice with Moses’ rod, so that the waters
flow forth freely.” 63 The lapis is called a “sacred rock” and is
described as having four parts.64 St.

炼金术的文本谈到「用摩西的手杖敲打三次的岩石,这样水才会自由流露出来」。这个石头被称为「神圣磐石」,并且被描述为拥有四个部分。

Ambrose says the water
from the rock is a prefiguration of the blood that flowed from
Christ’s side.65 Another alchemical text mentions the “water
from the rock” as the equivalent of the universal solvent, the
aqua permanens.QQ Khunrath, in his somewhat florid language,
even speaks of the “Petroleum sapientum.” 67

阿姆罗思说:从岩石来的水上从基督这边流露出来的血的象征。另外一个炼金术的文本提到「从岩石流露出来的水」,作为普遍的溶剂的相等语。昆拉斯用他的相当华丽的语言,甚至谈论到「香蕉油」。

By the Naassenes,
Adam was called the “rock” and the “cornerstone.” 68 Both
these allegories of Christ are mentioned by Epiphanius in his
Ancoratus, and also by Firmicus Maternus.69 This image, common
to ecclesiastical and alchemical language alike, goes back to
I Corinthians 10 : 4 and I Peter 2 : 4.

根据那撒西思教派,亚当被称为「磐石」与「基石」。耶稣的这两个寓言,在阿皮分尼斯的Ancoratus里被提到,也被马特那思提到。这个意象,都是教会与炼金术语言所共有,可回溯到科林斯10‘4与彼得2’4节.

l 44 The new rock, then, takes the place of Christ, just as the
everlasting gospel was meant to take the place of Christ’s message.
Through the descent and indwelling of the Holy Ghost
the vloTijs, sonship, is infused into every individual, so that
everybody who possesses the Holy Ghost will be a new rock, in
accordance with I Peter 2:5: “Be you also as living stones built
up.” 70 This is a logical development of the teaching about the
Paraclete and the filiation, as stated in Luke 6 : 35: “You shall
be sons of the Highest,” and John 10 : 34: “Is it not written in
your law: I said, you are gods?”

这个新磐石因此替代基督,正如永久的福音被用来替代基督的讯息。通过神魂的降临与驻居,圣子被融合到每个个人,这样每位拥有圣魂的人,将会是一块磐石,符合彼得书第2:5节:「你应该成为依照活生生磐石被建造的样子」。这是关于帕拉力提的孝顺的教学的逻辑发展。在路得第6‘35节陈述:「你将成为最高圣灵的儿子」。在约翰书第10’34节:「这难道不是书写在你的法则里:我说,你是神?」

The Naassenes, as we know, had
already made use of these allusions and thus anticipated a
whole tract of historical development—a development that led
via monasticism to the Holy Ghost movement, via the Theologia
Germanica direct to Luther, and via alchemy to modern
science.

众所周知,那撒西思教派已经利用这些象征,因此预期完整的历史的发展—经由修道院主义,这个发展导致圣魂运动,经由焦曼尼加神学论文,导致路德教会,经由炼金术导致现代科学。

l 45 Let us now turn back to the theme of Christ as the fish. According
to Doelger, the Christian fish symbol first appeared in
Alexandria around a.d. 200; 71 similarly, the baptismal bath was
described as a piscina (fish-pond) quite early. This presupposes
that the believers were fishes, as is in fact suggested by the gospels
(for instance Matt. 4 : 19). There Christ wants to make
Peter and Andrew “fishers of men,” and the miraculous draught
of fishes (Luke 5 : 10) is used by Christ himself as a paradigm
for Peter’s missionary activity.

让我们现在回到基督作为鱼的主题。依照都基尔,基督的鱼的象征,首先出现在大约纪元后200年的亚历山大。同样地,很早,浸信洗礼就被描述为「鱼池」。这预先假设:信仰者是鱼。事实上,这是福音书所暗示的(譬如,马修福音、4‘7 节)。在那里,耶稣想要让彼得与安德鲁成为「人的渔夫」。而鱼群的奇迹般的乾旱,(路加福音 5’10节),则是被耶酥自己用了充当彼得的传教的活动的典范。

46 A direct astrological aspect of Christ’s birth is given us in
Matthew 2 : iff. The Magi from the East were star-gazers who,
beholding an extraordinary constellation, inferred an equally
extraordinary birth. This anecdote proves that Christ, possibly
even at the time of the apostles, was viewed from the astrological
standpoint or was at least brought into connection with
astrological myths.

