Archive for the ‘Gaston Bachelard’ Category

The Psychology of Gravity 09

December 21, 2007

The Psychology of Gravity 09

地心引力的心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

    But this crushed feeling can actively engage the dreamer’s compassion. In reverie connected with the contemplated world it seems that an impulse to stand upright can come to the aid of the crushed plains by a sort of mechanical law of equal and opposite reaction often encountered in the realm of dreams.

    但是這種被壓倒的感覺會積極觸動夢想者的同情。在跟沉思的世界有關的夢幻中,似乎想要站立的衝動能夠前來幫助被壓倒的平原,使用在夢想領域時常遭遇到的機械法則:相等及相反的反應。

 

The geographic dreamer—and such reality do exist—steps in as Atlas to raise up the mountains, even at the risk of being taken for a braggart! Contemplating the terrain sympathetically, such dreamers throw themselves into the struggle of forces with all of the conviction of a demiurge. To understand a mountain’s mass truly, one has to dream of lifting it.

地理上的夢幻者確實存在。他們前來充當舉起山脈的阿特拉司,不在乎被人當著吹牛大王。當這樣的夢想者同情地沉思地形,他們奮身投入力量的奮鬥,一心一意想當造物主。為了真正了解一座山的的質量,我們必須夢想舉起它。

 

The mountain brings its heroes to life. Atlas is a man energized by a mountain. In my view, the myth of Atlas is a mountain myth. When he shoulders the heavens, his shoulders are mountains, the shoulders of the earth. Maucice Baes, in Le Voyage de Sparte, describes Mount Taygetus, for example, as “ the hero of the landscape.” And we find this verse in Victor Hugo’s La legende des Siecles:

 

The high peaks, those sacred silent potters…

   

山使其英雄生機盎然。阿特拉司因為舉山而精力旺盛。依我之見,阿特拉司的神話就是山的神話。當他以肩膀頂山,他的肩膀就是山,他是大地的肩膀。例如,摩瑞思、巴在Le Voyage de Sparte 詩中描述泰基塔山,當著「風景的英雄」。我們在維克多、雨果的La legende des Siecles 詩中找到這一句

 

 高峰頂端,那些神聖的沉默的陶藝家

 

  

 

   As we will see in a moment, poets draw force from this primitive mythology without recourse to scholarship. But allow me to dwell for a moment upon this style of dynamic contemplation, of actively mythological contemplation which surpasses the literalist interpretation of myth. To contemplate the universe with an imagination open to the energies of matter is to reperform the labors of Hercules, resisting the tyranny of nature through human effort, pitting the human body against the universe.

    我們等一下會看到,詩人無須訴諸學術,就可從這個原始神話得來力量。但容我先陳述一下這種動力沉思:神話的馳奇入幻超越了神話的事實詮釋。用開放於物質能源的想像沉思宇宙,等於是重新執行赫丘勒的艱鉅任務,要憑藉人的努力去對抗自然的暴虐,以人肉身對抗宇宙。

 

This certainly amounts to principle of anthropomorphic effort highly adapted to its objective material complement. Such imaginative energies are at the origin of numerous symbols poorly explained as some vague formalist animism. We will fail to appreciate fully the psychological value in mythology if we limit ourselves to merely formalist understanding of its symbols, or if we leap too quickly to sociological interpretations of these symbols’ meanings. We must experience each myth individually and in solitude through an active engagement of our dreaming will.

這簡直是等於人類努力的原則,被高度發揮來適應客觀的物質條件。這樣富有想像力的能源就是無數符號象徵的起源,卻被忽略為某些語焉不詳的形式上的汎靈論。假如我們對於它的符號象徵,自限於形式上的理解,或是我們一下子用社會學解釋這些符號象徵的意義,我們就無法充份欣賞神話在心理學的價值。我們必須個別在孤獨中,透過我們夢幻意志的積極發揮,經驗每個神話。

 

Thus Hercules, who at the sight of Atlas ( is it the hero or the mountain?) comes to his assistance, becomes atlas himself.

因此赫丘勒一看到阿特拉司前來幫助,他自己也成為阿特拉司。(英雄或是山?)

 

Then, things grow. For Atlas or for Hercules to lift the world upon his shoulders constitutes yet another example of the habitually transcendent power of dynamic imaginary. In imaginary life as in real life, the fate of energies is to go too far. Where the imagination is concerned, one is only strong if one is all-powerful. The Superman has no equal. He is condemned without recourse to a prideful existence, consigned to the pantheon of legendary heroes though he may never acknowledge it, even to himself.

然後,事情開始變化。阿特拉司或赫丘勒將山舉在肩膀上,是動力想像超越現實習慣的又是一個例子。在想像及現實生活中,能源的命運常會各走極端。就想像而言,我們只有萬能才是強大。超人無敵手,但是他若濫用沾沾自喜的存在力量,他將招致毀滅,或被供奉在傳說英雄的萬神廟,雖然他自己並不承認是任性欲為。

 

But how this energized life in images fulfills one! How worthy it is of the Gods! If one could study the labors of Hercules as dynamic reveries, as images of the primordial will, one might gain access to a central hygiene almost as effective as actual hygiene. To imagine effort lyrically, to endow efforts conjured in imagination with all the splendor of legendary imagery, is truly to condition one’s entire being and to do so without privileging some muscles over others as is usual in purely physical exercise.

但是這種精力旺盛的生活在意象中是多麼令人充實!忝為神祇是多麼的價值非凡!假如我們能夠研究赫丘勒的勞動任務當著動力幻想,當著原始意志的意象,我們可能會體會到,「奮鬥之道」裨益人生,決不亞於「頤養之道」。浪漫地想像努力,以傳說意象的輝煌,賦予在想像中召喚出來的努力,等於是給自己的整個存在界定意義,而沒有濫用自己強大膂力霸凌他人,如在一般力氣強大者所為。

 

Images that appear essentially meaningless to most readers have all the benefits associated with the life of dreams restored to them as soon as their sources in primordial legend are brought out. For instance, modern anatomies tell us that the first vertebra is called Atlas because it holds up the head. They forget to mention the astrological reasoning that led to the observation that the human head is the heavens in microcosm. There was a time when this comparison of human body with the body of the universe contributed to the emergence of great legends. Perhaps a philosopher who loves words and hates to see their metaphoric play the least bit misconstrued will be excused his focus on such fine detail. But when one pays Atlas due homage in invoking the first cervical vertebra, it seems to me that one’s head begins to turn more smoothly on its axis.

對於大部份讀者似乎無多大意義的意象,假如原始傳說的來源能夠顯示給讀者,用來恢復他們夢想生活的聯想還是不無裨益。例如,現在解剖學告訴我們,主脊椎骨被稱為阿特拉司,因為它支撐頭顱。他們忘了提到,是占星學的推理能力,使我們觀察到人腦是天庭的小宇宙。有一陣子,人類身體被比擬為宇宙體系產生了無數傳說。可能,喜愛字面解釋,而不願看到他們的比擬被誤解的哲學家,對於我這樣的詳加發揮不以為然。但是當我覺得,將阿特拉司推崇為人的頸部脊椎骨,我們的頭顱開始更加轉動自如。

 

Sometimes great images, disguised in subsidiary meanings, take on new life when words are given back their history. This is the case with Henri Michaux’s image of the Planet-Head when its Atlasness is recognized: “ The weight of the Planet-Head, its growing mass largely filling the horizon.” This is a text which demands a “ cervical” reading in which reference to the Atlas vertebra can be acknowledged with an absolutely clear conscience.

