Archive for December, 2007

雄伯手記961231

December 31, 2007

雄伯手記961227

人生尋找意義,常常發現最後找到的其實是煩惱。於是設法驅逐煩惱,卻發現連意義都一併被驅除掉。這就是人生,你滿意是過一輩子,不滿意也是過一輩子。大限來臨時,有什麼差別嗎?

理髮晉升到350元一頭,原先十年來沒漲價的230元的老頭,人去樓空,令我悵然若失。還好晉升後,頸部按摩及掏耳朵的功夫令人頗為爽然。想一想,辛苦了一輩子,也該享受一下這樣的舒服了。

十幾年前大陸探親初開放,同仁K興奮地回四川童年老家探親,分贈諸親戚禮品禮金。之後彼此書信往還,以各種婚喪就學建屋疾病需索金錢的名目越來越多,終至不勝其煩起來。

為了參加跨年晚會,家教學生K要求提前下課。這時我才警覺到一年的日曆即將撕盡。說來汗顏,我是在傳統文化氛圍中成長的人,可是由於常年涉獵西方文化書藉,我對傳統年節習俗的情懷越離越遠。滋生的問題是,我雖然對於傳統文化的價值理念不置可否地尊重,其實內心頗為漠然。優點是,我事實上生活在自己書籍的價值理念裏,現實上的挫折反而較能超脫。(有一次我聽到同仁P評論我從在現實價值語言崩潰之際,竟然沒有走向憂鬱症之途,反而昂揚地活得那麼有生命力,不禁讚美說:文學本身就是一種力量。)

讀書會中,C沾沾自喜地陳述上個禮拜她跟朋友數人前往梅花村健行登山。謂平素從事性別教育的D教授,時常一板正經糾正她對於性別差異的錯誤觀念,突然望高聳的山峰,驚嘆曰:「那就是你阿公!」C趁機不甘示弱曰:「何不說是你阿媽?」氣氛突然冷凍起來。

這使我想到最近所讀到的紀傑克Zizek 的「從崇高到荒謬」From the Sublime to the Ridiculous: The Sexual Act in Cinema 所說的笑話與幽默的差別:笑話是潛意識對於滑稽所做的貢獻,而幽默是透過超我的代理對滑稽所做出的貢獻。C對於笑話的沾沾自喜,似乎意味著潛意識也有戰勝超我的時刻。我不禁地會心微笑起來。

          

Soft Matter: The Valorization of Mud 06

December 31, 2007

Soft Matter: The Valorization of Mud 05

軟泥:泥巴的穩定

From Earth and Reveries of Will

泥土與意志的幻想

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

We have only to reread , in Maurice Genevoix’s Raboliot, the many pages devoted to sticky snares, to experience a detailed, minute offensiveness that illustrates the degree to which human existence is reactive, a response to circumstances. Our earliest impressions of snares, decoys, and traps resonate with the experience of beings subject to existence.

我們只需要重讀Maurice Genevoix Raboliot,裏面有好幾頁專注於談黏性陷阱,就可以體會到一種詳細、微細的攻擊,舉例說明人類的存在對於環境的反應,反動到什麼程度。我們對於陷阱、誘餌、及羅網的最初印象都迴響著生命隸屬於存在的經驗。

 

This example also serves to distinguish the masculine unconsciousness from the feminine. For when we take offensive action against viscous matter, we abandon the deepest and most basic regions of the unconscious, the realm that is essentially feminine, and, with the weakest of weapons, we response to the first conscious stirrings of masculine aggression.

這個例子也充當區別陽剛的無意識跟陰柔的無意識。因為當我們採取攻擊的行動對抗黏性物質,我們放棄了無意識最深層、最基本的地區,這個領域基本上是陰柔的。用這個最軟弱的武器,我們回應陽剛的攻擊性第一個意識到的激動。

 

We enter the realm of cunning will, stubbornly determined to turn the forces of the world to its own advantages. The human being thus becomes a center of hostility. Its prodigious offensivity leaves no force in the universe unactivated. If power reveals itself in substance, the first question is: against whom or against what it can be utilized? The viscosity experienced by human beings seeks an enemy. We overlook this dynamic if we think of ourselves as victims.

我們進入狡猾意志的領域,頑固地決心要將世界的力量轉為己用。人類因此成為一個敵意的中心。它巨大的攻擊性啟動了宇宙所有的力量。假如力量在物質中顯示自己,那第一個問題是可使用來攻擊誰或攻擊什麼?人類所經驗到的黏性尋找敵人。假如我們只認為自己是受害者,那我們就忽略了這個動力。

 

But this is not the typical experience, and it may be preferable to offer a simple image of the viscous universe by recalling our first childhood experiences with jam. Picture for instance bowls overflowing with pitted cherries. The fingers stick to them a bit already, an agreeable sign that the fruit is ripe.

但是這個並不是典型的經驗。我們不妨回憶一下我們童年吃果醬的經驗,提供一個簡單的黏性宇宙的形象。試著想像一下去核的櫻桃流溢碗盆,手指已經稍微黏住他們,欣喜地顯示水果已經成熟。

 

Then the juices brighten in the great copper kettle. The ladle drips red, the air fills with the buzzing of bees…As idle onlooker might find everything about this disagreeably sticky, perceiving the disorderly kitchen as dirty, though every object contributes to the aesthetic of making syrup. To avoid boasting of my own jam-making skill I will simply transcribe a passage from Josephine Johnson to put us in the proper frame of mind.

然後果汁使得大銅壺輝煌起來,長柄杓都滴到紅,空氣洋溢著蜜蜂的嗡嗡聲。旁觀者可能會發現每一樣東西都黏得令人化不開,感覺到廚房又亂又髒,雖然每一樣東西都促成製造果醬的美感。為了避免是在誇張我自己製造果醬的技巧,我將僅僅引述一段Josephine Johnson的文章,我們就可以親臨體會。

 

A young woman stands before a raging oven in the middle of summer, watching cherries slowly dissolve “ in a rich, syrup redness. She stormed around among the kettles, testing and slopping,–shouted Whoa! And Haw! to the cherries pouring over, dripped wax with one hand and stirred with the other, and sniffed at the strong smell of burned juice blackening where the stuff boiled over. I don’t know what it was—only health perhaps, too much to be contained inside and radiating out like her overstoked ovens.”

一位年輕女仕在仲夏站在熱驣驣的火鍋前,觀察櫻桃慢慢溶化成為豐富的紅色果汁。她在各個水壺間走來走去,品嚐試探,哇塞哇塞地叫嚷,面對滿溢的櫻桃汁,一隻手滴滿汁,另一隻手攪拌著,鼻子嗅著強烈的味道,當滾燙的果醬漸漸變黑及沸騰起來。我不知道那是什麼,只知那是健康,健康洋溢,無法被包裝在裏面,不得不像添火過熱的火鍋般輝煌起來。

 

One has the sense here of a cook fully at the center of her work, conscious of her strength in action. Viscous, sticky, gummy matter has been rendered powerless against her.