在马修福音第2:1节,耶稣诞生的直接星相学的层面被给予我们。从东方来到马基就是观察星相人,他们注意到特别的星座聚结,推论出同样的特殊的诞生。这个轶事证明,甚至就在使徒们的时代,耶稣就被从星相学的观点来看待,或至少跟星相学的神话息息相关。

The latter alternative is fully confirmed
when we consider the apocalyptic utterances of St. John. Since
this exceedingly complex question has been discussed by those
who are more qualified than I, we can support our argument
on the well-attested fact that glimpses of astrological mythology
may be caught behind the stories of the worldly and otherworldly
life of the Redeemer.72

后者的替代充分地证实,当我们考虑圣约翰的启示录的表达。因为这个极端复杂的问题,曾经被那些比我更有资格的人们讨论过。我们能够支持我们的论点,根据这个经过验证的事实:星相学的神话可能被瞥见,就在救赎者的世俗与超俗的生命的故事的背后。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

论自恋 j

October 29, 2014

论自恋 j
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论

It would not surprise us if we were to find a special psychical agency
which performs the task of seeing that narcissistic satisfaction from the ego ideal is ensured and which, with this end in view, constantly watches the actual ego and measures it by that ideal.2 If such an agency does exist, we cannot possibly come upon it as a discovery—we can only recognize it; for we may reflect that what we call our ‘conscience’ has the required characteristics. Recognition of this agency enables us to understand the so-called ‘delusions of being noticed’ or more correctly, of being watched3, which are such striking symptoms in the paranoid diseases and which may also occur as an isolated form of illness, or intercalated in a transference neurosis.

我们将不会感到惊奇,万一我们发现特别的心灵的代理,执行这个工作:负责从自我理想获得的自我满足被保证,而且宏观这个目的,观看实际的自我,并且凭借那个理想测量它。假如这样的代理确实存在,我们不可能遭遇它作为一种发泄—我们仅能够体认它,因为我们反思,我们所谓的「良心」拥有所需要的特性。对于这个代理的体认让我们能够理解所谓的「受让注意的幻觉」,或更正确地说,被人观看的幻觉。它们是如此明显的病征,在偏执狂的疾病上,并且可能发生作为孤立的疾病的形式,或是被增添到移情的神经症。

Patients of this sort complain that all their thoughts are known
and their actions watched and supervised; they are informed of the
functioning of this agency by voices which characteristically speak to them in the third person (‘Now she’s thinking of that again’, ‘now he’s going out’).

这类的病人抱怨,所有他们的思想被人知道,所有他们的行动被观看与被监督。他们被告知这个代理的功能,用第三人称对他们言说的特有的那些声音(「现在,她正再次想到那件事」,「现在,他正在出去」。)

This complaint is justified; it describes the truth. A power of this kind,
watching, discovering and criticizing all our intentions, does really exist.
Indeed, it exists in every one of us in normal life.

这个抱怨是合理的。它描述真相。这种的权力,观看,发现并批评我们所有的意图,它确实存在。的确,它存在于正常生活的我们每个人身上。

Delusions of being watched present this power in a regressive form,
thus revealing its genesis and the reason why the patient is in revolt
against it. For what prompted the subject to form an ego ideal, on whose
behalf his conscience acts as watchman, arose from the critical influence of his parents (conveyed to him by the medium of the voice), to whom were added, as time went on, those who trained and taught him and the innumerable and indefinable host of all the other people in his environment —his fellow-men—and public opinion.

被观看的幻觉以退行的形式呈现这个权力,因此揭示它的代理与为什么病人反叛它的理由。因为触发主体形成自我理想的东西,他的良心代表他充当观看者,起源于他的病人的批评的影响(由声音的媒介传递给他)。随着时间过去,被增添到他身上是是那些训练与教导他的人们,以及在他的环境里,无数无法定义的所有的其他的人们—他的同胞—公共舆论。

In this way large amounts of libido of an essentially homosexual kind
are drawn into the formation of the narcissistic ego ideal and find outlet
and satisfaction in maintaining it. The institution of conscience was at
bottom an embodiment, first of parental criticism, and subsequently of that of society—a process which is repeated in what takes place when a
tendency towards repression develops out of a prohibition or obstacle that came in the first instance from without.

以这种方式,基本上是同性恋的大量的力比多,被吸收到自恋的自我理想的形成,然后找到发泄与满足,当维持它时。良心的体制追根究底,首先是父母批评的化身,随后是社会的化身—这一个过程被重复,在所发生的事情,当朝向退行的倾向,从第一个情况自外面而来的禁忌与阻碍里发展出来。

The voices, as well as the undefined multitude, are brought into the foreground again by the disease, and so the evolution of conscience is reproduced regressively. But the revolt against this ‘censoring agency’ arises out of the subject’s desire (in accordance with the fundamental character of his illness) to liberate himself from all these influences, beginning with the parental one, and out of his withdrawal of homosexual libido from them. His conscience then confronts him in a regressive form as a hostile influence from without.

这些声音,以及没有被定义的众多声音,再次由疾病带入前景。所以,良心的进化被退行地复制。但是对于这个「审查代理」的反叛,起源于主体欲望(遵循他的疾病的基本特性),为了解放他自己,从所有这些影响,开始于父母的影响,从他们那里撤退的同性恋的力比多。他的良心因此以退行的形式面对他们,作为是从外部的敌意的影响。

The complaints made by paranoics also show that at bottom the self criticism of conscience coincides with the self-observation on which it is
based. Thus the activity of the mind which has taken over the function of
conscience has also placed itself at the service of internal research, which furnishes philosophy with the material for its intellectual operations.

