荣格:差异化技术

III
THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN THE EGO AND
THE FIGURES OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
自我与无意识的人物之间的差异化的技术
341 I owe it to the reader to give him a detailed example of the
specific activity of animus and anima. Unfortunately this mate¬rial is so enormous and demands so much explanation of sym¬bols that I cannot include such an account within the compass of this essay. I have, however, published some of these products with all their symbolical associations in a separate work,1 and to this I must refer the reader. In that book I said nothing about the animus, because at that time this function was still unknown to me.

我归功于读者,要给予他详细的举例阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯的明确的活动。不幸地,这个材料是如此巨大,并且要求如此多的解释象征,以致于我无法包括这样的描述,在这篇论文的范围里面。可是,我曾经出版一些的这些产物,以及它们的象征的联想,在一本分开的著作。我必须跟读者提到这个。在那本书,我根本没有说到阿尼玛。因为在当时,我还不知道这个功能。

Nevertheless, if I advise a woman patient to associate her unconscious contents, she will always produce the same kind of fantasy. The masculine hero figure who almost unfailingly ap¬pears is the animus, and the succession of fantasy-experiences demonstrates the gradual transformation and dissolution of the autonomous complex.

可是,假如我劝告女性病人联想她的无意识的内容。她将会总是产生相同种类的幻想。几乎一定会出现的男性的英雄人物,就是阿尼玛斯。幻想的经验纷至沓来,证明这个具有自主权的情结的逐渐转化与瓦解。

342 This transformation is the aim of the analysis of the uncon-
scious. If there is no transformation, it means that the determin¬ing influence of the unconscious is unabated, and that it will in some cases persist in maintaining neurotic symptoms in spite of all our analysis and all our understanding.

转化是无意识的精神分析的目标。假如没有转化,这意味着,无意识的作为决定的影响不曾稍减。在某些的个案,它将持续维持神经症的征状,尽管我们所有的分析与所有我们的理解。

Alternatively, a com¬pulsive transference will take hold, which is just as bad as a neu¬rosis. Obviously in such cases no amount of suggestion, good will, and purely reductive understanding has helped to break the power of the unconscious. This is not to say-once again I would like to emphasize this point very clearly-that all psycho¬therapeutic methods are, by and large, useless. I merely want to stress the fact that there are not a few cases where the doctor has to make up his mind to deal fundamentally with the uncon¬scious, to come to a real settlement with it. This is of course something very different from interpretation.

代替地,强迫性的移情将会掌控。这跟神经症一样的糟糕。显而易见地,在这些的情况,无论再多的暗示,善意,与纯粹还原的理解,都没有帮助,为了破解无意识的力量。这并不是说—我再次想要非常清楚地强调这一点—所有精神分析的治疗方法,大体上,是没有用的。我仅是想要强调这个事实,在有一些的个案,医生必须下定他的决心,从基本上处理无意识,确实地跟无意识达成和解。当然,会有某件跟解释不同等的东西。
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THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION
In the latter case it is taken for granted that the doctor knows beforehand, so as to be able to interpret. But in the case of a real settlement it is not a question of interpretation: it is a question of releasing uncon¬scious processes and letting them come into the conscious mind in the form of fantasies. We can try our hand at interpreting these fantasies if we like. In many cases it may be quite impor¬tant for the patient to have some idea of the meaning of the fantasies produced. But it is of vital importance that he should experience them to the full and, in so far as intellectual under-standing belongs to the totality of experience, also understand them. Yet I would not give priority to understanding.

这后者的情况,这被视为理所当然,医生应该事先知道,为了要能够解释。但是在真实和解的情况,问题并不是解释。问题是要释放无意识的过程,然后让无意识的这些过程进入意识的心灵,用幻想的形式。我们能够尝试解释这些幻想,假如我们想要的话。在许多个案,这可能相当重要,让病人稍微知道被产生的幻想的意义。但是,至关紧要的是,病人应该彻底地经验它们并且理解它们。因为知识的理解属于经验的整体性。可是,我并没有给理解这个优先顺序。

Naturally the doctor must be able to assist the patient in his understand¬ing, but, since he will not and indeed cannot understand every¬thing, the doctor should assiduously guard against clever feats of interpretation. For the important thing is not to interpret and understand the fantasies, but primarily to experience them. Alfred Kubin has given a very good description of the uncon¬scious in his book Die andere Seite)’ that is, he has described what he, as an artist, experienced of the unconscious.

当然,医生必须要能够帮助病人从事他的理解。但是,因为病人不愿意理解,与确实无法理解一切事情。医生应该小心翼翼地防卫灵巧的解释的技巧。因为重要的事情并不是要解释,与理解幻想。而是主要要经验幻想。库斌曾经给予无意识很好的描述,在他的书“Die andere Seite”。在书里,他曾经描述,作为艺术家,他曾经经验的无意识。

It is an artistic experience which, in the deeper meaning of human ex-peripnce, is incomplete. I would like to recommend an attentive reading of this book to everybody who is interested in these questions. He will then discover the incbmpleteness I speak of: the vision is experienced artistically, but not humanly. By “hu¬man” experience I mean that the person of the author should not just be included passively in the vision, but that he should face the figures of the vision actively and reactively, with full consciousness. I would level the same criticism at the authoress of the fantasies dealt with in the book mentioned above; she, too, merely stands opposite the fantasies forming themselves out of the unconscious, perceiving them, or at best passively endur¬ing them. But a real settlement with the unconscious demands a firmly opposed conscious standpoint.

这是一个并不完整的艺术的经验,在人类的经验的更加深刻的意义。我想要推荐专注阅读这本书,给予每一位对这些问题感到兴趣的人。他因此将会发现我谈论到的这个不完整: 这个幻景从艺术层面被经验到,而不是从人性的层面。所谓“人类的”经验,我的意思是,作者的这个人不应该仅是被动地被包含在幻景里。代替的,他应该面对幻景里的各个人物,主动而反应地,带着充分的意识。我将相同的批评朝向以上被提到的这本书,被处理的各种幻想的女作者。她也仅是站立在幻想的对面,这些幻想从无意识出来形成它们自己。但是,跟无意识的真实的和解,要求坚决地对立的意识的观点

343 I will try to explain what I mean by an example. One of my
patients had the following fantasy: He sees his fiancee running down the road towards the river. It is winter) and the river is frozen. She runs out on the ice) and he follows her. She goes right out) and then the ice breaks) a dark fissure appears) and he is afraid she is going to jump in. And that is what happens: she jumps into the crack) and he watches her sadly.

我将设法解释我的意思,用一个例子。我的一位病人拥有以下的幻想:他看见他的未婚妻跑下道路,朝向河流。那是冬天,河流冰冻。她在冰地上跑着,他跟随着她。她一直跑着,然后冰地破裂。出现黑暗的破裂。他害怕她将会跳下去。那就是所发生的事情: 她跳进那个破裂。他悲伤地观看她。
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344

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
This fragment, although torn out of its context, clearly shows the attitude of the conscious mind: it perceives and pas-sively endures, the fantasy-image is merely seen and felt, it is two¬ dimensional, as it were, because the patient is not sufficiently in-volved. Therefore the fantasy remains a flat image, concrete and agitating perhaps, but unreal, like a dream.