我們可以理解到一位廚師站在工作的正中央,意識到自己行動的力量。黏性、粘著、膠黏的物質在她面前變得任由擺怖。

 

In this way the human being is revealed as the being opposed to things, not siding with things but standing up to them. From unhappiness at feeling stuck, feelings of anger rise in dialectical response, and with them a sense of liberation.

以這個方式,人類被顯示為與物質對抗的存在,不是偏袒物質,而是對抗物質。從感覺被黏住的不快樂,憤怒之氣昂揚興起回應,隨之而來的是解放之感。

 

A passage from Jacob Bochme describes this secondary order of human will, this will-in-response which generates oppositional beings: “ The will, if wrapped in the gloom of anguish, reasserts itself as a second will to fly from anguish, to engender light; and this second will is the affective base from which thoughts of breaking free of anguish arise.”

Jocob Bochme的這個段落描述人類意志的次等順序,就是反應意志產生了相對的存在:意志假如被包裹在痛苦的陰鬱中,會以次等順序重新主張自己,而逃離痛苦,產生光輝。這個次等順序就是情意的基礎,掙脫痛苦的思想從這裡飛揚起來。

 

In a quick turnabout, the existence of stickiness is supplanted by the oppositional being of the hand. Characterized anthropomorphically, pitch represents the will to “ become unstuck.” In the psychoanalysis of labor, the will makes a weapon of the naturally offensive quality of a substance. Compressed in the shoemaker’s gauntlet, the stickiness of pitch serves him well. Pitch-coated rope groans against the pull of the gears. It becomes a powerful astringent, a subtle protection against moisture, a force to counteract warping.

迅速回轉,黏性的存在被手的相對存在所取代。用擬人化來說,瀝青代表「不甘受困」的意志。在勞動的精神分析學,意志以物質的自然攻擊特質為武器。被壓縮在鞋匠的保護手套裡,瀝青的黏性服務得最好。塗上瀝青的繩索對抗機械的拉扯哀鳴。它變成一種嚴峻的力量,一種微妙的保護,避免潮溼,一種反抗被扭曲的力量。

 

Once more the worker has domesticated matter. So taught Jacob Boehme, shoe-maker and “ vanquisher of pitch,” for whom the lesson was so clear it became the source of his loftiest metaphors. A person’s whole being comes to life when the hand takes control of matter. When the hand “ breaks through the gloom, the penetrating eye will look upon itself in delight, far from the shadows, in the sharp light of the will.”

再一次,工作者馴服物質。Jocob Boehme 如此教導。對於鞋匠及「瀝青的征服者」,這個教導是如此清楚,足以做為他最崇高的比喻。當手掌控物質時,人的整個存在展現生命。當手衝破陰鬱,炯炯有神的眼睛顧盼自喜,遠離陰影,自得於意志的強烈光輝。

 

It is impossible to understand a passage like this if one does not begin with the material image of a shadowy substance, a substance that manifests the density of shadow. From there one must proceed from the imagination of matter to the imagination of power and thus overcome sticky density. Darkness, thickness, and stickiness are thee substantial stages through which the imagination must pass. Once stickiness has been conquered, darkness and density are automatically overpowered.

要了解這一段是不可能的,假如我們不先從陰影物質的物質形象開始。那種物質展示了陰影的密度。從那裏,我們必須從物質想像進展到權力想像,然後克服黏性密度。黑暗、厚度、黏性是三個實質上的階段,想像必須經歷的。再一次,黏性被征服,黑暗跟密度自動地被壓制。

 

P90–P91

Soft Matter: The Valorization of Mud 06

軟泥:泥巴的穩定

Earth and Reveries of Will 泥土與意志的幻想

by Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

    

Soft Matter: The Valorization of Mud 05

December 31, 2007

Soft Matter: The Valorization of Mud 05

軟泥:泥巴的穩定

From Earth and Reveries of Will 泥土與意志的幻想

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

Sartre would return to an existentialist study of sticky, viscous matter in Being and Nothingness. But this time he would forgo the device of a fictional character with a right to his idiosyncracies. The philosopher here takes viscosity as a serious object of study, demonstrating by the density of his remarks the importance of positive, real experience for concrete philosophical meditation.

在「存在與空無」一書中,沙特常常回到存在主義的研究粘貼黏性物質。但是這一次他塑造一個虛幻人物的特質,擁有怪癖的權利。在此哲學家將黏性當著一種嚴肅的研究客體,以他談話的密度證明積極、真實的經驗作為具體的哲學沉思。

 

In, as we might say, “ working” this theme, Sartre makes clear his view that matter is a revelation of being, that is to say of human being: “ The simple revelation of the substance of those objects by which the child is surrounded expands the child’s horizons to the extreme limits of being and offers at the same time clues for deciphering the essence of the human condition.”

如我們所言,在從事這個主體時,沙特澄清他的觀點:物質是存在的啟示,換言之,就是人的啟示。這些環繞小孩的客體物質的簡單啟示,擴充了小孩存在極限的地平線,並且同時提供線索來詮釋人類情況的本質。

 

Matter, in fact, gives us the sense of hidden depths; it compels us to unmask superficial being. And this is precisely what Sartre does when he unmasks the viscous. In this vein, it is certain that studies could be multiplied.

事實上,物質給我們隱藏的深度感。它逼迫我們揭開膚淺存在的面具。這確實就是沙特所為,當他揭開黏性的面具時。從這個特質來看,這個研究確實能夠再多幾倍發揮。

 

Broad examination of viscosity would lead to more specific studies, say of pitch or honey, that would reveal matter’s powers of individuation. Pitch, for instance, is the stuff of unremitting anger, of aggressive melancholy—melancholy in the material sense of the term. It is enough to read the writings of the shoemaker Jacob Boehme to recognize that pitch is, in the Sartrean sense, a key to his entire oeuvre.

廣泛的審查黏性,我們將得到更明確的研究,例如瀝青跟蜂蜜,更可看出個別化的力量。例如,瀝青是憤怒不已、憂鬱侵奪的物質,從這個詞語的物質含義而言,確實是憂鬱。我們只要閱讀一下鞋匠Jacob Boehme 我們就會體會到,就沙特而研,瀝青的黏性足以形容他一生之所以契而不捨地著作。

 

On the theme of viscosity, however, we can recognize a difference between existentialism of real matter and a doctrine of the material imagination. For me, the material imagination of soft substances is essentially concerned with labor. Viscosity, then, is only a passing offense, a skirmish between reality and the laborer in which the dynamism of the latter ensures victory.