由偏执狂所做的抱怨也显示,追根究底,良心的自我批评巧合于作为它的基础的自我-观察。因此,心灵的活动已经接管良心的功能,也将它自己放置在对内部研究的服役。这个内部的研究供应哲学,作为知识运作的材料。

This may have some bearing on the characteristic tendency of paranoics to construct speculative systems.1

这可能跟偏执狂的特有的倾向有些关系,为了建设思维的系统。

It will certainly be of importance to us if evidence of the activity of this critically observing agency—which becomes heightened into conscience and philosophic introspection—can be found in other fields as well. I will mention here what Herbert Silberer has called the ‘functional phenomenon’, one of the few indisputably valuable additions to the theory of dreams.

对于我们,这确实非常重要,假如这个关键的观察的代理的活动的证据,被强化成为良心与哲学的内省。它们在其他领域也能够被找到。我将在此提到赫伯特 西贝瑞所谓的「功能的现象」,对于梦到理论,是一篇价值连城的增添。

Silberer, as we know, has shown that in states between
sleeping and waking we can directly observe the translation of thoughts
into visual images, but that in these circumstances we frequently have a
representation, not of a thought-content, but of the actual state
(willingness, fatigue, etc.) of the person who is struggling against sleep.

据我们所知,西贝瑞曾经揭示:在睡眠与清醒之间的状态,我们能够直接地观察思想被翻译成为视觉的意像,而且在那些情况,我们经常拥有正在睡眠奋斗的人的再现,不是思想-内容的再现,而是实际的状态(意志,疲倦,等等的再现。

Similarly, he has shown that the conclusions of some dreams or some
divisions in their content merely signify the dreamer’s own perception of his sleeping and waking. Silberer has thus demonstrated the part played by observation—in the sense of the paranoic’s delusions of being watched— in the formation of dreams. This part is not a constant one.

同样地,他曾经揭示:某些梦或某些梦的内容的区分的结论,仅是意味着作梦者自己睡眠与清醒时的知觉。西贝瑞因此证明观察扮演的这个角色—从偏执狂被观看的幻觉的意义而言—在梦的形成。这个角色并不是经常的角色。

Probably the reason why I overlooked it is because it does not play any great part in my own dreams; in persons who are gifted philosophically and accustomed to introspection it may become very evident.1

可是,为什么我忽略它的理由,是因为它在我自己的梦里,并没有扮演任何重大的角色。在那些具有哲学秉赋而且习惯于内省的人们,它就变得很明显。

We may here recall that we have found that the formation of dreams
takes place under the dominance of a censorship which compels distortion of the dream-thoughts. We did not, however, picture this censorship as a special power, but chose the term to designate one side of the repressive trends that govern the ego, namely the side which is turned towards the dream-thoughts.

我们在此可能回想到,我们曾经发现,梦的形成发生在检查的支配之下。这样的检查会逼迫扭曲梦的思想。可是,我们并不是描绘这个检查,作为是特别的力量。而是选择这个术语,来指明压抑的倾向的一边,它们统治自我。换句话说,被倒转朝向梦的思想的那边。

If we enter further into the structure of the ego, we may
recognize in the ego ideal and in the dynamic utterances of conscience the dream-censor2 as well. If this censor is to some extent on the alert even during sleep, we can understand how it is that its suggested activity of self-observation and self-criticism—with such thoughts as, ‘now he is too sleepy to think’, ‘now he is waking up’—makes a contribution to the content of the dream.1

假如我们更加深入地探究自我的结构,我们可能在自我理想,与良心的动力的表达里,也体认出梦的检查者。假如这个检查者有某个程度的警觉,即使在睡眠的时刻,我们能够理解,它的自我观察与自我-批评的被暗示的活动对于梦的内容有很大的贡献。因为这些思想,他太过于昏睡,无法思想,现在他正在清醒当中。

At this point we may attempt some discussion of the self-regarding
attitude in normal people and in neurotics.

在这个时候,我们可能企图讨论在正常人们与神经症者的自我关注的态度。

In the first place self-regard appears to us to be an expression of the
size of the ego; what the various elements are which go to determine that size is irrelevant. Everything a person possesses or achieves, every
remnant of the primitive feeling of omnipotence which his experience has confirmed, helps to increase his self-regard.

