Archive for the ‘Jacques Lacan’ Category

无意识的形成 24

May 30, 2014

13.11.57 35

The important thing is that you see in this joke itself the two
aspects of metaphorical creation: in one sense, in the sense of
meaning, in the sense that this joke bears, stirs up, is rich in
psychological signification, and in this instance hits the mark
and gains our attention by a talent that borders on a poetic
creation, and on the other hand on a sort of reverse side that is
not necessarily immediately perceived by him, the mot by virtue
of the combinations that we could extend here indefinitely,
seethes with all the teeming needs that surround an object on
this occasion.


I have already alluded to fames. There would also be fama,
namely the need for brilliance and reputation which accompanies
the personage of Hirsch-Hyacinth’s master. There would also be
the basic infamy of that servile familiarity that culminates in
the scene at the Baths of Lucca, with the fact that
Hirsch-Hyacinth gives his master one of those purgatives of which
he has the secret, and that he is in the grip of agonizing
stomach cramps at the precise moment that he finally receives
(39) from his beloved lady the letter, that would in other
circumstances have allowed him to realize all his dreams.

我已经提到各种名声fames 。也会有才名远播,换句话说,伴随Hirsch-Hyacinth的主人的这位人物的才名远播。也会有擅长奉承基本的坏名声,在「路卡的沐浴」的场景最是淋漓尽致。当他最后从他钟爱的女士那里获得信件的那个时刻,他腹痛如绞。若是在其他的环境,那本来会让他实现他的梦想。

This grossly farcical scene reveals what can be called the
underpinnings of this infamous familiarity, and is something
which really gives its weight, its meaning, its connections, its
open and hidden side, its metaphorical aspect and it metonymical
aspect, to this formation of the joke, and which is nevertheless
not its essence, because now that we have seen both its aspects,
all the ins and outs, the creation of meaning of famillionaire
which also implies a loss, is something which is repressed.

这个巨大闹剧的场景显示所谓的擅长奉承familiarity的坏名声。那个东西确实给予它的份量,它的意义,它的联想,它开放与隐藏的层面,它隐喻的层面,它换喻的层面,来形成这个笑话。可是,那并不是它的本质,因为现在我们已经看见它的各个层面,里外的一切细节,famillionaire 的意义的创作,也暗示着丧失,那是某件被压抑的东西。

It must necessarily be something that concerns Heinrich Heine,
something that will begin like the Signor above to turn round and
round between the code and the message.

它必然是跟Heinrich Heine 有关系的东西,某件像以上的这位Signor将会开始的东西,为了在符码与讯息之间反复翻转的东西。

When on the other hand
we also have on the side of the metonymical thing, those losses
of meaning that are all the sparks, all the spatters produced
around the creation of the word famillionaire, and which
constitute its radiation, its weight, that which gives it for us
its literary value, it nonetheless remains that the only
important thing is the centre of the phenomenon, namely that
which appears at the level of signifying creation, whatever
ensures that this is precisely a witticism, and not everything
that is there which is produced all about and puts us on the path
of its function qua centre of gravity of this whole phenomenon,
what gives it its accent and its weight, should be looked for at
(40) the very centre of the phenomenon, namely at the level of
the conjunction of signifiers on the one hand, and on the other
hand, as I have already indicated, at the level of the sanction
that is given by the Other to this creation itself, through the
fact that it is the Other who gives to this signifying creation
the value of a signifier in itself, the value of a signifier in
relation to the phenomenon of signifying creation.


无意识的形成 23

May 28, 2014

无意识的形成 23
13.11.57 34

Gide in his Prometheus ill-bound makes the whole story revolve
around what is not really the god, but the machine, the banker,
Zeus whom he calls the “miglionnaire”, and I will show you in
Freud what is its essential function in the creation of the joke.
We do not know whether we should pronounce Gide’s “miglionnaire”
as Italian or French, but I myself believe that it should be
pronounced as Italian.


In short, if we consider famillionaire we will then see in the
direction I am indicating to you, which is not reached at the
level of Heine’s text at this time, that Heine does not at all
give it its liberty, its independence, at the substantive state.


If I even translated it above “as quite famillionairely”, it is
indeed to indicate to you that we remain there at the level of
the adverb, because one can even play with words, attract the
tongue from the manner of being (?), and in dividing things
between the two, you see the whole difference there is between
the manner of being and what I was in the process of indicating
to you as a direction, namely, a manner of being.


We did not go as far as that, but you see that the two are
continuous. Heine remains at the level of the manner of being,
and he was himself careful in translating his own term, to
translate it precisely, not as “quite as a famillionaire”, but as
(37) I did above, as “quite famillionairely”.

我们并没有进行到那里。但是你们看出,这两者是连续性。海因始终保持着生命实存的方式。他自己非常小心地翻阅他自己的术语,确实地翻译它,不是作为「quite as famillionaire“,而是如同我以上所做的,作为”quite famillionairely“

What is supported by this “quite famillionairely”? Something
that is, even though we do not in any way get to this poetical
being, something that is extraordinarily rich, teeming, swarming,
in just the way things happen in metonymical decomposition.