有時偉大的意象偽裝是次要的意義,可是當還原其歷史面貌時,就會展現新的生命。亨利、米恰克描寫行星如頭之重的意象就是一個例子。他認為阿特拉司是:「行星如頭之重,其逐漸增加的重量瀰漫地平線。」這段文字需要先提到阿特拉司的脊椎骨,及其頸部,始能體會他辛苦頂山的良苦用心。

 

P277—p279

The Psychology of Gravity 09

地心引力的心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

  

The Psychology of Gravity 08

December 20, 2007

The Psychology of Gravity 08

地心引力心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

   But let us consider a more imposing relief. Let us look, for example, to a poem where the Mountain is synonymous with crushing majesty. Verhaeren’s Mountain is a dynamic image of just this sort, one that need not be described in detail to convey a sense of its hostile weight:

   但是讓我們考慮一個更加鮮明的慰藉。例如,讓我們看一下這首詩,山等於是壓倒性的壯麗。波哈能的「山」就是這種動力的意象,我們不需要詳盡描述,就能傳達山的的敵意重量感。

 

   This mountain,

   Its shadow prostrate

   Before it in the moonlight,

 

   Reigns infinitely in the night,

   Tragic and ponderous,

   Over the lowly countryside.

  

   The vineyards quake

   At the colossal mystery

   The mountain harbors.

 

   這座山

   陰影匍匐在前

   在月光中

 

   在夜間君臨睥睨

   悲愁而沉悶

   統御平地鄉間

 

   葡萄園震攝

   面對巨大神秘

   山所隱匿

 

   This “ colossal mystery,” a bit naïve in the Flemish writer’s poetics, is the mystery of immovable weight. Later in the same poem this theme gives way to another, the fear inspired by colossal mystery displaced in quite ordinary fashion into inventive curiosity, which seeks buried treasure in the mountain’s interior, Verhaeren in his poetry often strives to be eloquent on multiple levels, blurring genres and so weakening his effect. But the manifest content of the poem in this case presents a sufficiently clear image of a mountain crushing a plain, crushing down over a wide expanse of low-lying countryside around it.

    這個「巨大的神秘」,在這位出生於佛列米的作者詩中,是無法移動的重量。相同詩的後面,主題轉移到巨大神秘所引起的恐懼。平淡無奇地,巨大神秘被替代成具有創造力的好奇,設法在山的「內部」尋找隱藏的財寶。波哈能在詩中時常設法以多項層面侃侃而談,模糊交錯,反而減弱效果。但是這首詩的顯而易見的內容,傳達一個清楚無比的意象:山壓倒平原,壓倒四周一大片的廣裘平地鄉間。

  

Mountains actualize the crush of the Cosmos. They give metaphoric expression to the feeling that one has of being crushed in an absolute or irremediable sense, the ultimate sensation of heavy sorrow utterly without remedy. As Matho confides to Salammbo: “ Mountains have seemed to weigh upon my days…”

    山具體表現宇宙的壓倒。山給予比喻的表達,讓我們感受到,面對人生被壓倒的無可挽回或無奈感,最後無可如何的沉重的悲哀。如同馬索對莎拉莫的坦言:「我的歲月山似乎為山所重壓。」

 

P276—p277

The Psychology of Gravity 08

地心引力的心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

The Psychology of Gravity 07

December 20, 2007

The Psychology of Gravity 07

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

The Psychology of gravity involves an obvious dialectic in accordance with which an individual either submits to or resists the laws of gravity. I have begun by treating dynamic images of falling. Images of standing tall are far more precious. In the realm of the imagination the truly positive images are those of height. To put this differently, the workings of the human mind are characterized by a normal process of sublimation, both psychological and material in nature.

    地心引力心理學牽涉到明顯的辯證法,而依照辯證法,個人不是屈服,就是抗拒地心引力的法則。我先前已經處理過墮落的動力意象。然而挺立的意象更加珍貴。在想像的領域,真正積極的意象是高度的意象。換言之,人類心靈的構造其特徵在於正常的昇華過程,心理及物質方面都一樣。

 

     It would seem that a veritable tropism impels people to keep their heads held high. Ideological sublimation is perhaps only a special type of this general order of physical sublimation. More simply put, the human psyche is distinguished by the will to stand erect. Weight tends to drop, but we desire to lift it; and when we cannot, we imagine that we can. Reveries of will to stand tall are among the dynamic that exist, energizing the entire body from head to heel.

    似乎可驗證的驅向性驅使人抬頭挺胸。除一般的生理的昇華外,意識形態的昇華可能是很特別的一種。說得簡明些,人類的心理就是以挺立的意志顯現其不同。重量傾向於掉落,但是我們渴望舉起它。儘管有時力氣不夠,我們憑想像也要做得到。意志挺立的幻想是人間最有動力的一種,使整個身體從頭到腳,精力充沛。

 

    Moreover, as I have so often argued, reveries of will are never without their objective complements, and the psychology of human will will never be described if we focus our attention only on unactualized inner tendencies. The use of the will may perhaps be purely imagined and the object it raises purely imaginary, but these images are necessary for the soul’s virtualities to come into definition and develop. I hope to demonstrate, using specific images as my examples, the reciprocity between the will and the imagination.

    而且,如我時常所說的,意志的幻想都會有客觀的輔助。假如我們只專注那些沒有實現的內在傾向,人類意志的心理學將無可稱道。意志的使用可能純粹是想像,它所舉起的物體也純粹是想像,但是這些意象是需要的,這樣靈魂的擬象使能定義跟發展。我希望使用明確的意象當例子,證明意志與想像之間的互助。

 

    Let us take, for instance, images of being crushed. These can be seen to develop dialectically through the intervention of opposing images, as if the will to stand erect came to the aid of matter being crushed. If we are sensitive to this duality, it will be possible to see this opposition of images of being crushed and of standing upright take on a therapeutic rhythm.

    且讓我們拿被壓倒的意象當例子。這些意象透過相對意象的介入,才辯證地發展,好像挺立的意志前來支援物質不要被壓倒。假如我們熟悉這個雙重性,我們可能看出,被壓倒的意象跟挺立的意象對立,形成一個治療的韻律。

 

    It requires, after all, very little to provoke in us the sense that we are being crushed, a proof of the imagination’s extreme sensitivity to such charged imagery. Just a low ceiling, for example, will suffice. Tieck, paying a call on Goethe, is struck by how low the great man’s ceilings are. He feels compelled to jot this observation down. Is he aware of the contradiction? Mustn’t he take a certain malicious pleasure in it? Our unconscious belittles our rivals with the greatest ease; the metaphors we choose give voice to our secret feelings of hostility!

    畢竟要引起我們被壓倒的感覺是輕而易舉,想像對於這種負荷的意象其實非常敏感。例如,堤客前往拜訪歌德,光是矮天花板就足以使訪客面對偉人的自慚形穢。他覺得非記載這個觀察不可。他知道這中間的矛盾嗎?他一定要自我貶抑才覺得愉快嗎?我們的無意識都很輕易地藐視對手,我們選用的隱喻卻透露出我們內在的敵意。

 

    Huysmans, on a visit to a Roman crypt, is naturally sensitive to “ the vault, crushed like the soul by humility and fear.” One short phrase conveys both a powerful description and an emotional response—such are the powers of condensation of great images: “ These massive cellars contain the fear of sin.” Many other such instances can be documented. What is striking is that so common an impression should retain enough originality to be written so often, to be so diversely adorned in literary tribute, proof that we are dealing with a primary image.

    霍曼拜訪羅馬地窖時,自然而然感受到地窖的矮窄,像是靈魂被屈辱跟恐懼所壓倒。有一短句傳達有力的描述跟情感的反應,使意象的精鍊淋漓盡致:「這些巨大的地窖包含對原罪的恐懼。」許多類似這樣的例子都有文件記載。引人注意的是,如此尋常的詞語,竟然如此反復地被創意發揮,如此受到文學讚賞地華麗裝飾,這證明我們所處理的是「原始意象」

 

    But let us rather choose our images from the peaceful world of nature, study the impact of hills and mountains, first as they initially appeal to our senses, and then as their inducements gain in power.