首先,我们觉得自我关注是自我的大小的表达。前来决定那个大小的各种的元素的东西并无关紧要。每个人拥有或完成的东西,他的经验曾经证实的,原初的无所不能的残余物,有助于增加他的自我关注。

Applying our distinction between sexual and ego-instincts, we must
recognize that self-regard has a specially intimate dependence on
narcissistic libido. Here we are supported by two fundamental facts: that in paraphrenics self-regard is increased, while in the transference neuroses it is diminished; and that in love-relations not being loved lowers the selfregarding feelings, while being loved raises them. As we have indicated, the aim and the satisfaction in a narcissistic object-choice is to be loved.2

当我们运用性与自我-本能的区别时,我们必须体认出,自我关注具有特别亲密的依靠,对于自恋的力比多。在此,我们受到两个基本事实的支持:在精神分裂症,自我关注被增加。而在移情神经症,它被减少。在爱的关系,没有被爱降低自我关注的感觉。而被爱则是提升自我关注的感觉。如同我们曾经指示的,自恋的客体-选择的目标与满足,就是被爱。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Aion 84

October 29, 2014

Aion 84

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格
THE SIGN OF THE FISHES
鱼的讯息

l 4° These few examples may suffice to show what kind of spirit
animated these movements. They were made up of people who
identified themselves (or were identified) with God, who deemed
themselves supermen, had a critical approach to the gospels, followed
the promptings of the inner man, and understood the
kingdom of heaven to be within.

这少数几个例子可能足够显示哪一种精神触发这些运动。组成这些人们认同于(或被认同于)上帝。他们认为自己是超人,拥有关键的途径进入福音,追随内在人的教导,并且理解属于内部的天上的王国。

In a sense, therefore, they were
modern in their outlook, but they had a religious inflation
instead of the rationalistic and political psychosis that is the
affliction of our day. We ought not to impute these extremist
ideas to Joachim, even though he took part in that great movement
of the spirit and was one of its outstanding figures.

因此,从某个意义言,他们的外观是现代,但是他们具有宗教的膨胀,而不是作为我们这个时代的理性与政治的精神病。我们不应该将这些极端主义的观念归属于周奇姆,即使他参与精神的那个伟大的运动,并且是它其中的一位著名的行动。

One must ask oneself what psychological impulse could have moved
him and his adherents to cherish such bold expectations as the
substitution of the “everlasting gospel” for the Christian message
or the supersession of the second Person in the Godhead by
the third, who would reign over the new era.

我们必须询问自己,是什么心理的冲动曾经感动他与其坚信者,怀抱如此大胆的期望,作为「永恒福音」的替换,取代基督教的讯息,或是上帝的第二人的取代,或将会统治这个新时代的第三人。

This thought is so
heretical and subversive that it could never have occurred to him
had he not felt himself supported and swept along by the revolutionary
currents of the age. He felt it as a revelation of the Holy
Ghost, whose life and procreative power no church could bring
to a stop.

这个思想是如此的异端与颠覆,以致于假如他没有感觉他自己受到当代革命潮流所支持及强烈影响,他本来不会拥有这种思想。他感觉这种思想,作为是圣魂的启示。任何教会都无法终止神魂的生命与挑衅的力量。

The numinosity of this feeling was heightened by the
temporal coincidence—”synchronicity”—of the epoch he lived
in with the beginning of the sphere of the “antichristian” fish in
Pisces. In consequence, one might feel tempted to regard the
Holy Ghost movement and Joachim’s central ideas as a direct
expression of the antichristian psychology that was then dawning.

随着双鱼宫殿「反基督」的鱼的氛围的开始,这种感觉的神性,受到他生活的时代时间的巧合所强化–「共时性」。结果,我们感觉忍不住地将圣魂运动与周奇姆的中心的观念,作为是当时正在开始的反基督心理学的直接表达。

At any rate the Church’s condemnation is thoroughly understandable,
for in many ways his attitude to the Church of Jesus
Christ comes very close to open insurrection, if not downright
apostasy. But if we allow some credence to the conviction of these
innovators that they were moved by the Holy Ghost, then another
interpretation becomes not only possible but even probable.

无论如何,教会的宣判是彻底可理解的。因为许多方面,他对于耶稣基督的教会的态度,非常靠近公开造反,即使不是彻底的叛变。但是,假如我们容许推崇这些改革者的信仰:他们受到神魂的感动。那么,另外一个解释不但是可能,甚至更加合理。
That is to say, just as Joachim supposed that the status of
the Holy Ghost had secretly begun with St. Benedict, so we
might hazard the conjecture that a new status was secretly
anticipated in Joachim himself.

换句话说,正如周奇姆认为,圣魂的地位已经随着圣、班尼迪克开始。所以,我们可以提出这个推测:在周奇姆自己秘密地期望一个新的地位。

Consciously, of course, he
thought he was bringing the status of the Holy Ghost into
reality, just as it is certain that St. Benedict had nothing else in
mind than to put the Church on a firm footing and deepen the
meaning of the Christian life through monasticism.

当然,意识上,他认为他正将圣魂的地位带进现实。正如确定地,班尼迪克心目中所构想的,实实在在就是将教会放置在坚固的立足点,并且通过修道院主义,深化基督徒的意义。

But, unconsciously—
and this is psychologically what probably happened—
Joachim could have been seized by the archetype of the spirit.

但是,无意识里—这是心理学上很可能发生的情况—周奇姆当时本来著迷于精神的原型。

There is no doubt that his activities were founded on a numinous
experience, which is, indeed, characteristic of all those who
are gripped by an archetype.