这个“quite famillionairely“所支持的东西是什么?它是某件特别充实的东西,即使我们根本不知道诗意的生命实存,它密集,蜂涌,就想换喻瓦解时,所发生的事情那样。

Here Heinrich Heine’s creation deserves to be replaced in its
text, in the text of the Baths of Lucca, in the text of that de
facto familiarity in which Hirsch-Hyacinth lives with Baron
Cristoforo Gumpelino, who has become a very fashionable man and
spends himself on all kinds of courtesies and attentions to
beautiful women, and to which must be added the fabulous,
astonishing familiarity of Hirsch-Hyacinth hanging on to his

在此,Heinrich Heine 的创造在他的文本里,应该值得被替代,在「路卡的沐浴」的文本,在Hirsch-Hyacinth跟Cristoforo Gumpelino 男爵共同生活的真实的熟悉的文本里。后者已经成为一位时髦的人物,专注于追求与密切关注美丽的女人。在这个真实的熟悉之上,必须增加这个巨大的令人惊奇的熟悉,Hirsch-Hyacinth坚持他的攀附的熟悉。

The function of parasite, of servant, of domestic, of
commissionaire of this character, suddenly evokes for us another
possible decomposition of the word famillionaire, without taking
into account that behind – I do not want to go into the frightful
and miserable function of women in the life of this caricature of
a banker whom Heine produces for us here, but which certainly
includes the aspect of craving associated with success, the
hunger that is no longer the ………. sacra fames, but the hunger
to satisfy something that until the moment of his accession to
the highest circles of life, had been refused him.


(38) This will allow us to follow the trace of another possible
manner of decomposition, the possible signification of the word
fat-millionaire. The fat-millionaire is at once Hirsch-Hyacinth
and Baron Cristoforo Gumpellno…. And it is indeed something
else, because behind it there are all the relationships of the
life of Heinrich Heine, and also his relationships with the
Rothschilds, which were particularly famillionaire.

这将让我们能够追踪瓦解的另外一个可能的方式,fat-millionaire这个字的可能的意义。这个fat-millionaire 既是Hirsch-Hyacinth,又是Cristofor Gumpellno男爵。那确实是某件其他东西,因为在它背后,有Heinrich Heine 的生活的各种关系,也有他跟Rothschilds的生活的关系。那是特别是famillionaire。


精神分析中的侵凌性 2/4

May 27, 2014

精神分析中的侵凌性 2/4

And the two moments, when the subject denies himself and when he charges the other,
become confused, and one discovers in him that paranoiac structure of the ego that finds
its analogue in the fundamental negations described by Freud as the three delusions of
jealousy, erotomania, and interpretation. It is the especial delusion of the misanthropic
‘belle âme’, throwing back on to the world the disorder of which his being is composed.


Subjective experience must be fully enabled to recognize the central nucleus of
ambivalent aggressivity, which in the present stage of our culture is given to us under the
dominant species of resentment, even in its earliest aspects in the child.


Thus, because he
lived at a similar time, without having to suffer from a behaviourist resistance in the
sense that we ourselves do, St Augustin foreshadowed psychoanalysis when he expressed
such behaviour in the following exemplary image: ‘Vidi ego et expertus sum zelantem
parvulum: nondum loquebatur et intuebatur pallidus amaro aspectu conlactaneum suum’
(I have seen with my own eyes and known very well an infant in the grip of jealousy: he
could not yet speak, and already he observed his foster-brother, pale and with an
envenomed stare).

因此,因为圣奥古生活在类似的时代,他没有必要像我们一样遭受行为主义的抗拒。他预示精神分析的来临,当他用以下的意象表的如此的行为: 「我曾经亲眼看见,并且清楚知道充满妒嫉的婴孩。婴孩还不会说话,可是已经脸色苍白,目光凶狠地旁观收养家庭的兄弟。

Thus, with the infans (pre-verbal) stage of early childhood, the
situation of spectacular absorption is permanently tied: the child observed, the emotional
reaction (pale), and this reactivation of images of primordial frustration (with an
envenomed stare) that are the psychical and somatic co-ordinates of original aggressivity.


Only Melanie Klein, working on the child at the very limit of the appearance of
language, dared to project subjective experience back to that earlier period when
observation enables us nevertheless to affirm its dimension, in the simple fact for
example that a child who does not speak reacts differently to punishment or brutality.


Through her we know the function of the imaginary primordial enclosure formed by
the imago of the mother’s body; through her we have the cartography, drawn by the
children’s own hands, of the mother’s internal empire, the historical atlas of the intestinal
divisions in which the imagos of the father and brothers (real or virtual), and the
voracious aggression of the subject himself, dispute their deleterious dominance over her
sacred regions.


We know, too, the persistence in the subject of this shadow of the bad
internal objects, linked with some accidental association (to use a term that we should
accept in the organic sense that it assumes in our experience, as opposed to the abstract
sense that it retains in Humean ideology).


Hence we can understand by what structural
means the re-evocation of certain imaginary personae, the reproduction of certain
situational inferiorities may disconcert in the most strictly predictable way the adult’s
voluntary functions: namely, their fragmenting effect on the imago of the original


By showing us the primordiality of the ‘depressive position’, the extreme archaism of
the subjectification of a kakon, Melanie Klein pushes back the limits within which we can
see the subjective function of identification operate, and in particular enables us to situate
as perfectly original the first formation of the superego.


But it is of particular importance to define the orbit within which, as far as our
theoretical reflexion is concerned, are ordered the relations – by no means all elucidated –
of guilt tension, oral noxiousness, hypochondriacal fixation, even that primordial
masochism that we exclude from our field of study, in order to isolate the notion of an
aggressivity linked to the narcissistic relation and to the structures of systematic
méconnaissance and objectification that characterize the formation of the ego.


