Archive for the ‘Jacques Lacan’ Category

无意识的形成 24

May 30, 2014

无意识的形成24
雅克拉康
13.11.57 35

The important thing is that you see in this joke itself the two
aspects of metaphorical creation: in one sense, in the sense of
meaning, in the sense that this joke bears, stirs up, is rich in
psychological signification, and in this instance hits the mark
and gains our attention by a talent that borders on a poetic
creation, and on the other hand on a sort of reverse side that is
not necessarily immediately perceived by him, the mot by virtue
of the combinations that we could extend here indefinitely,
seethes with all the teeming needs that surround an object on
this occasion.

重要的事情是,你们在笑话里看见隐喻创造的两个层面,它的意义上,笑话承载,激发,充满心理的意义。在这个例子,笑话一针见血,获得我们的注意,这位天才迹近于诗意的创造。在另一方面,它迹近于一种反面,未必马上就是被他感知的反面,凭借这些连结的机智语,我们在此无限地延伸的连结。在这个场合,它充满环绕客体的急切需求。

I have already alluded to fames. There would also be fama,
namely the need for brilliance and reputation which accompanies
the personage of Hirsch-Hyacinth’s master. There would also be
the basic infamy of that servile familiarity that culminates in
the scene at the Baths of Lucca, with the fact that
Hirsch-Hyacinth gives his master one of those purgatives of which
he has the secret, and that he is in the grip of agonizing
stomach cramps at the precise moment that he finally receives
(39) from his beloved lady the letter, that would in other
circumstances have allowed him to realize all his dreams.

我已经提到各种名声fames 。也会有才名远播,换句话说,伴随Hirsch-Hyacinth的主人的这位人物的才名远播。也会有擅长奉承基本的坏名声,在「路卡的沐浴」的场景最是淋漓尽致。当他最后从他钟爱的女士那里获得信件的那个时刻,他腹痛如绞。若是在其他的环境,那本来会让他实现他的梦想。

This grossly farcical scene reveals what can be called the
underpinnings of this infamous familiarity, and is something
which really gives its weight, its meaning, its connections, its
open and hidden side, its metaphorical aspect and it metonymical
aspect, to this formation of the joke, and which is nevertheless
not its essence, because now that we have seen both its aspects,
all the ins and outs, the creation of meaning of famillionaire
which also implies a loss, is something which is repressed.

这个巨大闹剧的场景显示所谓的擅长奉承familiarity的坏名声。那个东西确实给予它的份量,它的意义,它的联想,它开放与隐藏的层面,它隐喻的层面,它换喻的层面,来形成这个笑话。可是,那并不是它的本质,因为现在我们已经看见它的各个层面,里外的一切细节,famillionaire 的意义的创作,也暗示着丧失,那是某件被压抑的东西。

It must necessarily be something that concerns Heinrich Heine,
something that will begin like the Signor above to turn round and
round between the code and the message.

它必然是跟Heinrich Heine 有关系的东西,某件像以上的这位Signor将会开始的东西,为了在符码与讯息之间反复翻转的东西。

When on the other hand
we also have on the side of the metonymical thing, those losses
of meaning that are all the sparks, all the spatters produced
around the creation of the word famillionaire, and which
constitute its radiation, its weight, that which gives it for us
its literary value, it nonetheless remains that the only
important thing is the centre of the phenomenon, namely that
which appears at the level of signifying creation, whatever
ensures that this is precisely a witticism, and not everything
that is there which is produced all about and puts us on the path
of its function qua centre of gravity of this whole phenomenon,
what gives it its accent and its weight, should be looked for at
(40) the very centre of the phenomenon, namely at the level of
the conjunction of signifiers on the one hand, and on the other
hand, as I have already indicated, at the level of the sanction
that is given by the Other to this creation itself, through the
fact that it is the Other who gives to this signifying creation
the value of a signifier in itself, the value of a signifier in
relation to the phenomenon of signifying creation.
在另一方面,我们也拥有换喻的事情的这个层面。智慧火花的意义的那些丧失,环绕着famillionaire这个字词的创造产生的侃侃而谈,构成它的灿烂,它的份量的侃侃而谈,它给予我们它的文学价值。可是,唯一重要的事情仍然是这个现象的中心,也就是,出现在能指化创造的层面,不管是什么作为保证,这确实是个机智语。并非每样在那里被产生的东西,都让我们追踪它的功能,作为整个现象的引力的中心。给予它强调与份量的东西,应该在现象的中心去寻找。换句话说,在一方面是各种能指的连接,另一方面,如同我已经指出的,在大他者给予认同的层面。大他者给予这个创造本身的认同,根据这个事实:大他者将能指本身的价值给予这个能指化的创造,将能指的价值,跟能指化的创造的现象连上关系。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

无意识的形成 23

May 28, 2014

无意识的形成 23
雅克、拉康
13.11.57 34

Gide in his Prometheus ill-bound makes the whole story revolve
around what is not really the god, but the machine, the banker,
Zeus whom he calls the “miglionnaire”, and I will show you in
Freud what is its essential function in the creation of the joke.
We do not know whether we should pronounce Gide’s “miglionnaire”
as Italian or French, but I myself believe that it should be
pronounced as Italian.

纪德在他的「普罗米修士受囚」,将整个故事的主题环绕确实并不是上帝,而是机器,银行家,他称为“migionaire”的宙斯神。我将告诉你们,在弗洛依德,创造笑话,它基本的功能是什么。

In short, if we consider famillionaire we will then see in the
direction I am indicating to you, which is not reached at the
level of Heine’s text at this time, that Heine does not at all
give it its liberty, its independence, at the substantive state.

总之,假如我们考虑famillionaire,我们将会看出,我正在跟你们指示的方向。此时,它并非在海因的文本的层面获得。海因根本就没有给予它的自由,它的独立,给它,在实质的状态。

If I even translated it above “as quite famillionairely”, it is
indeed to indicate to you that we remain there at the level of
the adverb, because one can even play with words, attract the
tongue from the manner of being (?), and in dividing things
between the two, you see the whole difference there is between
the manner of being and what I was in the process of indicating
to you as a direction, namely, a manner of being.

假如我以上甚至翻译它,作为是“famillionairely“,那确实是跟你们指示,我们在那里始终停留在副词的形式,因为我们甚至玩弄文字,从生命实存的方式吸引语言。当你们区分这两者时,你们看见整个的差异,存在于生命实存的方式,与我以前的样子,当我跟你们指示生命实存的方式,作为方向。

We did not go as far as that, but you see that the two are
continuous. Heine remains at the level of the manner of being,
and he was himself careful in translating his own term, to
translate it precisely, not as “quite as a famillionaire”, but as
(37) I did above, as “quite famillionairely”.

我们并没有进行到那里。但是你们看出,这两者是连续性。海因始终保持着生命实存的方式。他自己非常小心地翻阅他自己的术语,确实地翻译它,不是作为「quite as famillionaire“,而是如同我以上所做的,作为”quite famillionairely“

What is supported by this “quite famillionairely”? Something
that is, even though we do not in any way get to this poetical
being, something that is extraordinarily rich, teeming, swarming,
in just the way things happen in metonymical decomposition.

这个“quite famillionairely“所支持的东西是什么?它是某件特别充实的东西,即使我们根本不知道诗意的生命实存,它密集,蜂涌,就想换喻瓦解时,所发生的事情那样。

Here Heinrich Heine’s creation deserves to be replaced in its
text, in the text of the Baths of Lucca, in the text of that de
facto familiarity in which Hirsch-Hyacinth lives with Baron
Cristoforo Gumpelino, who has become a very fashionable man and
spends himself on all kinds of courtesies and attentions to
beautiful women, and to which must be added the fabulous,
astonishing familiarity of Hirsch-Hyacinth hanging on to his
coat-tails.

在此,Heinrich Heine 的创造在他的文本里,应该值得被替代,在「路卡的沐浴」的文本,在Hirsch-Hyacinth跟Cristoforo Gumpelino 男爵共同生活的真实的熟悉的文本里。后者已经成为一位时髦的人物,专注于追求与密切关注美丽的女人。在这个真实的熟悉之上,必须增加这个巨大的令人惊奇的熟悉,Hirsch-Hyacinth坚持他的攀附的熟悉。

The function of parasite, of servant, of domestic, of
commissionaire of this character, suddenly evokes for us another
possible decomposition of the word famillionaire, without taking
into account that behind – I do not want to go into the frightful
and miserable function of women in the life of this caricature of
a banker whom Heine produces for us here, but which certainly
includes the aspect of craving associated with success, the
hunger that is no longer the ………. sacra fames, but the hunger
to satisfy something that until the moment of his accession to
the highest circles of life, had been refused him.

