341 I owe it to the reader to give him a detailed example of the
specific activity of animus and anima. Unfortunately this mate¬rial is so enormous and demands so much explanation of sym¬bols that I cannot include such an account within the compass of this essay. I have, however, published some of these products with all their symbolical associations in a separate work,1 and to this I must refer the reader. In that book I said nothing about the animus, because at that time this function was still unknown to me.


Nevertheless, if I advise a woman patient to associate her unconscious contents, she will always produce the same kind of fantasy. The masculine hero figure who almost unfailingly ap¬pears is the animus, and the succession of fantasy-experiences demonstrates the gradual transformation and dissolution of the autonomous complex.


342 This transformation is the aim of the analysis of the uncon-
scious. If there is no transformation, it means that the determin¬ing influence of the unconscious is unabated, and that it will in some cases persist in maintaining neurotic symptoms in spite of all our analysis and all our understanding.


Alternatively, a com¬pulsive transference will take hold, which is just as bad as a neu¬rosis. Obviously in such cases no amount of suggestion, good will, and purely reductive understanding has helped to break the power of the unconscious. This is not to say-once again I would like to emphasize this point very clearly-that all psycho¬therapeutic methods are, by and large, useless. I merely want to stress the fact that there are not a few cases where the doctor has to make up his mind to deal fundamentally with the uncon¬scious, to come to a real settlement with it. This is of course something very different from interpretation.


In the latter case it is taken for granted that the doctor knows beforehand, so as to be able to interpret. But in the case of a real settlement it is not a question of interpretation: it is a question of releasing uncon¬scious processes and letting them come into the conscious mind in the form of fantasies. We can try our hand at interpreting these fantasies if we like. In many cases it may be quite impor¬tant for the patient to have some idea of the meaning of the fantasies produced. But it is of vital importance that he should experience them to the full and, in so far as intellectual under-standing belongs to the totality of experience, also understand them. Yet I would not give priority to understanding.


Naturally the doctor must be able to assist the patient in his understand¬ing, but, since he will not and indeed cannot understand every¬thing, the doctor should assiduously guard against clever feats of interpretation. For the important thing is not to interpret and understand the fantasies, but primarily to experience them. Alfred Kubin has given a very good description of the uncon¬scious in his book Die andere Seite)’ that is, he has described what he, as an artist, experienced of the unconscious.

当然,医生必须要能够帮助病人从事他的理解。但是,因为病人不愿意理解,与确实无法理解一切事情。医生应该小心翼翼地防卫灵巧的解释的技巧。因为重要的事情并不是要解释,与理解幻想。而是主要要经验幻想。库斌曾经给予无意识很好的描述,在他的书“Die andere Seite”。在书里,他曾经描述,作为艺术家,他曾经经验的无意识。

It is an artistic experience which, in the deeper meaning of human ex-peripnce, is incomplete. I would like to recommend an attentive reading of this book to everybody who is interested in these questions. He will then discover the incbmpleteness I speak of: the vision is experienced artistically, but not humanly. By “hu¬man” experience I mean that the person of the author should not just be included passively in the vision, but that he should face the figures of the vision actively and reactively, with full consciousness. I would level the same criticism at the authoress of the fantasies dealt with in the book mentioned above; she, too, merely stands opposite the fantasies forming themselves out of the unconscious, perceiving them, or at best passively endur¬ing them. But a real settlement with the unconscious demands a firmly opposed conscious standpoint.

这是一个并不完整的艺术的经验,在人类的经验的更加深刻的意义。我想要推荐专注阅读这本书,给予每一位对这些问题感到兴趣的人。他因此将会发现我谈论到的这个不完整: 这个幻景从艺术层面被经验到,而不是从人性的层面。所谓“人类的”经验,我的意思是,作者的这个人不应该仅是被动地被包含在幻景里。代替的,他应该面对幻景里的各个人物,主动而反应地,带着充分的意识。我将相同的批评朝向以上被提到的这本书,被处理的各种幻想的女作者。她也仅是站立在幻想的对面,这些幻想从无意识出来形成它们自己。但是,跟无意识的真实的和解,要求坚决地对立的意识的观点

343 I will try to explain what I mean by an example. One of my
patients had the following fantasy: He sees his fiancee running down the road towards the river. It is winter) and the river is frozen. She runs out on the ice) and he follows her. She goes right out) and then the ice breaks) a dark fissure appears) and he is afraid she is going to jump in. And that is what happens: she jumps into the crack) and he watches her sadly.