To the Urbild of this formation, alienating as it is by virtue of its capacity to render
extraneous, corresponds a peculiar satisfaction deriving from the integration of an
original organic disarray, a satisfaction that must be conceived in the dimension of a vital
dehiscence that is constitutive of man, and which makes unthinkable the idea of an
environment that is preformed for him, a ‘negative’ libido that enables the Heraclitean
notion of Discord, which the Ephesian believed to be prior to harmony, to shine once



台湾最近发生一位大二学生在捷运持刀无缘无故砍死4人,伤22人。被捕后面临死刑的控诉,他心里坦荡荡,一点罪恶感或良心不安都没有。甚至还有生命力终于绽放的欢爽 jouissance。这就是我想要理解与翻译的动机。欢迎大家加入讨论,看看能不能将问题看得更清楚些。

When speaking of the problem of repression, Freud asks himself where the ego
obtains the energy it puts at the service of the ‘reality principle’ – we need look no


There can be no doubt that it derives from the ‘narcissistic passion’, if, that is, one
conceives of the ego according to the subjective notion that I am proposing here, as
conforming with the register of my experience. The theoretical difficulties encountered
by Freud seem to me in fact to derive from the mirage of objectification, inherited from
classical psychology, constituted by the idea of the perception/consciousness system, in
which Freud seems suddenly to fail to recognize the existence of everything that the ego
neglects, scotomizes, misconstrues in the sensations that make it react to reality,
everything that it ignores, exhausts, and binds in the significations that it receives from
language: a surprising méconnaissance on the part of the man who succeeded by the
power of his dialectic in forcing back the limits of the unconscious.


Just as the senseless oppression of the superego lies at the root of the motivated
imperatives of conscience, the passionate desire peculiar to man to impress his image in
reality is the obscure basis of the rational mediations of the will.


The notion of aggressivity as a correlative tension of the narcissistic structure in the
coming-into-being (devenir) of the subject enables us to understand in a very simply
formulated function all sorts of accidents and atypicalities in that coming-into-being.


I shall now say something about how I conceive of the dialectical relation with the
function of the Oedipus complex. In its normal state, this complex is one of sublimation,
which designates precisely an identificatory reshaping of the subject, and, as Freud wrote
when he felt the need for a ‘topographical’ co-ordination of the psychical dynamisms, a
secondary identification by introjection of the imago of the parent of the same sex.


The energy for that identification is provided by the first biological upsurge of genital
libido. But it is clear that the structural effect of identification with the rival is not self evident,
except at the level of fable, and can only be conceived of if the way is prepared
for it by a primary identification that structures the subject as a rival with himself.


In fact,
the note of biological impotence is met with again here, as is the effect of anticipation
characteristic of the genesis of the human psyche, in the fixation of an imaginary ‘ideal’,
which, as analysis has shown, decides the conformity of the ‘instinct’ to the physiological
sex of the individual.




May 27, 2014

13.11.57 33

(34) You would really not be able to understand it without
referring it to this same framework, to this same skeleton, with
its two levels, its combinatory level with this privileged point
at which is produced the metonymical object as such, and to the
substitutive level with this privileged point at which there is
produced at the encounter of the two chains of the discourse on
the one hand, and on the other hand of the signifying chain in
its pure state, at the elementary level, and which constitutes
the message.


As we have seen, the Signor is repressed here in the message-code
circuit, the Herr is unterdruckt at the level of the discourse,
because it is the discourse that preceded, that caught this Herr,
and what you rediscover, that which allows you to get back on the
track of the lost signifier, are the metonymical ruins (ruses) of
the object.

如同我们所见,这个Signor 在讯息符码的迴圈这里被压抑,这个Herr 在辞说的层面就是unterdruckt,因为它是先前的辞说,它捕捉住这个Herr。你们重新发现的东西,让你们能够回到迷失的能指的轨迹的东西。它们是客体的换喻的废墟。

This is what we are given by the analysis of the example of the
forgetting of a name in Freud. From now on it will appear more
clearly to us what we can think of famillionaire.


The famillionaire is something which, as we have seen, has
something about it that is ambiguous and altogether of the same
order as the production of a symptom.

如我们所见,这个famillionaire 是某件具有意义的东西。这个意义是暧昧,而且完全属于跟病征的产生相同秩序的东西。

If it can be referred to,
superimposed on what happens in the signifying economy of the
production of a language symptom, the forgetting of a name, we
should be able to find at its level that which completes, what I
(35) tried to make you understand a little while ago about its
double function, its function of aiming in the direction of
meaning, and its confusing, upsetting, neological function from
the point of view of something that can be called a dissolution
of the object, namely no longer: “He treated me quite as his
equal, quite famillionairely”, but this something from which
emerges what we can call the famillionaire to the extent that as
a fantastic and derisory character, it is like one of those
creations in a certain poetry of fantasy that allows us to
imagine something intermediary between the mad millionaire and
the centipede, which would however also be a sort of human type
that can be imagined as moving, living and growing in the
interstices of things, a melkose(?) or something analogous, but
even without going this far, might pass into the tongue in the
way that for some time now a “respectueuse” means a whore.
假如它能够被提到,被赋加在语言的产生的能指化活动所发生的东西之上,也将是名字的遗忘,我们应该能够在它的层次找到完成的东西,不久之前,我尝试让你们理解关于它的双重功能,目标朝着意义的功能,以及混淆,扰乱,铸造新词的功能,从某件所谓的客体的瓦解的东西的观点,换句话说,不再是:「他对待我,完全平起平坐,完全famillionairely。“ 而是,这个某件东西,我们所谓的famillionaire的东西从那里出现的东西,甚至,作为一个幻想与欺骗的人物,那就像是在某首幻想的诗里的那些创造。幻想让我们能够想像某件中介的东西,处于这位疯狂的百万富翁millionaire与这个蜈蚣之间的中介。可是,这个蜈蚣也是一种人类,被想像为在东西的内脏里移动,生活与成长,某件类似东西。但是没有那么过分,它可能进入语言,有一阵子,现在的“respectuese”指的是妓女。

These sorts of creations are something that has its own value of
introducing us to something unexplored up to then. They give
rise to this thing that we could call a verbal being, but a
verbal being is also simply a being, that tends more and more to
become incarnated. In the same way the famillionaire is
something that it seems to me plays, or has played a number of
roles not simply in the imagination of poets, but also in
history. I do not need to remind you that many things would go
(36) still closer than this famillionaire.