这位人物具有寄生物的功能,仆人的功能,豢养的功能,门房的功能。突然让我们想起famillinaire这个字的另外一个可能的瓦解,而没有考虑到背后的东西。我并不想要探讨女人的这个可怕而悲惨的功能,在银行家这位滑稽人物的生活里。海因在此跟我们产生银行家这样的人物。但是这确实包括跟成功联接一块的渴望的层面。他渴望的不再是神圣的名声,而是渴望满足某件他曾经被拒绝的东西,直到他进入高级的生活圈。

(38) This will allow us to follow the trace of another possible
manner of decomposition, the possible signification of the word
fat-millionaire. The fat-millionaire is at once Hirsch-Hyacinth
and Baron Cristoforo Gumpellno…. And it is indeed something
else, because behind it there are all the relationships of the
life of Heinrich Heine, and also his relationships with the
Rothschilds, which were particularly famillionaire.

这将让我们能够追踪瓦解的另外一个可能的方式,fat-millionaire这个字的可能的意义。这个fat-millionaire 既是Hirsch-Hyacinth,又是Cristofor Gumpellno男爵。那确实是某件其他东西,因为在它背后,有Heinrich Heine 的生活的各种关系,也有他跟Rothschilds的生活的关系。那是特别是famillionaire。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神分析中的侵凌性 2/4

May 27, 2014

精神分析中的侵凌性 2/4
雅克、拉康

And the two moments, when the subject denies himself and when he charges the other,
become confused, and one discovers in him that paranoiac structure of the ego that finds
its analogue in the fundamental negations described by Freud as the three delusions of
jealousy, erotomania, and interpretation. It is the especial delusion of the misanthropic
‘belle âme’, throwing back on to the world the disorder of which his being is composed.

当主体否定他自己,以及当他攻击他者,这两个时刻变得混淆起来。我们在他身上发现自我的偏执结构,这个结构找到它的类同,在弗洛依德所描述的基本的否定里,作为是妒忌,色情狂,与解说狂等三种妄想症。这就是这位善心的美丽的灵魂特别妄想症,将他的生命实存组成的混乱抛回给这个世界。

Subjective experience must be fully enabled to recognize the central nucleus of
ambivalent aggressivity, which in the present stage of our culture is given to us under the
dominant species of resentment, even in its earliest aspects in the child.

主体性的经验必须充分地被启动,才能体认出爱恨交加的侵凌性的核心。在我们文化的目前阶段,爱恨交加的核心被给予我们,以「怨恨」作为支配性的一种,即使是在儿童的最早期。

Thus, because he
lived at a similar time, without having to suffer from a behaviourist resistance in the
sense that we ourselves do, St Augustin foreshadowed psychoanalysis when he expressed
such behaviour in the following exemplary image: ‘Vidi ego et expertus sum zelantem
parvulum: nondum loquebatur et intuebatur pallidus amaro aspectu conlactaneum suum’
(I have seen with my own eyes and known very well an infant in the grip of jealousy: he
could not yet speak, and already he observed his foster-brother, pale and with an
envenomed stare).

因此,因为圣奥古生活在类似的时代,他没有必要像我们一样遭受行为主义的抗拒。他预示精神分析的来临,当他用以下的意象表的如此的行为: 「我曾经亲眼看见,并且清楚知道充满妒嫉的婴孩。婴孩还不会说话,可是已经脸色苍白,目光凶狠地旁观收养家庭的兄弟。

Thus, with the infans (pre-verbal) stage of early childhood, the
situation of spectacular absorption is permanently tied: the child observed, the emotional
reaction (pale), and this reactivation of images of primordial frustration (with an
envenomed stare) that are the psychical and somatic co-ordinates of original aggressivity.

因此,在童年早期的前文辞阶段,被镜像吸引的情景永远地联接。被观看的小孩,情感的反应(脸色苍白),原初挫折的意象的重新启动(恶狠狠的眼光)。这些都是原初侵凌性在心理与生理的共同指标。

Only Melanie Klein, working on the child at the very limit of the appearance of
language, dared to project subjective experience back to that earlier period when
observation enables us nevertheless to affirm its dimension, in the simple fact for
example that a child who does not speak reacts differently to punishment or brutality.

梅兰妮、克莱恩研究处于语言出现受到限制的儿童。只有她敢于将主体性的经验,投射回到那个较早期的阶段。可是,我们凭借观察,能够肯定这个时期的维度。譬如,事实仅是,没有说话的儿童,对于惩罚与残酷的反应并不一样。

Through her we know the function of the imaginary primordial enclosure formed by
the imago of the mother’s body; through her we have the cartography, drawn by the
children’s own hands, of the mother’s internal empire, the historical atlas of the intestinal
divisions in which the imagos of the father and brothers (real or virtual), and the
voracious aggression of the subject himself, dispute their deleterious dominance over her
sacred regions.

通过克莱恩,我们知道,由母亲的形象所形成的想像的原初封闭的功能。通过克莱恩,我们拥有母亲的内部王国的地图,由孩子们亲手所绘。那是内部割据的历史的地图,父亲与兄弟们(无论是真实或虚拟的)的那些形象,以及主体自己的贪婪的侵凌性,互相争夺他们对于她的神圣的领域,形成有害的掌控。

We know, too, the persistence in the subject of this shadow of the bad
internal objects, linked with some accidental association (to use a term that we should
accept in the organic sense that it assumes in our experience, as opposed to the abstract
sense that it retains in Humean ideology).

我们也知道,这些「不良的内部客体」的这个阴影在主体身上,会流连不去。这些不良的内部客体跟某个意外关联联接一块(我们接纳意外关联这个术语,应该用我们精神分析经验所具有的有机体的意涵,对照于它在休谟的观念论所包留的抽象意涵。

Hence we can understand by what structural
means the re-evocation of certain imaginary personae, the reproduction of certain
situational inferiorities may disconcert in the most strictly predictable way the adult’s
voluntary functions: namely, their fragmenting effect on the imago of the original
identification.

因此,我们能够理解,凭借怎样的工具的手段,某个想像的「人格面具」personae的重新召换,某些情境的卑下的复制,可能会让这位成年人的自愿的各种功能狼狈不堪,以完全可预测的方式。换句话说,原初的认同的这个「形象」imago,产生碎片化的影响。

By showing us the primordiality of the ‘depressive position’, the extreme archaism of
the subjectification of a kakon, Melanie Klein pushes back the limits within which we can
see the subjective function of identification operate, and in particular enables us to situate
as perfectly original the first formation of the superego.

凭借跟我们揭示「沮丧的立场」的原初性,「恶物」的主体化的这个极端的陈腔滥调,梅兰妮、克莱恩将这些限制推后。在这些限制里面,我们看见主体对于认同的功能在运作,她特别让我们能够定位超我的首次形成,作为是非常原始的

But it is of particular importance to define the orbit within which, as far as our
theoretical reflexion is concerned, are ordered the relations – by no means all elucidated –
of guilt tension, oral noxiousness, hypochondriacal fixation, even that primordial
masochism that we exclude from our field of study, in order to isolate the notion of an
aggressivity linked to the narcissistic relation and to the structures of systematic
méconnaissance and objectification that characterize the formation of the ego.

但是特别重要的是要定义这个轨道。就我们的理论的反思而言,在这个轨道里,这些关系被排列顺序—根本就全部没有说明—罪恶感,出口恶毒,忧郁的固著,甚至从我们研究领域排除掉的那种原初的自虐狂,为了要将跟自恋的关系息息相关的侵凌性的观念区隔出来,因为侵凌性跟形成自我的特性的系统的「误识」与客体化的结构息息相关。

To the Urbild of this formation, alienating as it is by virtue of its capacity to render
extraneous, corresponds a peculiar satisfaction deriving from the integration of an
original organic disarray, a satisfaction that must be conceived in the dimension of a vital
dehiscence that is constitutive of man, and which makes unthinkable the idea of an
environment that is preformed for him, a ‘negative’ libido that enables the Heraclitean
notion of Discord, which the Ephesian believed to be prior to harmony, to shine once
more.

自我的形成的原型urbild,由于具有让事情外显的能力,它虽然让人异化,可是跟它对应的却是是一种特殊的满足,从原初的有机体的溃散的融合而获得的满足。这一种满足必须从生命力的绽放的维度来构想。生命力的绽放是人的构成本质。生命力的绽放,对于人而言,让环境优先于人形成的这个观念匪夷所思。生命力的绽放是一种「负面的生命力比多,让赫拉克利图斯的「不和谐」的观念再次闪亮。古代的以弗所人相信「不和谐」早先于和谐存在。

雄伯说
「精神分析中的侵凌性」,褚孝泉在「拉康选集」已经根据法文翻译过了。我现在根据英译本翻译,并不是觉得可以比他翻译得更好,而是看到Masterwho的「欺凌性就是暴力性」的提问,我自己想把它搞懂,才有办法回复。所以逐字分析翻译,主要是帮助自己理解。当然,能逐字解说更好。困难在于,如同拉康所说的,属于换喻metonym的东西,要用隐喻metaphor来解说,有时就是辞不达意。要理解换喻,有时就是自己必须进入换喻的语境,而不是停留在隐喻的语境。

台湾最近发生一位大二学生在捷运持刀无缘无故砍死4人,伤22人。被捕后面临死刑的控诉,他心里坦荡荡,一点罪恶感或良心不安都没有。甚至还有生命力终于绽放的欢爽 jouissance。这就是我想要理解与翻译的动机。欢迎大家加入讨论,看看能不能将问题看得更清楚些。

When speaking of the problem of repression, Freud asks himself where the ego
obtains the energy it puts at the service of the ‘reality principle’ – we need look no
further.