我将设法解释我的意思,用一个例子。我的一位病人拥有以下的幻想:他看见他的未婚妻跑下道路,朝向河流。那是冬天,河流冰冻。她在冰地上跑着,他跟随着她。她一直跑着,然后冰地破裂。出现黑暗的破裂。他害怕她将会跳下去。那就是所发生的事情: 她跳进那个破裂。他悲伤地观看她。


This fragment, although torn out of its context, clearly shows the attitude of the conscious mind: it perceives and pas-sively endures, the fantasy-image is merely seen and felt, it is two¬ dimensional, as it were, because the patient is not sufficiently in-volved. Therefore the fantasy remains a flat image, concrete and agitating perhaps, but unreal, like a dream.


This unreality comes from the fact that he himself is not playing an active part. If the fantasy happened in reality, he would not be at a loss for some means to prevent his fiancee from committing suicide. He could, for instance, easily overtake her and restrain her bodily from jumping into the crack. Were he to act in reality as he acted in the fantasy, he would obviously be paralysed, either with horror, or because of the unconscious thought that he really has no objection to her committing suicide.


The fact that he remains passive in the fantasy merely expresses his attitude to the activity of the unconscious in general: he is fascinated and stupefied by it. In reality he suffers from all sorts of depressive ideas and convictions; he thinks he is no good, that he has some hopeless hereditary taint, that his brain is degenerating, etc. These negative feelings are so many auto-suggestions which he accepts without argument. Intellectually, he can understand them perfectly and recognize them as untrue, but nevertheless the feelings persist.
在幻想里,他始终是被动的这个事实,仅是表达他的态度,对于一般的无意识的活动: 他对它感到著迷与麻痹。在现实里,他遭受各种的沮丧的想法与信念。他认为他一无是处,他拥有一些没有希望的遗传的习性,他的脑逐渐恶化,等等。这些负面的感觉,是如此众多的自动的暗示。他接受这些暗示,没有争论。在知识方面,他能够完全地理解它们,并且体认它们,作为并不真实,但是感觉仍然持续存在。

They cannot be attacked by the intellect be¬cause they have no intellectual or rational basis; they are rooted in an unconscious, irrational fantasy-life which is not amenable to conscious criticism. In these cases the unconscious must be given an opportunity to produce its fantasies, and the above fragment is just such a product of unconscious fantasy activity. Since the case was one of psychogenic depression, the depression itself was due to fantasies of whose existence the patient was to¬tally unconscious. In genuine melancholia, extreme exhaustion, poisoning, etc., the situation would be reversed: the patient has such fantasies because he is in a depressed condition. But in a case of psychogenic depression he is depressed because he has such fantasies.


My patient was a very clever young man who had been intellectually enlightened as to the cause of his neurosis by a lengthy analysis. However, intellectual understanding made no difference to his depression. In cases of this sort the doctor should spare himself the useless trouble of delving still further into the causality; for, when a more or less exhaustive under-standing is of no avail, the discovery of yet another little bit of causality will be of no avail either.




The unconscious has simply gained an unassailable ascendency; it wields an attractive force that can invalidate all conscious contents-in other words, it can withdraw libido from the conscious world and thereby produce a “depression,” an abaissement du niveau mental (Janet). But as a result of this we must, according to the law of energy, expect an accumulation of value-i.e., libido-in the unconscious.



Libido can never be apprehended except in a definite form; that is to say, it is identical with fantasy-images. And we can only release it from the grip of the unconscious by bringing up the corresponding fantasy-images. That is why, in a case like this, we give the unconscious a chance to bring its fantasies to the sur-face. This is how the foregoing fragment was produced. It is a single episode from a long and very intricate series of fantasy-images, corresponding to the quota of energy that was lost to the conscious mind and its contents.


The patient’s conscious world has become cold, empty, and grey; but his unconscious is acti-vated, powerful, and rich. It is characteristic of the nature of the unconscious psyche that it is sufficient unto itself and knows no human considerations. Once a thing has fallen into the uncon-scious it is retained there, regardless of whether the conscious mind suffers or not. The latter can hunger and freeze, while everything in the unconscious becomes verdant and blossoms.


So at least it appears at first. But when we look deeper, we find that this unconcern of the unconscious has a meaning, in-deed a purpose and a goal. There are psychic goals that lie be¬yond the conscious goals; in fact, they may even be inimical to them. But we find that the unconscious has an inimical or ruth¬less bearing towards the conscious only when the latter adopts a false or pretentious attitude.