可是在討論黏性的主題時,我們體認到真實物質的存在主義跟物質想像的信條不同。對於我而言,柔軟東西的物質想像基本上是關心到勞動。因此黏性只是過程的冒犯,是真實界與勞動者之間的伏擊,後者的動力最後終將獲勝。

 

Active material imagination of this sort is scarcely affected by the vertigo Sartre invokes when he writes of viscosity: “ It is a soft and yielding action, a moist and feminine sucking; it lives obscurely under my fingers, and I feel a dizziness that draws me as the bottom of a precipice might draw me. There is a quasi-tactile fascination in slimy things, a sense of appropriation I am unable to arrest but which continues.”

沙特在寫到黏性時,召喚一種暈眩:「這是一種柔軟而順服的行動,一種潮濕而女性化的吮吸。它模糊地生活在我手指間,我感受到一種暈眩吸引我,如同懸崖的底端吸引我。這是一種虛假觸覺的著迷於黏稠的東西,一種我無法阻擋,卻又繼續下去的篡奪感」不過,這種暈眩卻很少影響到我這種積極的物質想像。

 

It continues, no doubt, if we take no action, if we experience viscosity on its own terms! But if we work viscosity, all is changed. For one thing, in kneading, if dough sticks to the fingers, a sprinkling of flour is enough to clean the hands. We can domesticate the viscous though an indirect attack with dry matter. At the mixing bowl we are demiurges. We determined the destiny of the matter.

假如我們沒有採取行動,假如我們按照黏性的特質去經驗它,它無疑會繼續下去。但是我們運作黏性,一切都隨之改變。舉個例子,在塑造時,假如麵糰黏貼手指,噴灑一下麵粉就足夠將手洗乾淨。我們使用乾燥的物質對它從事間接攻擊,就可將黏性馴服。在混合的碗中,我們是造物主。我們決定物質的命運。

 

Our struggles with viscous matter cannot be described parenthetically. Only the gaze can bracket in this way, permitting us to close our eyes and put off introspection until tomorrow, occupying ourselves for the time being with outward appearances. Working hands, hands animated by reveries of work, engage themselves. They take sticky substances and impose a hard future upon them according to a calculated timetable of progress.

我們跟黏性物質的搏鬥無法用括弧的方式來描述。只有眼光才能用這種方式括弧,允許我們閉起眼睛,拖延內省直到明天,暫時專注於外在的表象。工作的手,工作幻想所激動的手,自得其樂。他們接納黏稠物質,依照仔細盤算的進度表,

給予他們一個辛苦的未來。

 

In fact, hands think only as they squeeze, only while kneading, only while in action. Hands that fail to triumph by force, get bogged down or grow enervated in defeat, are no longer hands but mere envelopes of skin. They are afflicted by viscosity as a nose or cheek or upper arm might be. They are no longer powerful doers. They are themselves undone. It is amusing to observe that those who fear viscous matter spread it everywhere.

事實上,只有在壓擠之時,只有在糅捏之時,只有在行動之時,手才會思想。手若無法以用力獲勝,若動彈不得,或若因失敗而變得虛弱,那他們不再是手,而僅是包骨之皮膚。手跟鼻子、臉頰、或手臂一樣,會因為黏性而痛苦。他們不再是有力量的行動者。他們會自行毀滅。說來好笑,那些害怕黏性物質的人,卻到處散播黏性。

 

And, of course, passive hands imagine nothing. At the least contact with something viscous they slip back into so-called “ existentialist experience.” Contact with viscous matter may cause them to retreat into regression, experience the masochism of leeches, the vertigo of annihilation.

當然,被動的手毫無想像力。稍微跟黏性的東西碰觸一下,他們就溜回到所謂的「存在主義經驗」。跟黏性物質接觸可能會引起他們撤退成倒轉,經驗到像水蛭一般的自虐,毀滅的暈眩。

 

This may be the nature of existence, but the creative imagination desires something else. Ultimately, the material imagination derives not from phenomenology but ,as we have shown , on many occasions, from human activity or dynamology.

這可能是存在的本質,但是具有創造力的想像渴望其他東西。最後,物質想像並非從現象學而來,而是如我們剛才所說的,在很多場合,是從人類活動或動力學得來。

 

The forces discovered through experience the material imagination takes as its own, until at last the imagination sees itself as an active genius. If it were necessary for me to experience sliminess, I would become slime. I would set limed snares in the thickets ( God forbid!), playing songs of hypocrisy on my pipes.

物質想像接受經由經驗發現的力量當著自己的力量,直到最後想像看待自己當著自負不凡的天才。若我必需經驗黏滑,我願成為黏滑,我願在叢林設下黏滑的陷阱,用我生命之笛吹奏虛偽之歌,雖則我雅不願如此。

 

P88—p90

Soft Matter: The Valorization of Mud 05

軟泥:泥巴的穩定

Earth and Reveries of Will 泥土與意志的幻想

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

Soft Matter: The Valorization of Mud 04

December 31, 2007

Soft Matter: The Valorization of Mud 04

軟泥:泥巴的穩定

From Earth and Reveries of Will 泥土與意志的幻想

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

Continuing our study of unpleasant matter, we will now attempt to characterize, from the point of view of the material imagination, a work of literature that contains great psychological truths. In Nausea, Jean-Paul Sartre presents a character, Roquentin, who exemplifies with unusual clarity a certain psychological type. This character serves to distinguish between a psychological originality profoundly rooted in the unconscious and the contrived originality found in woks of secondary novelists.

One discovers, if one reads enough, that novelists imbue their heroes with numerous contradictions, in the belief that they will appear “ life-like” by means of gratuitous inconsistencies. But contradictions do not necessarily produce ambivalence. A contradiction not rooted in ambivalence remains a mere psychological incident.

 

繼續我們對不愉快物資的研究,我們現在將從物質想像的觀點,表現一個具有心理真相的文學作品的特色。在「嘔吐」的小說中,沙特呈現一個人物羅圭亭,非常清楚地作為某個心理類型的典範。這個人物充當區別一個深深根源於無意識的心理的真知灼見,以及在二流小說家的作品中常發現靈巧噱頭。假如我們時常閱讀,我們就會發現到,小說家替他們的角色沾染無數的矛盾,相信在境遇偶然的不一致中,他們更酷似真實人生。但是矛盾未必產生猶豫不決。矛盾而未根源於猶豫不定,始終僅是心理的偶發事件。

 

Sartre, on the other hand, develops his psychological novel by following the opposite course, proceeding from ambivalence to contradiction. He presents a character who, in the realm of the material imagination, cannot attain “ solidity,” and consequently can never maintain a firm position in life. Roquentin is sick even in the realm of material images, that is to say even in his attempt to establish a viable relationship with the substance of things. He attributes contradictory qualities to the essence of things because he himself is divided by ambivalence as he approaches them.