   但是我們還是先從自然的平靜世界選擇意象,研究小丘跟高山的影響。他們先是愉悅我們的感官,然後引誘的力量逐漸增大。

 

   It seems that images of formal splendor invite the dreamer’s dynamic participation. A majestic décor calls for heroic actors. Mountains work on the human unconscious with their powers of uplift. Standing motionless in the presence of mountain peaks, dreamers are instantly in thrall to their vertical movement. Perhaps they feel themselves transported, from the depths of their being, by an impulse toward the summits, and so share in their aerial life.

   似乎光明堂皇的意象會邀請夢幻者的積極參與。堂皇的舞台召喚英雄般的演員。高山對於人類的無意識有高聳仰止的力量。面對山頂高峰,夢幻者立即意興遄飛,鵬展大業。可能他們覺得自己從存在的谷底,憑藉攻頂的衝動,提昇向上,飄飄欲仙。

 

   Conversely, they may feel themselves swept by the entirely terrestrial sensation of crushing defeat, and so prostrate themselves, body and soul, before the majesty of nature. But these extremes of inward response are subject to myriad inflections; their interpretation calls for a high degree of psychological nuance. These nuances are at times so delicate or are that they can only be expressed in poetry. Let us turn, then, to the work of poets to discover the unconscious of mountains, to receive the many lessons of verticality. These feelings of induced verticality range from the most gentle of solicitations to the most arrogant, most unreasonable of challenges.

   在另一方面,面對自然的雄偉,他們覺得自己在現實人間挫敗灰心,身體跟靈魂匍匐臥地,相形之下,實在無以自容。但是這些內在反應的極端有其幽微的心路歷程,需要高度細膩的心思始能解釋。這些細膩之處有時如此微妙,或只有以詩表達。因此,且讓我們求助於詩人作品,來尋找高山的無意識,接受挺立的教誨。這些被激發的挺立之感,小者受到頻頻呼喚而起,大者面對挑戰悍然不顧一切。

 

   But let us begin with an example of the gentlest and most delicate of vertical inducements, a hill seen as bringing earth and sky together. Elizabeth Barret Browning, her soul filled with memories of Italy, dreams in a remote corner of England, contemplating

  且讓我們先舉個挺立引誘的微妙例子。小丘被認為是大地與天空的會合處。伊莉莎白、布朗寧,靈魂充滿義大利的回憶,在英國的角落,夢想沉思:

 

   The ground’s most gentle dimplement

   (As if God’s finger touched but did not press

   In making England), such an up and down

   Of verdure,–nothing too much up or down,

   A ripple of land; such little hills, the sky

   Can stoop to tenderly and the wheatfields climb…”

   地面輕微起伏如波浪

  (好似上帝創造英國時

手指輕觸而不壓擠)上下起伏

蔥綠草木,不過高不過低

像是大地的漣漪,如此小丘,

天空溫柔屈服,麥田爬升

 

   Let us take full measure of this vertical sensibility! The modeling deity works all in caresses; the power in every contour is drawn with wheat field climbs, the hill breathes, hovering weightless upon the surface of the bountiful earth, thrusting neither too rapidly nor too far into space. The hill sets us in equilibrium midway between earth and sky, providing us exactly enough verticality and on such a human scale that we desire to make our way slowly up that orchard and field-terraced slope, to climb slowly in thought without physical fatigue and especially without fatigue of the imagination. The very soul of the hills is there in the verse. Browning’s poem thus establishes a standard of gentle verticality sufficient to bring out the dynamic imagery so characteristic of landscapes of vine-covered hillsides and country roads. It teaches us to read other poems of verticality with sensitivity.

    且讓我們全面思考這個「挺立的理性」!創造的神祇輕搓細揉,斟酌使力於每個輪廓。隨著麥田爬升,小丘呼吸,輕盈地盤旋豐饒的大地之上,往空中衝刺既不太猛亦不太遠。小丘讓我們處於大地跟天空之間的平衡,供應我們足夠的挺立,合乎人的規模,使我們渴望慢慢爬上果園,及田地階梯般的斜坡,思想慢慢爬升,身體不會太疲倦,特別是不要因想像而疲倦。小丘的靈魂就縈繞在詩中。布朗寧的詩建立一個溫和理性的標準,足以展現動力的意象,表現葡萄滿野的小山坡及鄉間道路的風景的特色。這首詩教導我們理性地閱讀其他挺立的詩。

 

P254—p256

The Psychology of Gravity 07

地心引力的心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

The Psychology of Gravity 06

December 19, 2007

The Psychology of Gravity 06

地心引力的心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

Act II of Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound contains a long poem of psychological descent which includes these two verses:

雪萊的「普羅米修士解放」有一首長詩「心理的沉淪」,包括兩小節:

      Songs of Spirits     精神之歌 

    To the deep, to the deep,

    Down, down!

    Through the shade of sleep,

    Through the cloudy strife

    Of Death and Life;

    Through the veil and the bar

    Of things which seem and are

    Even to the steps of the remotest throne,

    Down, down!

    到深處,到深處

    下去,下去!

    經由睡眠的陰影

    經由雲層的爭鬥

    生與死之間

    經由遮幕跟欄柵

    事物的表象跟實在

    甚至到達閻羅殿的台階

    下去,下去!

   

    While the sound whirls around

    Down, down!

    As the faon draws the hound,

    As the lightning the vapor,

    As a weak moth the taper;

    Death, despair; low, sorrow;

    Time both; to-day, to-morrow

    As steel obeys the spirit of the stone

    Down, down!

    趁聲音還縈繞

    下去,下去!

    如隼鷹吸引獵犬

    如閃電吸引水汽

    如弱蛾吸引微火

    死亡,絕望,陰府,哀傷

    兩個時間,今天,明天

    如鋼服從石頭底精神

    下去,下去!

   In his prose rendering of the second verse, the French translator, Louis Cazamian, committed a sin of clarification so common in French translation, rectifying the ambiguous causality that makes the English text an unforgettable oneiric document:

   在第二節的散文翻譯中,法文譯者,路易、凱塞明犯了法文翻譯常有的清晰之誤。英文原文正因有因果關係的曖昧,才成為不朽的夢幻詩篇,他卻將修改為清晰。

   Had Cazamian chosen to maintain the single French verb attire in translating the English draws through all these many subjects and complements, in the order of the original, it would doubtless have resulted in descriptions in violation of all prosaic wisdom.

   假如凱塞明當時翻譯英文「吸引」一詞,選擇用法文動詞attire,來連接在原文順序上的許多主詞跟補語,不可否認的,本來會造成敘述過程違反散文體的文法結構。

Was he to translate, for example, as Shelley’s word order would seem to indicate, “ the lightning ( draws) the vapor” as l’éclair attire le nuage, even though clouds must exist before lightning, or rationalize the phrase as he has done? Was he to allow that the “ weak moth” draws, or lights, the flame where it desires to die, as if that fragile creature longed for the fiery abyss, or the reverse as he has preferred!

舉個例子,他應該如雪萊詩的原來順序所指示「閃電吸引水汽」,即使要先有雲層,閃電才會存在,或者如他所為改成合理化?他應該讓「弱蛾」吸引光,或是讓火燄吸引弱蛾前來它渴望就死之地?猶如說那隻脆弱的動物渴望火光深淵,還是如他所譯的顛倒過來說,火光吸引弱蛾?

No reasonable person, no lover of meaningful poetry, could accept the more literal renderings. And yet Shelley’s text is there, in all its mysteriousness, with its grammatical absurdities translating the disdain of dreams for the order of cause and effect. Readers are completely free to reason or to dream, but they are obliged to follow the inversions in the text as originally written: at times it is thought that takes charge; at times, some dim dream.