无可置疑,他的行动的基础是神性的经验。的确,神性的经验作为那些被原型著迷的人们的特征。

He understood the spirit in the
dogmatic sense as the third Person of the Godhead, for no other
way was possible, but not in the sense of the empirical archetype.
This archetype is not of uniform meaning, but was originally
an ambivalent dualistic figure 58 that broke through again
in the alchemical concept of spirit after engendering the most
contradictory manifestations within the Holy Ghost movement
itself.

他不是从经验原型的意义,而是从教义意义来理解精神,作为是上帝化身的第三人,因为没有其他方法是可能。这种原型并不是属于一致性的意义,而是原先就是爱恨交加的双重的人物。在圣魂运动自身的内部,产生最矛盾的展示之后,在精神的炼金术的观念,再次突破。

The Gnostics in their day had already had clear intimations
of this dualistic figure. It was therefore very natural,
in an age which coincided with the beginning of the second Fish
and which was, so to speak, forced into ambiguity, that an
espousal of the Holy Ghost in its Christian form should at the
same time help the archetype of the spirit to break through in
all its characteristic ambivalence.

在他们的时代,对于这个双重的人物,诺斯教派已经清楚地暗示出来。因此,这是非常自然地,在巧合于第二个双鱼宫的开始的时代,这个时代被迫陷入暧昧。圣魂以它的基督的形态的结合,应该同时有助于精神的原型突破,在它作为特征的爱恨交加里。

It would be unjust to class so
worthy a personage as Joachim with the bigoted advocates of
that revolutionary and anarchic turbulence, which is what the
Holy Ghost movement turned into in so many places.

这将是不公正,假如我们将像周奇姆这样珍贵的人物,归类为那个革命与无政府主义的骚乱的偏执的创导者。在很多地方,神魂运动就转变成为那种革命与无政府主义的骚乱。

We must
suppose, rather, that he himself unwittingly ushered in a new
“status,” a religious attitude that was destined to bridge and
compensate the frightful gulf that had opened out between
Christ and Antichrist in the eleventh century.

相反地,我们必须认为,他自己很不机智地引入一个新的「地位」,一个宗教的态度。在十一世纪,基督与反基督之间,已经展开的可怕的横沟,这种宗教的态度注定要来弥补与补偿。

The antichristian
era is to blame that the spirit became non-spiritual and that the
vitalizing archetype gradually degenerated into rationalism,
intellectualism, and doctrinairism, all of which leads straight to
the tragedy of modern times now hanging over our heads like a
sword of Damocles.

这种反基督的时代应该受到责备,因为精神变成反-精神,具有生命力的原型逐渐恶化成为理性主义,知识主义,教条主义。所有这一切直接导致现代的悲剧:现在悬垂在我们头上的达摩克利斯剑。

In the old formula for the Trinity, as
Joachim knew it, the dogmatic figure of the devil is lacking,
for then as now he led a questionable existence somewhere on
the fringes of theological metaphysics, in the shape of the mysterium
iniquitatis. Fortunately for us, the threat of his coming
had already been foretold in the New Testament—for the less
he is recognized the more dangerous he is.

在三位一体的古老公式里,如同周奇姆所知道,恶魔这个教条人物是欠缺的。因为当时跟现在一样,他在某个地方过著可疑的存在,在神学的形上学的边缘,以「邪恶的神秘」的形状。对于我们,幸运地,他来临造成的威胁在新约里已经被预言。他越是没有被体认,他越是更加危险。

Who would suspect
him under those high-sounding names of his, such as public
welfare, lifelong security, peace among the nations, etc.? He
hides under idealisms, under -isms in general, and of these the
most pernicious is doctrinairism, that most unspiritual of all
the spirit’s manifestations.

他当时名声响亮,譬如,公共福利,终身保险,国际和平,等等,有谁会去怀疑他?他隐藏在理想主义之下,在某某「主义」之下。其中最危险的是教条主义,所有的精神的展示当中,最不具有精神的东西。

The present age must come to terms
drastically with the facts as they are, with the absolute opposition
that is not only tearing the world asunder politically but has
planted a schism in the human heart. We need to find our way
back to the original, living spirit which, because of its ambivalence,
is also a mediator and uniter of opposites,59 an idea that
preoccupied the alchemists for many centuries.

目前的时代必须强烈地妥协于它们存在的事实,妥协于这个绝对的对立,不但在政治方面撕裂世界的绝对的对立,而且将这种分裂安置在人类心灵里。我们需要找出我们的出路,回到原初,活生生的精神。因为它的爱恨交加,这种原初的活生生的精神也是对立力量的仲裁者与统一者。好几世纪来,这个观念让炼金术师非常专注。

雄伯译
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梦的特质

October 28, 2014

梦的特质
The Nature of Dreams

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格

4 • CARL JUNG On the Nature of Dreams • 5
Medical psychology differs from all other scientific
disciplines in that it has to deal with the most
complex problems without being able to rely on
tested rules of procedure, on a series of verifiable experiments
and logically explicable facts.