 

在另一方面,沙特以追蹤相反的途徑,發展他的心理小說,從猶豫不定進展到矛盾。他呈現他的人物,在物質想像的領域,無法得到「完整性」,結果永遠無法維持一個牢固的人生立場。羅圭亭即使在物質影像的領域中都是病態的。換句話說,即使在他企圖跟物質建立可來往的關係。當他接近物質的本質時,他給這他們賦予矛盾的特質,因為他自己就受到猶豫不決所分裂。

 

We can see this ambivalence play out precisely in Roquentin’s imagery of the consistency of objects. In a single paragraph, Sartre shows the hero of Nausea in the process of gathering  “chestnuts,” : old rags,” and, later, “ heavy and sumptuous papers, probably soiled by excrement. Yet Roquentin recoils from contact with a pebble on the beach—a pebble washed clean by the sea! The conventional responses of attraction and disgust are here reversed. This material inversion excites irregular, and as a consequence passionate, concern. Unpleasant material suffices to make an unhappy man conscious of his unhappiness.

 

我們能夠看出,這個猶豫不決在羅圭亭的物體一貫的意象中,如何準確地運作。有一段中,沙特描寫到「嘔吐」的主角在收集「栗子」「破爛」,以及後來「笨重大量的紙板」的過程,可能是受到糞便所污染。可是羅圭亭在海灘遇到海浪沖刷得乾淨的石礫,卻畏縮不前!迷人與厭惡的傳統反應在此被顛倒過來。物質的倒轉引起不正常,結果是激情的關心。不愉快的物質足夠使一個不快樂的人意識到自己的不快樂。

 

We must observe that what the writer describes sequentially, in obedience to the ineluctable law of narrative, he imagines simultaneously. Many signs betray this art of simultaneity that gives life to the Sartean hero. Here, at the slightest hint of infantile behavior, the mature personality resurfaces. Roquentin is childish in his reactions.

His ambivalent feelings of attraction and repulsion come into play even in the case of dirt’s temptations. As he is about to pick up the above-mentioned papers, almost buried “ beneath a crust of mud,” Roquentin tells us in his own words: “ I bent down, already rejoicing at the touch of the fresh tender pulp which I thought to roll between my fingers into grayish balls But I could not.”

 

我們必須觀察到作者按順序所描述的,服從敘述的不可違抗法則,他同時性地想像。許多跡象都顯現出這種同時性的技巧,賦予生命給沙特的角色。在此,在嬰兒營行徑稍微暗示一下,成熟的人格又重新府浮現。羅圭亭的反應是孩子氣的。他對於迷人跟厭惡感覺的猶豫不決,也發揮在即使是泥土的吸引力上。正當他將要檢起上面所提到「幾乎是埋在泥濘中」的報紙,羅圭亭用自己的話告訴我們:「我彎身,欣喜於碰觸到新鮮的軟泥,我很想用手指將它糅成灰色球團,但是做不到。」

 

It should come as no surprise, then, that one so painfully sensitized to the material drama of uncleanliness should also have a reaction to tactile contact normally considered innocuous.

 

對於骯髒的物質變化如此痛苦敏感的人,會有正常被認為是無害的觸覺的反應,那是不足為奇的。

 

Objects can’t touch us because they aren’t alive. We use them and we put them back in their places; we live in their presence; they are useful, nothing more. But they touch me and I find it unbearable. I fear contact with them as though they were living creatures. Now I understand; I recall better what I felt the other day at the seashore when I held the pebble. It was a sort of sweetish sickness. It was so unpleasant! And it came from the stone, I’m sure; it passed from the stone into my hand. Yes, that’s it, that’s just it—a sort of nausea in the hands.

物體無法碰觸我們,因為他們無生命。我們使用他們,我們將他們放回原位,我們生活在他們面前,他們僅是可以使用而已。但是他們事實上碰觸到我,我覺得受不了。我害怕跟他們接觸,好像他們是活生生的動物。現在我瞭解,我回想起前天在海灘拿起小石礫所感覺的。那是一種甜美的病態,如此令人不愉快,來自於那石頭!我確定,那種不愉快從石頭傳到我的手。不錯,就是那樣,就是那樣,手中有一種嘔吐之感。

 

Nausea in the hands! A crucial phrase for a psychology of unpleasant substances, for a theory of the manual imagination of weakened hands. Such hands, which perhaps have not been given a clear task to accomplish at the proper moment, nor a pleasant substance to work with, rarely succeed in coming to terms with the material world. Before anything slightly insidious or shifty, the separation between subject and object is poorly realized, the toucher and the thing touched are blurred, the one too slow, the other too yielding. The World is my Nausea, a Sartrean Schopenhauer might claim. The world is glue, pitch, paste—always too pliant; a dough that softly kneads the kneader, and whispers to the hand the material absurdity that it should loosen its grip, renounce its labor.

 

手中的嘔吐之感!這是一個重要的詞語,對於不愉快物質的心理學,對於軟弱手的手工想像的理論。這樣的手可能從來沒有被清楚告知要在適當時刻做些什麼,也沒有愉快物質可以工作,對於物質世界罕見能達成和諧。在任何稍微隱伏或變遷的東西之前,主體及客體的隔離並沒有被體認得很清楚,碰觸者跟被碰觸的東西是模糊的,前者太慢,後者太順服。悲觀哲學家叔本華會像沙特一樣說:世界就是我的嘔吐之感。這是世界是黏土、膠漆、漿糊,總是太柔軟,像麵糰一樣輕輕地軟糅著糅麵者,細聲對手說物質的荒謬,它應該放鬆對它的掌握,放棄對它的勞苦。

 

P8—p87

Soft Matter: The Valorization of Mud 04

軟泥:泥巴的穩定

From Earth and Reveries of Will 泥土與意志的想像

by Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

  

P85

Earth and Reveries of Will by Gaston Bachelard

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

  

Soft Matter:The Valorization of Mud 03

December 31, 2007

Soft Matter : The Valorization of Mud 03

軟泥:泥巴的穩定

From Earth and Reveries of Will

泥土與意志的幻想

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

    It suffices to go back only a century to discover texts still more pronounced. According to Daniel Duncan, for instance: “ It is said that a species of wild bull, known as Bonasus, spurts a stream of excrement as hot as fire back at the hunter who pursues it, and the heron releases in the direction of the sparrowhawk which chases it droppings that burn and corrode its pursuer’s feathers.” This offensive action, after all, is not much different than that of the cruel Martichora, imagined by Flaubert to “ throw volleys of needle-sharp quills from its tail.” All such anal or caudal affronts derive their force from and are centered in the same zone of the unconscious.