这个片断,虽然是从它的文本撕裂出来,清楚地显示意识的心灵的态度:意识感知并且被动地忍受,幻想的意象仅是被看见,被感觉。幻想的意象是所谓的两个维度。因为病人并没有充分地牵涉。因此,幻想始终是平面的幻想,或许具体而令人激动。但是不真实,如同梦一般。

This unreality comes from the fact that he himself is not playing an active part. If the fantasy happened in reality, he would not be at a loss for some means to prevent his fiancee from committing suicide. He could, for instance, easily overtake her and restrain her bodily from jumping into the crack. Were he to act in reality as he acted in the fantasy, he would obviously be paralysed, either with horror, or because of the unconscious thought that he really has no objection to her committing suicide.

这个非真实来自这个事实:他自己并没有扮演主动的角色。假如幻想发生在现实,他将不会感到茫然,找不到方法来阻止未婚妻不要自杀。譬如,他能够轻易地追赶上她,控制她的身体不要跳跃进入裂口。假如他在现实採取行动,如同他在幻想里,他将会明显地感到麻痹。一方面,由于恐惧;另一方面,因为无意识的想法,他确实并不反对她的自杀。

The fact that he remains passive in the fantasy merely expresses his attitude to the activity of the unconscious in general: he is fascinated and stupefied by it. In reality he suffers from all sorts of depressive ideas and convictions; he thinks he is no good, that he has some hopeless hereditary taint, that his brain is degenerating, etc. These negative feelings are so many auto-suggestions which he accepts without argument. Intellectually, he can understand them perfectly and recognize them as untrue, but nevertheless the feelings persist.
在幻想里,他始终是被动的这个事实,仅是表达他的态度,对于一般的无意识的活动: 他对它感到著迷与麻痹。在现实里,他遭受各种的沮丧的想法与信念。他认为他一无是处,他拥有一些没有希望的遗传的习性,他的脑逐渐恶化,等等。这些负面的感觉,是如此众多的自动的暗示。他接受这些暗示,没有争论。在知识方面,他能够完全地理解它们,并且体认它们,作为并不真实,但是感觉仍然持续存在。

They cannot be attacked by the intellect be¬cause they have no intellectual or rational basis; they are rooted in an unconscious, irrational fantasy-life which is not amenable to conscious criticism. In these cases the unconscious must be given an opportunity to produce its fantasies, and the above fragment is just such a product of unconscious fantasy activity. Since the case was one of psychogenic depression, the depression itself was due to fantasies of whose existence the patient was to¬tally unconscious. In genuine melancholia, extreme exhaustion, poisoning, etc., the situation would be reversed: the patient has such fantasies because he is in a depressed condition. But in a case of psychogenic depression he is depressed because he has such fantasies.

它们无法受到知识的攻击,因为它们并没有知识或理性的基础。它们根源于无意识,非理性的幻想的生活。它无法被意识的批评所修正。在这些个案里,无意识必须被给予机会来产生它的幻想。以上的片断,仅是无意识的幻想的活动的产物。因为这个情况是心理原因的沮丧的其中一个产物,沮丧的本身是由于这些幻想。病人完全不知道这些幻想的存在。在真实的忧郁症者,极端的心力交瘁,中毒,等等,这个情况会倒转过来。病人拥有这些幻想,因为他处于感到沮丧的情况。但是,在心理原因的沮丧的个案,他感到沮丧,是因为他拥有这样的幻想。

My patient was a very clever young man who had been intellectually enlightened as to the cause of his neurosis by a lengthy analysis. However, intellectual understanding made no difference to his depression. In cases of this sort the doctor should spare himself the useless trouble of delving still further into the causality; for, when a more or less exhaustive under-standing is of no avail, the discovery of yet another little bit of causality will be of no avail either.

我的病人是一位非常聪明的年轻人。他在知识方面曾经受到启蒙,关于他的神经症的原因,经过一段漫长的精神分析。可是,知识的理解对于他的沮丧并没有帮助。在这种的个案里,医生应该替他自己省免这个无用的费心,更进一步地探索因果律。因为当相当穷尽一切都理解都没有用的时候,另外一个小小的因果律的发现,将也是没有用的。

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345
346
347

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION
The unconscious has simply gained an unassailable ascendency; it wields an attractive force that can invalidate all conscious contents-in other words, it can withdraw libido from the conscious world and thereby produce a “depression,” an abaissement du niveau mental (Janet). But as a result of this we must, according to the law of energy, expect an accumulation of value-i.e., libido-in the unconscious.

无意识仅是获得无法被攻击的提升。它发挥迷人的力量,能够让所有的意识的内容成为无效—换句话说,它能够将力比多从意识到世界撤退下来,因此产生“沮丧”(精神力量的消减)詹尼的术语。但是,由于这个的结果,我们必须依照能源的法则,期望价值的累积,譬如,力比多,累积在无意识。

‘‘’‘’‘

Libido can never be apprehended except in a definite form; that is to say, it is identical with fantasy-images. And we can only release it from the grip of the unconscious by bringing up the corresponding fantasy-images. That is why, in a case like this, we give the unconscious a chance to bring its fantasies to the sur-face. This is how the foregoing fragment was produced. It is a single episode from a long and very intricate series of fantasy-images, corresponding to the quota of energy that was lost to the conscious mind and its contents.

力比多永远无法被预期,除了用明确的形式。换句话说,力比多认同于幻想的意象。我们仅能够释放力比多,从无意识的掌控里,凭借将对应的幻想的意象显示出来。那就是,在像这样的个案,我们给予无意识一个机会,将它的幻想带到表面。这就是前述的片断被产生的方式。这是从漫长而复杂的系列的幻想的意象的轶事,它对应于丧失于意识的心灵与其内容的能源的配额。

The patient’s conscious world has become cold, empty, and grey; but his unconscious is acti-vated, powerful, and rich. It is characteristic of the nature of the unconscious psyche that it is sufficient unto itself and knows no human considerations. Once a thing has fallen into the uncon-scious it is retained there, regardless of whether the conscious mind suffers or not. The latter can hunger and freeze, while everything in the unconscious becomes verdant and blossoms.

病人的意识的世界将会变得寒冷,空虚,与灰色。但是,他的无意识被触动起来,强大而丰富。它是无意识的心灵的特性的特征,它自给自足,并且不知道任何的人的考虑。一旦一件东西掉入无意识里,它就被保留在那里。无论意识到心灵遭受痛苦与否。后者能够饥饿与冰冻。而无意识的每样东西都变成丰富与开花。

So at least it appears at first. But when we look deeper, we find that this unconcern of the unconscious has a meaning, in-deed a purpose and a goal. There are psychic goals that lie be¬yond the conscious goals; in fact, they may even be inimical to them. But we find that the unconscious has an inimical or ruth¬less bearing towards the conscious only when the latter adopts a false or pretentious attitude.