当弗洛依德谈论潜抑的问题,他询问自己,自我从哪里获得它用来服务「现实原则」的精力。这个回答,我们不需远求。

There can be no doubt that it derives from the ‘narcissistic passion’, if, that is, one
conceives of the ego according to the subjective notion that I am proposing here, as
conforming with the register of my experience. The theoretical difficulties encountered
by Freud seem to me in fact to derive from the mirage of objectification, inherited from
classical psychology, constituted by the idea of the perception/consciousness system, in
which Freud seems suddenly to fail to recognize the existence of everything that the ego
neglects, scotomizes, misconstrues in the sensations that make it react to reality,
everything that it ignores, exhausts, and binds in the significations that it receives from
language: a surprising méconnaissance on the part of the man who succeeded by the
power of his dialectic in forcing back the limits of the unconscious.

无可置疑地,这个精力从「自恋的激情」获得。换句话说,假如我们构想自我,依照我在此建议的主体性观念,作为跟我们精神分析经验的铭记符合一致。弗洛依德遭遇到的理论的困难,我认为,事实是来自对于想要将它客观化的幻景,这是由古典心理学遗传下来的幻景。构成的观念就是「知觉与意识」的系统。在这个系统里,弗洛依德似乎突然没有办法体认出,自我所忽略,所盲视,所错误解释的东西的存在,在自我对于现实反应的各种感知里。弗洛依得似乎突然没有办法体认这一切,自我所忽略,穷尽,与关联的这一切,在自我从语言接收的各种意义里。就这个人而言,这是一个令人惊叹的「误识」,因为这个人凭借他辩证的力量,成功地强力追溯到无意识的极限。

Just as the senseless oppression of the superego lies at the root of the motivated
imperatives of conscience, the passionate desire peculiar to man to impress his image in
reality is the obscure basis of the rational mediations of the will.

正如超我的无意义的压迫,就在于良心作为引发动机的命令的根源,人类特有的激情的力量,为了要让他的意象在现实界扬名立万,也是以意志的理想的调节,作为模糊的基础。

The notion of aggressivity as a correlative tension of the narcissistic structure in the
coming-into-being (devenir) of the subject enables us to understand in a very simply
formulated function all sorts of accidents and atypicalities in that coming-into-being.

侵凌性的观念,在主体的生命实存里,作为自恋结构的相对的紧张。侵凌性的观念让我们能够以简单构想的功能,来理解在那个生命实存里的各种的意外事件与异常行为。

I shall now say something about how I conceive of the dialectical relation with the
function of the Oedipus complex. In its normal state, this complex is one of sublimation,
which designates precisely an identificatory reshaping of the subject, and, as Freud wrote
when he felt the need for a ‘topographical’ co-ordination of the psychical dynamisms, a
secondary identification by introjection of the imago of the parent of the same sex.

我现在将说出某件事情,关于我如何构想这个辩证关系,跟伊狄浦斯情结的功能的辩证关系。伊狄浦斯情结在它正常的状态是昇华的情结。这个昇华情结确实指明一个认同地重新塑造主体。依照弗洛依德所写,当他感觉对心理的动力机制,有需要找出一个「地形」的座标。也就是,「次级的认同」,作为同性的父母的「形象」的内部投射。

The energy for that identification is provided by the first biological upsurge of genital
libido. But it is clear that the structural effect of identification with the rival is not self evident,
except at the level of fable, and can only be conceived of if the way is prepared
for it by a primary identification that structures the subject as a rival with himself.

供应那种认同的精力的,就是性器官的生命力比多,在生理上的首次涌出。显而易见地,认同敌人的这个结构的结果,并不是自明的,除了在寓言的层面。认同敌人的结构的结果能够被构想,,仅有当一个初级的认同替它铺路。这个初级认同作为主体的结构,把自己充当是敌人。

In fact,
the note of biological impotence is met with again here, as is the effect of anticipation
characteristic of the genesis of the human psyche, in the fixation of an imaginary ‘ideal’,
which, as analysis has shown, decides the conformity of the ‘instinct’ to the physiological
sex of the individual.

实际上,在此生理上的无能为力会被注意到。如同预期的结果,在固著于想像的「理想」时,作为人类心灵的开始的特性会被注意到,。如同精神分析曾经显示,这种想像的「理想」的固著,决定了「本能」跟个人的生理上的性别互相一致。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
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无意识的形成22

May 27, 2014

无意识的形成22
雅克、拉康
13.11.57 33

(34) You would really not be able to understand it without
referring it to this same framework, to this same skeleton, with
its two levels, its combinatory level with this privileged point
at which is produced the metonymical object as such, and to the
substitutive level with this privileged point at which there is
produced at the encounter of the two chains of the discourse on
the one hand, and on the other hand of the signifying chain in
its pure state, at the elementary level, and which constitutes
the message.

你们确实无法理解,假如没有将它跟这个相同的架构连接,跟这个相同的骨架具有它的两个层面,它的联结的层面,具有这个特权的点。在这个点,换喻的客体本身被产生。假如每有将它跟这个具有特权的点替换的层面相连接,在这个点,一方面是辞说的两个锁链的遭遇被产生;另一方面是处于纯粹状态,处于基本层次的能指化的锁链的遭遇被产生,这个点形成它的讯息。

As we have seen, the Signor is repressed here in the message-code
circuit, the Herr is unterdruckt at the level of the discourse,
because it is the discourse that preceded, that caught this Herr,
and what you rediscover, that which allows you to get back on the
track of the lost signifier, are the metonymical ruins (ruses) of
the object.

如同我们所见,这个Signor 在讯息符码的迴圈这里被压抑,这个Herr 在辞说的层面就是unterdruckt,因为它是先前的辞说,它捕捉住这个Herr。你们重新发现的东西,让你们能够回到迷失的能指的轨迹的东西。它们是客体的换喻的废墟。

This is what we are given by the analysis of the example of the
forgetting of a name in Freud. From now on it will appear more
clearly to us what we can think of famillionaire.

这就是在弗洛依德那里,名字的遗忘的例子的分析,我们被给予的东西。从现在开始,我们将会更加清楚地觉得,我们能够想到famillionaire。

The famillionaire is something which, as we have seen, has
something about it that is ambiguous and altogether of the same
order as the production of a symptom.

如我们所见,这个famillionaire 是某件具有意义的东西。这个意义是暧昧,而且完全属于跟病征的产生相同秩序的东西。

If it can be referred to,
superimposed on what happens in the signifying economy of the
production of a language symptom, the forgetting of a name, we
should be able to find at its level that which completes, what I
(35) tried to make you understand a little while ago about its
double function, its function of aiming in the direction of
meaning, and its confusing, upsetting, neological function from
the point of view of something that can be called a dissolution
of the object, namely no longer: “He treated me quite as his
equal, quite famillionairely”, but this something from which
emerges what we can call the famillionaire to the extent that as
a fantastic and derisory character, it is like one of those
creations in a certain poetry of fantasy that allows us to
imagine something intermediary between the mad millionaire and
the centipede, which would however also be a sort of human type
that can be imagined as moving, living and growing in the
interstices of things, a melkose(?) or something analogous, but
even without going this far, might pass into the tongue in the
way that for some time now a “respectueuse” means a whore.
假如它能够被提到,被赋加在语言的产生的能指化活动所发生的东西之上,也将是名字的遗忘,我们应该能够在它的层次找到完成的东西,不久之前,我尝试让你们理解关于它的双重功能,目标朝着意义的功能,以及混淆,扰乱,铸造新词的功能,从某件所谓的客体的瓦解的东西的观点,换句话说,不再是:「他对待我,完全平起平坐,完全famillionairely。“ 而是,这个某件东西,我们所谓的famillionaire的东西从那里出现的东西,甚至,作为一个幻想与欺骗的人物,那就像是在某首幻想的诗里的那些创造。幻想让我们能够想像某件中介的东西,处于这位疯狂的百万富翁millionaire与这个蜈蚣之间的中介。可是,这个蜈蚣也是一种人类,被想像为在东西的内脏里移动,生活与成长,某件类似东西。但是没有那么过分,它可能进入语言,有一阵子,现在的“respectuese”指的是妓女。

These sorts of creations are something that has its own value of
introducing us to something unexplored up to then. They give
rise to this thing that we could call a verbal being, but a
verbal being is also simply a being, that tends more and more to
become incarnated. In the same way the famillionaire is
something that it seems to me plays, or has played a number of
roles not simply in the imagination of poets, but also in
history. I do not need to remind you that many things would go
(36) still closer than this famillionaire.