The conscious attitude of my patient is so one-sidedly intel¬lectual and rational that nature herself rises up against him and annihilates his whole world of conscious values. But he cannot de-intellectualize himself and make himself dependent on an¬other function, e.g., feeling, for the very simple reason that he has not got it. The unconscious has it. Therefore we have no alternative but to hand Over the leadership to the unconscious
and give it the opportunity of becoming a conscious content in the form of fantasies.

我的病人的意识的态度是如此的单边地知识与理性,以致于自然自己就会起来反对他,并且消灭他的意识到价值的整体的世界。但是,他无法替他自己解除知识,并让他自己依靠另外一个功能,例如,感觉。理由很简单,他还没有获得它。无意识获得它。 因此,我们没有别的选择,除了就是将领导权递交给无意识。然后,给予无意识这个机会,以幻想的形式,成为意识的内容。

If, formerly, my patient clung to his intel¬lectual world and defended himself with rationalizations against what he regarded as his illness, he must now yield himself up to it entirely, and when a fit of depression comes upon him, he must no longer force himself to some kind of work in order to forget, but must accept his depression and give it a hearing.


348 Now this is the direct opposite of succumbing to a mood,
which is so typical of neurosis. It is no weakness, no spineless surrender, but a hard achievement, the essence of which consists in keeping your objectivity despite the temptations of the mood, and in making the mood your object, instead of allowing it to become in you the dominating subject. So the patient must try to get his mood to speak to him; his mood must tell him all about itself and show him through what kind of fantastic analo¬gies it is expressing itself.


349 The foregoing fragment is a bit of visualized mood. If he had
not suceeded in keeping his objectivity in relation to his mood, he would have had, in place of the fantasy-image, only a crip¬pling sense that everything was going to the devil, that he was incurable, ete. But because he gave his mood a chance to express itself in an image, he succeeded in converting at least a small sum of libido, of unconscious creative energy in eidetic form, into a conscious content and thus withdrawing it from the sphere of the unconscious.


350 But this effort is not enough, for the fantasy, to be com-
pletely experienced, demands not just perception and passivity, but active participation. The patient would comply with this de¬mand if he conducted himself in the fantasy as he would doubt¬less conduct himself in reality. He would never remain an idle spectator while his fiancee tried to drown herself; he would leap up and stop her. This should also happen in the fantasy.


If he succeeds in behaving in the fantasy as he would behave in a simi¬lar situation in reality, he would prove that he was taking the fantasy seriously, i.e., assigning absolute reality value to the un¬conscious. In this way he would have won a victory over his one¬sided intellectualism and, indirectly, would have asserted the validity of the irrational standpoint of the unconscious.



351 That would be the complete experience of the unconscious demanded of him. But one must not underestimate what that actually means: your whole world is menaced by fantastic irreal¬ity. It is almost insuperably difficult to forget, even for a mo¬ment, that all this is only fantasy, a figment of the imagination that must strike one as altogether arbitrary and artificial. How can one assert that anything of this kind is “real” and take it seriously?


352 We can hardly be expected to believe in a sort of double life,
in which we conduct ourselves on one plane as modest average citizens, while on another we have unbelievable adventures and perform heroic deeds. In other words, we must not concretize our fantasies. But there is in man a strange propensity to do just this, and all his aversion to fantasy and his critical depreciation of the unconscious come solely from the deep-rooted fear of this tendency.


Concretization and the fear of it are both primitive su¬perstitions, but they still survive in the liveliest form among so¬called enlightened people. In his civic life a man may follow the trade of a shoemaker, but as the member of a sect he puts on the dignity of an archangel. To all appearances he is a small trades¬man, but among the freemasons he is a mysterious grandee. An¬other sits all day in his office; at evening, in his circle, he is a reincarnation of Julius Caesar, fallible as a man, but in his offi¬cial capacity infallible. These are all unintentional concretiza¬tions.


353 As against this, the scientific credo of our time has developed
a superstitious phobia about fantasy. But the real is what works. And the fantasies of the unconscious work, there can be no doubt about that. Even the cleverest philosopher can be the vic¬tim of a thoroughly idiotic agoraphobia. Our famous scientific reality does not afford us the slightest protection against the so¬called irreality of the unconscious.