医学心理学不同于所有其他的科学部门,因为它必须处理最复杂的难题,却不能够依靠被测试过的程序的规则,根据一连串的可验证的试验,与逻辑上可说明的事实。

On the contrary, it is confronted
with a mass of shifting irrational happenings, for the psyche is
perhaps the most baffling and unapproachable phenomenon
with which the scientific mind has ever had to deal.

相反地,它面临一堆转变的非理性的意外事件,因为心灵或许是最令人困惑与无法接近的现象。而科学的心灵始终必须处理这个现象。

Although
we must assume that all psychic phenomena are somehow, in the
broadest sense, causally dependent, it is advisable to remember
at this point that causality is in the last analysis no more than a
statistical truth.

虽然我们必须假设,所有的心灵的现象,广义地说,因果关系是互相依靠的。我们此时最好记住: 因果律追根究底仅是统计的真理。

Therefore we should perhaps do well in certain
cases to make allowance for absolute irrationality even if, on
heuristic grounds, we approach each particular case by inquiring
into its causality. Even then, it is advisable to bear in mind at
least one of the classical distinctions, namely that between causa
efficiens and causa finalis.

因此,我们或许在某些的情况,最好考虑到绝对的非理性,即使根据启发法的理由,我们接近每个特殊的个案,凭借调查它的因果律。即使这样,我们最好至少记住一个古典的区别,也就是,有效原因与最终原因的古典区别。

In psychological matters, the question
“Why does it happen?” is not necessarily more productive of
results than the other question “To what purpose does it happen?”

在心理学的事情,「为什么它会发生?」这个问题,未必产生更多的结果,比起另外一个问题:「它发生是为了什么目的?」

Among the many puzzles of medical psychology there is
one problem child, the dream.

在医学心理学的许多难题之中,有一个难题的小孩,那就是梦。

It would be an interesting, as well
as difficult, task to examine the dream exclusively in its medical
aspects, that is, with regard to the diagnosis and prognosis of
pathological conditions.

专门在医学的层面检视梦,将是一件有趣而又困难的工作。换句话说,关于病理情况的诊断与判病结局。

The dream does in fact concern itself
with both health and sickness, and since, by virtue of its source
in the unconscious, it draws upon a wealth of subliminal
perceptions, it can sometimes produce things that are very well
worth knowing.

梦实际上确实跟健康与疾病息息相关。因为凭借它在无意识的来源,它依靠许多的升华的感觉。它有时产生很值得知道的事情。

This has often proven helpful to me in cases
where the differential diagnosis between organic and
psychogenic symptoms presented difficulties. For prognosis, too,
certain dreams are important. In this field, however, the
necessary preliminary studies, such as careful records of case
histories and the like, are still lacking.

对于我,这个经常证明是有帮助。在某些个案,有机体与心因的病征之间的差异的诊断,呈现困难的地方。就判病结局而言,也是一样。某些的梦是重要的。可是,在这个领域,必要的初级的研究,譬如仔细记录个案历史,等等,都依旧欠缺。

Doctors with
psychological training do not as yet make a practice of recording
dreams systematically, so as to preserve material which would
have a bearing on a subsequent outbreak of severe illness or a
lethal issue—in other words, on events which could not be
foreseen at the beginning of the record.

具有心理学训练的医生还没有养成系统地记录梦的这样的习惯,为了保持跟随后的严重疾病或致命问题的爆发息息相关的材料。换句话说,那些事件在记录的开始,无法被预见。

The investigation of
dreams in general is a lifework in itself, and their detailed study
requires the cooperation of many workers. I have therefore
preferred, in this short review, to deal with the fundamental
aspects of dream psychology and interpretation in such a way
that those who have no experience in this field can at least get
some idea of the problem and the method of inquiry.

一般的梦的研究本身是一生的工作。对于它们的详细的研究要求许多工作者的合作。我因此在这个短期的回顾时,我宁可处理梦心理与解释的基本的层面。这样,那些在这个领域没有经验的人们,至少能够获得难题与研究方法的某个观念。

Anyone who is familiar with the material will probably agree with me
that a knowledge of fundamentals is more important than an
accumulation of case histories, which still cannot make up for
lack of experience.

任何对于这个材料熟稔的人,可能将会同意我:比起个案历史的累计,基本的知识更加重要。个案历史并无法弥补经验的欠缺。

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Aion 82

October 28, 2014

Aion 82

Carl Jung
卡尔、荣格
THE SIGN OF THE FISHES
鱼的讯息

l 37 As to the 5,000 years, the date we get is a.d. 1 239. This was an
epoch noted for its spiritual instability, revolutionary heresies
and chiliastic expectations, and at the same time it saw the
founding of the mendicant orders, which injected new life into
monasticism.