这些的创造是某件具有它自己的价值,跟我们介绍某件直到当时都没有被探索的东西。他们产生我们所谓的文辞表达的生物的这个东西。但是文辞表达的生物也仅是生物,它越来越倾向于被具体表达。同样地,这个famillionaire 是某件我觉得扮演许多角色的东西,不仅是在诗人的想像里,而且在历史里。我不需要提醒你们,很多东西会比这个famillionaire更加靠近。

雄伯译
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无意识的形成 21

May 26, 2014

无意识的形成 21
雅克、拉康
13.11.57 32

(32) Nevertheless, after having indicated where I want to get to
on this precise, particular point, I would like to indicate that
even though in effect there is here indeed only substitution,
there is also metaphor. Every time there is substitution, there
is a metaphorical effect or induction. It is not quite the same
thing for a German speaker, to say Signor or to say Herr. I
would even go further: it is altogether different that those of
our patients who are bi-lingual or who simply know a foreign
language, and who at a certain moment when they have something to
tell us, tell it to us in a foreign language.

可是,当我已经指示我想要到达哪里,在这个明确,特殊的时刻,我想要指示,即使实际上,在此确实仅有替换,也有隐喻存在。每当有替换时,就会有隐喻的效果或推论。对于说德语者,说signor 或说Herr,这并不是相同的事情。我甚至想要更加深入 。这是完全不同的,那些具有双语能力的病人,或仅是知道一种外国语言的那些病人,在某个时刻,当他们有事情要告诉我们,请他们用外国语言告诉我们。

You can be certain
that it always suits them much better; it is never without reason
that a patient passes from one register to another. If he is
really a polyglot it has a meaning, if he knows the language he
is referring to imperfectly, that has naturally not got the same
meaning, if he is bilingual from birth that has not the same
meaning either. But in every case it has one, and in any case
here provisionally in the substitution of Signor for Herr, there
was no metaphor but simply heteronomyic substitution.

你们能够确定,这总是更加适合他们。一位病人从一个铭记到另外一个铭记,不是没有理由的。假如他确实是一位精通数种语言的人,这具有意义。假如他知道,他正在不完美地提及的语言,那确实没有相同的意义,假如他从诞生时,就是双语,那也拥有不相同的意义。但是在每个情况,它有一个意义。在此,无论如何,在用Signor替换Herr 时,并没有隐喻,而仅有同词异音的替换。

I return to this point to tell you that on this occasion Signor
on the contrary, despite the whole …………….. context that it
is attached to, namely to Signorelli, namely precisely to the
frescoes at Orvieto, namely that are as Freud himself tells us,
(33) the evocation of the last things, historically represent the
most beautiful elaboration there is of that reality impossible to
affront, which is death. It is very precisely by telling
ourselves a thousand fictions – taking fiction here in its truest
sense – about the last things, that we metaphorise, that we tame,
that we make enter into language this confrontation with death.

我回到这点,为了告诉你们,在这个场合,Signor,相反地,尽管整个的内容,它跟所谓的Signorelli 联接一块。换句话说,确实是跟在Orvieto 的壁画有关。也就是,依照弗洛依德告诉我们的,这些壁画召唤最后的事情,在历史上,它们代表有史以来最美丽的建构,关于那不可能冒犯的那个现实。那就是死亡。确实是凭借告诉我们自己上千的幻想—在此就幻想一词就其最真实的意义而言—关于那些最后的事情,我们予以隐喻,我们驯服它,我们让这个跟死亡的冒犯,进入我们的语言。

Therefore it is quite clear that the Signor here in so far as it
is attached to the context of Signorelli, is something that
really represents a metaphor.

因此,相当显而易见,在此的这个Signor,因为它跟Signorelli的内容息息相关,它是某件确实是代表隐喻的东西。

Here then is what we arrive at. We arrive at this that we are
approaching something that allows us to reapply point by point,
because we find they have a common topography, the phenomenon of
Witz.

因此,这就是我们抵达的东西。我们抵达这点,我们正在靠近某件让我们能够重新逐点运用的东西。因为我们发现,它们有一个共通的地形学「机智语」。

At the point at which there was produced the positive
production of famillionaire, there is a phenomenon of parapraxis,
of a hole. I could take another one and demonstrate it for you
again, I could give you as an exercise to refer for example to
the next example given by Freud in connection with the Latin
phrase evoked by one of his interlocutors: “exoriare ex nostris
ossibus”.

在这个时刻,famillionaire 的正面的产品就产生了。有一个空洞的失误的现象。我能够拿另外一个现象,再次跟你们证明。我能够给予你们作为譬如提到下一个例子,弗洛依德给予的例子,关于这个拉丁的片语,他的一位对谈者提出的拉丁的片语。

By arranging the words a little because the “ex” is
between “nostris” and “ossibus”, and by dropping the second word
that is indispensable for the scansion, “aliquis”, there results
the fact that he cannot make “aliquis” emerge.

凭借稍微安排这些字词,因为这个“ex“处于”nostris“与”ossibus“之间,凭借抛掉第二个字词,那是韵律上无可免除的,”aliguis“ 结果就是这个事实:他无法让”aliquis“这个字词出现。

雄伯译
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无意识的形成 20

May 25, 2014

无意识的形成 20
雅克、拉康
13.11.57 31

I tell you that the metaphor is produced within the level of
substitution, that means that substitution is a way in which the
signifier can be articulated, and that metaphor operates there
with its function as creator of the signified at that place where
substitution may be produced. They are two different things.

我告诉你们,隐喻在替换的层面被产生。那意味着,替换是能指能够被表达的一种方式。隐喻用它的功用在那里运作,作为所指的创造者,在替换可能被产生的那个地方。它们是两个不同的东西。

Likwise metonomy and combination are two different things.
I specify this for you in passing, because it is in these
non-distinctions that what is called an abuse of language is
introduced, that is typically characterized by this, that in what
one can define in logical-mathematical terms as a set or a
sub-set, when there is only one single element, the set in
question, or the sub-set, must not be confused with this
particular element.

同样地,换喻与联结是两个不同的东西。我顺便跟你们明确指出这个,因为就在这些非区别的东西里,所谓的语言的滥用被介绍,根据这个表现典型的特色,在我们用逻辑与数学能够定义的东西,作为集合,或作为次集合。当仅有一个元素时,受到质疑的这个集合,或是次集合,就一定不要跟这个特殊的元素混淆。

This may be of some use to those who have criticized my,,,,

对于那些曾经批评我的研究的人们,这可能有些用途、、、

Let us return then to what happens at the level of Signor and
Herr. Simply something as simple as this, it is obviously what
happens in every translation: the substitutive liaison in
(30) question is a substitution which is called heteronymic. The
translation of a term into a foreign language on the plane of the
substitutive act, in the comparison necessitated by the existence
at the level of the phenomenon of language of several linguistic
systems, is called heteronymic substitution.

然后,让我们回到Signor 与Herr的层面所发生的事情。那仅是某件像这个这么单纯的东西,显而易见,那就是在翻译所发生的事情:受到质疑的替换的沟通,就是所谓的同词异音的替换。在替换行动的层面,一个术语被翻译成为一种外国语言,被称为是同词异音的替换。在好几个语言系统的语言的现象的层面的存在,有必要的比较。

You may say that this heteronymic substitution is not a metaphor.
I agree, I need only one thing, that is that it should be a
substitution. I am only following what you are forced to admit
in reading the text. In other words, I want you to draw out of
your knowledge, precisely this that you should know it. What is
more, I am not innovating, you have to admit all of this if you
admit Freud’s text.

你们可能说,这个同词异音的替换并不是隐喻。我同意,我仅需要一件东西,那就是,它应该是一种替换。我仅是跟随你们在阅读文本时被迫承认的东西。换句话说,我想要你们根据你们的知识,确实地得知,你们应该知道它。而且,我并不是首创,假如你们承认弗洛依德的文本,你们必须承认所有这一切。

Thus if Signor is implicated in the affair, it is because there
is something that links it to something of which the phenomenon
of metonymical decomposition is a sign, at the point at which it
is produced, and which depends on the fact that Signor is a
substitute for Herr.

因此,假如Signor 被牵涉到这件事情,那是因为有某件东西跟这个东西息息相关,换喻的瓦解的现象是一个讯息的东西。在讯息被产生的时刻。这个时刻依靠这个事实:Signor 是Herr 的一个替换。

I need no more in order to tell you that if the Herr has gone
this way, the Signor, as the direction of the arrows indicates,
has gone that way.