所以,至少,它起初看起来是这样。但是,当我们更加深入观看,我们发现,无意识的这个无动于衷具有意义,确实具有目的与目标。有些心灵的目标在于意识的目标之外。事实上,这些目标可能对它们并不友善,或是怀着残酷,对待意识,仅有当后者採用虚假与伪装的态度。

The conscious attitude of my patient is so one-sidedly intel¬lectual and rational that nature herself rises up against him and annihilates his whole world of conscious values. But he cannot de-intellectualize himself and make himself dependent on an¬other function, e.g., feeling, for the very simple reason that he has not got it. The unconscious has it. Therefore we have no alternative but to hand Over the leadership to the unconscious
and give it the opportunity of becoming a conscious content in the form of fantasies.

我的病人的意识的态度是如此的单边地知识与理性,以致于自然自己就会起来反对他,并且消灭他的意识到价值的整体的世界。但是,他无法替他自己解除知识,并让他自己依靠另外一个功能,例如,感觉。理由很简单,他还没有获得它。无意识获得它。 因此,我们没有别的选择,除了就是将领导权递交给无意识。然后,给予无意识这个机会,以幻想的形式,成为意识的内容。
215

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
If, formerly, my patient clung to his intel¬lectual world and defended himself with rationalizations against what he regarded as his illness, he must now yield himself up to it entirely, and when a fit of depression comes upon him, he must no longer force himself to some kind of work in order to forget, but must accept his depression and give it a hearing.

假如,先前,我的病人紧捉住他的知识的世界,并且辩护他自己,用理性来对抗他认为是他的疾病的东西。他现在必须完全屈服于他。当一阵的沮丧侵袭他,他一定不再强迫他自己从事某种工作,为了遗忘。但是必须接受他的沮丧,然后倾听它。

348 Now this is the direct opposite of succumbing to a mood,
which is so typical of neurosis. It is no weakness, no spineless surrender, but a hard achievement, the essence of which consists in keeping your objectivity despite the temptations of the mood, and in making the mood your object, instead of allowing it to become in you the dominating subject. So the patient must try to get his mood to speak to him; his mood must tell him all about itself and show him through what kind of fantastic analo¬gies it is expressing itself.

现在,这就是屈服于心情的直接的对立。这是神经症者的典型。它并不是弱点,并不是没有脊椎骨的投降。而是坚强的成就。这个成就的本质在于保持你的客观性,尽管心情的诱惑。当你将你的心情成为你的客体,而不是让它成为你身上的作为决定的主体。
所以,病人必须尝试要他的心情跟他言说。他的心情必须告诉他,所有关于它自己的一切,然后显示给他看,凭借它正在表达它自己的某种的幻想的类比。

349 The foregoing fragment is a bit of visualized mood. If he had
not suceeded in keeping his objectivity in relation to his mood, he would have had, in place of the fantasy-image, only a crip¬pling sense that everything was going to the devil, that he was incurable, ete. But because he gave his mood a chance to express itself in an image, he succeeded in converting at least a small sum of libido, of unconscious creative energy in eidetic form, into a conscious content and thus withdrawing it from the sphere of the unconscious.

前述的片段是被拟想的心情的片断。假如他当时没有成功地保持他的客观性,跟他的心情的关系,他本来会拥有仅是一个令人挫折的感觉,每样事情都糟糕透顶,他是无可救药,等等,而不是幻想的意象。但是因为他给予他的心情一个机会表达它自己,使用意象,他成功地至少转移一小部分的力比多,无意识的创造的能源,以视觉影像的方式

350 But this effort is not enough, for the fantasy, to be com-
pletely experienced, demands not just perception and passivity, but active participation. The patient would comply with this de¬mand if he conducted himself in the fantasy as he would doubt¬less conduct himself in reality. He would never remain an idle spectator while his fiancee tried to drown herself; he would leap up and stop her. This should also happen in the fantasy.

但是这个努力并不足够,因为幻想,为了要完全被经验到,要求不仅是感知与被动,而且要求主动的参与。病人将会同意这个要求,假如他用幻想来表现他自己。如同他将会无可置疑地、在现实里表现他自己。他将永远不会保持是一个懒散的观众,当他的未婚妻尝试淹死自己。他将会跳跃起来阻止他。这也应该发生在幻想里。

If he succeeds in behaving in the fantasy as he would behave in a simi¬lar situation in reality, he would prove that he was taking the fantasy seriously, i.e., assigning absolute reality value to the un¬conscious. In this way he would have won a victory over his one¬sided intellectualism and, indirectly, would have asserted the validity of the irrational standpoint of the unconscious.

假如他成功地在幻想里行为,如同他将会在现实里的类似情况行为,他将会证明,他正在将这个幻想认真看待。指定绝对的现实,给无意识。用这个方式,他本来会赢得胜利,胜过他的单边的知识主义。然后间接地,他本来会主张无意识的非理性的观点的正确性。
216

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION

351 That would be the complete experience of the unconscious demanded of him. But one must not underestimate what that actually means: your whole world is menaced by fantastic irreal¬ity. It is almost insuperably difficult to forget, even for a mo¬ment, that all this is only fantasy, a figment of the imagination that must strike one as altogether arbitrary and artificial. How can one assert that anything of this kind is “real” and take it seriously?

那将是对他要求的无意识的完整的经验。但是,我们一定不要低估那个经验的实质的意义:你整个的世界受到幻想的非现实的威胁。那几乎无法克服的困难,要忘记,即使暂时忘记,所有这一切都是幻想,想像的虚拟之物,它给予我们的印象,作为完全的任意与人为。我们如何能够主张,诸如其类的事情是“真实”,然后认真地看待它?

352 We can hardly be expected to believe in a sort of double life,
in which we conduct ourselves on one plane as modest average citizens, while on another we have unbelievable adventures and perform heroic deeds. In other words, we must not concretize our fantasies. But there is in man a strange propensity to do just this, and all his aversion to fantasy and his critical depreciation of the unconscious come solely from the deep-rooted fear of this tendency.

我们几乎无法被期望要相信一种双重的生活。在这个双重的生活里,我们在某个层面的行为,作为是谦虚的一般的市民。而在另外一个层面,我们拥有匪夷所思的冒险,并且执行英雄般的行为。换句话说,我们一定不要实现我们的幻想。但是,在人身上,有一个奇异的习性,就是要这样做。所有他对于幻想的厌恶,与他批评地贬低无意识,仅是来自根深蒂固的恐惧这个倾向。

Concretization and the fear of it are both primitive su¬perstitions, but they still survive in the liveliest form among so¬called enlightened people. In his civic life a man may follow the trade of a shoemaker, but as the member of a sect he puts on the dignity of an archangel. To all appearances he is a small trades¬man, but among the freemasons he is a mysterious grandee. An¬other sits all day in his office; at evening, in his circle, he is a reincarnation of Julius Caesar, fallible as a man, but in his offi¬cial capacity infallible. These are all unintentional concretiza¬tions.