关于这5,000年,我们获得的日期是纪元后239年。这个时代以它的精神的不稳定,革命的异端,与千禧年的期望闻名。同时,这个时代也出现乞食修道院的创建,它注入新的生命给予修道院主义。

One of the most powerful and influential voices
to announce the coming of a “new age of the spirit” was Joachim
of Flora (d. 1202), whose teachings were condemned by the
Fourth Lateran Council in 1215.

其中一个最强烈,最具有影响力的声音,宣布「精神的新时代」的来临,就是弗罗拉的周奇姆(1202年)。在1215年,他的教导受到第四拉特兰会议的判刑。

He expected the opening of
the seventh seal in the fairly near future, the advent of the
“everlasting gospel” and the reign of the “intellectus spiritualis,”
the age of the Holy Ghost.

他期望在不久的未来,第七封印会打开。那是「永恒的福音」的来临,以及「智性精神」的统治,神圣魔鬼的时代。

This third aeon, he says, had
already begun with St. Benedict, the founder of the Benedictine
Order (the first monastery was supposed to have been built a
few years after 529).

他说,第三永恒纪元已经开始,从圣、贝尼帝特开始,他说贝尼帝庭修道院的创办人。(最早的修道院据说在529年后几年被建造。)

One of Joachim’s followers, the Franciscan
friar Gerard of Borgo San Donnino, proclaimed in his Introductorius
in evangelium aeternum, which appeared in 1254 in
Paris, that Joachim’s three main treatises were in fact the everlasting
gospel, and that in the year 1260 this would replace the
gospel of Jesus Christ. 53

周奇姆的一位跟随者,法朗西斯教派的修道士,从敦尼诺来的焦拉得,在他出现于1254年巴黎的「福音导言」里宣告:周奇姆的三篇主要论文事实上是永恒的福音。在1260年,这个福音将会取得耶稣、基督的福音。

As we know, Joachim saw monasticism as
the true vehicle of the Holy Ghost and for this reason he dated
the secret inception of the new era from the lifetime of St. Benedict,
whose founding of the Benedictine Order revived monasticism
in the West.

众所周知,周奇姆将修道院主义,视为是神圣魔鬼的真实的工具。因为这个理由,他订定新时代的秘密的开始,从圣贝尼帝特的一生开始。他创办贝尼帝特修道院,复兴西方的修道院主义。

To Pierre d’Ailly the time of Pope Innocent III ( 11 98-1 2 1 6) had already seemed significant. About the year 1 189, he says, the
revolutions of Saturn were once again completed (“completae
anno Christi 1 189 vel circiter”).

对于皮尔、阿里,教会诺森三世的时代(1198-1216)似乎已经很重要。他说,大约在1189年,土星的旋转再次被完成。

He complains that the Pope had
condemned a treatise of Abbot Joachim,54 and also the heretical
doctrine of Almaricus.55 This last is the theological philosopher
Amalric of Bene (d. 1204), who took part in the widespread
Holy Ghost movement of that age.

他抱怨,教皇将周奇姆教长的论文以及阿尔马力丘斯的信条判罪。最后一位是神学哲学家,贝尼的阿玛力科。他参与那个时代的圣魂运动。

It was then, too, he says, that
the Dominican and Franciscan mendicant orders came into
existence, “which was a great and wonderful thing for the Christian
church.” Pierre d’Ailly thus lays stress on the same phenomena
that struck us as being characteristic of the time, and
further regards this epoch as having been foretold in astrology.

他说,也就是在那时,多明尼加与法兰西斯的乞食修道院开始出现。对于基督教的教会,这是伟大而神奇的事情。皮尔、阿里因此强调相同的现象。这些现象给予我们的印象是那个时代的特征,。皮尔、阿里更进一步将这个时代,视为在星相学已经被预测。

The date for the founding of the monastery of Monte Cassino
brings us very close to the year 530, which the Talmud
prophesied would be a critical one.

蒙地、卡西诺修道院的创建的日期,让我们更加靠近530年。被预言的犹太塔木德法典将是一个关键的法典。

In Joachim’s view not only
does a new era begin then, but a new “status” of the world—the
age of monasticism and the reign of the Holy Ghost.

从周奇姆的观点,不但一个新的时代那时开始,而且是世界的新「地位」开始—修道院的时代与圣魂统治。

Its beginning
still comes within the domain of the Son, but Joachim surmises
in a psychologically correct manner that a new status—
or, as we would say, a new attitude—would appear first as a more
or less latent preliminary stage, which would then be followed
by the fructification the flower and the fruit.

它的开始依旧在圣子的领域内部来临。但是周奇姆以心理学正确的方式推测,一个新的地位—或者我们不妨说,新的态度—将会出现,首先作为相当潜伏的初期阶段,跟随而来的就是花与果实的成熟。

In Joachim’s day
the fruition was still in abeyance, but one could observe far and
wide an uncommon agitation and commotion of men’s spirits.