更合乎事實的解讀,可能難於為理性的人或愛探索詩的意義的人所接受。可是雪萊的原文擺在眼前,晦澀難解的文法悖逆,詮釋夢幻對於因果順序的藐視。讀者可以自由推理或夢想,但是必須遵照原先寫作者文本的顛覆:人生是思想掛帥,但有時矇矓夢幻也可掌印。

Death brings on despair, or perhaps it is despair which leads to a longing for death, a downward slope taken by so many unfortunates. Love grows heavy with sorrow, yet both love and sorrow come with time. What is the proper order? Why is any order necessary? The joy in love, that immense volcano of joy, will have turned to lava and ash tomorrow. Is this fate, or contradiction? In the final analysis, names and objects matter little! The strophe has but a single impetus, that of falling; only a single movement, that of psychological descent.

死亡導致絕望,或者是絕望導致渴望死亡。不是有很多不幸者走這條往下的斜坡道?愛情因哀傷而變得沉重,可是愛情跟哀傷都隨著時間而來,兩者孰先孰後?為什麼要區分先後? 愛情的歡樂,如火山烈燄的歡樂,到翌日難道不是轉變成岩漿跟灰燼?這是命運還是詭譎?終歸到底,名字跟物體也都無足輕重!背景歌舞只有一個動力,縱身一躍的墮落的動力,心理沉淪的動力。

A stanza of this sort is in many respects anomalous in Shelley’s poetics. For example, the steel that causes a spark to fly from stone in the penultimate line enjoys no active agency. It obeys. Active agency, in other words, is here attributed to the immobile object, a rare exception in the writings of a poet who wished always to stand at the center of activity of every image, at the center of every imaginary expansion.

這種的詩節在雪萊的詩中很多方面是破格的。例如,倒數第二行,鋼引起石頭火星迸發,不用積極代理而自得其樂。鋼順從石頭性情。換言之,積極代理這裡指不可移動的物體,詩人作品中罕見的例外。詩人總是希望處於意象活動的中央,處於想像四溢的中央。

Besides, why limit the reader’s freedom? Why reinforce logic, reversing the inversions! Such poems, prescient where the forces of the unconscious are concerned, seem to encourage a certain freedom, allowing for multiple interpretations. A reader in need of the guard-rails of rationality and cut-and-dried experience will have no difficulty following Cazamian’s rendering.

除外,為什麼要限制讀者想像?為什麼要強化邏輯,逆轉顛覆!這樣的詩,就無意識的力量而言,具有預感,似乎鼓勵某種自由,考慮到多重解釋。需要理性護欄及實際經驗的讀者,要欣賞凱塞明的翻譯應無困難。

But there are other readers who look forward to a certain vertigo, a certain novelty in the poetic experience. For these readers’ pleasure, Shelley dreamed. He took certain propositions and transformed them poetically. Such transformations pose little danger for those who desire linguistic clarity. Gammarians are there to put things back in order; but their logical approach can arrest the movements of flux and reflux proper to the life of the unconscious. Modern style, it would seem, little by little has lost touch with the art of simple inversion.

 但是還有其他讀者期望某些暈眩,某種詩經驗的新奇感。雪萊的夢幻可為這些讀者帶來歡樂。他有某些靈感,並將他們轉化成詩。這樣的轉化對於那些渴望清晰語言的人,並無大礙。文法家固然可以將字的順序恢復過來,但是他們的邏輯方式會擋住無意識的生命在詩中透露的蠢蠢流動。似乎,現代的文體漸漸失去簡單顛覆的藝術。

In a language without declension, the technique of beginning a sentence with a complement or object and placing the subject and perhaps even the verb at a goodly distance, there to be discovered when all else is said and done, is rare practiced. Yet it is an operation familiar in dreams, where the unconscious reigns. Stylistic inversion tends to evoke introvert or extrovert responses in a reader, which may provide a salutary stimulation to the unconscious frozen in a single attitude. But for that to occur, it must be possible to address Shelley’s “ weak moth” thus: “ Son of the Sun, creature of light, call to you that flickering flame; you through it and it through you will realize together death’s maternity, the grand desire for return to elemental happiness.”

用動詞的補語或受詞開始一個句子,然後將主詞或動詞放得遠遠,等到一切都說完做完,才被發現。在沒有語尾變化的語言,這樣的技巧甚為罕見。可是在無意識掛帥的夢中卻是習以為常。頗具風格的顛覆傾向於召喚在讀者身上內向或外向的反應,有助益地激發在理性單一態度中被冰凍的無意識。但是要激發無意識,要先能以下列方式理解雪萊的「弱蛾」:「太陽之子,光之神,我請求你給予閃爍的火燄;你經由火燄,火燄經由你,交融體會死亡是大地之母。我強烈渴望回歸原始的歡樂。」

P271—p273

The Psychology of Gravity 06

地心引力的心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.comm.tw

  

The Psychology of Gravity 05

December 19, 2007

The Psychology of Gravity 05

地心引力心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

     Impressions as subtle as these could only show such consistence, could only be transmitted from writer to reader, if there existed in each of us a diagram of free fall, an instinctive, ineradicable fear of falling. Without the personal disaster of unforgettable vertigo one would hardly be capable of apprehending the unity behind so many diverse and distant metaphors. For in fact, on this good earth, real yawning chasms remain an exception, and one can usually manage to avoid going to see them, avoid trembling before them. But our unconscious itself is seemingly cleft by an imaginary abyss. Within us, anything can tumble, anything can disappear into the void…

    如此微妙的表達要引起共鳴,從作者傳達到讀者,只有當我們每人都存有自由落體的圖象,對於墮落有本能的無法抹除的恐懼。假如沒有難忘的暈眩的個人經驗,我們幾乎無法理解,這些多樣性及隱約的比喻所產生的一致性。因為事實上,在這美好的大地,真正的張開的裂隙始終是例外,我們通常避免去看到他們,避免在他們面前恐懼發抖。但是我們的無意識本身似乎會因為想像的深淵而裂開。就我們而言,任何東西都會墜落,任何東西都會消失到空無。

 

   Let us then, hereafter, and despite all rules of grammar, understand the word abyss not as a noun referring to an object but as a psychologically charged adjective capable of describing a range of experiences. The extremes to which Raudelaire has extended the meaning of this term should come then as no surprise to us. “ Morally as well as physically,” he wrote. “ I have always sensed the abyss, not just the abyss of sleep but the abyss of action, dream, memory, desire, regret, remorse, beauty, number, etc.” The regrets. The abyss calls forth an avalanche. One regret brings on an avalanche of regrets. No sooner do we meditate upon a number than a mysterious arithmetic opens upon a world of public accounting. Great and small have each their own abyss, as does each element. Empedocles, for example, was lured by the abyss of fire. For a dreamer, the least whirlpool is a maelstrom. Every idea has its abyss. Baudelaire is Pascal multiplied.

   因此罔顧所有的文法規則,我們不妨將深淵這個單字,不是當著提到某個客體的名詞,而是當著充滿心理負擔的形容詞,能夠描述各種經驗。詩人波特萊爾曾將這個詞語極盡描繪之能事,也就不足為奇了。他寫道:「道德上及生理上,我總是感受到這個深淵,不僅是睡眠的深淵,而是行動,夢想,遺憾,悔恨,美麗,數字等等的深淵。深淵召喚雪崩。一個悔恨帶來一大堆雪崩般的悔恨。一思考到一個數字,神秘的算術就展開無限運算的領域。偉大與渺小都有他們自己的深淵,如同每個元素有其深淵。舉個例子,恩培達克利斯被火的深淵所引誘。對於每一位夢想家,即使小小漩渦都是愛倫坡的沉淪海底的渦流。每個觀念都有其深淵,詩人波特萊爾是哲學家巴斯卡思想的加倍發揮。」

 

   Few philosophers have had so clear an intuition of this fall that takes place in the interior of one’s being, or experienced as fully the synonymity of physical and moral falls, as Franz von Baader. It was Susini who quite rightly pointed out this connection:

   法蘭茲、梵巴德在其存在的內部,深刻經驗到生理上跟道德上的墮落,非一般哲學家對墮落的清晰直覺所能及。蘇西尼曾為文提到:

 

      The term fall in von Baader’s work has double valence. In a letter to his friend, Gorthilf Heinrich Schubert, dated November 22, 1815, writing of an accident he had had when he stumbled into a ditch by the roadside, breaking an arm, the philosopher speaks of his Nichtgrunden, or inability to remain grounded, a state of malaise which in the case f his accident translated into a physical condition. But, as he explained to Christian Daniel von Meyer, several days later on December 4, if the impossibility of remaining grounded is already so terrible where one’s physical body is concerned, how horrible must he the fall of the interior being, the fall in heart an mind!