Something works behind the veil of fantastic images, whether we give this something a good name or a bad. It is something real, and for this reason its mani¬festations must be taken seriously. But first the tendency to con-cretization must be overcome; in other words, we must not take the fantasies literally when we approach the question of inter¬preting them.



While we are in the grip of the actual experience, the fantasies cannot be taken literally enough. But when it comes to understanding them, we must on no account mistake semblance, the fantasy-image ,,~ such, for the operative proc¬ess underlying it. The semblance is not the thing itself, but only its expression.


354 Thus my patient is not experiencing the suicide scene “on
another plane” (though in every other respect it is just as con¬crete as a real suicide); he experiences something real which looks like a suicide. The two opposing “realities,” the world of the conscious and the world of the unconscious, do not quarrel for supremacy, but each makes the other relative. That the real¬ity of the unconscious is very relative indeed will presumably arouse no violent contradiction; but that the reality of the con¬scious world could be doubted will be accepted with less alac¬rity. And yet both “realities” are psychic experience, psychic semblances painted on an inscrutably dark back-cloth. To the critical intelligence, nothing is left of absolute reality.


355 Of the essence of things, of absolute being, we know nothing.
But we experience various effects: from “outside” by way of the senses, from “inside” by way of fantasy. We would never think of asserting that the colour “green” had an independent exist¬ence; similarly we ought never to imagine that a fantasy¬experience exists in and for itself, and is therefore to be taken quite literally. It is an expression, an appearance standing for something unknown but real. The fantasy-fragment I have men¬tioned coincides in time with a wave of depression and despera¬tion, and this event finds expression in the fantasy.


The patient really does have a fiancee; for him she represents the one emo¬tiona llink with the world. Snap that link, and it would be the end of his relation to the world. This would be an altogether hopeless aspect. But his fiancee is also a symbol for his anima, that is, for his relation to the unconscious. Hence the fantasy simultaneously expresses the fact that, without any hindrance on his part, his anima is disappearing again into the unconscious. This aspect shows that once again his mood is stronger than he is. It throws everything to the winds, while he looks on without lifting a hand. But he could easily step in and arrest the an1ma.

这位病人确实拥有一位未婚妻。对于他而言,未婚妻代表情感上跟世界的联接。假如将这个联接中断,那将是他跟世界的关系的结束。那将是完全的没有希望的层面。但是他的未婚妻也是他的阿尼玛的象征。换句话说,作为他跟无意识的关系的象征。因此,这个幻想同时表达这个事实:假如没有他这方面的任何阻碍,他的阿尼玛会再次逐渐消失进入无意识。这个层面显示:再次,他的心情比他的存在更加强烈。他的心情将每件事情听由命运播弄。另一方面,他在旁观看,没有出手帮助。但是,他本来能够轻易地介入 并且阻止阿尼玛。

356 I give preference to this latter aspect, because the patient is
an introvert whose life-relationship is ruled by inner facts. Were he an extravert, I would have to give preference to the first as¬pect, because for the extravert life is governed primarily by his relation to human beings.


He might in the trough of a mood do away with his fiancee and himself too, whereas the introvert harms himself most when he casts off his relation to the anima, i.e., to the object within.


357 So my patient’s fantasy clearly reveals the negative move-
ment of the unconscious, a tendency to recoil from the conscious world so energetically that it sucks away the libido from con¬sciousness and leaves the latter empty. But, by making the fantasy conscious, we stop this process from happening unconsciously. If the patient were himself to participate actively in the way de¬scribed above, he would possess himself of the libido invested in the fantasy, and would thus gain added influence over the un¬conscIOUS.


358 Continual conscious realization of unconscious fantasies, to-
gether with active participation in the fantastic events, has, as I have witnessed in a very large number of cases, the effect firstly of extending the conscious horizon by the inclusion of numer¬ous unconscious contents; secondly of gradually diminishing the dominant influence of the unconscious; and thirdly of bringing about a change of personality.


359 This change of personality is naturally not an alteration of
the original hereditary disposition, but rather a transformation of the general attitude. Those sharp cleavages and antagonisms between conscious and unconscious, such as we see so clearly in the endless conflicts of neurotic natures, nearly always rest on a noticeable one-sidedness of the conscious attitude, which gives absolute precedence to one or two functions, while the others are unjustly thru,,>t into the background. Conscious realization and experience of fantasies assimilates the unconscious inferior functions to the conscious mind-a process which is naturally not without far-reaching effects on the conscious attitude.