在周奇姆的时代,这个成熟依旧处于悬置当中。但我们到处都能够观察到人的精神不寻常的激动与骚动。

Everyone felt the rushing wind of the pneuma; it was an age of
new and unprecedented ideas which were blazoned abroad by
the Cathari, Patarenes, Concorricci, Waldenses, Poor Men of
Lyons, Beghards, Brethren of the Free Spirit, “Bread through
God,” 56 and whatever else these movements were called. Their
visible beginnings all lay in the early years of the eleventh century.
The contemporary documents amassed by Hahn throw a
revealing light on the ideas current in these circles:

每个人都感觉这阵急促的圣魂风潮。那是新而且史无前例的观念的时代,由卡萨里,帕塔瑞尼斯,康科力西,瓦登西斯,里昂的贫穷人们,贝加德人们,自由精神的兄弟们,「通过上帝的面包」,无论这些运动的名称是什么。他们可见的开始都归于十一世纪的前几年。哈恩收集的当代的文件,给予启蒙的光辉,对于这些圈子里流行的这些观念。

Item, they believe themselves to be God by nature without distinction
. . . and that they are eternal. . . .
Item, that they have no need of God or the Godhead.
Item, that they constitute the kingdom of heaven.
Item, that they are immutable in the new rock, that they rejoice
in naught and are troubled by naught.
Item, that a man is bound to follow his inner instinct rather
than the truth of the Gospel which is preached every day. . . .
They say that they believe the Gospel to contain poetical matters
which are not true.57

同样,他们相信自己天性就是上帝,没有差别,他们是永恒的。
同样,他们没有需要上帝或上帝的头衔。
同样,他们组成天上的王国。
同样,他们在新的基础永恒不变,他们欢喜于空无,也为空无困扰。
同样,人一定要遵循他的内在的本能,而不是每天被宣导的福音的真理。
他们说,他们相信福音包括并非是真实的诗意的东西。

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论自恋 h

October 27, 2014

论自恋 h
Sigmund Freud
西格蒙、弗洛依德

On Narcissism: an Introduction
论自恋:导论

We are naturally led to examine the relation between this forming of an
ideal and sublimation. Sublimation is a process that concerns object-libido and consists in the instinct’s directing itself towards an aim other than, and remote from, that of sexual satisfaction; in this process the accent falls upon deflection from sexuality.

我们当然被引导去检视理想的形成与升华的关系。升华是关系到客体-力比多的过程,由本能引导它自己朝向一个目标,不同于,也远距性的满足的目标。在这个过程,重点落在离开性的折射。

Idealization is a process that concerns the object; by it that object, without any alteration in its nature, is aggrandized and exalted in the subject’s mind. Idealization is possible in the sphere of ego-libido as well as in that of object-libido. For example, the sexual
overvaluation of an object is an idealization of it. In so far as sublimation
describes something that has to do with the instinct and idealization
something to do with the object, the two concepts are to be distinguished
from each other.3

理想化则是关系到客体的过程。凭借理想化,那个客体,在它的特性并没有任何改变,被增值而且被提升,在主体的心灵里。理想化是可能的,这自我-力比多的领域,以及在那客体-力比多的领域。譬如,性的过分高估客体,就是性的理想化。因为升华描述某件跟本能有关的东西,而理想化则是描述跟客体有关的东西。两个观念应该被互相区别开来。

The formation of an ego ideal is often confused with the sublimation of
instinct, to the detriment of our understanding of the facts. A man who has exchanged his narcissism for homage to a high ego ideal has not
necessarily on that account succeeded in sublimating his libidinal instincts.

自我理想的形成往往跟本能的升华混为一谈。结果伤害到我们对于事实的理解。一位曾经用他的自恋交换对崇高自我-理想的致敬的人,未必因为那个缘故,就成功地将他的力比多的本能升华。

It is true that the ego-ideal demands such sublimation, but it cannot enforce it; sublimation remains a special process which may be prompted by the ideal but the execution of which is entirely independent of any such prompting.

自我-理想确实要求这样的升华,但是它无法强制执行它。升华始终是一个特别的过程,可以经有理想触动,但是这个特别过程的执行则是完全独立于任何这样的触动。

It is
precisely in neurotics that we find the highest differences of potential
between the development of their ego ideal and the amount of sublimation of their primitive libidinal instincts; and in general it is far harder to convince an idealist of the inexpedient location of his libido than a plain man whose pretensions have remained more moderate.

确实就是在神经症身上,我们发现自我-理想的发展与他们的原初的力比多的本能的升华数量之间的差异。通常,要说服一位理想家相信他的力比多的不方便的位置,比起说服一位他的伪装始终比较温和的普通人,困难得多。

Further, the formation of an ego ideal and sublimation are quite differently related to the causation of neurosis.

而且,自我-理想的形成与升华,跟神经症的促成,关系完全不同。

As we have learnt, the formation of an ideal heightens the
demands of the ego and is the most powerful factor favouring repression; sublimation is a way out, a way by which those demands can be met
without involving repression.1

我们已经学习到,理想的形成强化对自我的要求,是赞同压抑的最强烈的因素。升华则是一种出口,凭借这个出口,那些要求能够被满足,而没有牵涉到压抑。

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