对于这个倾向的具体实现与恐惧,两者都是原始的迷信。但是,它们依旧以最生动的形式,存活于所谓的开明的人们。在他的文明的生活,一个人可能遵循鞋匠的行业,但是,作为是教派的成员,他摆上天使长的尊严。从外表看来,他是微不足道的商人,但是在兄弟会里,他是一位神秘的的贵族。还有另外一位,整他坐在办公室里,晚上,在他的圈子里,他是凯撒大帝的具体化身。作为一个人,他可能犯错,但是就他的官方的能力而言,他绝无错误。这些都是没有意图的具体实现。

353 As against this, the scientific credo of our time has developed
a superstitious phobia about fantasy. But the real is what works. And the fantasies of the unconscious work, there can be no doubt about that. Even the cleverest philosopher can be the vic¬tim of a thoroughly idiotic agoraphobia. Our famous scientific reality does not afford us the slightest protection against the so¬called irreality of the unconscious.

对照这个,我们这个时代对于科学的信念已经发展一种迷信的恐惧,关于幻想。但是,真实界就是运作的东西。无意识到幻想运作得通。关于这点,这是无可置疑的。即使是最聪明的哲学家有时也会是彻底白痴般的公共场合恐惧症的受害者。我们的著名的科学的现实并没有供应我们丝毫的保护,对抗所谓的无意识的非现实。

Something works behind the veil of fantastic images, whether we give this something a good name or a bad. It is something real, and for this reason its mani¬festations must be taken seriously. But first the tendency to con-cretization must be overcome; in other words, we must not take the fantasies literally when we approach the question of inter¬preting them.

某件东西运作在幻想的意象的面纱的背后。无论我们给予这个某件东西一个好的名字或坏的名字。它是某件真实的东西。因为这个理由,它的展示必须被认真地看待。但是,首先,想要具体实现的这个倾向必须被克服。换句话说,我们一定不要将幻想实质看待,当我们探他解释它们的问题。

217

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS the
While we are in the grip of the actual experience, the fantasies cannot be taken literally enough. But when it comes to understanding them, we must on no account mistake semblance, the fantasy-image ,,~ such, for the operative proc¬ess underlying it. The semblance is not the thing itself, but only its expression.

当我们处于实际经验的掌控,幻想越是用实质看待越好。但是当提到理解它们时,我们绝对不要误解类似物,幻想的意象的本身,误当著是作为幻想的基础的运作的过程。这个类似物并非是事情的本身。而仅是它的表达。

354 Thus my patient is not experiencing the suicide scene “on
another plane” (though in every other respect it is just as con¬crete as a real suicide); he experiences something real which looks like a suicide. The two opposing “realities,” the world of the conscious and the world of the unconscious, do not quarrel for supremacy, but each makes the other relative. That the real¬ity of the unconscious is very relative indeed will presumably arouse no violent contradiction; but that the reality of the con¬scious world could be doubted will be accepted with less alac¬rity. And yet both “realities” are psychic experience, psychic semblances painted on an inscrutably dark back-cloth. To the critical intelligence, nothing is left of absolute reality.

因此,我的病人并没有正在经验自杀的场景,“在另外一个层面”。(虽然在每个其他方面,这是同样的具体,如他真实的自杀)。他经验某件看起来像是自杀的真实的东西。这两个对立的“现实”,意识的世界与无意识的世界,并没有争吵要获得优胜。但是,每一个世界都让另外一个世界成为相对。无意识的现实确实是非常相对,在假设上,并不会引强烈的矛盾。但是,意识的世界的现实能够受到怀疑,将会比较不那么渴望地被接受。可是,两个“现实”都是心灵的经验,心灵的类似物,被印刷在模糊地黑暗的背景的画布上。对于具有批判智慧的人,绝对的现实,并没有剩余任何东西。

355 Of the essence of things, of absolute being, we know nothing.
But we experience various effects: from “outside” by way of the senses, from “inside” by way of fantasy. We would never think of asserting that the colour “green” had an independent exist¬ence; similarly we ought never to imagine that a fantasy¬experience exists in and for itself, and is therefore to be taken quite literally. It is an expression, an appearance standing for something unknown but real. The fantasy-fragment I have men¬tioned coincides in time with a wave of depression and despera¬tion, and this event finds expression in the fantasy.

关于事情的本质,绝对存在的本质,我们一无所知。但是,我们经验各种的影响:从“外面”,经由各种感官,从“内面”,经由幻想。我们将永远不会想到主张:“绿”的颜色拥有独立的存在。同样地,我们永远不应该想像,一个幻想的经验存在于本身或独立存在。幻想的经验因此应该被相当实际地看待。幻想经验是代表某件未知,但却是真实的东西的一个表达,一个表象。我已经提到的幻想的片断,在时间上,巧合于沮丧或绝望的浪潮。这个事件在幻想里获得表达。

The patient really does have a fiancee; for him she represents the one emo¬tiona llink with the world. Snap that link, and it would be the end of his relation to the world. This would be an altogether hopeless aspect. But his fiancee is also a symbol for his anima, that is, for his relation to the unconscious. Hence the fantasy simultaneously expresses the fact that, without any hindrance on his part, his anima is disappearing again into the unconscious. This aspect shows that once again his mood is stronger than he is. It throws everything to the winds, while he looks on without lifting a hand. But he could easily step in and arrest the an1ma.

这位病人确实拥有一位未婚妻。对于他而言,未婚妻代表情感上跟世界的联接。假如将这个联接中断,那将是他跟世界的关系的结束。那将是完全的没有希望的层面。但是他的未婚妻也是他的阿尼玛的象征。换句话说,作为他跟无意识的关系的象征。因此,这个幻想同时表达这个事实:假如没有他这方面的任何阻碍,他的阿尼玛会再次逐渐消失进入无意识。这个层面显示:再次,他的心情比他的存在更加强烈。他的心情将每件事情听由命运播弄。另一方面,他在旁观看,没有出手帮助。但是,他本来能够轻易地介入 并且阻止阿尼玛。

356 I give preference to this latter aspect, because the patient is
an introvert whose life-relationship is ruled by inner facts. Were he an extravert, I would have to give preference to the first as¬pect, because for the extravert life is governed primarily by his relation to human beings.

我给予偏爱,对于这个后者的层面。因为病人是一位内倾的人,他的生活的关系,受到内部的事实的统辖。假如他是一位外倾的人,我本来会必须给予偏爱,给第一个层面。因为对于外倾的人,生活主要是受到他跟人的关系所统辖。
218

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION
He might in the trough of a mood do away with his fiancee and himself too, whereas the introvert harms himself most when he casts off his relation to the anima, i.e., to the object within.

他在心情的泥泞里,可能废除他的未婚妻与他自己本身。在另一方面,这位内倾的人将会伤害他自己,当他抛弃他跟他的阿尼玛的关系,譬如,跟内部的客体的关系。

357 So my patient’s fantasy clearly reveals the negative move-
ment of the unconscious, a tendency to recoil from the conscious world so energetically that it sucks away the libido from con¬sciousness and leaves the latter empty. But, by making the fantasy conscious, we stop this process from happening unconsciously. If the patient were himself to participate actively in the way de¬scribed above, he would possess himself of the libido invested in the fantasy, and would thus gain added influence over the un¬conscIOUS.