      「墮落」一詞在梵巴德作品中有雙重價值。在18151122給朋友修伯特的信中,他描述他曾遭遇的意外。他摔倒到路邊水溝裡,手臂骨折。哲學家提到他無法保持著地,一種惶恐狀態,在意外事件被解釋為生理的情況。但是幾天以後,在12 4日,他對基督徒丹尼爾、梵梅解釋,假如就身體而言,下不著地已經如此令人惶恐,內部存在的墮落,心靈的墮落該是多麼駭懼!

 

   A century later, psychoanalysis began to lend moral significance to accidents and slips of the tongue. But psychoanalysis has not explained in so deep a manner as von Baader what it means to be destined to fall.

   一世紀後,精神分析學開始認為,意外及一時口誤有其道德方面的意義。但是精神分析學並沒有像梵巴德解釋得這麼深刻:人生終須墮落,該作何解?

    All thee dynamic images that I have gathered here are so many variations on an anthropologically fundamental dynamic theme. They are images which systematically go beyond experience, which give a permanent reality to ephemeral moments of peril. Even more than this, they tend to dramatize the fall as destiny, a form of death. They translate our falling essence, our being-coming-being-as-it-falls. They help us to experience the temporality of lighting speed.

   我在此所收集的這些動力意象,就人類基本的動力主題而言,有許多變化。他們可以是系統上超越經驗的意象,給瞬間的危機時刻,賦予永恆的真實性。不僅如此,他們傾向於將墮落戲劇化為上天注定,一種死亡的形式。他們將我們墮落的本質翻譯成為「墮落中存在存焉」。他們幫忙我們經驗到人生如電光石火的瞬間性。

 

    This sort of meditation on images of the fall will provide a further proof that it is in transcending reality that imagination reveals to us our own reality.

    這種對墮落意象的沉思更進一步證明:想像超越現實,人生真理實相始能展現。

 

   I will have more to say on this subject elsewhere when I take up the question of the dialectic of material overstimulation and inspiration.

   對於這個題目,我在談物質過份刺激及啟發的辯證法時,還會再多所著墨。

 

P269—p271

The Psychology of Gravity 05

地心引力的心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

    

The Psychology of Gravity 04

December 18, 2007

The Psychology of Gravity 04

地心引力的心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

  “ Common sense,” which is not necessarily the same as “ psychological sense,” may be left unconvinced by such a claim. Common sense requires visible evidence. It is all too easy to believe that a fall has caused psychological scarring, only if the child’s forehead has been scarred as well. But surely physical consequences count for little when the cause is experienced on a primal level, like a sudden internal movement never previously experienced.

   「普通常識」未必跟「心理常識」相同。話雖如此,我們依舊半信半疑。普通常識要求看得見的證據。摔倒曾經造成心理的創傷,我們都輕易相信,條件是小孩的前額也有傷痕。但是如果經驗到的原因是原始層次,像是以前從未經驗過的內部動作,身體的後果並不重要。

Montessori compares the care given to a young woman who has just given birth with the lack of attention paid to her newborn child, which “ is lifted from its cradle and raised to the shoulder of the adult that is to carry it, then lowered again to the bed at its mother’s die.” This, as writes, “ corresponds to what it would be like to be raised and lowered by an elevator out of control.” The author’s advice is to keep movements slow and gradual, so that no blueprint for dizziness is impressed upon a consciousness still sleeping but already aware.

蒙特索瑞比較,對一位剛分娩少婦的照顧,跟對新生嬰兒的粗心。嬰兒「被從搖籃舉起,抬到要接抱它的大人肩膀高,然後再被放下到它母親旁邊。」她寫到:「這等於是它搭乘失控的電梯上下。」作者的意思是動作要慢要緩,這樣才不會留下暈眩的印象鐫刻在依舊沉睡但是已經有知覺的意識上。

    Between an imaginary fall like mine in Strasbourg and a “ fall” so subtle and so lacking in apparent consequence as that described by Montessori, many intermediary falls with many variants are easily discovered. In particular, among these intermediary falls I would include “ literary falls,” abyss one has read, each a virtual fall with its own lesson in unhappiness. These work on the reader’s unconscious randomly, eventually giving form to the masochistic impulse expressed by Goethe: “ There is hardly any true pleasure that does not begin at the point of vertigo.”

    除了我在史拉伯那次想像自已摔落,跟蒙特索瑞所描述的嬰兒被舉起又表面無恙地放下,我們還可以很容易找到中間許多不同樣式。在這些中間的墮落樣式中,我特別要提到「文學的墮落」,我們曾經閱讀過的深淵。每一個都是虛擬的墮落,啟示人生的不幸。這些墮落任意在我們的無意識醞釀,最後形成歌德所描述的自虐衝動:「沒有一種真實的快樂不是從暈眩開始。」

   Al these real-life experiences have one trait in common: falling opens up space, deepens the abyss. An immense space is not at all necessary for a deep imaginary fall. A dynamic image, subtle and discrete, will frequently suffice to send one’s entire being into a tailspin; in other words, even the most delicate dynamic image may be seen to possess overwhelming power if we are able to observe it as it first comes to life, at the moment of psychological inscription. Sometimes a great poet manages to convey the hypnotic powers of vertigo in a few words.

     所有這些真實人生的經驗有一個相同特徵:墮落展開空間,深化深淵。深度的想像的墮落根本不需要廣裘空間。微妙而分歧的動力意象,往往就足夠使一個人的整個存在慌亂無措,換言之,即使最微細的動力意象都可認為擁有強大的力量,假如我們能夠在它剛成形時,在鐫刻在心理的時刻,觀察到它。有時候一位偉大的詩人能夠用幾個字就傳達暈眩的催眠力量。

 In Air and Dreams I showed with what artfulness a poet like Edgar Allen Poe employed dynamic images of this kind. Poe understood instinctively that literary vertigo must begin with only a slight queasiness, but a queasiness that is in some sense inner and oneiric, like a heart flutter. A literary fall described in too much detail, an abyss overly charged with imaginary, awakens divergent interests, exciting the reader for whom one would rather evoke images of ontical effacement.

 在「空氣與夢」書中,我曾指出詩人愛倫坡何使用動力意象這樣的技巧。愛倫坡能地瞭解到,文學的暈眩必須開始於輕微的嘔吐,這種嘔吐某個意義來說是內在跟夢幻的,就像是心悸。詳盡描述的文學墮落,就像是意象繽紛的深淵,喚醒各種興趣,激發讀者寧可招喚渾然忘我的意象。

 An excessively imaged literary fall interferes with our experience of the dynamic of the abyss, to be distinguished from its geography. For, in effect, to explore the abyss, to enter underground reaches with a miner’s lamp, there to do battle with monsters, is to deal with one’s own feat discursively. Nightmares of falling, by contrast, are simple and terrible. Every terrifying fall is a terror of the most primordial sort, a terror whose only fate is to grow. The dramatic poem of the fall must be, in every verse, both a beginning and an acceleration. It seeks to describe the constant becoming of calamity, but not necessarily the accumulation of calamities.