    我們只要回溯到一世紀前,就可發現更為明顯的表達。例如,依照丹尼爾、鄧肯:「據說有一種名叫Bonasus的野牛會向追逐它的獵人,噴出一大堆熱得像火的糞便。蒼鷺會朝著追逐它的老鷹的方向,排放的糞便會燃燒及腐蝕追逐者的羽毛。」這種攻擊性的行為,畢竟跟殘酷的馬提舟拉鳥的做法沒有什麼兩樣,這種鳥是福祿貝爾想像出來,可以「從尾巴擲出像針一般尖銳的刺彈」。所有這樣的肛門或尾部的面對,都是集中於無意識相同的地區得來力量。

 

    This is not the place to discuss the ultimate meaning of excrement, which is but a particular manifestation of feat. But it is interesting, at least from the point of view of the imagination, that Buffon had no doubt of its meaning. We encounter the same simple insight in a similar remark in the work of William Henry Hudson. If psychologists spent more time exploring these lower reaches of the psyche they would better understand certain scatological aspects of human insults. But the psychology of the insult, the excremental etymology, the literature of “ dirty words,” would merit their own study. It suffices to indicate, in passing, their relationship to the psychology of matter.

   我在此並不是要討論糞便的終極意義是什麼,畢竟那只是技巧的特別展現而已。但是有趣的是,巴蜂對於它的意義深信不疑,至少從想像的觀點來說如此。我們在維廉、福德森的作品的類似說法,也遇到相同的簡明見識。假如心理學家花費更多時間來探索這些心理的低層領域,他們會更能了解人類污辱帶有某些糞便學的意味。但是這種污辱的心理學,排糞的詞源學,「髒話」文學,是值得我們研究的。現在,我們只需先提一下他們跟物質的心理學的關係就夠了。

 

   In addition, without descending to the level of the repressed unconscious, it nevertheless holds true that malleable matter of every kind is open to strange inversions of meaning which manifest the very unconscious activities I have been discussing. Here is a text in which a poet, Henri de Regnier, expresses the ambivalence of soft matter as it first attracts, then repels. This dialectic is played out with jellyfish according to their habitat, whether the waters of Greece or of Brittany. In Greece, de Regnier writes, “ jellyfish are found in the water, limp and half dissolved, like fragments of iridescent melting glass. They float flimsily like milky, pearly, liquid opals slipped from the necklace of Amphitrite. I have discovered them here, these jellyfish from the Gulf of Corinth, washed up on a little beach in Brittany…but no longer iridescent, no longer variable in color, their slimy mass washed of all its subtlety by the waves that have carried and abandoned them here upon the beach. Inert, foul, dull blue-green, they bring to mind the droppings of some fabulous undersea cattle. It is as if Neptune’s flock had left its nocturnal vestiges upon the shore.” From Amphitrite to Neptune: what a descent! How well one senses what de Regnier has left unsaid! That, underneath each opal jellyfish, intact as a pearl, on a dreary morning, you’ll always find a “ slimy” mass a  “ filthy” paste.

 

   除外,即使沒有降低到被壓抑的無意識的層次,每一種可塑物質會承受意義的逆轉,顯示我所討論的無意識活動,仍然是可以自圓其說。詩人雷格尼有一篇文章表達軟體物質起初吸引,後來排斥的矛盾。水母的表現方式,依照他們的棲息處是在希臘或布列塔尼的水域有所不同。在希臘,雷格尼寫到;「水母在水中被找到,跛行而奄奄一息,像是虹彩融化玻璃的碎片。他們脆弱地飄浮,像是乳狀,珍珠狀的液體珍珠,從安菲特萊女皇的項鍊垂落。我在此發現他們,這些柯林斯海灣過來的水母,被沖刷到布列塔尼的海灘,但是不再有虹彩,不再顏色繽紛,他們黏滑的物質被海浪沖刷掉所有的細緻,當他們被海浪帶來並委棄在這裡的海灘上。他們現在奄奄一息,骯髒,呈沉鬱深綠色,讓人想到傳說中的海底怪物的糞便。好像海神的族群已經離開它夜間的活動範圍,前來海岸。」從安菲特拉女皇到海神,下降得可真快!我們可深切地體會到雷格尼的言外之意:在海底每個乳白水母,完美如珍珠。在可怕的早晨,你將會發現是「黏滑」物體,是「骯髒」漿糊。

 

P83—p85

From Earth and Reveries of Will 泥土與意志的幻想

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

   

  

Soft Matter: The Valorization of Mud 02

December 30, 2007

Soft Matter: The Valorization of Mud 02

軟泥:泥巴的穩定

From Earth and Reveries of Will 泥土與意志的幻想

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

    Let us follow a little more closely the natural anapsychoanalytical process that frees adults from infantile fixations. We shall observe that the undeniable interest of young children in their own feces develops with surprising certainty and regularity into interest in mud pies. Normal children evolve towards cleanliness. They become clean not simply due to societal influence but through a sort of psychological adjustment. This evolution is presented very clearly by Juliette Boutonier in her study of Anguish, previously cited:

    讓我們再仔細探討自然的肛門精神分析過程,是如何替成年人免除孩童的偏好。我們將會觀察到,小孩對自己排泄物無可否認的興趣,令人驚訝地必然跟規律,會發展成為對泥餅的興趣。正常的小孩都朝著乾淨演化。他們變得乾淨,不僅僅是由於社會的影響,而且是由於一種心理的調適。這種演化,寶藤尼在我們先前引述的她的研究「疼痛」一文中,表達得非常清楚:

 

      All in admitting that the young child show no repugnance for its own feces…I doubt that, left to its own devices, the child would find such objects sufficient to satisfy its natural aspirations. It is certainly true that infants love to play in and dirty themselves with mud at precisely the age when they are in the process of renouncing the free activity of their sphincters and the manifestations of interest this provokes. Nonetheless, no matter how rudimentary the child’s activities, one sees arise another exigency than that of manipulating soft, dirty objects; for the child seeks to give form to this material, however, awkwardly. What’s more, success in building with sand follows a period of tactile manipulation in which the child seeks, even more crudely, to transform things.

      儘管承認小孩並不表示厭惡自己的排泄,我仍然懷疑,假如小孩可以聽任處理自己的生理,他會發現這樣的東西足以滿足自己對自然的渴望。嬰兒的確喜歡在泥濘中遊玩及弄髒自己,就在當他們處於放棄括約肌的自由活動的過程,以及所引起的興趣的展現。可是,不論小孩的活動是多麼的早期,我們看到他會有產生另一個迫切需要,除了操弄柔軟骯髒的東西外。小孩設法替物質造成形式,不管手法是多麼笨拙。而且,用沙建造成功之後,繼續而來的是觸覺操弄的時期,小孩設法要改變物質,儘管手法是更加粗糙。

 

   Boutenier describes a well-conceived education as a “ more concerned with surpassing than suppressing ( such infantile) tendencies.” Transcendence in this case consists precisely of work with malleable matter. Education must provide young children at the proper time with materials of the specific plasticity that best correspond to their earliest tactile activities. The child thus sublimates one matter with another. Sadly, our system of instruction, even where most innovative, is fixed upon concepts : our elementary schools provide only one type of modeling clay. The plasticity of the material imagination demands a wider range of softnesses. The stages of material development might be determined with greater precision if more attention were paid to the material imagination.