360 For the moment I will refrain from discussing the nature of
this change of personality, since I only want to emphasize the fact that an important change does take place. I have called this change, which is the aim of our analysis of the unconscious, the transcendent function. This remarkable capacity of the human psyche for change, expressed in the transcendent function, is the principal object of late medieval alchemical philosophy, where it was expressed in terms of alchemical symbolism. Herbert Sil¬berer, in his very able book Problems of Mysticism and Its Sym-bolism) has already pointed out the psychological content of al-chemy.

目前,我将节制不去讨论人格改变的特性。因为我仅是想要强调这个事实:重要的改变确实发生。无曾经称这种改变,为超验的功能。因为那是我们对于无意识的精神分析的目的。人类心灵具有改变的明显的能力,在超验的功能里被表达出来。它是中世纪晚期的炼金术哲学的主要的目标。在那里,它被表达,用炼金术的象征主义。赫伯特 西贝瑞,在他的精炼的书“神秘主义的难题与其象征主义”,已经指出炼金术的心理的内容。



It would be an unpardonable error to accept the current view and reduce these “alchymical” strivings to a mere matter of alembics and melting-pots. This side certainly existed; it repre¬sented the tentative beginnings of exact chemistry. But alchemy also had a spiritual side which must not be underestimated and whose psychological value has not yet been sufficiently appreci¬ated: there was an “alchymical” philosophy, the groping precur-sor of the most modern psychology. The secret of alchemy was in fact the transcendent function, the transformation of personality through the blending and fusion of the noble with the base components, of the differentiated with the inferior functions, of the conscious with the unconscious.


But, just as the beginnings of scientific chemistry were hope¬lessly distorted and confused by fantastic conceits and whimsi¬calities, so alchemical philosophy, hampered by the inevitable concretizations of the still crude and undifferentiated intellect, never advanced to any clear psychological formulation, despite the fact that the liveliest intuition of profound truths kept the medieval thinker passionately attached to the problems of al-chemy. No one who has undergone the process of assimilating the unconscious will deny that it gripped his very vitals and changed him.


I would not blame my reader at all if he shakes his head
dubiously at this point, being quite unable to imagine how such a quantite negligeable as the footling fantasy given above could ever have the slightest influence on anybody. I admit at once that in considering the transcendent function and the extraordinary influence attributed to it, the fragment we have quoted is any¬thing but illuminating. But it is-and here I must appeal to the benevolent understanding of my reader-exceedingly difficult to give any examples, because every example has the unfortunate characteristic of being impressive and significant only to the in¬dividual concerned. Therefore I always advise my patients not to cherish the naive belief that what is of the greatest significance to them personally also has objective significance.


The vast majority of people are quite incapable of putting themselves individually into the mind of another. This is indeed a singularly rare art, and, truth to tell, it does not take us very far. Even the man whom we think we know best and who assures us himself that we understand him through and through is at bottom a stranger to us.




He is different. The most we can do, and the best, is to have at least some inkling of his otherness, to respect it, and to guard against the outrageous stupidity of wish-ing to interpret it.


I can, therefore, produce nothing convincing, nothing that would convince the reader as it convinces the man whose deep-est experience it is. We must simply believe it by reason of its analogy with our own experience. Ultimately, when all else fails, the end-result is plain beyond a doubt: the perceptible change of personality. With these reservations in mind, I would like to present the reader with another fantasy-fragment, this time from a woman. The difference from the previous example leaps to the eye: here the experience is total, the observer takes an active part and thus makes the process her own. The material in this case is very extensive, culminating in a profound trans-formation of personality. The fragment comes from a late phase of personal development and is an organic part of a long and continuous series of transformations which have as their goal the attainment of the mid-point of the personality.



It may not be immediately apparent what is meant by a “mid-point of the personality.” I will therefore try to outline this problem in a few words. If we picture the conscious mind, with the ego as its centre, as being opposed to the unconscious, and if we now add to our mental picture the process of assimilat-ing the unconscious, we can think of this assimilation as a kind of approximation of conscious and unconscious, where the centre of the total personality no longer coincides with the ego, but with a point midway between the conscious and the uncon-scious.