所以,我的病人的幻想清楚地显示无意识的负面的动作,如此精力充沛地从意识的世界退缩下来的倾向,以致于它从意识吸干力比多,然后让意识成为空无。但是,凭借让幻想成为意识,我们阻止这个过程,不要无意识地发生。假如病人自己想要主动地参与以上被描述的方式,他将会拥有被投注于幻想的力比多,他因此将会获得被补充的影响,对于无意识。

358 Continual conscious realization of unconscious fantasies, to-
gether with active participation in the fantastic events, has, as I have witnessed in a very large number of cases, the effect firstly of extending the conscious horizon by the inclusion of numer¬ous unconscious contents; secondly of gradually diminishing the dominant influence of the unconscious; and thirdly of bringing about a change of personality.

无意识的幻想的继续在意识层面实现,再加上积极的参与幻想的事件,如同我在许多的个案里见证到的,具有的影响,首先就是延伸意识的视阔,凭借包含许多的无意识的内容。其次就是逐渐的减少无意识的支配的影响。第三是,包含导致人格的改变。

359 This change of personality is naturally not an alteration of
the original hereditary disposition, but rather a transformation of the general attitude. Those sharp cleavages and antagonisms between conscious and unconscious, such as we see so clearly in the endless conflicts of neurotic natures, nearly always rest on a noticeable one-sidedness of the conscious attitude, which gives absolute precedence to one or two functions, while the others are unjustly thru,,>t into the background. Conscious realization and experience of fantasies assimilates the unconscious inferior functions to the conscious mind-a process which is naturally not without far-reaching effects on the conscious attitude.

人格的改变当然并不是原初的遗传的性情的轮替。相反地,它是一般的态度的转化。那些明显的分裂与敌意,存在于意识与无意识之间,譬如,我们如此清楚地看见,在神经症者的天性的无穷尽的冲突里。它们几乎总是依靠意识的态度的显著的单边性。这个意识态度给予绝对的优先性,给其中一两个功能。另一方面,其余的功能并不公正地被抛弃进入背景。幻想在意识层面的实践与经验,吸收无意识的低劣的功能,到意识的心灵—这一个过程当然并非每有深远的影响,对于意识的态度。

360 For the moment I will refrain from discussing the nature of
this change of personality, since I only want to emphasize the fact that an important change does take place. I have called this change, which is the aim of our analysis of the unconscious, the transcendent function. This remarkable capacity of the human psyche for change, expressed in the transcendent function, is the principal object of late medieval alchemical philosophy, where it was expressed in terms of alchemical symbolism. Herbert Sil¬berer, in his very able book Problems of Mysticism and Its Sym-bolism) has already pointed out the psychological content of al-chemy.

目前,我将节制不去讨论人格改变的特性。因为我仅是想要强调这个事实:重要的改变确实发生。无曾经称这种改变,为超验的功能。因为那是我们对于无意识的精神分析的目的。人类心灵具有改变的明显的能力,在超验的功能里被表达出来。它是中世纪晚期的炼金术哲学的主要的目标。在那里,它被表达,用炼金术的象征主义。赫伯特 西贝瑞,在他的精炼的书“神秘主义的难题与其象征主义”,已经指出炼金术的心理的内容。

363
361
362

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

It would be an unpardonable error to accept the current view and reduce these “alchymical” strivings to a mere matter of alembics and melting-pots. This side certainly existed; it repre¬sented the tentative beginnings of exact chemistry. But alchemy also had a spiritual side which must not be underestimated and whose psychological value has not yet been sufficiently appreci¬ated: there was an “alchymical” philosophy, the groping precur-sor of the most modern psychology. The secret of alchemy was in fact the transcendent function, the transformation of personality through the blending and fusion of the noble with the base components, of the differentiated with the inferior functions, of the conscious with the unconscious.

这将是不可原谅的错误,假如我们接受目前的观点,并且将这些“炼金术”的奋斗,化减成为仅是高脚杯与溶炉。这一面确实是存在,它代表确实的化学的试验的开始。但是,炼金术也拥有精神的一面,一定不要被低估。它的心理的价值还没有充分地被赏识。“炼金术”的哲学确实存在,他们是现代心理学的模索前进的先驱者。炼金术的秘密事实上是超验的功能。人格的转化,通过高贵成分与卑下成分,被差异化的功能跟低劣的功能,意识与无意识的融合与混合。

But, just as the beginnings of scientific chemistry were hope¬lessly distorted and confused by fantastic conceits and whimsi¬calities, so alchemical philosophy, hampered by the inevitable concretizations of the still crude and undifferentiated intellect, never advanced to any clear psychological formulation, despite the fact that the liveliest intuition of profound truths kept the medieval thinker passionately attached to the problems of al-chemy. No one who has undergone the process of assimilating the unconscious will deny that it gripped his very vitals and changed him.

但是,正如科学的化学的开始,没有希望地受到幻想的自负与奇思异想所扭曲与混淆。炼金术哲学,受到无可避免的具体表现,对于这个依旧是粗测没有差异化的知识的阻碍,它从来没有前进到任何清楚的心理学的阐述。尽管这个事实:深奥真理的这个最生动的直觉让中世纪的思想家狂热地探索炼金术的难题。凡是曾经经历无意识的吸收的过程的人,没有人会否认,它掌握他的生命,并且改变他。

I would not blame my reader at all if he shakes his head
dubiously at this point, being quite unable to imagine how such a quantite negligeable as the footling fantasy given above could ever have the slightest influence on anybody. I admit at once that in considering the transcendent function and the extraordinary influence attributed to it, the fragment we have quoted is any¬thing but illuminating. But it is-and here I must appeal to the benevolent understanding of my reader-exceedingly difficult to give any examples, because every example has the unfortunate characteristic of being impressive and significant only to the in¬dividual concerned. Therefore I always advise my patients not to cherish the naive belief that what is of the greatest significance to them personally also has objective significance.

我根本不愿意责备读者,假如他在这个时候怀疑地摇摇头。
因为他不能够想像这样一个“受到忽略的特质”,作为以上被给予的愚蠢的幻想,如何可能具有丝毫的影响,对于任何人。我立即承认,当我们考虑这个超验的功能,与被归属于它的特殊的影响,我们曾经引述的片断,绝非具有启发性。但是,这确实是非常困难,要给出任何例子—我必须诉诸于读者的宽容的理解。因为每个例子都具有不幸的特性:仅有对相关的个人,才显得生动而重要。因此,我总是劝告我的病人不要怀抱这个天真的信仰:对于他们个人而言,是非常重要的东西,也具有客观的价值。

The vast majority of people are quite incapable of putting themselves individually into the mind of another. This is indeed a singularly rare art, and, truth to tell, it does not take us very far. Even the man whom we think we know best and who assures us himself that we understand him through and through is at bottom a stranger to us.