我不需要再告诉你们,假如这个Herr 朝这条途径走,这个Signor,依照箭头的方向指示,也朝那个途径走。

Not only has it gone that way, but we can
admit until I have come back to it, that it is here that it
begins to turn, namely that it is sent back and forth like a ball
between the code and the message, that it turns round and round
(31) in what can be called – remember what I let you glimpse on
another occasion regarding the possibility of the mechanism of
forgetting, and at the same of analytic rememoration, as being
something we should conceive of as being extremely close to the
memory of a machine, of what is in the memory of a machine,
namely of that which turns round and round until it reappears,
until one has need of it, and that is forced to turn round and
round in order to constitute a memory.

它不但朝那个途径走,而且一直到我回头找它,我们能够承认,就在这里,它开始转弯。也就是说,它来回地被送来送去,就像处于符码与讯息之间的一个球。它转来转去,在所能够被称呼的东西里—请你们记住,我在另外一个场合让你们瞥见的东西。关于遗忘的心理机制的可能性,同时也是精神分析的记忆的可能性,作为是某件极端酷似机器的记忆,在机器的记忆里存在的东西。换句话说,它转来转去直到它重新出现的东西,直到我们需要它。它被迫转来转去,为了形成记忆。

One cannot realize
in any other way the memory of a machine, it is very curiously
something that we find an application for in the fact that if we
can conceive Signor as turning round and round indefinitely until
it is rediscovered between the code and the message, you see
there at the same time the nuance that we can establish between
unterdruckt on the one hand and verdrangt on the other, because
if the unterdruckt here needs only to be done once and for all,
and in conditions to which being cannot descend, namely to the
level of its mortal condition, on the other hand it is clear that
it is something else that is at stake, namely that if this is
maintained in the circuit without being able to re-enter it for a
certain time, we must admit as Freud admits, the existence of a
special force that contains it there, and maintains it there,
namely of what can be properly called a Verdrängung.

我们无法用任何别的方式来体会机器的这个记忆。耐人寻味地,它是某件我们发现可以运用的东西。事实上,假如我们能够构想Signor, 作为不断地转来转去,直到它在符码与讯息之间重新被发现。同时你们在那里看见这个细微差别,我们能够建立的细微差别;一方面是unterdruckt,另一方面是verdrangt。 因为假如在此的这个unterdruckt 仅是需要一劳永逸地被做,在生命实存无法被沦落到它的有限生命的情况。另一方面,显而易见,岌岌可危的是某件其它东西。也就是,假如这个东西被维持在这个迴圈里,经过某段时期,它无法重新进入这个迴圈。我们必须承认,如同弗洛依德也承认,在那里包容它,并且维持它在那里的特别的力量的存在。换句话说,那里存在着贴切地所谓潜抑Verdrangung的东西。

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无意识的形成 19

May 24, 2014

无意识的形成 19
雅克、拉康
13.11.57 30

This liaison at this moment in an unmistakable fashion in the
text, precisely between death and something which has a very
close relationship with sexual potency, is probably not only in
the object, namely in what is made present to him by his
patient’s suicide.

这时候的这种沟通,在文本里,以明确无误的方式,处于死亡与某件跟性的能力密切相关的东西。这个沟通可能不仅在客体里,也就是在由他的病人的自杀呈现给他的东西。

It certainly goes further. What does it mean? It means that all
that we discover are metonymical ruins connected with a pure and
simple combination of signifiers: Bosnia Herzogovina are the
metonymical ruins of the object in question which is behind the
different particular elements that have entered into play here,
and in a very recent past which is behind that, the absolute
Herr, death. It is to the extent that the absolute Herr passes
elsewhere, effaces itself, retreats, is pushed back, is very
properly speaking unterdruckt, that there are two words that
Freud plays with in an ambiguous fashion.

这确实更加地深入。那是什么意思?那意味着,所有我们发现的东西都是换喻的废墟,跟能指的纯粹而简单的联接具有关联。Bosnia Herzogovina 是受到质疑的客体的换喻的废墟。这个受到质疑的客体,处于曾经在此运作的不同的特殊元素的背后。在不久之前,这个受到质疑的客体在那个背后,这个绝对的Herr,绝对的死亡的背后。甚至这个绝对的Herr在别的地方通过,抹除它自己,撤退,被推回去,适当地说,被压抑 unterdruckt,有两个字词,弗洛依德用暧昧的方式玩弄。

This unterdruckt, I
have already translated for you as “falling into the nether
regions”, in so far as the “Herr” here at the level of the
metonymical object, has gone off in that direction, and for a
very good reason, that it was in danger of being too present
after these conversations, that as an ersatz we rediscover the
debris, the ruins of the metonymical object, namely the “bo” that
succeeds here in linking up with the other ruin of the name that
is repressed at that moment, namely “elli”, so that it does not
(28) appear in the other substitutive name that is given.

这个unterdruckt ,我已经跟你们翻译作为「掉入阴间的地区」。因为这个Herr在此处有换喻的客体的层次,它已经朝那个方向出发。理由非常充份,经过这些对谈之后,它濒临太过于出现的危险。作为一个人为的东西,我们重新这个残骸,换喻客体的这些废墟。也就是说,这个“ bo”,在此成功地跟那个时候被压抑的这个名字的另外一个废墟连接一块,也就是“elli”。所以,它并没有出现在被给予的另外一个替换的名字。

This is the trace, it is the index that we have from the
metonymical level that allows us to rediscover the chain of the
phenomenon in discourse, in what can be still made present in
this point where, in analysis, is situated what we call free
association, in so far as this free association allows us to
track down the unconscious phenomenon.

这就是痕迹,这就是我们从换喻的层次拥有的索引。它让我们能够重新发现辞说的现象的锁链,在依旧能够被呈现的东西。在精神分析,我们所谓的自由联想被定位的地方。因为这个自由联想让我们能够追踪无意识的现象。

But that is not all, it still remains that neither the
Signorelli, nor the Signor, were ever there where we discover the
traces, the fragments of the broken metonymical object. Because
it is metonymical it is already broken up. Everything that
happens in the order of language is always already accomplished.
If the metonymical object already breaks up so well, it is
because already qua metonymical object it is only a fragment of
the reality that it represents.

但是那并非全部。问题依旧是,既不是Signorelli,也不是Signor,曾经在那里,我们在那里发现这些痕迹,破碎的换喻的客体的碎片。因为它是换喻,它已经被瓦解。发生在语言的秩序的每样事情,总是已经被完成。假如换喻的客体瓦解得如此彻底,那是因为作为换喻的客体,它仅是它代表的现实的一个碎片。

If the Signor, itself, cannot be evoked, if it is what ensures
that Freud cannot rediscover the name of Signorelli, it is
because he is implicated. Obviously he is implicated in an
indirect fashion, because for Freud the “Herr” which effectively
had been pronounced at a particularly significant moment of the
function that it can take on as absolute Herr, as the
representative of that death which on this occasion is
unterdruckt, it is because “Herr” can simply be translated as
“Signor”.

假如这个Signor 自身无法被召唤,假如那就是保证弗洛依德无法重新发现Signorelli这个名字,那是因为他被牵涉在内。显而易见,他以间接的方式被牵涉在内,因为对于弗洛依德,这个“Herr”曾经有效地被宣佈出来,在这个功能的一个特别重要的时刻,它能够接纳这个功能作为是绝对的Herr,作为是那个死亡的代表。在这个场合,死亡就是unterdruckt。那是因为“Herr”仅能够被翻译为“Signor”。

(29) It is here that we rediscover the substitutive level,
because substitution is the articulation, the signifying means in
which the act of metaphor is established. But this does not mean
that substitution is metaphor. If I teach you here to go along
every path in an articulated fashion, it is not precisely in
order that you should continually indulge in abuses of language.

就在这里,我们重新发现这个替换的层次,因为替换就是表达,这个能指意义的工具。在那里,隐喻的行动被建立。但是这并不意味着,替换就是隐喻。假如我在此教导你们,顺着被表达的方式的每个途径前进,那确实并不是为了让你们继续耽溺于语言的滥用。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神分析中的侵凌性

May 24, 2014

精神分析中的侵凌性

雅克、拉康

 

THESIS IV

Aggressivity is the correlative tendency of a mode of

identification that we call narcissistic, and which

determines the formal structure of man’s ego and of the

register of entities characteristic of his world.

 

论点之四

侵凌性与我们所谓的自恋的认同模式的倾向息息相关。这个认同模式决定人的自我的正式结构,以及决定作为人的世界的特征的各种实体的铭记的结构。

 

The subjective experience of analysis immediately inscribes its results in concrete

psychology. Let us indicate simply what it brings to the psychology of the emotions by

showing the signification common to states as diverse as phantasmatic fear, anger, active

sorrow, or psychasthenic fatigue.