“人格的中介点”是什么意思,可能不是马上显而易见。我将因此尝试描绘这个难题的轮廓,用简短几个字。假如我描绘意识的心灵,以自我作为它的中心,作为跟无意识的对立。假如我们现在补充我们的精神的画面 用吸收无意识的过程,我们能够将这个吸收,视为是意识与无意识的一种靠近。在那里,完整的人格的中心不再巧合于自我,而且具有一个中途的点,处于意识与无意识之间。

This would be the point of new equilibrium, a new cen¬tering of the total personality, a virtual centre which, on ac-count of its focal position between conscious and unconscious, ensures for the personality a new and more solid foundation. I freely admit that visualizations of this kind are no more than the clumsy attempts of the unskilled mind to give expression to in-expressible, and well-nigh indescribable, psychological facts. I could say the same thing in the words of St. Paul : “Yet not I live, but Christ liveth in me.”



Or I might invoke Lao-tzu and appropriate his concept of Tao, the Middle Way and creative centre of all things. In all these the same thing is meant. Speaking as a psychologist with a scientific conscience, I must say at once that these things are psychic factors of undeniable power; they are not the inventions of an idle mind, but definite psychic events obeying definite laws and having their legitimate causes and effects, which can be found among the most widely differing peoples and races today, as thousands of years ago. I have no theory as to what constitutes the nature of these processes. One would first have to know what constitutes the nature of the psyche. I am content simply to state the facts.


366 Coming now to our example: it concerns a fantasy of in-
tensely visual character, something which in the language of the ancients would be called a “vision.” Not a “vision seen in a dream,” but a vision perceived by intense concentration on the background of consciousness, a technique that is perfected only after long practice.2 Told in her own words, this is what the patient saw:


“I climbed the mountain and came to a place where I saw
seven red stones in front of me) seven on either side) and seven behind me. I stood in the middle of this quadrangle. The stones were flat like steps. I tried to lift the four stones nearest me. In doing so I discovered that these stones were the pedestals of four statues of gods buried upside down in the earth. I dug them up and arranged them about me so that I was standing in the mid¬dle of them. Suddenly they leaned towards one another until their heads touched) forming something like a tent over me. I myself fell to the ground and said) ‘Fall upon me if you must! I am tired.’ Then I saw that beyond) encircling the four gods) a ring of flame had formed. After a time I got up from the ground and overthrew the statues of the gods. Where they fell) four trees shot up. A t that blue flames leapt up from the ring of fire and began to burn the foliage of the trees. Seeing this I said) ‘This must stop. I must go into the fire myself so that the leaves shall not be burned.’ Then I stepped into the fire. The trees vanished and the fiery ring drew together to one immense blue flame that carried me up from the earth.”


367 Here the vision ended. Unfortunately I cannot see how I can
make conclusively clear to the reader the extraordinarily inter- esting meaning of this vision.


2 [This technique is elsewhere called “active imagination.” Cf. “The Transcend¬ent Function,” pars. l66ff., and Mysterium Coniunctionis, pars. 706 and 749ff• -EDlTORS.]


The fragment is an excerpt from a long sequence, and one would have to explain everything that happened before and afterwards, in order to grasp the signifi¬cance of the picture. At all events the unprejudiced reader will recognize at once the idea of a “mid-point” that is reached by a kind of climb (mountaineering, effort, struggle, etc.). He will also recognize without difficulty the famous medieval conun¬drum of the squaring of the circle, which belongs to the field of alchemy.


Here it takes its rightful place as a symbol of individ¬uation. The total personality is indicated by the four cardinal points, the four gods, i.e., the four functions which give bearings in psychic space, and also by the circle enclosing the whole. Overcoming the four gods who threaten to smother the individ¬ual signifies liberation from identification with the four func¬tions, a fourfold nirdvandva (“free from opposites”) followed by an approximation to the circle, to undivided wholeness. This in its turn leads to further exaltation.


I must content myself with these hints. Anyone who takes the trouble to reflect upon the matter will be able to form a rough idea of how the transformation of personality proceeds. Through her active participation the patient merges herself in the unconscious processes, and she gains possession of them by allowing them to possess her. In this way she joins the conscious to the unconscious. The result is ascension in the flame, trans¬mutation in the alchemical heat, the genesis of the “subtle spirit.” That is the transcendent function born of the union of opposites.


I must recall at this point a serious misunderstanding to which my readers often succumb, and doctors most commonly. They invariably assume, for reasons unknown, that I never write about anything except my method of treatment. This is far from being the case. I write about psychology. I must there¬fore expressly emphasize that my method of treatment does not consist in causing my patients to indulge in strange fantasies for the purpose of changing their personality, and other nonsense of that kind. I merely put it on record that there are certain cases where such a development occurs, not because I force anyone to it, but because it springs from inner necessity.