这些的创造是某件具有它自己的价值,跟我们介绍某件直到当时都没有被探索的东西。他们产生我们所谓的文辞表达的生物的这个东西。但是文辞表达的生物也仅是生物,它越来越倾向于被具体表达。同样地,这个famillionaire 是某件我觉得扮演许多角色的东西,不仅是在诗人的想像里,而且在历史里。我不需要提醒你们,很多东西会比这个famillionaire更加靠近。


无意识的形成 21

May 26, 2014

无意识的形成 21
13.11.57 32

(32) Nevertheless, after having indicated where I want to get to
on this precise, particular point, I would like to indicate that
even though in effect there is here indeed only substitution,
there is also metaphor. Every time there is substitution, there
is a metaphorical effect or induction. It is not quite the same
thing for a German speaker, to say Signor or to say Herr. I
would even go further: it is altogether different that those of
our patients who are bi-lingual or who simply know a foreign
language, and who at a certain moment when they have something to
tell us, tell it to us in a foreign language.

可是,当我已经指示我想要到达哪里,在这个明确,特殊的时刻,我想要指示,即使实际上,在此确实仅有替换,也有隐喻存在。每当有替换时,就会有隐喻的效果或推论。对于说德语者,说signor 或说Herr,这并不是相同的事情。我甚至想要更加深入 。这是完全不同的,那些具有双语能力的病人,或仅是知道一种外国语言的那些病人,在某个时刻,当他们有事情要告诉我们,请他们用外国语言告诉我们。

You can be certain
that it always suits them much better; it is never without reason
that a patient passes from one register to another. If he is
really a polyglot it has a meaning, if he knows the language he
is referring to imperfectly, that has naturally not got the same
meaning, if he is bilingual from birth that has not the same
meaning either. But in every case it has one, and in any case
here provisionally in the substitution of Signor for Herr, there
was no metaphor but simply heteronomyic substitution.

你们能够确定,这总是更加适合他们。一位病人从一个铭记到另外一个铭记,不是没有理由的。假如他确实是一位精通数种语言的人,这具有意义。假如他知道,他正在不完美地提及的语言,那确实没有相同的意义,假如他从诞生时,就是双语,那也拥有不相同的意义。但是在每个情况,它有一个意义。在此,无论如何,在用Signor替换Herr 时,并没有隐喻,而仅有同词异音的替换。

I return to this point to tell you that on this occasion Signor
on the contrary, despite the whole …………….. context that it
is attached to, namely to Signorelli, namely precisely to the
frescoes at Orvieto, namely that are as Freud himself tells us,
(33) the evocation of the last things, historically represent the
most beautiful elaboration there is of that reality impossible to
affront, which is death. It is very precisely by telling
ourselves a thousand fictions – taking fiction here in its truest
sense – about the last things, that we metaphorise, that we tame,
that we make enter into language this confrontation with death.

我回到这点,为了告诉你们,在这个场合,Signor,相反地,尽管整个的内容,它跟所谓的Signorelli 联接一块。换句话说,确实是跟在Orvieto 的壁画有关。也就是,依照弗洛依德告诉我们的,这些壁画召唤最后的事情,在历史上,它们代表有史以来最美丽的建构,关于那不可能冒犯的那个现实。那就是死亡。确实是凭借告诉我们自己上千的幻想—在此就幻想一词就其最真实的意义而言—关于那些最后的事情,我们予以隐喻,我们驯服它,我们让这个跟死亡的冒犯,进入我们的语言。

Therefore it is quite clear that the Signor here in so far as it
is attached to the context of Signorelli, is something that
really represents a metaphor.


Here then is what we arrive at. We arrive at this that we are
approaching something that allows us to reapply point by point,
because we find they have a common topography, the phenomenon of


At the point at which there was produced the positive
production of famillionaire, there is a phenomenon of parapraxis,
of a hole. I could take another one and demonstrate it for you
again, I could give you as an exercise to refer for example to
the next example given by Freud in connection with the Latin
phrase evoked by one of his interlocutors: “exoriare ex nostris

在这个时刻,famillionaire 的正面的产品就产生了。有一个空洞的失误的现象。我能够拿另外一个现象,再次跟你们证明。我能够给予你们作为譬如提到下一个例子,弗洛依德给予的例子,关于这个拉丁的片语,他的一位对谈者提出的拉丁的片语。

By arranging the words a little because the “ex” is
between “nostris” and “ossibus”, and by dropping the second word
that is indispensable for the scansion, “aliquis”, there results
the fact that he cannot make “aliquis” emerge.

凭借稍微安排这些字词,因为这个“ex“处于”nostris“与”ossibus“之间,凭借抛掉第二个字词,那是韵律上无可免除的,”aliguis“ 结果就是这个事实:他无法让”aliquis“这个字词出现。


无意识的形成 20

May 25, 2014

无意识的形成 20
13.11.57 31

I tell you that the metaphor is produced within the level of
substitution, that means that substitution is a way in which the
signifier can be articulated, and that metaphor operates there
with its function as creator of the signified at that place where
substitution may be produced. They are two different things.


Likwise metonomy and combination are two different things.
I specify this for you in passing, because it is in these
non-distinctions that what is called an abuse of language is
introduced, that is typically characterized by this, that in what
one can define in logical-mathematical terms as a set or a
sub-set, when there is only one single element, the set in
question, or the sub-set, must not be confused with this
particular element.