 

精神分析是主体性经验,在具体心理学,精神分析经验立即铭记它的结果。让我们仅是指出,精神分析经验对情感心理学的贡献。让我们揭示这些状态共通的这个意义。这些状态种类繁多,诸如幻想的恐惧、奋怒、涌动的悲伤、或是精神衰弱的疲乏。

 

To pass now from the subjectivity of intention to the notion of a tendency to

aggression is to make the leap from the phenomenology of our experience to

 

现在,我们从意图的主体性,转而谈论到侵凌性倾向的观念。这等于是从我们精神分析经验的现象学,跳跃到元心理学。

 

But this leap manifests nothing more than a requirement of thought which, in order to

objectify the register of aggressive reactions, and given its inability to seriate this leap in

a quantitative variation, must understand it in a formula of equivalence. This is the use

we make of it in the notion of libido.

 

但是这种跳跃仅是证明思想有此要求。为了将侵凌性的各种反应的铭记客观化,并且考虑到这种客观化并无法用数量的变数,将这种跳跃排成系列,思想必须用类同的公式来理解它。在解释生命力比多的观念时,我们就是採用这种跳跃的方法。

 

The aggressive tendency proves to be fundamental in a certain series of significant

states of the personality, namely, the paranoid and paranoiac psychoses.

 

在人格的某种系列的重要的状况,譬如,类偏执狂与偏执狂精神病,倾凌性倾向证明是至关紧要。

 

In my work I have emphasized that one could co-ordinate by their strictly parallel

seriation the quality of the aggressive reaction to be expected from a particular form of

paranoia with the stage of mental genesis represented by the delusion that is symptomatic

of this same form. A relation that appears even more profound when – I have shown this

in the case of a curable form, self-punishing paranoia – the aggressive act resolves the

delusional construction.

 

在我的著作中,我曾经强调,我们能够凭借这些重要状况的严格并列的系列,将特别形态的类偏执狂,所能预期的侵凌性反应的性质,跟具有相同形态的病征的妄想症所代表的精神病因的阶段,彼此协调对照。当侵凌性的行动显示具有妄想症的结构时,它们之间有一层看起来甚至是更加深刻的关系—在自我惩罚的个案,这是可治疗的形态,我曾经揭示这个关系。

 

Thus the aggressive reaction is seriated in a continuous manner, from the sudden,

unmotivated outburst of the act, through the whole gamut of belligerent forms, to the cold

war of interpretative demonstrations, paralleled by imputations of noxiousness which, not

to mention the obscure kakon to which the paranoid attributes his alienation from all

living contact, rising in stages from a motivation based on the register of a highly

primitive organicism (poison), to a magical one (evil spells), a telepathic one (influence),

a lesional one (physical intrusion), an abusive one (distortion of intention), a

dispossessive one (appropriation of secrets), a profanatory one (violation of intimacy), a

juridical one (prejudice), a persecutive one (spying and intimidation), one involving

prestige (defamation and attacks on one’s honour), and revenge (damage and

exploitation).

 

因此,我将侵凌性的反应,用连续方式排成系列。从突然的,无缘无故的行为的爆发,到各式各样的好鬥的形态,到以示威作为说明的冷战。除外,还有各种诋毁身心的诬蔑。更不用说是,类偏执狂将自己与各种人际来往的疏离,归咎于含混的劣性反应(kakon)。这些诋毁身心的诬蔑,分成几个阶段,先是高度原始的有机体(毒药)的铭记为基础的动机,然后是魔法的动机(邪恶的符咒),灵异的动机(著魔),病变的动机(生理的侵人),凌虐的动机(变态的意图),剥夺财物的动机(秘密的侵占),亵渎的动机(亲密性的背叛),司法的动机(偏见),迫害的动机(侦查与恫吓),维护尊严的动机(诬蔑与攻击人的荣誉),以及报复(损害与剥削)。

 

 

I have shown that in each case this series, in which we find all the successive

envelopes of the biological and social status of the person, retains the original

organization of the forms of the ego and of the object, which are also affected by this

series in their structure, even to the spatial and temporal categories in which the ego and

the object are constituted, experienced as events in a perspective of mirages, as affections

with something stereotypical about them that suspends the workings of the ego/object

 

我曾经显示,在每个个案,这些系列保留自我与客体的形态的原先组织。在这个系列里,我们发现这个人的生物与社会层面,都连续性地被涵盖在内。在这个结构里,自我与客体的形态也受到这个系列的影响,甚至影响到空间与时间的范畴。在时空范畴里,自我与客体被形成,被经验,作为幻影视象的各种事件,作为某个典型风格的东西的各种情怀。这个典型风格的东西将自我与客体的辩证的运作悬置起来。

 

Janet, who demonstrated so admirably the signification of feelings of persecution as

phenomenological moments in social behaviour, did not explore their common character,

which is precisely that they are constituted by a stagnation of one of these moments,

similar in their strangeness to the faces of actors when a film is suddenly stopped in mid-action.

 

雅内,如此令人赞赏地证明,受到迫害的各种感觉的意义,作为社会行为的现象的时刻。他并没有探索被迫害的各种感觉的共同特性。这个共同特性确实就是,受到迫害的各种感觉,由社会行为的现象的其中一个时刻的停滞所形成。受到迫害的这些感觉的怪异,类似影片放映中途突然停顿的那些演员的脸孔。

 

Now, this formal stagnation is akin to the most general structure of human knowledge:

that which constitutes the ego and its objects with attributes of permanence, identity, and

substantiality, in short, with entities or ‘things’ that are very different from the Gestalten

that experience enables us to isolate in the shifting field, stretched in accordance with the

lines of animal desire.

 

现在,这个形式的停滞类似人类知识的最通常的结构:形成自我与自我的客体的东西,具有永恒,身份与实质的属性,总之,这些实体或「东西」,跟精神分析经验让我们在这个转换的领域,能够孤立出来的格式塔行为,依照动物欲望的脉脉延伸出来的格式塔行为,相当地不同。

 

In fact, this formal fixation, which introduces a certain rupture of level, a certain

discord between man’s organization and his Umwelt, is the very condition that extends

indefinitely his world and his power, by giving his objects their instrumental polyvalence

and symbolic polyphony, and also their potential as defensive armour.

 

事实上,这个形式的固著介绍层面的某种断裂,人的机体组织与他的外在世界之间,有某种的不和谐。这个形式的固著就是这个情况不确定地延伸他的世界与他的力量。形式的固著给予他的各种客体,拥有工具性的多重价值与象征的多重声音,以及它们的潜力,作为防卫的盔甲。

 

What I have called paranoic knowledge is shown, therefore, to correspond in its more

or less archaic forms to certain critical moments that mark the history of man’s mental

genesis, each representing a stage in objectifying identification.

 

我所谓的偏执狂的知识因此被显示,以它相当过时的形式,跟某种关键时刻互相对应。这些关键时刻标示人的精神的开始存在的历史,每一个时刻代表一个阶段,让认同客观化。

 

By simple observation we can obtain a glimpse of these different stages in the child’s

development. A Charlotte Bühler, an Elsa Köhler, and, following in their footsteps, the

Chicago School have revealed several levels of significative manifestations; but only the

analytic experience can give them their true value by making it possible to reintegrate the

subjective relation into them.

 

凭借简单观察,我们就能够获得瞥见在小孩的发展的这些不同的阶段。夏洛特、布勒,埃尔泽、科勒,以及效法他们的芝加哥学派,都曾经揭露好几个具有指标性的展示的层面。但是仅有精神分析经验能够对于这些展示的层面,赋予它们真实的价值,凭借将主体的关系跟它们重新融合一块成为可能。

 

The first level shows us that experience of oneself in the earliest stage of childhood

develops, in so far as it refers to one’s counterpart, from a situation experienced as

undifferentiated. Thus about the age of eight months, we see in these confrontations

between children (which, if they are to be fruitful, must be between children whose age

differential is no more than two and a half months) those gestures of fictitious actions by

which a subject reconducts the imperfect effort of the other’s gesture by confusing their

distinct application, those synchronies of spectacular captation that are all the more

remarkable in that they precede the complete co-ordination of the motor apparatuses that

they bring into play.

 

第一个层面跟我们显示,儿童最早阶段,对于自己的经验的发展,是根据经验作为没有差别化的经验的情境,因为这个经验跟自己的经验相关。因此在大约八个月的年纪,我们在儿童之间的这些冲突,看见那些虚构的行动的姿态,(这些冲突若是要有成果,它们必须是在年纪差异仅是两个半月的儿童之间的冲突。.凭借那些虚构的行动的姿态,主体重新从事另外一个主体的这个不完美的努力。他混淆那些姿态的清楚的运用,混淆戏剧性的攫取的同时发生。这些同时发生更加引人注意,因为它们早先于它们触动的动力工具的完整协调。

 

Thus the aggressivity that is manifested in the retaliations of taps and blows cannot be

regarded solely as a playful manifestation of the exercise of strengths and their

employment in the mapping of the body. It must be understood in an order of broader coordination:

one that will subordinate the functions of tonic postures and vegetative

tension to a social relativity – in this regard, one might mention Wallon’s remarkable

work, which has drawn our attention to the prevalence of such a social relativity in the

expressive constitution of the human emotions.