For many of my patients these things are and must remain double Dutch. In¬deed, even if it were possible for them to tread this path, it would be a disastrously wrong turning, and I would be the first to hold them back. The way of the transcendent function is an individual destiny.




But on no account should one imagine that this way is equivalent to the life of a psychic anchorite, to aliena¬tion from the world. Quite the contrary, for such a way is possi¬ble and profitable only when the specific worldly tasks which these individuals set themselves are carried out in reality. Fanta¬sies are no substitute for living; they are fruits of the spirit which fall to him who pays his tribute to life. The shirker expe¬riences nothing but his own morbid fear, and it yields him no meaning.


Nor will this way ever be known to the man who has found his way back to Mother Church. There is no doubt that the mysterium magnum is hidden in her forms, and in these he can live his life sensibly. Finally, the normal man will never be burdened, either, with this knowledge, for he is everlastingly content with the little that lies within his reach. Wherefore I entreat my reader to understand that I write about things which actually happen, and am not propounding methods of treat¬ment.


37° These two examples of fantasy represent the positive activity
of anima and animus. To the degree that the patient takes an active part, the personified figure of anima or animus will disap¬pear. It becomes the function of relationship between conscious and unconscious.


But when the unconscious contents-these same fantasies-are not “realized,” they give rise to a negative activity and personification, i.e., to the autonomy of animus and anima. Psychic abnormalities then develop, states of possession ranging in degree from ordinary moods and “ideas” to psy¬choses. All these states are characterized by one and the same fact that an unknown “something” has taken possession of a smaller or greater portion of the psyche and asserts its hateful and harm¬ful existence undeterred by all our insight, reason, and energy, thereby proclaiming the power of the unconscious over the con¬scious mind, the sovereign power of possession. In this state the possessed part of the psyche generally develops an animus or anima psychology. The woman’s incubus consists of a host of masculine demons; the man’s succubus is a vampire.


!l71 This particular concept of a soul which, according to the
conscious attitude, either exists by itself or disappears in a func¬
tion, has, as anyone can see, not the remotest connection with the Christian concept of the soul.




372 The second fantasy is a typical example of the kind of con-
tent produced by the collective unconscious. Although the form is entirely subjective and individual, the substance is none the less collective, being composed of universal images and ideas common to the generality of men, components, therefore, by which the individual is assimilated to the rest of mankind. If these contents remain unconscious, the individual is, in them, unconsciously commingled with other individuals-in other words, he is not differentiated, not individuated.


373 Here one may ask, perhaps, why it is so desirable that a man
should be individuated. Not only is it desirable, it is absolutely indispensable because, through his contamination with others, he falls into situations and commits actions which bring him into disharmony with himself. From all states of unconscious contamination and non-differentiation there is begotten a com¬pulsion to be and to act in a way contrary to one’s own nature. Accordingly a man can neither be at one with himself nor accept responsibility for himself.


He feels himself to be in a degrading, unfree, unethical condition. But the disharmony with himself is precisely the neurotic and intolerable condition from which he seeks to be delivered, and deliverance from this condition will come only when he can be and act as he feels is conformable with his true self.


People have a feeling for these things, dim and uncertain at first, but growing ever stronger and clearer with progressive development. When a man can say of his states and actions, “As I am, s’o I act,” he can be at one with himself, even though it be difficult, and he can accept responsibility for him¬self even though he struggle against it. We must recognize that nothing is more difficult to bear with than oneself.


You sought the heaviest burden, and found yourself,” says Nie¬tzsche.) Yet even this most difficult of achievements becomes pos¬sible if we can distinguish ourselves from the unconscious con¬tents. The introvert discovers these contents in himself, the extravert finds them projected upon human objects. In both cases the unconscious contents are the cause of blinding illusions which falsify ourselves and our relations to our fellow men, mak¬ing both unreal. For these reasons individuation
.is indispensable for certain people, not only as a therapeutic necessity, but as a high ideal, an idea of the best we can do



Nor should I omit to remark that it is at the same time the primitive Christian ideal of the Kingdom of Heaven which “is within you.” The idea at the bottom of this ideal is that right action comes from right thinking, and that there is no cure and no improving of the world that does not begin with the individual himself. To put the matter drastically: the man who is pauper or parasite will never solve the social question.


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