This may be of some use to those who have criticized my,,,,


Let us return then to what happens at the level of Signor and
Herr. Simply something as simple as this, it is obviously what
happens in every translation: the substitutive liaison in
(30) question is a substitution which is called heteronymic. The
translation of a term into a foreign language on the plane of the
substitutive act, in the comparison necessitated by the existence
at the level of the phenomenon of language of several linguistic
systems, is called heteronymic substitution.

然后,让我们回到Signor 与Herr的层面所发生的事情。那仅是某件像这个这么单纯的东西,显而易见,那就是在翻译所发生的事情:受到质疑的替换的沟通,就是所谓的同词异音的替换。在替换行动的层面,一个术语被翻译成为一种外国语言,被称为是同词异音的替换。在好几个语言系统的语言的现象的层面的存在,有必要的比较。

You may say that this heteronymic substitution is not a metaphor.
I agree, I need only one thing, that is that it should be a
substitution. I am only following what you are forced to admit
in reading the text. In other words, I want you to draw out of
your knowledge, precisely this that you should know it. What is
more, I am not innovating, you have to admit all of this if you
admit Freud’s text.


Thus if Signor is implicated in the affair, it is because there
is something that links it to something of which the phenomenon
of metonymical decomposition is a sign, at the point at which it
is produced, and which depends on the fact that Signor is a
substitute for Herr.

因此,假如Signor 被牵涉到这件事情,那是因为有某件东西跟这个东西息息相关,换喻的瓦解的现象是一个讯息的东西。在讯息被产生的时刻。这个时刻依靠这个事实:Signor 是Herr 的一个替换。

I need no more in order to tell you that if the Herr has gone
this way, the Signor, as the direction of the arrows indicates,
has gone that way.

我不需要再告诉你们,假如这个Herr 朝这条途径走,这个Signor,依照箭头的方向指示,也朝那个途径走。

Not only has it gone that way, but we can
admit until I have come back to it, that it is here that it
begins to turn, namely that it is sent back and forth like a ball
between the code and the message, that it turns round and round
(31) in what can be called – remember what I let you glimpse on
another occasion regarding the possibility of the mechanism of
forgetting, and at the same of analytic rememoration, as being
something we should conceive of as being extremely close to the
memory of a machine, of what is in the memory of a machine,
namely of that which turns round and round until it reappears,
until one has need of it, and that is forced to turn round and
round in order to constitute a memory.


One cannot realize
in any other way the memory of a machine, it is very curiously
something that we find an application for in the fact that if we
can conceive Signor as turning round and round indefinitely until
it is rediscovered between the code and the message, you see
there at the same time the nuance that we can establish between
unterdruckt on the one hand and verdrangt on the other, because
if the unterdruckt here needs only to be done once and for all,
and in conditions to which being cannot descend, namely to the
level of its mortal condition, on the other hand it is clear that
it is something else that is at stake, namely that if this is
maintained in the circuit without being able to re-enter it for a
certain time, we must admit as Freud admits, the existence of a
special force that contains it there, and maintains it there,
namely of what can be properly called a Verdrängung.

我们无法用任何别的方式来体会机器的这个记忆。耐人寻味地,它是某件我们发现可以运用的东西。事实上,假如我们能够构想Signor, 作为不断地转来转去,直到它在符码与讯息之间重新被发现。同时你们在那里看见这个细微差别,我们能够建立的细微差别;一方面是unterdruckt,另一方面是verdrangt。 因为假如在此的这个unterdruckt 仅是需要一劳永逸地被做,在生命实存无法被沦落到它的有限生命的情况。另一方面,显而易见,岌岌可危的是某件其它东西。也就是,假如这个东西被维持在这个迴圈里,经过某段时期,它无法重新进入这个迴圈。我们必须承认,如同弗洛依德也承认,在那里包容它,并且维持它在那里的特别的力量的存在。换句话说,那里存在着贴切地所谓潜抑Verdrangung的东西。


无意识的形成 19

May 24, 2014

无意识的形成 19
13.11.57 30

This liaison at this moment in an unmistakable fashion in the
text, precisely between death and something which has a very
close relationship with sexual potency, is probably not only in
the object, namely in what is made present to him by his
patient’s suicide.


It certainly goes further. What does it mean? It means that all
that we discover are metonymical ruins connected with a pure and
simple combination of signifiers: Bosnia Herzogovina are the
metonymical ruins of the object in question which is behind the
different particular elements that have entered into play here,
and in a very recent past which is behind that, the absolute
Herr, death. It is to the extent that the absolute Herr passes
elsewhere, effaces itself, retreats, is pushed back, is very
properly speaking unterdruckt, that there are two words that
Freud plays with in an ambiguous fashion.

这确实更加地深入。那是什么意思?那意味着,所有我们发现的东西都是换喻的废墟,跟能指的纯粹而简单的联接具有关联。Bosnia Herzogovina 是受到质疑的客体的换喻的废墟。这个受到质疑的客体,处于曾经在此运作的不同的特殊元素的背后。在不久之前,这个受到质疑的客体在那个背后,这个绝对的Herr,绝对的死亡的背后。甚至这个绝对的Herr在别的地方通过,抹除它自己,撤退,被推回去,适当地说,被压抑 unterdruckt,有两个字词,弗洛依德用暧昧的方式玩弄。

This unterdruckt, I
have already translated for you as “falling into the nether
regions”, in so far as the “Herr” here at the level of the
metonymical object, has gone off in that direction, and for a
very good reason, that it was in danger of being too present
after these conversations, that as an ersatz we rediscover the
debris, the ruins of the metonymical object, namely the “bo” that
succeeds here in linking up with the other ruin of the name that
is repressed at that moment, namely “elli”, so that it does not
(28) appear in the other substitutive name that is given.