大多数的人们完全不能够以个人的立场想像另外一个人的心灵。这确实是独特而罕见的艺术。它对于我们的帮助并不大。即使是我们认为我们最熟悉的那个人,他让我们安心,我们彻底地理解他。追根究底,他对于我们是位陌生人。

220

364
365

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION
He is different. The most we can do, and the best, is to have at least some inkling of his otherness, to respect it, and to guard against the outrageous stupidity of wish-ing to interpret it.

他与人不同。我们充其量所能做的,就是至少对于他的另外一面略有所知,然后尊重他的另外一面,并且警戒着不要犯下重大的愚蠢错误,希望去解释他。

I can, therefore, produce nothing convincing, nothing that would convince the reader as it convinces the man whose deep-est experience it is. We must simply believe it by reason of its analogy with our own experience. Ultimately, when all else fails, the end-result is plain beyond a doubt: the perceptible change of personality. With these reservations in mind, I would like to present the reader with another fantasy-fragment, this time from a woman. The difference from the previous example leaps to the eye: here the experience is total, the observer takes an active part and thus makes the process her own. The material in this case is very extensive, culminating in a profound trans-formation of personality. The fragment comes from a late phase of personal development and is an organic part of a long and continuous series of transformations which have as their goal the attainment of the mid-point of the personality.

我因此没有产生任何足以说服的东西。没有任何东西将会说服读者,如同它说服那个人,因为那是他的最深刻的经验。最后,当所有其他方法都失效,最后的结果是无可怀疑的明白:人格的可以被感知的改变。我在心里怀着这些保留,我想要呈现给读者,用另外一个幻想的片断。这次是来自一位女人。跟先前的例子的差异跃上眼前:在此的经验是完整的。观察者主动地参与,因此让这个过程成为是她自己的过程。在这个个案的材料非常广泛,在人格的深刻的转化达到高潮。这个片断来自个人发展的晚期,是漫长而连续的转化的系列的有机体的部分。这些转化拥有人格的中介点的获得,作为他们的目标。

‘’

It may not be immediately apparent what is meant by a “mid-point of the personality.” I will therefore try to outline this problem in a few words. If we picture the conscious mind, with the ego as its centre, as being opposed to the unconscious, and if we now add to our mental picture the process of assimilat-ing the unconscious, we can think of this assimilation as a kind of approximation of conscious and unconscious, where the centre of the total personality no longer coincides with the ego, but with a point midway between the conscious and the uncon-scious.

“人格的中介点”是什么意思,可能不是马上显而易见。我将因此尝试描绘这个难题的轮廓,用简短几个字。假如我描绘意识的心灵,以自我作为它的中心,作为跟无意识的对立。假如我们现在补充我们的精神的画面 用吸收无意识的过程,我们能够将这个吸收,视为是意识与无意识的一种靠近。在那里,完整的人格的中心不再巧合于自我,而且具有一个中途的点,处于意识与无意识之间。

This would be the point of new equilibrium, a new cen¬tering of the total personality, a virtual centre which, on ac-count of its focal position between conscious and unconscious, ensures for the personality a new and more solid foundation. I freely admit that visualizations of this kind are no more than the clumsy attempts of the unskilled mind to give expression to in-expressible, and well-nigh indescribable, psychological facts. I could say the same thing in the words of St. Paul : “Yet not I live, but Christ liveth in me.”

这将是新的平衡的点,完整人格的新的中心,一个虚拟的中心。因为它的焦点的立场,处于意识与无意识之间。它替人格保证一个新的而且更加确实的基础。我自由地承认,对于这种的拟想仅是没有技巧的心灵的笨拙的企图,要给予表达,对于这些无法表达,几乎无法被描述的心理的事实。我能够说相同的事情,用圣保罗的话语:「可是,并不是我活著,而是基督活在我的身上。」
221

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

Or I might invoke Lao-tzu and appropriate his concept of Tao, the Middle Way and creative centre of all things. In all these the same thing is meant. Speaking as a psychologist with a scientific conscience, I must say at once that these things are psychic factors of undeniable power; they are not the inventions of an idle mind, but definite psychic events obeying definite laws and having their legitimate causes and effects, which can be found among the most widely differing peoples and races today, as thousands of years ago. I have no theory as to what constitutes the nature of these processes. One would first have to know what constitutes the nature of the psyche. I am content simply to state the facts.

或者,我可以引用老子的话,并且赏识他对于道的观念,中庸之道,与万物的创造的中心。在所有这一切里,相同的意思被表达。作为一位心理学家的言说,具有科学的良心。我必须立刻说,这些事情都是无可否认的力量的心灵的因素。它们并不是懒惰的心灵的杜撰,而是明确的心灵的事件,服从明确的法则,并且拥有他们的合法的原因与影响。这些原因与影响能够被找到,在今天的分散各地的不同的民族与种族。如同好几千年前。我没有理论,关于是什么形成这些的程序的特性。我们首先必须知道,是什么形成心灵的特性。我仅是满足于陈述这些事情。

366 Coming now to our example: it concerns a fantasy of in-
tensely visual character, something which in the language of the ancients would be called a “vision.” Not a “vision seen in a dream,” but a vision perceived by intense concentration on the background of consciousness, a technique that is perfected only after long practice.2 Told in her own words, this is what the patient saw:

我现在谈到我们的例子:它关系到强烈视觉的人物的幻想,在古代人的语言里,这件事情被称为是“幻象”。不是在梦里被看见的“幻象”,而是被强烈的专注感知的幻象,在意识的黑板上。这一个技术只有经过漫长的练习之后,才被改进。用她自己的话语来说,这就是病人所看见的东西:

“I climbed the mountain and came to a place where I saw
seven red stones in front of me) seven on either side) and seven behind me. I stood in the middle of this quadrangle. The stones were flat like steps. I tried to lift the four stones nearest me. In doing so I discovered that these stones were the pedestals of four statues of gods buried upside down in the earth. I dug them up and arranged them about me so that I was standing in the mid¬dle of them. Suddenly they leaned towards one another until their heads touched) forming something like a tent over me. I myself fell to the ground and said) ‘Fall upon me if you must! I am tired.’ Then I saw that beyond) encircling the four gods) a ring of flame had formed. After a time I got up from the ground and overthrew the statues of the gods. Where they fell) four trees shot up. A t that blue flames leapt up from the ring of fire and began to burn the foliage of the trees. Seeing this I said) ‘This must stop. I must go into the fire myself so that the leaves shall not be burned.’ Then I stepped into the fire. The trees vanished and the fiery ring drew together to one immense blue flame that carried me up from the earth.”