 過度意象繽紛的文學墮落干擾到我們在深淵的動力經驗,跟地理上的墮落不同。事實上,要探險深淵,提著礦工的油燈進入地下的領域,跟那裡的惡魔格鬥,等於是要發揮我們的各項才能。比較起來,墮落的夢魘可是單純而可怕。每個可怕的墮落,都是最原始的恐懼,其命運最成長。每本詩集,墮落的生動的詩篇既是開始,又是加速度。詩設法描述災難的不斷形成,但是未必是災難的累積。

Sometimes a writer will convey a sense of deep fall while working a related image, executing a “ dynamic variation” on the fundamental “ dynamic theme.” In such a case, the impression of a deep fall will be best communicated if the reader is left with unitary, homogenous impression. Rough and tumble, avalanching falls too often return us to the world of objects. There is a passage in Tieck’s William Lowell which demonstrates the virtues of a uniformity of impression. Tieck lets us experience a fall with our ears. He manages to express the pure, sonorous tonality of a plunge into the abyss. The annihilating nothingness of the depths is audible in the sound of a voice choked off, diminishing and, at a terrifying limit, fading out entirely…A sound that manages to be at once lugubrious and distant completes this fall of being.

有時作家在從事相關的意象,對於基本的「動力主題」執行「動力變化」,會傳達深度的墮落感。在此情況,假如讀者處於單一跟同質的情境,深度墮落的印象會溝通得最好。雪崩般的墮落,滾滾而下,往往會使我們回到客體的世界。堤客的「威廉、羅威」證明印象一致性的優點。堤客讓我們用耳朵經驗到墮落。他成功地表達,縱身跳下深淵那種純粹而響亮的聲音。聲音哽咽,但是深淵的毀滅性的空無清晰可聞,令人驚駭,然後完全消失。此聲音既哀傷又飄渺,完成存在的墮落。

As we read sympathetically, our soul becomes an ear reaching out across a well of silence. This state of anxious listening to the disappearance of a fellow creature. Tieck has us experience as a sort of Schmelzen of molten release. The space brought to life by this sound deepens, expands, then melts away and dies. All the tensions of the abyss give way at once, for a voice has fallen silent. Silence suffices to create a void, the void below. In place of the contented silence that follows the delicate silken sounds on high, one hears now a globular and leaden silence rolling in the gravity of a dying voice…But the passage must be read in its original German for the beneficial effects of its properly sonorous literary fall to be experienced in full.

當我們同情閱讀,我們靈魂變成耳朵,伸展越過沉默之井。堤客讓我們經驗到,這種焦慮地傾聽一位同胞消失的狀況,像是岩漿迸發。這個聲音所激發生命力的空間深化,擴展,然後溶化而死亡。所有的深淵的緊張立刻為之舒解,因為聲音已經變成沉默。沉默足以創造空無,下面的空無。坦然以對的沉默跟隨在從上天傳來微妙音之後。替而代之,我們現在聽到滾球鉛般重的沉默,滾動於垂死聲音的地心引力。但是這篇文章,我們得讀德文原文才能充份經驗到到響亮的文學墮落所產生的效果。 P267—p269The Psychology of Gravity 04地心引力的心理學By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉Translated by Springhero 雄伯https://springhero.wordpress.com32hsiung@pchome.com.tw   

The Psychology of Gravity 03

December 18, 2007

The Psychology of Gravity 03

地心引力的心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

   Alexandre Dumas suffered, it seems, from a similar affliction. He writes in his Memoirs that, at the age of ten, “ his physical education was proceeding fast enough.”

   亞歷山大、仲馬似乎遭受相同的痛苦。他在回憶錄中寫到,在十歲時,他的體能教育進展神速。

 

   I could throw stones like David, I could draw a bow like a Balearic archer. I could ride like a Numidian; but I could not climb trees or steeples. I have traveled much, and whether in the Alps or in Sicily, in Calabria, or in Spain or in Africa, I have gone over difficult enough places; but I only crossed them because I was obliged to; and no one but myself will ever know what I endured in the process. My terror is purely nervous, and therefore incurable; it is so great that, given the choice, I would rather fight a duel than climb to the top of the column in the Place Vendome. I went up to the top of the towers of Notre Dame once with Hugo, and I do not like to think what it cost me in cold shudders and perspiration.”

   我能像大衛王那樣甩擲石頭,我能像巴力銳弓箭手那樣拉弓。我能像古代牛彌地人那樣騎馬,但是我無法爬樹或攀登尖塔頂。我曾到處旅行,無論在阿爾卑斯山,或在西西里,在卡拉瑞,或在西班牙,或在非洲,我曾走過艱難地方,但是我只是不得已才越過。沒有人知道我在過程中所忍受的。我的恐懼純粹是神經質,因此無法治療。我是如此恐懼,以致我若能選擇,我寧可找人決鬥,也不要攀登冕洞的柱頂。我有一次跟雨果攀登聖母院的塔樓頂端,想到當時的顫慄跟冷汗,還餘悸猶存。

  

  Despite a show of bravado that a psychoanalyst would have little trouble seeing through, this state of “ purely nervous terror” seems the clear sign of a mind strangely sensitized by the engram of an imaginary fall. A few pages earlier, Dumas has confided to his reader a secret that helps trace this chronic condition back to early childhood: “ Like nature, I abhorred a vacuum. As soon as I felt myself suspended any distance above the earth, like Anteus, my head began to whirl, and my legs turned to rubber. I dared not even go down steps if they were at all steep…”

   儘管虛張聲勢早會被精神分析師一眼看穿,這種「純粹神經質的恐懼」似乎很清楚顯示,我的心很奇怪地敏感於幻想墮落的印象。早先幾頁,大仲馬曾對讀者坦承一個有助於追蹤這種恐懼的慣性到童年的秘密。「像大自然一樣,我憎惡空無。我一被懸掛空中,像頂天的安提神,我的頭開始暈眩,我的腳抖顫不已。假如太陡峭,甚至不敢下來。」

 

   In his highly detailed autobiography, Heinrich Steffens devotes several passages of singular richness to similar impressions. For him, that dizzy feeling was experienced as a sudden attack of loneliness. People thus afflicted are beyond salvation; no helping hand can stay their fall. Poor victims, struck with dizziness in the fundamental sense, they feel alone to the bottom of their beings. They are falling alive. Their falls upon a veritable abyss in thei souls: Ein solche Mensch wird in den dunklen Abrund seines eigenen Daseins What is described here, in truth, is the ruination of being, the ruination of Dasein conceived as physically as is possible, decades before the elaboration of these metaphors by Kierkegaard.

   在他詳盡的自傳中,史帖分專注好個生動的段落描述相同的訊息。對於他,經驗到暈眩的感覺,被當著是孤獨突然侵襲。遭受痛苦的人因此無可救藥。無人可伸手阻止不要墮落。可憐的受害者,受到暈眩的根本打擊,孤獨到存在的底部。他們活生生的墮落,墮落到名副其實的靈魂的深淵。在這裡所描述的事實上就是存在的毀滅,被盡可能設想為肉身的存在的毀滅。幾十年後,存在主義哲學家齊克果也用這種隱喻來設想陳述。

 

   The least presentiment that one will dream of falling spoils one’s sleep. In one of his short stories, Aleksei Remizov writes: “ Often, just as I lie down, I imagine involuntarily that I am climbing out on a very high ledge, and I feel such fright I cannot even dream of sleeping.” On bad nights, I myself have dreaded sleep the way one dreads a fall. Some nights we are destined to fall. The vertigo that pulls us down is dark although attached to such a clear idea!