这个unterdruckt ,我已经跟你们翻译作为「掉入阴间的地区」。因为这个Herr在此处有换喻的客体的层次,它已经朝那个方向出发。理由非常充份,经过这些对谈之后,它濒临太过于出现的危险。作为一个人为的东西,我们重新这个残骸,换喻客体的这些废墟。也就是说,这个“ bo”,在此成功地跟那个时候被压抑的这个名字的另外一个废墟连接一块,也就是“elli”。所以,它并没有出现在被给予的另外一个替换的名字。

This is the trace, it is the index that we have from the
metonymical level that allows us to rediscover the chain of the
phenomenon in discourse, in what can be still made present in
this point where, in analysis, is situated what we call free
association, in so far as this free association allows us to
track down the unconscious phenomenon.


But that is not all, it still remains that neither the
Signorelli, nor the Signor, were ever there where we discover the
traces, the fragments of the broken metonymical object. Because
it is metonymical it is already broken up. Everything that
happens in the order of language is always already accomplished.
If the metonymical object already breaks up so well, it is
because already qua metonymical object it is only a fragment of
the reality that it represents.


If the Signor, itself, cannot be evoked, if it is what ensures
that Freud cannot rediscover the name of Signorelli, it is
because he is implicated. Obviously he is implicated in an
indirect fashion, because for Freud the “Herr” which effectively
had been pronounced at a particularly significant moment of the
function that it can take on as absolute Herr, as the
representative of that death which on this occasion is
unterdruckt, it is because “Herr” can simply be translated as

假如这个Signor 自身无法被召唤,假如那就是保证弗洛依德无法重新发现Signorelli这个名字,那是因为他被牵涉在内。显而易见,他以间接的方式被牵涉在内,因为对于弗洛依德,这个“Herr”曾经有效地被宣佈出来,在这个功能的一个特别重要的时刻,它能够接纳这个功能作为是绝对的Herr,作为是那个死亡的代表。在这个场合,死亡就是unterdruckt。那是因为“Herr”仅能够被翻译为“Signor”。

(29) It is here that we rediscover the substitutive level,
because substitution is the articulation, the signifying means in
which the act of metaphor is established. But this does not mean
that substitution is metaphor. If I teach you here to go along
every path in an articulated fashion, it is not precisely in
order that you should continually indulge in abuses of language.




May 24, 2014





Aggressivity is the correlative tendency of a mode of

identification that we call narcissistic, and which

determines the formal structure of man’s ego and of the

register of entities characteristic of his world.





The subjective experience of analysis immediately inscribes its results in concrete

psychology. Let us indicate simply what it brings to the psychology of the emotions by

showing the signification common to states as diverse as phantasmatic fear, anger, active

sorrow, or psychasthenic fatigue.




To pass now from the subjectivity of intention to the notion of a tendency to

aggression is to make the leap from the phenomenology of our experience to




But this leap manifests nothing more than a requirement of thought which, in order to

objectify the register of aggressive reactions, and given its inability to seriate this leap in

a quantitative variation, must understand it in a formula of equivalence. This is the use

we make of it in the notion of libido.




The aggressive tendency proves to be fundamental in a certain series of significant

states of the personality, namely, the paranoid and paranoiac psychoses.




In my work I have emphasized that one could co-ordinate by their strictly parallel

seriation the quality of the aggressive reaction to be expected from a particular form of

paranoia with the stage of mental genesis represented by the delusion that is symptomatic

of this same form. A relation that appears even more profound when – I have shown this

in the case of a curable form, self-punishing paranoia – the aggressive act resolves the

delusional construction.




Thus the aggressive reaction is seriated in a continuous manner, from the sudden,

unmotivated outburst of the act, through the whole gamut of belligerent forms, to the cold

war of interpretative demonstrations, paralleled by imputations of noxiousness which, not

to mention the obscure kakon to which the paranoid attributes his alienation from all

living contact, rising in stages from a motivation based on the register of a highly

primitive organicism (poison), to a magical one (evil spells), a telepathic one (influence),

a lesional one (physical intrusion), an abusive one (distortion of intention), a

dispossessive one (appropriation of secrets), a profanatory one (violation of intimacy), a

juridical one (prejudice), a persecutive one (spying and intimidation), one involving

prestige (defamation and attacks on one’s honour), and revenge (damage and






I have shown that in each case this series, in which we find all the successive

envelopes of the biological and social status of the person, retains the original

organization of the forms of the ego and of the object, which are also affected by this

series in their structure, even to the spatial and temporal categories in which the ego and

the object are constituted, experienced as events in a perspective of mirages, as affections

with something stereotypical about them that suspends the workings of the ego/object




Janet, who demonstrated so admirably the signification of feelings of persecution as

phenomenological moments in social behaviour, did not explore their common character,

which is precisely that they are constituted by a stagnation of one of these moments,

similar in their strangeness to the faces of actors when a film is suddenly stopped in mid-action.




Now, this formal stagnation is akin to the most general structure of human knowledge:

that which constitutes the ego and its objects with attributes of permanence, identity, and

substantiality, in short, with entities or ‘things’ that are very different from the Gestalten

that experience enables us to isolate in the shifting field, stretched in accordance with the

lines of animal desire.




In fact, this formal fixation, which introduces a certain rupture of level, a certain

discord between man’s organization and his Umwelt, is the very condition that extends

indefinitely his world and his power, by giving his objects their instrumental polyvalence

and symbolic polyphony, and also their potential as defensive armour.




What I have called paranoic knowledge is shown, therefore, to correspond in its more

or less archaic forms to certain critical moments that mark the history of man’s mental

genesis, each representing a stage in objectifying identification.