 

在轻拍与打击的各种报复所展示的这个侵凌性,不能仅是被看作是力量的运用的遊戏展示,或是他们在探知身体的运用。这个侵凌性必须从更宽阔的协调的秩序来理解:这个侵凌性将自觉的姿态与不自觉的紧张的功能,隶属于社会的相对性。关于这点,我们可以推荐瓦隆的出色的研究。他的研究让我们注意到,对于人类情感的生动的形成,社会相对性具有优势力量。

 

Furthermore, I believed myself that I could show that on such occasions the child

anticipates on the mental plane the conquest of the functional unity of his own body,

which, at that stage, is still incomplete on the plane of voluntary motility.

 

而且,我自己相信,我能够揭示,在这样的场合,儿童在精神层面预期他自己身体的功能的一致性能够被克服。在这个阶段,他自己的身体依旧是不完整的,从自觉动力的层面而言。

 

What we have there is a first captation by the image in which the first stage of the

dialectic of identifications can be discerned. It is linked to a Gestalt phenomenon, thechild’s very early perception of the human form, a form which, as we know, holds the

child’s interest in the first months of life, and even, in the case of the human face, from

the tenth day.

 

在此我们拥有的东西,是初次由这个意象所攫取。在这个意象中,认同的辩证法的第一个阶段被辨识出来。它跟格式塔的现象息息相关。儿童对于人类形体的早期知觉,据我们所知,在诞生的前几个月,人类的形体吸引儿童的興趣。就人的脸孔而言,甚至第十天就吸引儿童的注意。

 

But what demonstrates the phenomenon of recognition, which involves

subjectivity, are the signs of triumphant jubilation and playful discovery that characterize,

from the sixth month, the child’s encounter with his image in the mirror.

 

但是牵涉到主体性的认知的现象,所展示出来的东西,则是得意洋洋与興高采烈的发现自己的迹象。这是从第六个月开始,儿童在镜中遭遇自己的意象表现的特色。

 

This behaviour

contrasts strikingly with the indifference shown even by animals that perceive this image,

the chimpanzee, for example, when they have tested its objectal vanity, and it becomes

even more apparent when one realizes that it occurs at an age when the child, as far as

instrumental intelligence is concerned, is backward in relation to the chimpanzee, which

he catches up with only at eleven months.

 

跟动物感知这个意象时所显示的冷漠,这个行为成为鲜明对照。譬如,当黑猩猩被测试它作为客体的虚荣心时。更加显而易见的是,当我们体会到,这个行为发生的年纪,就工具的智慧而言,儿童比起黑猩猩,相对地迟缓。仅是在十一个月时,儿童才迎头赶上黑猩猩。

 

What I have called the mirror stage is interesting in that it manifests the affective

dynamism by which the subject originally identifies himself with the visual Gestalt of his

own body: in relation to the still very profound lack of co-ordination of his own motility,

it represents an ideal unity, a salutary imago; it is invested with all the original distress

resulting from the child’s intra-organic and relational discordance during the first six

months, when he bears the signs, neurological and humoral, of a physiological natal

 

我所谓的镜像阶段,有趣之处在于它展示情感的动力结构。凭借这个情感动力结构,主体最初认同他自己的身体的视觉的格式塔。相对地,他自己的活动力量的协调还相当欠缺。镜像阶段代表一种理想的一致性,一种有益身心的自我形象。在最初的六个月,镜像阶段被投注各种最初的痛苦,因为儿童的内部有机体与相关的不协调所造成的最初的痛苦。在最初的六个月,儿童带着新生胎儿生理早熟的迹象,神经与性情的迹象。

 

It is this captation by the imago of the human form, rather than an Einfühlung the

absence of which is made abundantly clear in early infancy, which, between the ages of

six months and two and a half years, dominates the entire dialectic of the child’s

behaviour in the presence of his similars.

 

在六个月与两岁半年纪之间,在他的类似者面前,支配儿童行为的整个演变过程的,就是人类形体的自我形象的这个攫取,而不是移情作用。在婴儿早期,移情作用的欠缺是显而易见。

 

During the whole of this period, one will record

the emotional reactions and the articulated evidences of a normal transitivism. The child

who strikes another says that he has been struck; the child who sees another fall, cries.

Similarly, it is by means of an identification with the other that he sees the whole gamut

of reactions of bearing and display, whose structural ambivalence is clearly revealed in

his behaviour, the slave being identified with the despot, the actor with the spectator, the

seduced with the seducer.

 

在这整个时期,我们将会记录正常的「转嫁移情」transitivism 的情感的反应与表达出来的各种证据。小孩打到另外一个小孩时会说,他自己被打,小孩看见另外一位小孩摔倒,会哭喊。同样地,凭借认同于另外一位小孩,他体验到忍受与展示的全部反应。这些忍受与展示的结构的爱恨交加,清楚地显示在他的行为里。奴隶被认同是暴君,演员被认同是观众,被诱惑者被认同是诱惑者。

 

 

There is a sort of structural crossroads here to which we must accommodate our

thinking if we are to understand the nature of aggressivity in man and its relation with the

formalism of his ego and his objects. It is in this erotic relation, in which the human

individual fixes upon himself an image that alienates him from himself, that are to be

found the energy and the form on which this organization of the passions that he will call

his ego is based.

 

在此有某种的结构的十字路口。假如我们想要理解人的侵凌性的特性,以及侵凌性跟他的自我与他的客体的形式主义的关系,我们必须要让我们的思想适应这个结构的十字路口。就在这个情欲关系里,这个精力与形式应该能够被找到。在情欲关系那里,作为人的个体,替自己固著一种让他跟自己异化的形象。他称之为他的自我的各种激情的这个机体组织,就是以这个精力与形式作为基础。

 

This form will crystallize in the subject’s internal conflictual tension, which

determines the awakening of his desire for the object of the other’s desire: here the

primordial coming together (concours) is precipitated into aggressive competitiveness

(concurrence), from which develops the triad of others, the ego and the object, which,

spanning the space of specular communion, is inscribed there according to a formalism

proper to itself that so dominates the affective Einfühlung that a child of that age may

mistake the identity of the most familiar people if they appear in an entirely different

 

在主体的内部的冲突的紧张里,这个形式将会具体成形。主体的内部冲突的紧张,决定他对于他者的欲望的客体的欲望的觉醒:在此,原始的汇集,突然地被投入侵凌性的競争。从侵凌性的競争那里,别人,自我与客体的三角关系发展出来。当别人,自我与客体的三角关系跨越自我魅影的沟通的空间时,它被铭记在那里,依照自己作为本体的形式主义。这个三角关系如此支使著情感的「移情作用」,以致于那个年纪的小孩可能会认不出他最熟悉的人们的身份,假如他们出现在完全不同的情境里。

 

But if the ego appears to be marked from its very origin by this aggressive relativity –

in which minds lacking in objectivity might recognize the emotional erections caused in

an animal solicited, incidentally, in the course of its experimental conditioning, by a

desire – how can one not conceive that each great instinctual metamorphosis in the life ofthe individual will once again challenge its delimitation, composed as it is of a

conjunction of the subject’s history and the unthinkable innateness of his desire?

 

但是假如自我从它的起源,似乎就被这个侵凌性的相对性所标示,我们如何能够不构想,在个人的一生,每次伟大的本能的蜕变将会一再地挑战它的除掉限制?在侵凌性的相对性,欠缺客观性的心灵,可能体认出情感的勃起,在对动物从事的试验的制约的过程里,偶尔被欲望挑逗的动物,所引起的情感的勃起。每个伟大的本能的蜕变的除掉限制,好像是由主体的历史与他的欲望的不可思议的先天性的连接所组成。

 

This is why, except at a limit that even the greatest geniuses have never been able to

approach, man’s ego can never be reduced to his experienced identity; and in the

depressive disruptions of the experienced reverses of inferiority, it engenders essentially

the mortal negations that fix it in its formalism. ‘I am nothing of what happens to me.

You are nothing of value.’

 

这就是为什么,除了在即使是最伟大的天才也从来不曾抵达的极限,人的自我永远无法被还原到他经验过的身份。这个被经验过的自卑的相反物沮丧地爆发时,它必然产生这个对有限生命的否定,在它的形式主义修补它的有限生命的否定:“「我根本就不是我经历过的一切的我。你什么价值也没有。」

 

雄伯译

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

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无意识的形成 17

May 18, 2014

无意识的形成 17
雅克、拉康
13.11.57 28

What does Freud’s analysis of the forgetting of a name, of a
(23) proper, foreign, name demonstrate?