   稍微預感會夢見墮落,晚上睡覺就不安寧。在一篇短篇小說,瑞米諾夫寫到:「時常當我躺下,我不自覺想像我正在從很高的懸崖爬出。我感覺如此害怕,連睡覺都不感夢想。」在惡夢連連的夜晚,我害怕睡眠,如同害怕墮落。總有些晚上,我們註定要墮落。拉扯我們下去的暈眩是漆黑,聯想卻是如此清晰。

 

   We long make do with worn-out words. It was only in reading Heinrich Steffens that I suddenly experienced all the power and ulterior intent that lies sleeping in the old French term garde-fou, or guard-rail ( literally guard against madness). Guard-rails protect us against that most basic, that most commonplace madness, the kind that can come over us as we cross a bridge, or pause at the tope of a flight of stairs. Alexandre Dumas felt this madness coming on as he leaned out over his third-floor balcony. But to fully grasp the significance of these engrams of falling that can be imprinted in the deepest recesses of the unconscious mind, let us recall the precautions suggested by Maria Montessori to be taken in the care of the newborn. In her book, The Child, she wrote.

    這些其實已經是老生常談。只是在閱讀史帖分的自傳時,我突然經驗到所有的力量跟隱藏用意,在法文古代用詞「護欄」(字面上的意義是保護免於瘋狂)。

護欄保護我們免於最基本,最普遍的瘋狂。當我們越過橋樑,或是停駐在樓梯頂端,這種瘋狂會襲我們。大仲馬感受到這種瘋狂的侵襲,當他依靠三樓陽台而立時。但是若要充份體會,這種墮落印象會鐫刻在我們無意識深層安息處的意義,且讓我們回想一下馬麗、蒙特索里在照顧新生嬰兒時建議的預防措施。在其「幼童」書中,她寫著:

 

    I have seen a newborn baby, barely saved from asphyxiation, plunged into a basin of water set on the floor. As it was rapidly lowered into the water, it opened its eyes wide and gave a convulsive leap, stretching out its arms and legs as it it felt itself falling. That was its first experience of fear.

    我曾看見一位新生嬰兒,被放在地板上的水盆裏,差一點死於窒息。當嬰兒迅速地被放進水中,他兩眼睜得大大,痙攣地跳動,伸出手臂跟腳,好像覺得要墮落下去。那是他恐懼的第一次經驗。

 

P266—p267

The Psychology of Gravity

By Gaston Bachelard

Translated by Springhero

Http://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

  

  

 

The Psychology of Gravity 02

December 17, 2007

The Psychology of Gravity 02

地心引力心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

   Even the most fleeting images can sometimes make us feel dizzy by re-stimulating a long dormant vertigo, deeply ingrained in our unconscious ( an engram). It is not rare, in effect, for an entire life to be affected by a single episode of vertigo. To engage this question with a specific case in mind, allow me to share a personal experience.

   即使是最瞬間的影像有時會使我們感到頭暈,因為它們重新激起我們蟄伏已久,深深鐫刻在我們無意識的暈眩。事實上,整個一生為一次單一的暈眩軼事弄得暈頭轉向,也是常見的事。為了要用一個明確的個案來討論這個問題,容我分享一下我個人的經驗。

 

   One of the greatest misfortunes in my unconscious life is having climbed to the lantern-turret in the spire of the Strasbourg Cathedral. I was twenty at the time, and familiar only with the modest church spires of the Champagne countryside. Many is  the time I had profited from a door accidentally left ajar to climb into the village clock tower, a world of stairs and ladders I inhabited without fear. I would spend long hours by the bells in the open air, gazing out over the river and the hills. The view from Sainte-Germaine, the hilltop that we in Bar-sur-Aube called a mountain, encompasses a very small circle of the world with the bell tower at the center. What a setting in which to dream the imperial power of the gaze over the world it contemplated!

    我無意識裏,有一次最大的不幸是爬Strasbourg大教堂尖頂的燈樓。當時我二十歲,只熟悉一些Champagne 鄉間的普通教堂的尖頂。好幾次我曾利用門戶大開之際,爬進鄉間的鐘塔,在樓梯及旋轉梯的世界繞來繞去,毫無恐懼。我常常在露天的大鐘旁流連良久,眺望附近小山及河流。從Campagne那裏,我們當地人稱為一座山,其實是座小山頂,組成一個由鐘塔位於中央的小世界。在那裏沉思世界,夢想帝國的權力,眼光何其短也!

 

But in Strasbourg, the ascent is inhumanly abrupt. Following the guide up the stone stairs, visitors are protected at first on their right by a line of delicate columns, but suddenly, very near the summit, this perforated lace-work comes to an end. To the right, there is nothing but empty air, a great void extending over the rooftops. The stairway turns so narrowly that soon visitors are left alone, out of sight of the guide. Life depends on their hold upon the railing.

但是在Strasbourg,光是爬上樓就讓你覺得非人力所及。跟隨響導爬上石頭樓梯,起初右邊尚有一排精緻的欄杆保護遊客,但是突然地,靠近樓頂時,稀疏的欄杆邊飾沒有了。靠右邊,空蕩蕩的一片,虛無飄渺籠罩屋頂。樓梯變得如此窄小,只能容遊客一人獨行,看不見響導。生死之間就在是否把握住欄杆。 

   Going up and coming down: twice, the experience of absolute vertigo lasting but a few minutes; and the mind is marked for life.

   上去及下來:兩次經驗到,絕對暈眩維持只幾分鐘,心靈震撼像是永遠。

 

  Never again was I to enjoy mountains and towers! The engram of an immense fall is within me. When this memory comes back to me, when this image comes to life again at night and even in my waking dreams, an indescribable malaise, fills my deepest being. I suffered in writing these lines, and in recopying them I suffer again, as from a fresh and all too real adventure. Most recently, while reading Depping’s Merveilles de la force et de l’adresse, a book which seemed unlikely to contain my story, the old memory prevented me from reading further. Here is the offending passage:

   那種爬山跟高塔,此後我從未再覺得是享受!我內心被鐫刻著巨大的墮落。每次我回想起來,影像在夜晚刻栩栩如生,即使在我清醒的夢中,無以言喻的不安刻骨銘心。寫作這幾行時,我依舊痛苦,重新抄錄時,再次感受痛苦,好像重新身歷其境。最近閱讀杜賓的作品,其書雖然不可能跟我的經驗相關,但是古老的回憶去使我無法再繼續讀下去。底下就是令人忿憤的段落:

 

  Most foreigners stop at the platform, but the fanatics, those with good lungs, can nimbly work their way up into the four turrets which lead to the base of the octagonal pyramid, so bold and light in design, which constitutes the spire. And those who are not overly stout and who do not fear dizziness, may climb further still, beyond the towers, up eight winding stairways which creak at every one of their eight turns, to the lantern-turret itself. Goethe accomplished this ascent more than once for the precise purpose of ridding himself of a constitutional tendency to vertigo, and he carved his name in the stone wall of the tower…

  大部份人都停在平臺,但是狂熱者,肺活量好的人,可以敏捷地攀登到四個塔樓,直通到八角樓金字塔的末端,組成整個尖頂,設計得驚險輕巧。那些身體較健壯,不怕暈眩的人,還可以再往上爬,越過塔樓,上到八個迴轉的樓梯,每一次轉彎,都嘎嘎作響,直到燈樓所在。哥德曾完成這個攀登好幾次,就是為了要驅除身體的暈眩傾向,他雕刻自己的名字在塔樓的石壁上。

 

   I hardly understand the architecture Depping describes: nothing of it resonates with what I so clearly remember myself. All I can feel is the suffering in my heart. In good Malebranchean style, I would claim without hesitation that what interrupted my reading was a wounded imagination. Psychoanalysis would perhaps seek some moral explanation for this sensitivity. But to my mind nothing can explain why so many different sensations of dizziness should be linked to that one memory, so precise, so clearly defined, and so unique in my life experience.