By simple observation we can obtain a glimpse of these different stages in the child’s

development. A Charlotte Bühler, an Elsa Köhler, and, following in their footsteps, the

Chicago School have revealed several levels of significative manifestations; but only the

analytic experience can give them their true value by making it possible to reintegrate the

subjective relation into them.




The first level shows us that experience of oneself in the earliest stage of childhood

develops, in so far as it refers to one’s counterpart, from a situation experienced as

undifferentiated. Thus about the age of eight months, we see in these confrontations

between children (which, if they are to be fruitful, must be between children whose age

differential is no more than two and a half months) those gestures of fictitious actions by

which a subject reconducts the imperfect effort of the other’s gesture by confusing their

distinct application, those synchronies of spectacular captation that are all the more

remarkable in that they precede the complete co-ordination of the motor apparatuses that

they bring into play.




Thus the aggressivity that is manifested in the retaliations of taps and blows cannot be

regarded solely as a playful manifestation of the exercise of strengths and their

employment in the mapping of the body. It must be understood in an order of broader coordination:

one that will subordinate the functions of tonic postures and vegetative

tension to a social relativity – in this regard, one might mention Wallon’s remarkable

work, which has drawn our attention to the prevalence of such a social relativity in the

expressive constitution of the human emotions.




Furthermore, I believed myself that I could show that on such occasions the child

anticipates on the mental plane the conquest of the functional unity of his own body,

which, at that stage, is still incomplete on the plane of voluntary motility.




What we have there is a first captation by the image in which the first stage of the

dialectic of identifications can be discerned. It is linked to a Gestalt phenomenon, thechild’s very early perception of the human form, a form which, as we know, holds the

child’s interest in the first months of life, and even, in the case of the human face, from

the tenth day.




But what demonstrates the phenomenon of recognition, which involves

subjectivity, are the signs of triumphant jubilation and playful discovery that characterize,

from the sixth month, the child’s encounter with his image in the mirror.




This behaviour

contrasts strikingly with the indifference shown even by animals that perceive this image,

the chimpanzee, for example, when they have tested its objectal vanity, and it becomes

even more apparent when one realizes that it occurs at an age when the child, as far as

instrumental intelligence is concerned, is backward in relation to the chimpanzee, which

he catches up with only at eleven months.




What I have called the mirror stage is interesting in that it manifests the affective

dynamism by which the subject originally identifies himself with the visual Gestalt of his

own body: in relation to the still very profound lack of co-ordination of his own motility,

it represents an ideal unity, a salutary imago; it is invested with all the original distress

resulting from the child’s intra-organic and relational discordance during the first six

months, when he bears the signs, neurological and humoral, of a physiological natal




It is this captation by the imago of the human form, rather than an Einfühlung the

absence of which is made abundantly clear in early infancy, which, between the ages of

six months and two and a half years, dominates the entire dialectic of the child’s

behaviour in the presence of his similars.




During the whole of this period, one will record

the emotional reactions and the articulated evidences of a normal transitivism. The child

who strikes another says that he has been struck; the child who sees another fall, cries.

Similarly, it is by means of an identification with the other that he sees the whole gamut

of reactions of bearing and display, whose structural ambivalence is clearly revealed in

his behaviour, the slave being identified with the despot, the actor with the spectator, the

seduced with the seducer.


在这整个时期,我们将会记录正常的「转嫁移情」transitivism 的情感的反应与表达出来的各种证据。小孩打到另外一个小孩时会说,他自己被打,小孩看见另外一位小孩摔倒,会哭喊。同样地,凭借认同于另外一位小孩,他体验到忍受与展示的全部反应。这些忍受与展示的结构的爱恨交加,清楚地显示在他的行为里。奴隶被认同是暴君,演员被认同是观众,被诱惑者被认同是诱惑者。



There is a sort of structural crossroads here to which we must accommodate our

thinking if we are to understand the nature of aggressivity in man and its relation with the

formalism of his ego and his objects. It is in this erotic relation, in which the human

individual fixes upon himself an image that alienates him from himself, that are to be

found the energy and the form on which this organization of the passions that he will call

his ego is based.




This form will crystallize in the subject’s internal conflictual tension, which

determines the awakening of his desire for the object of the other’s desire: here the

primordial coming together (concours) is precipitated into aggressive competitiveness

(concurrence), from which develops the triad of others, the ego and the object, which,

spanning the space of specular communion, is inscribed there according to a formalism

proper to itself that so dominates the affective Einfühlung that a child of that age may

mistake the identity of the most familiar people if they appear in an entirely different




But if the ego appears to be marked from its very origin by this aggressive relativity –

in which minds lacking in objectivity might recognize the emotional erections caused in

an animal solicited, incidentally, in the course of its experimental conditioning, by a

desire – how can one not conceive that each great instinctual metamorphosis in the life ofthe individual will once again challenge its delimitation, composed as it is of a

conjunction of the subject’s history and the unthinkable innateness of his desire?




This is why, except at a limit that even the greatest geniuses have never been able to

approach, man’s ego can never be reduced to his experienced identity; and in the

depressive disruptions of the experienced reverses of inferiority, it engenders essentially

the mortal negations that fix it in its formalism. ‘I am nothing of what happens to me.

You are nothing of value.’





无意识的形成 17

May 18, 2014

无意识的形成 17
13.11.57 28

What does Freud’s analysis of the forgetting of a name, of a
(23) proper, foreign, name demonstrate?