“我爬上山,来到一个地方。在那里,我看见七块红色石头在我面前。左右两边各七块石头,在我背后有七块石头。我站立在这个四方形的中间。石头像台阶一样地平坦。我尝试举起最靠近我的四块石头。当我这样做时,我发现,这些石头是四座神的雕像的塑像,颠倒地被埋在地里。我挖掘它们出来,然后安排它们在我四周。这样,我正站立在他们的中间。突然地,他们互相倾靠起来。直到他们的头碰触一块,形成某件像是在我上方的帐篷。我自己倒在地上,然后说:「假如你们必须倾倒,就倾倒在我身上吧!我精疲力尽!」然后,我看见,有四位天神环绕天际,形成火焰的环圈。过一阵子,我从地上站立起来,推倒众神的雕像。在他们倾倒的地方,四棵树矗立出来。看见那个景象,蓝色的火焰从火的环圈跳跃出来,然后开始燃烧树的叶子。当我看见这个景象,我说:「这必须停止。我自己必须走进火里,这样,这些叶子才不会被燃烧。」然后,我走进火里。树木就消失,烈火的环圈聚集一块,成为一个巨大的蓝色的火焰。这个火焰带着我脱离地球。

367 Here the vision ended. Unfortunately I cannot see how I can
make conclusively clear to the reader the extraordinarily inter- esting meaning of this vision.

在此,幻象结束。不幸地,我无法看见我如何能够让读者彻底的明白这个幻象的这个特别有趣的意义。

2 [This technique is elsewhere called “active imagination.” Cf. “The Transcend¬ent Function,” pars. l66ff., and Mysterium Coniunctionis, pars. 706 and 749ff• -EDlTORS.]
222

368
369

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION
The fragment is an excerpt from a long sequence, and one would have to explain everything that happened before and afterwards, in order to grasp the signifi¬cance of the picture. At all events the unprejudiced reader will recognize at once the idea of a “mid-point” that is reached by a kind of climb (mountaineering, effort, struggle, etc.). He will also recognize without difficulty the famous medieval conun¬drum of the squaring of the circle, which belongs to the field of alchemy.

这个片断是从一段长的系列的摘要。我们本来必须解释之前之后发生的一切,为了要理解这个画面的意义。无论如何,不带有偏见的的读者将会立即体会到,“中间点”的观念,它凭借攀爬而抵达(爬山,努力,奋斗,等等)。他将也毫无困难地会体认出这个著名的中世纪的困难的难题:将园形弄成四方形。这属于炼金术的领域。

Here it takes its rightful place as a symbol of individ¬uation. The total personality is indicated by the four cardinal points, the four gods, i.e., the four functions which give bearings in psychic space, and also by the circle enclosing the whole. Overcoming the four gods who threaten to smother the individ¬ual signifies liberation from identification with the four func¬tions, a fourfold nirdvandva (“free from opposites”) followed by an approximation to the circle, to undivided wholeness. This in its turn leads to further exaltation.

在此,它需要它的合适的位置,作为个体化的象征。完整的人格被指示,被四个主要的点,四个神,等等,这四个功能,在心灵的空间,给予关联。而且,凭借园圈封闭整体。克服这四个神,他们威胁要闷死个人。这意味着解放,从认同这四个功能解放。这是四重的免除对立。后面,跟随着接近园圈,接近没有被分裂的整体。轮过来,这导致更进一步的提升。

I must content myself with these hints. Anyone who takes the trouble to reflect upon the matter will be able to form a rough idea of how the transformation of personality proceeds. Through her active participation the patient merges herself in the unconscious processes, and she gains possession of them by allowing them to possess her. In this way she joins the conscious to the unconscious. The result is ascension in the flame, trans¬mutation in the alchemical heat, the genesis of the “subtle spirit.” That is the transcendent function born of the union of opposites.

我必须满足于这些暗示。任何愿意费心来思维这个事情的人,将能够形成一个粗略的观念:人格的转化如何进行。凭借她的主动的参与,病人融合她自己于无意识的过程。她获得拥有它们,凭借让它们能够拥有她。用这个方式,她将意识跟无意识联接。结果是火焰的上扬,在炼金术的热量里。“微妙精神”的起源。那就是超验的功能,从对立力量的结合里产生。

I must recall at this point a serious misunderstanding to which my readers often succumb, and doctors most commonly. They invariably assume, for reasons unknown, that I never write about anything except my method of treatment. This is far from being the case. I write about psychology. I must there¬fore expressly emphasize that my method of treatment does not consist in causing my patients to indulge in strange fantasies for the purpose of changing their personality, and other nonsense of that kind. I merely put it on record that there are certain cases where such a development occurs, not because I force anyone to it, but because it springs from inner necessity.

在这个时候,我必须提醒我的读者与医生,最普遍经常承受的一个严重的误解。他们一成不变地认为,因为未知的理由,我从来没有书写到任何除了我的治疗方法以外的东西。情况根本就不是这样。我书写关于心理学。我因此必须生动地强调:我的治疗的方法并不是在于引起我的病人耽溺于奇异的幻想,为了改变他们的人格。,以及其他诸如其类的无稽之谈。我仅是将它记录下来,有某些的情况,这样的发展会发生。并不是因为我强迫任何人这样做,而是因为它起源于内在的必要性。

For many of my patients these things are and must remain double Dutch. In¬deed, even if it were possible for them to tread this path, it would be a disastrously wrong turning, and I would be the first to hold them back. The way of the transcendent function is an individual destiny.

对于许多我的病人,这些事情都是双重,而且必须是双重地各走各的。的确,即使这是可能的,让他们追踪这个途径。那将是一个灾难式的错误的转弯。我将是第一位要阻止他们。超验功能的途径是个人的命运。

223

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

But on no account should one imagine that this way is equivalent to the life of a psychic anchorite, to aliena¬tion from the world. Quite the contrary, for such a way is possi¬ble and profitable only when the specific worldly tasks which these individuals set themselves are carried out in reality. Fanta¬sies are no substitute for living; they are fruits of the spirit which fall to him who pays his tribute to life. The shirker expe¬riences nothing but his own morbid fear, and it yields him no meaning.

但是,无论如何,我们都不应该想像,这个方法相等于是心灵的隐士的生活,跟世界疏离。恰恰相反地,因为这样的方法是可能的,有利益的,只有当这些个人指定给他们自己的明确的世俗的工作,在现实里被实现。幻想并不是生活的替换品。幻想是精神的成果。这些精神的成果掉落于尊重生活的人的身上。逃避生活的人仅能经验到他自己的病态的恐惧。这种恐惧不会给他产生任何的意义。

Nor will this way ever be known to the man who has found his way back to Mother Church. There is no doubt that the mysterium magnum is hidden in her forms, and in these he can live his life sensibly. Finally, the normal man will never be burdened, either, with this knowledge, for he is everlastingly content with the little that lies within his reach. Wherefore I entreat my reader to understand that I write about things which actually happen, and am not propounding methods of treat¬ment.

这个方法也将永远不会那个人所知,因为他已经找到回到教会之母的途径。无可置疑地,神秘主义被隐藏在她的形式里。在这些形式里,他能够合理地过着他的生活。最后,正常的人将永远不会对这个知识觉得是负担。因为他永远满足于他能够掌握的那点东西。虽然我恳求我的读者理解,我书写确实发生的事情。我并不是在提倡治疗的方法。

37° These two examples of fantasy represent the positive activity
of anima and animus. To the degree that the patient takes an active part, the personified figure of anima or animus will disap¬pear. It becomes the function of relationship between conscious and unconscious.