  寶藤尼描述精心構想的教育當著「更加關心超越而不是壓抑(如此嬰兒般)的傾向」。這種情形的超越主要是在於從事於可塑性的物質。教育必須在適當時刻供應年輕小孩明確可塑性的物質,這樣才能對應他們早期的觸覺活動。小孩因此可使一個又一個的物質昇華。可悲的是,我們即使是在最創新的教育體系,都還是專注於觀念;我們的小學只供應一種模式的黏土。物質想像的可塑性要求更大範圍的柔軟。假如我們更加注意物質想像,物質發展的階段會決定得更準確。

 

    Subsequently, the normal imagination must harden, it must be exposed to wood, to stone, and finally to iron to achieve its maximum virility. But the imagination is best served by a fairly long period of work with plastic materials. Those who learn to work soft matter with their hands at a young age are more likely to turn out well themselves. The transition from soft to hard is a delicate one. Destructive tendencies almost always manifest themselves in defiance to solid objects. Soft matter has no enemies.

   隨後,正常的想像必須硬化。它必須暴露於木材,石頭,最後是鐵,為了將精力發揮到淋漓盡致。但是這個想像若常時期從事於可塑性物質,最能得到。那些早年學習用手從事軟泥的人,更有可能培養這種想像。從柔軟到堅硬的轉變是很微妙的。挑釁固體東西時,毀滅性的傾向幾乎總是會展現出來。柔軟物質沒有敵人。

 

   I should note, however, that it is in the regression toward the earliest stage of infancy and anal fixation that one may identify a filthy, wretched sadism. It is easily recognized that some neurotics display an aggression expressed through filth that recalls certain forms of animal behavior. Buffon describes a number of animals which, in fleeting, spray a nauseating urine the stench of which, he believed, served as a means of defense against their enemies.

   可是,我應該注意到,就在退化到嬰兒的早期階段跟肛門偏好時,我們可能會辨認出一個骯髒而悲慘的虐待狂。有些精神病患透過骯髒,讓他想到動物的某些形式,並以此展示攻擊性,是顯而易見的。巴蜂描述許多動物在逃跑時,會噴灑令人作嘔的尿液,因為他們認為尿液可充當防衛對抗敵人的工具。

 

    Buffon tells of one such creature” which had, as its sole means of defense, its posterior; which it would immediately turn in the direction of whatever approached, and from which it would emit the foulest smelling excrementa imaginable.” Buffton described the coase, which “ strangles poultry and eats only the brains; whenever annoyed or frightened, it gives off an abominable odor—a sure means of defense, for neither human beings nor dogs dare approach: its urine, with which this pestilential spray apparently combines, stains and infects its victims indelibly.” Buffon reports one traveler’s claim that the coase sprayed “ its urine on its tail which served as a sort of sprinkler, forcing its enemies to flee from the horrible odor.”

   巴蜂敘述一種這樣的動物,以它的臀部作為它唯一的防衛工具,若有敵人靠近,它會立刻轉身背向,然後從屁股排泄出天下最惡臭的糞便。巴蜂描述這種動物,「勒死禽鳥,只吃頭腦,受到騷擾或驚恐時,會發出可怕的惡臭。那確實是一種防衛的工具,因為沒有人類或狗敢接近它的尿液,這個瘟疫般的噴灑很明顯無法抹除地跟受害者結合,污染並傳染。」巴蜂報導一位旅行者宣稱這種動物噴灑「它的尿液在尾巴後面,充當一種噴灑器,強迫敵人逃離它可怕的惡臭。」

 

P81—p83

From Earth and Reveries of Will

泥土與意志的幻想

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

  

   

  

   

Soft Matter: TheValorization of Mud 01

December 29, 2007

Soft matterThe Valorization of Mud  01

軟泥:泥巴的穩定

From Earth and Reveries of Will 泥土與意志的幻想

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

                            My soul has been kneaded together out of melancholy, kindness and mud.

                            我的靈魂以憂鬱,仁慈跟泥巴揉搓

                                Vasilii Vaasil’ Evich Rozanow,

                                             Esseulement

                            

                            Mud is no pillow. 泥巴不是枕頭。

                                     Raymond Queneau

 

    Now that I have introduced reveries of hardness and earthen matter in their ideal states, the time has come to consider images heavier or more brutal than these, images which have no connection with happiness and skillful strength. Certain types of psychological disorders express their maladies in the very style of their images. Naturally, psychoanalysis has encountered these defects of the imagination in, for example, a regressive affinity for filth. One finds abundant documentation of this phenomenon in Kard Abraham’s detailed study of anal fixation. I would like to limit my consideration of this problem to instances involving somewhat more sophisticated imaginings in an attempt to show that the healthy imagination is a progression of images which triumphs over all “ fixation.”

   既然我已經介紹過堅硬跟泥土在理想狀態的幻想,現在該是討論比他們更沉重更殘暴的意象。這些意象跟快樂及靈巧的力量沒有關聯。某些種類的心理的疾病會以自己特有的意象表達病徵。當然,精神分析學曾碰見過這些想像的病況,例如,一種退化的喜愛骯髒。我們在卡德、阿伯拉罕對於肛門偏好的詳細研究中,找到這種現象的豐富文件。我想要限制我的問題討論在一些會牽涉到更複雜意象例子,這樣我才能顯示,健康的想像是意象戰勝所有「偏好」的進步。

 

   Moreover, if one were to systematize the work of psychoanalysis in normative psychology, it would no longer appear to involve merely the study of regressive instincts. It is too easily forgotten that psychoanalysis is a method of healing, of psychological improvement, of turning things around. With regard to the very narrowly defined subject of this chapter, psychoanalysis proposes a veritable material sublimation, a progressive solidification in the materials offered to the human imagination.

   而且,假如我們想要以規範心理學的方式,將精神分析學的工作系統化,所要牽涉到的將不僅僅是退化本能的研究。我們不要忘記,精神分析學是一種治療,心理改進及恢復健康的方法。就這一章範圍較狹窄的主題而言,精神分析學建議的是一種實質上是物質的昇華,一種進步的物質團結給人類的想像。

 

   In fact, in the treatment of certain neuroses, psychoanalysis has encountered the inverse of this material sublimation; an alchemist would declare that clinical practice presents certain cases of the descension of material images. If we now pay attention to the normalization of images, conjoined with abnormal fixations, we are led to distinguish between a kind of catapsychoanalysis and an anapsycho- analysis; the first designating all the observations so necessary to the disclosure of anal fixations; the second, more relevant to our field of study, offers more objective perspectives, redirecting attention toward the materials of the external world.