These are only the beginning of things that I will be returning
to, and that I will develop later, but I must indicate to you in
passing the particularity of this case as Freud presents it to


The proper name is a foreign name. We read the Psychopatholoqy
of everyday life the way we read the newspaper, and we know so
much about it that we think it is not worth our while to stop at
things that were nevertheless the steps of Freud, while each one
of these steps deserves to be retained, because each one of these
steps carries lessons and is rich in consequences.


I indicate to you therefore in this connection, because we will
have to come back to it, that in the case of a name, and of a
proper name, we are at the level of the message. This is
something whose importance we will rediscover later on. I cannot
say everything all at once, like the contemporary psychoanalysts
who are so learned that they say everything at the same time, who
speak of the “I” and the “ego” as things that have no complexity,
and who mix everything up.


What is important, is that we should dwell on what is happening.
That it should also be a foreign name, is something different
from the fact that it is a proper name. It is a foreign name
in so far as its elements are foreign to Freud’s native tongue,
(24) namely that Signor is not a word that belongs to the German
tongue. But if Freud points this out, it is precisely because we
are here in a dimension that is different to the proper name as
such, which one might say, was absolutely not proper and
particular, would seem to have no fatherland. They are all more
or less attached to cabalistic signs, and Freud stresses that
this is not unimportant. He does not tell us why, but the fact
that he isolated it in an opening chapter, proves that he thought
that it was a particularly sensitive point of the reality he is

重要的是,我们应该详述正在发生的事情。专有名字也应该是一个外来的名字。这件事情完全不同于这个事实:它是一个专有的名字。它是一个外来的名字,因为它的元素对于弗洛依德的母语而言是外来的。换句话说,Signor 并不是属于德文语言的文字。但是假如弗洛依德指出这点,那确实是因为我们在此,处于跟专有名字的自身不同的维度。我们不妨说,专有名字的自身绝对不是专有与特殊。这个专有名字似乎没有祖国。它们跟秘密隐藏的符号息息相关。弗洛依德强调,这并非不重要。他并没有告诉我们为什么,但是他用一个开放的章节,将它孤立出来的这个事实,证明他认为,这是他正在探索的现实特殊敏感的点。

There is another thing that Freud also highlights right away,
and on which we have become accustomed not to dwell, it is that
what appeared remarkable to him in the forgetting of names as he
begins to evoke them to approach the Psychopatholoqy of everyday
life, it is that this forgetting is not an absolute forgetting, a
hole, a gap, that something else is presented instead, other
names. It is here that there begins what is the beginning of all
science, namely wonder. One cannot really wonder except at
something which one has already begun if only in some small way
to accept, otherwise one does not stop at it at all because one
sees nothing. But Freud precisely prepared by his neurotic
experience, sees something there, sees that in the fact that
substitutions are produced, there is something worth dwelling on.



无意识的形成 16

May 18, 2014

无意识的形成 16
13.11.57 27

In any case what Freud shows us, is that the mot does not reach
its target all that directly, any more in German than in French,
where it is translated by “cinq membres droits”, and on the other
hand he states textually that the context excludes that the woman
should appear to be so crude. It is indeed a slip of the tongue,
but you can see how it resembles a joke.

无论如何,弗洛依德告诉我们的是,机智语并没有如此直接地到达它的目标,在德语跟法语都没有。在法语,它被翻译为”cinq membres droits”。在另一方面,他在文本上陈述,内容否认,女人竟然如此粗糙。那确实是一时口误,但是你们能够看出,它多么类似笑话。

Therefore we see, it can be a joke, it can be a slip, I would
even say further: it can be pure and simple stupidity, a
linguistic naivete. After all when I qualify it the case of my
patient who was a particularly nice man, it was not in his case
really a slip, for him the word “maritablement” was well and
truly part of his vocabulary; he did not think at all that he was
saying anything extraordinary. There are people like that who
carry on with their existence, who sometimes have very important
jobs, and who come out with mots of this kind. A celebrated film
producer, it appears, produced ones like this by the kilometre
all day long. He would say for example in concluding one of his
imperious sentences; “That’s the way it is, it is signe* qua non.”
(22) This was not a slip of the tongue, it arose simply from his
ignorance and stupidity.

因此,我们看出它有时是一个笑话。它有时是口误。我甚至更进一步说,它有时就是纯粹是愚蠢,一种语言的天真。毕竟,当我在我病人的个案,给予特质时,他确实是位好人,在他的情况,这并不是口误,对于他,“maritablement”这个字清清楚楚地是他的字彙的部分。他根本就没有想到,他正在说出某件特别的东西。有些像那样的人们,继续过他们的生活,有时它们拥有重要的工作,他们有时讲些这样的机智语。一位著名的电影制作人,似乎整体都在产生一萝筐的像那样的机智语。譬如,他经常说,作为他的自以为是句子。「那就是事情的样子 signe* qua non.」。那并不是一时口误。那仅是因为他自己的无知与愚蠢而产生。

I just want to show you that it is important for us to pause for
a moment at the level of this formation, and because we have in
fact spoken about a slip of the tongue, which in all of this is
what affects us most closely, let us see a little what occurs at
the level of the slip of the tongue. Just as we have spoken
about “maritablement”, let us return to the slip that we have
worked through on numerous occasions to underline precisely this
essential function of the signifier, what I might call the
original slip of the tongue, at the foundation of Freudian
theory, the one that reinaugurates the Psychopathblogy of
everyday life after having also been the first thing published in
an earlier form, namely the forgetting of names.


At first sight forgetting is not the same thing as the things I
have just been talking to you about, but if what I am trying to
explain to you is important, namely if it is well and truly the
mechanism, the metabolism of the signifier that is at the source
and origin of the formations of the unconscious, we should find
them all there, and what appears to be distinct at the
outside should find its unity within. So that now instead of
having famillionaire, we have the opposite, we are missing