这两个幻想的例子代表阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯的正面的活动。随著病人主动地参与,阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯的人格化的人物将会消失。它变成是意识与无意识之间的关系的功能。

But when the unconscious contents-these same fantasies-are not “realized,” they give rise to a negative activity and personification, i.e., to the autonomy of animus and anima. Psychic abnormalities then develop, states of possession ranging in degree from ordinary moods and “ideas” to psy¬choses. All these states are characterized by one and the same fact that an unknown “something” has taken possession of a smaller or greater portion of the psyche and asserts its hateful and harm¬ful existence undeterred by all our insight, reason, and energy, thereby proclaiming the power of the unconscious over the con¬scious mind, the sovereign power of possession. In this state the possessed part of the psyche generally develops an animus or anima psychology. The woman’s incubus consists of a host of masculine demons; the man’s succubus is a vampire.

但是,当无意识的内容—这些相同的幻想—并没有被实现,它们产生负面的活动与人格表现。譬如,产生阿尼玛与阿尼玛斯的自主权。心灵的异常因此发展,拥有的状态范围不一,从普通的心情与“观念”,到精神病都有。所有这些状态的特征是同一个事实:一个未知的“某件东西”已经占有心灵的更小或更大的部分。并且主张它的令人讨厌与伤害的存在,没有受的我们所有的洞察力,理性,与能源的阻止。它们因此宣称具有无意识的力量,胜过意识的心灵。它们拥有统辖的权力。在这个状态,心灵的被拥有的部分发展阿尼玛斯,或阿尼玛的心理学。女人的男性恶魔就包含许的的男性的恶魔。男性的女性恶魔就是吸血鬼。

!l71 This particular concept of a soul which, according to the
conscious attitude, either exists by itself or disappears in a func¬
tion, has, as anyone can see, not the remotest connection with the Christian concept of the soul.

依照意识的态度,灵魂的特殊的观念,要就是存在于本身,要不就是消失于功能。如同任何人都能看出,灵魂的特殊的观念,跟基督教的灵魂的观念,并没有丝毫的关系。

224

THE TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENTIATION

372 The second fantasy is a typical example of the kind of con-
tent produced by the collective unconscious. Although the form is entirely subjective and individual, the substance is none the less collective, being composed of universal images and ideas common to the generality of men, components, therefore, by which the individual is assimilated to the rest of mankind. If these contents remain unconscious, the individual is, in them, unconsciously commingled with other individuals-in other words, he is not differentiated, not individuated.

第二个幻想是集体无意识产生的那种内容的典型例子。虽然这个形式完全主观与个人,这个物质仍然是集体。因为它由普世的意象与观念组成,那是通俗的人们所共有的意象与观念。
因此,凭借这些成分,个人被吸收到其余的人类。假如这些内容始终是无意识,个人在它们身上,会无意识地跟其他的个人融合。换句话说,他并没有被差异化,并没有被个体化。

373 Here one may ask, perhaps, why it is so desirable that a man
should be individuated. Not only is it desirable, it is absolutely indispensable because, through his contamination with others, he falls into situations and commits actions which bring him into disharmony with himself. From all states of unconscious contamination and non-differentiation there is begotten a com¬pulsion to be and to act in a way contrary to one’s own nature. Accordingly a man can neither be at one with himself nor accept responsibility for himself.

在此,我们可能会问,为什么它如此被渴望,以致一个人竟然要被个体化。它不但是被渴望,它绝对是无可免除的。因为通过跟别人的污染,他掉落进入各种情境,并且从事一些跟他自己不相和谐的行动。从无意识的污染与没有差异化的所有的状态,一个强迫症被产生,想要成为,想要行动,用跟自己的天性相反的方式。因此,一个人既无法跟他自己保持一致,又无法接受对他自己的责任。

He feels himself to be in a degrading, unfree, unethical condition. But the disharmony with himself is precisely the neurotic and intolerable condition from which he seeks to be delivered, and deliverance from this condition will come only when he can be and act as he feels is conformable with his true self.

他感觉自己处于退化,不自由,不伦恋的情况。但是,跟他自己的不和谐,确实是神经症与不可容忍的情况。他尝试要从这个情况被解脱出来,然后脱离这个情况将会来临,只有当他能够成为而且能够行动,依照他的感觉。他才能跟他真实的自性相一致。

People have a feeling for these things, dim and uncertain at first, but growing ever stronger and clearer with progressive development. When a man can say of his states and actions, “As I am, s’o I act,” he can be at one with himself, even though it be difficult, and he can accept responsibility for him¬self even though he struggle against it. We must recognize that nothing is more difficult to bear with than oneself.

人们对于这些事情会有感觉,起初始模糊而且不确定,但是随着逐渐的发展,变得越来越强烈,越来越清楚。当一个人能够说到他自己的状态与行动,「我行动,依照我生命的本质。」他能够跟他自己相一致,即使非常困难。他能够接受对于自己的责任,即使他奋斗对抗它。我们必须体认,要跟自己和谐相处确实是最困难不过的事情。

You sought the heaviest burden, and found yourself,” says Nie¬tzsche.) Yet even this most difficult of achievements becomes pos¬sible if we can distinguish ourselves from the unconscious con¬tents. The introvert discovers these contents in himself, the extravert finds them projected upon human objects. In both cases the unconscious contents are the cause of blinding illusions which falsify ourselves and our relations to our fellow men, mak¬ing both unreal. For these reasons individuation
.is indispensable for certain people, not only as a therapeutic necessity, but as a high ideal, an idea of the best we can do

「你们寻求最沉重的负担,然后你们发现就是你们自己,」尼采说。可是,即使最困难的成就也是成为可能,假如我们能够区别我们自己跟无意识的内容。内倾型的人发现这些内容在他自己身上。外倾型的人发现这些内容被投射在人类的客体上。无论哪一种情况,无意识的内容都是令人目盲的幻觉的原因。这些幻觉让我们自己与我们跟同胞的关系成为虚假,让两者都成为不真实。因为这些理由,个体化对于某些人们是无可避免的。不但是作为必要的治疗,而且作为崇高的理想,我们能够做到的最佳的理念。
225

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND’ THE UNCONSCIOUS

Nor should I omit to remark that it is at the same time the primitive Christian ideal of the Kingdom of Heaven which “is within you.” The idea at the bottom of this ideal is that right action comes from right thinking, and that there is no cure and no improving of the world that does not begin with the individual himself. To put the matter drastically: the man who is pauper or parasite will never solve the social question.

我也不应该忽略没有谈论到,个体化同时也是原始的基督教的天上王国的理想。那个天上王国就在你的内心深处。在这个理想的底端的观念是,正当的行动来自正当的思维。对于世界的治疗或对于世界的改进,都是从个人自己开始。说得更加激烈些:贫困或寄生的人将永远无法解决社会的问题。

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