   事實上,在治療某些精神病患時,精神分析師曾碰見過這種物質昇華的逆轉。煉金術師就常宣稱,診所的實務可以提供物質意象上昇的病例。假如我們現在注意到意象跟異常偏好聯合的正常化,我們就能夠區別肛門異常心理分析跟肛門偏好心理分析。前者是對於肛門偏好異常現象做所需的觀察,後者則跟我們現在研究的領域有關,偏重客體的面貌,將注意力帶回到外在世界的物質。

 

   In any case, psychologists must take a cautious approach to the primordial nature of the plastic instinct. It would be interesting, for example, to weigh the unconscious elements that underlie Hegelian theory. Hegel studied the plastic instinct in relation to the digestive process and wrote: “ the nisus formatives resembles excretion inasmuch as it represents a process of self-externatlization…The animal excretes in order to create form out of its own substance. It doe so not out of a sense of loathing for, or a desire to be rid of, its excrement, but to fashion them a means of satisfying its own needs.” A little metaphysics separates us from nature, but a lot of metaphysics bring us closer.

  無論如何,心理學家對於可塑性本能的原始特性,必須小心翼翼地從事。例如,衡量無意識作為黑格爾理論的基礎,是件很有趣的事。黑格爾研究可塑性本能跟消化過程的關係,寫到:「努力寫作類似排泄,因為它代表自我具體化的過程。動物排泄為了要用自己的物質創造形式。它不是由於厭惡之感或是渴望排除自己的糞便,而是渴望塑造它們成為滿足自己需求的工具。些微形上學使我們跟自然隔離,但是多些形上學,卻能使我們跟自然更靠近。」

 

P80—p81

From Earth and Reveries of Will 泥土與意志的幻想

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsing@pchome.com.tw

 

   

   

The Descent and the Cup 03

December 29, 2007

The Descent and the Cup 03

下降與聖杯

From Anthropological Structures of the Imaginary

想像的人類學結構

By Gilbert Durand 吉勃、杜蘭

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

The viscous element is effectively that of slowness, and descent only permits of viscous matter or thick, dormant water. It retains only the intimate substance of the igneous element: heat.

黏性的元素作為緩慢的元素是很有效的,下降只容許黏性的物質或厚實潛伏的物質。它只保留火元素中的親密物質:熱。

 

In his work dealing with fire, Bachelard distinguishes, as does Novalis, between burning, shining heat and the warmth of the innermost depths and of the wombs: “ Light laughs and plays on the surface of things, but only heat penetrates”.

在處理火的作品中,巴舍拉像諾波利斯一樣,區別燃燒的閃亮的熱跟最內在深處及子宮內的溫暖:「光歡笑,嬉戲於事物的表面,而只有熱才能貫穿。」

 

The dreamed interior is hot, but never burning. Everything is given depth by heat, and heat is the sign and meaning of depth. In the image of “ warm intimacy” the gentle penetration and the caressing repose of the digestive and the sexual belly are joined.

被夢想的內部是熱,但是從來不燃燒。憑藉熱,每一樣東西都給予深度,熱就是深度的符號跟意義。在「溫馨親密」的影像中,消化功用跟性機能的腹部結合了溫和的貫穿跟撫慰的安詳。

 

The imagination of descent confirms the Freudian intuition that the digestive tube is the descending axis of the libido before its sexual fixation. It can even be said that the archetypes of descent faithfully follow the genetic path of the Freudian libido, and it will always be possible to see in the appearance of anal or oral digestive imagery a regression to the narcissistic stage.

下降的想像證實了佛洛伊德的洞察力:消化器官在被確定為性的功能之前,是力比多的下降軸心。我們甚至可以說,下降的原型忠實地遵照佛洛伊德力比多的基因途徑。在肛門及口腔的消化影像中,我們總是可能看到倒退到自戀的階段。

 

The “ Novalis complex”, which assimilates the descent of the miner into the earth copulation, is linked to the “ Jonah complex”. Both are symbolized by the digestive or the sexual belly, and meditation on them opens up the whole euphemizing phenomenology of cavities.

「諾波利斯情結」吸引礦工的下降到地底的交媾,是跟「約拿情結」有相當關連。兩者都由消化及性功能的腹部來象徵。對他們的沉思展開了一整套委婉表達的洞口現象學。

 

The belly is the first cavity to which a positive value is attributed through hygiene and diet. The confusion Freud noted between the sexual and the digestive is, moreover, so pronounced that descent into the incubating belly is accomplished, in folk stories, either through the mouth or the vagina.

腹部是第一個洞口,由於衛生跟飲食的關係,被賦予正面的價值。而且,佛洛伊德注意到,在性跟消化功能之間的混淆是如此明顯,以致於在民俗故事中,進入消化的腹部常是經由嘴巴或是陰道。

 

The polyvalent belly can, indeed, easily fill up with negative values as we have already noted, and come to symbolize the abyss of the fall and the microcosm of sin. But the microcosm implies minimization.

如我們已經注意到,多重價值的腹部的確容易充滿負面價值,並且被用來象徵墮落的深淵及原罪的小宇宙。但是小宇宙也暗示著渺小化。

 

The epithets “ soft” and “ warm” makes sin so pleasant and constitute such a valuable middle-term in the euphemisation of the fall, that the latter slows its descent and converts the negative values of anguish and fear into delight in slowly penetrated interiority.

在墮落的委婉化中,「柔適」及「溫度」的修飾語使原罪令人愉快,並且構成如此有價值的中性名詞。所以墮落緩慢它的下降,在慢慢貫穿到內部的過程,轉變痛苦及恐懼的的負面價值,成為歡樂。

 

P196

Anthropological Structures of the Imaginary

By Gilbert Durand

Translated by Springhero

The Descent and the Cup 04

December 29, 2007

The Descent and the Cup 04

下降與聖杯

From Anthropological Structures of the Imaginary

想像的人類學結構

By Gilbert Durand 吉勃,杜蘭

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

Double negation 雙重否定

Descent is the impetus for a direct transmutation of the values of the imagination, and Harding quotes the Gnostics for whom “ rising or descending is the same thing”, associating with the conception of inversion the mystical doctrine of Blake for whom descent is also a path to the absolute.