弗洛依德对于名字的遗忘的分析证明什么?对于专有名字,外来的名字?

These are only the beginning of things that I will be returning
to, and that I will develop later, but I must indicate to you in
passing the particularity of this case as Freud presents it to
us.

这些仅是我会回头谈论的事情的开始。我以后将会发展它们,但是我必须顺便跟你们指示这个个案的特殊性,依照弗洛依德呈现它给我们。

The proper name is a foreign name. We read the Psychopatholoqy
of everyday life the way we read the newspaper, and we know so
much about it that we think it is not worth our while to stop at
things that were nevertheless the steps of Freud, while each one
of these steps deserves to be retained, because each one of these
steps carries lessons and is rich in consequences.

专有名字是一个外来的名字。我们阅读「日常生活心理学」,如同我们阅读报纸。关于它,我们知道得如此清楚,以致我们认为我们不值得费心去停顿在仍然是弗洛依德的步骤的东西。虽然这些步骤每一个都值得被保留。因为这些步骤每一个都具有教导,结果非常充实。

I indicate to you therefore in this connection, because we will
have to come back to it, that in the case of a name, and of a
proper name, we are at the level of the message. This is
something whose importance we will rediscover later on. I cannot
say everything all at once, like the contemporary psychoanalysts
who are so learned that they say everything at the same time, who
speak of the “I” and the “ego” as things that have no complexity,
and who mix everything up.

关于这点,我因此跟你们指示,因为我们将必须回头谈论它。在名字的情况,在专有名字的情况,我们处于讯息的层次。这是某件我们以后将会发现其重要性的东西。我无法立刻说完它们的一切,像当代的精神分析家,他们学问如此渊博,以致他们同时就说完一切。他们谈论这个「我」与这个「自我」,作为是不具有复杂性的事情,他们把一切都搞混。

What is important, is that we should dwell on what is happening.
That it should also be a foreign name, is something different
from the fact that it is a proper name. It is a foreign name
in so far as its elements are foreign to Freud’s native tongue,
(24) namely that Signor is not a word that belongs to the German
tongue. But if Freud points this out, it is precisely because we
are here in a dimension that is different to the proper name as
such, which one might say, was absolutely not proper and
particular, would seem to have no fatherland. They are all more
or less attached to cabalistic signs, and Freud stresses that
this is not unimportant. He does not tell us why, but the fact
that he isolated it in an opening chapter, proves that he thought
that it was a particularly sensitive point of the reality he is
approaching.

重要的是,我们应该详述正在发生的事情。专有名字也应该是一个外来的名字。这件事情完全不同于这个事实:它是一个专有的名字。它是一个外来的名字,因为它的元素对于弗洛依德的母语而言是外来的。换句话说,Signor 并不是属于德文语言的文字。但是假如弗洛依德指出这点,那确实是因为我们在此,处于跟专有名字的自身不同的维度。我们不妨说,专有名字的自身绝对不是专有与特殊。这个专有名字似乎没有祖国。它们跟秘密隐藏的符号息息相关。弗洛依德强调,这并非不重要。他并没有告诉我们为什么,但是他用一个开放的章节,将它孤立出来的这个事实,证明他认为,这是他正在探索的现实特殊敏感的点。

There is another thing that Freud also highlights right away,
and on which we have become accustomed not to dwell, it is that
what appeared remarkable to him in the forgetting of names as he
begins to evoke them to approach the Psychopatholoqy of everyday
life, it is that this forgetting is not an absolute forgetting, a
hole, a gap, that something else is presented instead, other
names. It is here that there begins what is the beginning of all
science, namely wonder. One cannot really wonder except at
something which one has already begun if only in some small way
to accept, otherwise one does not stop at it at all because one
sees nothing. But Freud precisely prepared by his neurotic
experience, sees something there, sees that in the fact that
substitutions are produced, there is something worth dwelling on.

还有一件事情弗洛依德立刻强调的,我们已经习惯于不强调这件事情。那就是,在名字的遗忘上,他觉得引人注意的东西,当他开始召唤它们,来探讨「日常生活的心理学」。那就是,这个遗忘并不是一个绝对的遗忘,一个空洞,一个差距。某件其他东西被代替呈现,其他的名字。就在这里,一切的科学的开始的东西就开始了。换句话说,惊奇。我们无法确实地惊奇,除了对于某件已经开始的东西,即使仅是以某种微小的方式去接纳。否则我们根本就不会对它停顿下来,因为我们什么都没有看见。但是弗洛依德确实有神经症的凖备知识,他在那里看出有某件东西,看出在替换被产生的事实里,有某件东西值得详述。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
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无意识的形成 16

May 18, 2014

无意识的形成 16
雅克、拉康
13.11.57 27

In any case what Freud shows us, is that the mot does not reach
its target all that directly, any more in German than in French,
where it is translated by “cinq membres droits”, and on the other
hand he states textually that the context excludes that the woman
should appear to be so crude. It is indeed a slip of the tongue,
but you can see how it resembles a joke.

无论如何,弗洛依德告诉我们的是,机智语并没有如此直接地到达它的目标,在德语跟法语都没有。在法语,它被翻译为”cinq membres droits”。在另一方面,他在文本上陈述,内容否认,女人竟然如此粗糙。那确实是一时口误,但是你们能够看出,它多么类似笑话。

Therefore we see, it can be a joke, it can be a slip, I would
even say further: it can be pure and simple stupidity, a
linguistic naivete. After all when I qualify it the case of my
patient who was a particularly nice man, it was not in his case
really a slip, for him the word “maritablement” was well and
truly part of his vocabulary; he did not think at all that he was
saying anything extraordinary. There are people like that who
carry on with their existence, who sometimes have very important
jobs, and who come out with mots of this kind. A celebrated film
producer, it appears, produced ones like this by the kilometre
all day long. He would say for example in concluding one of his
imperious sentences; “That’s the way it is, it is signe* qua non.”
(22) This was not a slip of the tongue, it arose simply from his
ignorance and stupidity.

因此,我们看出它有时是一个笑话。它有时是口误。我甚至更进一步说,它有时就是纯粹是愚蠢,一种语言的天真。毕竟,当我在我病人的个案,给予特质时,他确实是位好人,在他的情况,这并不是口误,对于他,“maritablement”这个字清清楚楚地是他的字彙的部分。他根本就没有想到,他正在说出某件特别的东西。有些像那样的人们,继续过他们的生活,有时它们拥有重要的工作,他们有时讲些这样的机智语。一位著名的电影制作人,似乎整体都在产生一萝筐的像那样的机智语。譬如,他经常说,作为他的自以为是句子。「那就是事情的样子 signe* qua non.」。那并不是一时口误。那仅是因为他自己的无知与愚蠢而产生。

I just want to show you that it is important for us to pause for
a moment at the level of this formation, and because we have in
fact spoken about a slip of the tongue, which in all of this is
what affects us most closely, let us see a little what occurs at
the level of the slip of the tongue. Just as we have spoken
about “maritablement”, let us return to the slip that we have
worked through on numerous occasions to underline precisely this
essential function of the signifier, what I might call the
original slip of the tongue, at the foundation of Freudian
theory, the one that reinaugurates the Psychopathblogy of
everyday life after having also been the first thing published in
an earlier form, namely the forgetting of names.

我仅是想要告诉你们,重要的是,我们应该稍停一下,在这个形成的层次,因为我们事实上,谈论到口误。在这一切当中,口误影响我们最为密切。让我们稍微看出,在口误的情况,发生什么事。正如我们曾经谈了“maritablement”,让我们回到我们在好几个场合研究的口误,为了确实强调能指的这个基本的功能。我所谓的原初的口误,以弗洛依德理论作为基础。重新开启「日常生活心理学」的这个理论,因为它是最初被出版,以一种较早的形式,也就是,名字的遗忘。

At first sight forgetting is not the same thing as the things I
have just been talking to you about, but if what I am trying to
explain to you is important, namely if it is well and truly the
mechanism, the metabolism of the signifier that is at the source
and origin of the formations of the unconscious, we should find
them all there, and what appears to be distinct at the
outside should find its unity within. So that now instead of
having famillionaire, we have the opposite, we are missing
something.

乍然一看,遗忘跟我刚刚跟你们谈论的那些事情并不相同。但是,假如我现在跟你们解释的东西,具有重要性,也就是,假如它实实在在就是这个机智,能智的新陈代谢,作为无意识的形成的来源与起源。我们应该在那里找到它们。在外面似乎清楚的东西,应该在里面找到它的一致性。所以,现在,非但没有famillionaire,我们拥有相反的东西,我们正在错过某件东西。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com