下降是幻想的價值直接轉換的驅動力。哈定曾引用以下的諾斯教義:「上昇與下降其實相同」,讓人聯想到布雷克的逆轉與神秘信條的觀念:「對他而言下降也是到達絕對的途徑」。

One descends in order to go backwards in time and recapture prenatal tranquility. Let us consider this important process of inversion. What is the psychological mechanism which gives rise to euphemisation, and even to radical antiphrasis ( since the abyss transmuted into a cavity becomes an end in itself and the fall, which has become a descent, is transformed into pleasure)? Such euphemizing inversion could be defined as a process of double negation.

我們下降為了要在時間中倒退,重新補捉出生胎前的安詳。且讓我們考慮一下倒轉的重要過程。既然轉換成洞口的深淵本身成為目的,已經成為墮落的下降轉化為歡樂,是怎樣的心理動力產生這樣的委曲求全,甚至是全然的反其道而行?

這樣的委曲倒轉能夠被定義為一種雙重否定的過程。

We have already encountered the precursors of this process in the dialectic of binding and in the character of the binder bound. This process is also revealed in the numerous fabliaux and popular legends in which the robber is robbed, the deceiver deceived, etc., and is signaled in proverbial paradoxes such as : “ The biter bit”, “ set a thief to catch a thief”, etc.

在捆綁的辯證法及捆綁者反被捆綁的特性中,我們已經遭遇到這種過程的先驅者。在無數的傳奇故事及通俗傳說中,我們也見証到這種過程:強盜反被搶劫,欺騙者反被欺騙。在格言的矛盾語中,諸如「咬人者恆被咬之」「以賊抓賊」更是屢見不鮮。

In this procedure the positive is reconstituted through the negative ; by negation or a negative act the effect of initial negativity is destroyed. It could be said that the source of dialectic reversal lies in the process of double negation of images before it is codified in grammatical formalism.

在這個過程中,我們可以透過否定重建肯定:以否定或否定的行為,摧毀最初的否定效果。我們可以這樣說:辯證法則的逆轉在於影像的雙重否定,這樣它才能在文法的形式主義中被定位。

This procedure constitutes a transmutation of values: I bind the binder, I kill death, I use the arms of the adversary himself. Hence I sympathize with all, or a part, of the behavior of the adversary. The procedure is therefore clearly indicative of a whole way of thought, an arsenal of logical processes and symbols, which is radically opposed to the di$retic attitude and to the pharisaism and the intellectual and moral catharism of the intransigent Diurnal Order of the image. Double negation can be seen as the criterion for a total inversion in representational attitudes.

這種過程組成價值的轉換:捆綁我者反被我捆綁,死亡被我殺死,我以其人之道還置其身。因此對於對方的全部或部份,我能同情。這種過程因此明白指示出思想的完整方式,一整套的邏輯及符號,跟一成不變的影像的白天秩序所展現的辯證法則正好相反,不再是後者的僵化的道德教條或陳腐禮教。雙重否定可以看著是對符號態度完全的逆轉標準化。

P197

Anthropological Structures of the Imaginary

By Gilbert Durand

Translated by Springhero

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

The Descent and the Cup 02

December 29, 2007

The Descent and the Cup 02

下降與聖杯

From Anthropological Structures of the Imaginary

想像的人類學結構

By Gilbert Durand 吉勃,杜蘭

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

Involutive procedure 渦漩的程序

 

As Bachelard writes, all impulses to explore the secrets of time begin with an “ involutive” procedure. Desoille in his second work studies dreams of descent, which are dreams of return and of acclimatization or consent to the temporal condition. It is a matter of “ unlearning fear”.

如巴舍拉所言,所有探索時間秘密的衝動都起源於「渦漩」的程序。Desoille 在他第二本書研究「下降」的夢,描述回轉跟適應調整時間狀況的夢。那是一種「不學而知的恐懼」。

 

This is one of the reasons why the imagination of descent necessitates more precautions than that of ascent. It requires armor and diving-bells, or the company of a mentor, a whole arsenal of machines more complex than the wing, which was such a simple accessory of flight.

這就是為什麼下降的想像比上昇的想像更需要謹慎。它需要盔甲跟潛水鐘,或引導者的陪伴,比翅膀更複雜的一大堆的機件。而要飛翔只需要簡單的翅膀。

 

For descent risks at every moment confusion with, and transformation into, falling. It must, as reassurance, be constantly accompanied by symbols of interiority and intimacy.

因為下降隨時都冒著轉變成墮落或混淆的危險。為求心安,它必須不斷地陪伴著內在及親密的符號。

 

As we shall see in the Jonah complex, there is an overdetermination of protection even in the precautions taken during descent: one protects oneself in order to penetrate to the heart of protective intimacy.

如我們在「約拿情結」所看到的,在下降時所採取的預防都唯恐保護不週:為了要貫穿到親密保護的核心,我們必須保護自己。

 

Bachelard analyzing a page of Michel Leiris’s Aurora, has clearly shown that the positive value placed on descent was linked to digestive intimacy and the act of swallowing.

巴舍拉分析Michel Leiris 的「曙光」,清楚地顯示:下降的積極價格跟消化的親密及吞噬的動作有關。

 

Whereas ascent is a call for exteriority or for transcendence of the carnal, the axis of descent is a fragile, comforting, intimate axis. The imaginary return is always to some extent a coenaesthetic, visceral “return home”.

雖然上昇是一種肉體的外在及超越,下降的軸心卻是一種脆弱、舒慰、親密的軸心。幻奇的回轉總是一種美感的進入內臟的「回歸家園」

 

When the repentant prodigal son crosses the paternal threshold, it is in order to banquet. Certainly, in these obscure, hidden depths there is no more than a hair’s breadth between the rash act of descent without a guide and the fall towards animal depths.

當悔改的浪子跨入父親的門檻,是為了享受歡宴。的確,在這些模糊隱藏的深處,沒有導引就下降的輕率舉動跟墮落到動物本能的深處,只有一線之隔。

 

But what emotionally distinguishes descent from the sudden shock of the fall, and also from flight, is its slowness. Duration is reintegrated and neutralized by the symbolism of descent, in a sort of assimilation of time from within.

但是情感上,下降跟墮落或飛逃的突然震盪的區別在於它是緩慢的。過程的期間被下降的符號合併及中立,方式是時間從內部吸納。

 

The redemption of time comes about, as in Bergson’s work, from the inside, through the concrete experience of duration.

如同在柏克森的作品,時間的救贖從內部發生,經由過程期間的具體經驗。

 

Thus, all descent is slow, time-consuming, sometimes viewed as laborious penetration. To visceral slowness is added a thermal quality. However, it is here a case of slow, gentle heat, far removed from bright heat and glare.

因此,所有的下降是緩慢,消耗時間,有時被認為是費力勞苦的貫穿。一種熱量的特質被增加到這種到內臟的緩慢。可是熱量是緩慢而溫和,跟明亮的火熱與光輝大不相同。

 

P194

Anthropological Structures of the Imaginary

By Gilbert Durand

Translated by Springhero