   對於杜賓所描述的建築,我幾乎無法瞭解,因為跟我自己所清楚記得的,絲毫不引起共鳴。我所能感受的是內心的痛楚。我毫不猶豫地宣稱,阻止我閱讀下去的是一種受傷的想像。對於我這種敏感,精神分析可能尋找某種的道德的解釋。但是在我內心,永遠無法解釋,為什麼那麼多不同的暈眩感覺,都跟那一個記憶息息相關。在我一生的經驗中,那是如此明確、如此清楚劃分、如此獨特。

 

   As soon as my feet touched ground again my high spirits returned entirely. I sipped Rhine and Moselle wines with, it seems to me, all the appreciation that a Champenois can feel for them. But this enjoyment was not enough to prevent my mind from being troubled. My dreams continue to be plagued by that imaginary fall. When nightmares of anxiety come on, I know for certain they will end with a fall onto the rooftops of Strasbourg. And If I die in my sleep it will be from the imaginary fall, my heart constricted, crushed. Illness is very often no more than a secondary cause of death. There are images more noxious and cruel, images that are fatal.

  當我的腳再一次踩到地上,我高昂的精神完全恢復過來。啜飲萊茵及莫歇爾的葡萄酒,我心中覺得的感恩,是一般沒見過世面的人都能感受得到。但是這個享受仍然是餘悸猶存。我的夢繼續受到這個幻奇的墮落所凌虐。當憂慮的夢魘來臨,我確實知道,夢魘結局是墮落到Strasbourg大教堂的尖頂。假如我在睡夢中死亡,那將是因為那幻奇的墮落使我的心收縮壓碎。疾病只不過是死亡的次要原因。有些影像更加致命和殘酷,傷害更大。

 

P264—p265

The Psychology of Gravity

地心引力心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴捨拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

Http://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

 

The Psychology of Gravity 01

December 17, 2007

The Psychology of Gravity 01

地心引力心理學

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

                              The moral tendency of humankind, like its physical tendency, is to fall, continually.

                               人類的道德,如同生理一樣,

都傾向於不斷地墮落。

              Jean-Paul Richter,

              La vie de Fixlein

In Air and Dream I discussed a number of images of falling and of the abyss which, according to all evidence, were products of the terrestrial imagination. It was necessary to examine these images in order to understand the dynamic inverse of flight. For one takes flight against gravity, in dream as well as in reality. In a reciprocal manner, it is necessary now to invoke aerial images if we are to appreciate properly the psychological weight of terrestrial images.

在「空氣與夢」一書中,我討論許多墮落跟懸崖的影像,依據各種證據,是地球想像的產物。現在為了要瞭解飛翔的動力倒轉,有需要再審查這些影像。因為人飛翔就是要對抗地心引力,無論是在夢中或現實當中。以互動的方式,現在需要召喚空中影像,假如我們想要適當地欣賞地球影像的心理重量。

There is no way to understand the psychology of gravity—the psychology of that which makes us heavy, tired, slow, unsteady on our feet—without referring to the psychology of weightlessness, the nostalgic for lightness. Interested readers may consult that earlier work, with which I began my study of the active imagination.

要瞭解地心引力的心理學,也就是使我們沉重、疲倦、緩慢、兩腳不穩的心理學,我們不可能不提到無重量的心理學,也就是對於輕盈的懷念。有興趣的讀者不妨參考一下那部早期的作品,當時我開始研究及積極想像。

It would be a mistake, however, to limit ourselves to a mere juxtaposition of images of the above with images of the below. Images which adhere to such a geometry are, in a way, too obvious. They have logical images. One must free oneself of their simple relativity to experience the dynamic dialectic of rising and falling. The psychological realism of this dialectic of ascent and descent is better understood when one reads, with a dreaming soul, this entry in Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks:

可是我們若僅是限於將上面的影像跟下面的影像做對比,將是個錯誤。堅持幾何學的影像在某方面看法太明顯了。他們形成邏輯的影像。為了要經驗到上昇與墮落的動力演變學,我們必須擺脫他們簡單的相對。當我們帶著夢幻的靈魂閱讀達文西的筆記,我們就較能瞭解上昇與下降演變的心理真相:

Lightness is born of heaviness and heaviness of lightness, instantaneously and reciprocally, returning creation for creation, gaining strength proportionally as they gain life, and as much more in life as they gain in motion. They destroy one another also at the same time, fulfilling a mutual vendetta, proof that lightness is created only in conjunction with heaviness, and heaviness only where lightness follows.

   輕盈從沉重產生,沉重亦由輕盈產生,同時而又互相,創造回報創造,生命力越大,力量就越大,運用於人生甚至有勝於運用於動作。輕盈與沉重也同時互相毀滅,實現互相仇殺,證明輕盈只與沉重並生,沉重之所在,輕盈跟隨之。

Certainly, one could give this obscure passage a scientific commentary which would show that the learned Italian, following Aristotle and anticipating Galileo, represented falling bodies to himself as passing through an active atmosphere conceived as a full medium. But this clarification in the realm of ideas brings us no closer to the realm of belief, where the science of bygone days dreams on. In order to gain entry to this world of primary belief, we must place ourselves at the center of a mass of images.

的確,對於這似非而是的引文,我們可以給予科學的評論,證明達文西這位義大利人,前踵亞力斯多德、後期伽立略,將自己身驅的墮落,比擬為經歷過他認為是充分媒介的活動大氣。但是這種觀念領域的澄清,並無補於我們對於以往科學夢幻所在的信仰領域的瞭解。為了要進入原先信仰的這個世界,我們先要置身於大量影像的中心。

It is within this sort of psychic nebula that the sense of core weight and flowering lightness originate. Our feelings of heaviness and lightness emerge out of this “ feud” between two opposing tendencies. When we are dizzy to the point of falling, it seems we are about to rise into the air. Myriad impressions affect our psychological weight, which is truly imaginary.

核心重量跟開花的輕盈,就開始於這種心理的朦朧星雲的範圍內。我們的沉重跟輕盈之感,就是從這兩個相反傾向的「宿怨」中出現。當我蒙暈眩到要墮落的程度,似乎我們即將上昇到空中。我們心理的重量,其實是無中生有,是受到無數的印象影響。

Were it possible to scrutinize our dream lives closely, we would quickly recognize how heightened our sensitivity can be to impressions of weight and balance. Perhaps we might teach ourselves to combat our feelings of heaviness and be cured of them. A pedagogy of gravity would thus double as psychology of psychic gravity. What an aspiration to heights there is in these two lines by Sergei Esenin!

假如我們可能仔細審查我們的夢中生活,我們會很快體認出,我們的感官多麼的被強化到重量跟平衡的印象。也許,我們可以教導自己去格鬥這種沉重之感,而痊癒其病徵。做為一門心理地心引力的心理學,我們因此需要加倍的教導。看看Sergei Esenin所寫的下面這兩行,升高的渴望是多麼強烈!

Enough of heaven without stairs,

Enough of falling snow.

再無法忍受沒有樓梯的天堂

再無法忍受墮落的雪

Verticality is so impressionable a human dimension that it occasionally permits an image to be elongated, stretching it in two directions at once, both upwards and downwards. Dreamers who love verticality will smoke their cigarettes and daydream differently if they meditate upon the double movement in this image borrowed from Ribemont-Dessaignes’ wonderful collection, Ecce Homo:

   直立是人類令人印象深刻的向度,因此有時會允許影像延長,同時朝兩個方向延伸,既朝上、又朝下。喜愛直立的夢幻者,假如沉思從Ribemont-Dessaignes文集「戴荊棘的耶穌!」借用過來的這個影像的雙重動作,將會邊抽煙,邊夢想。

   He flapped his wings, lit a cigarette,

   And smoke rose up into the sky,

   And ash plunged down into the depths of hell

   他拍動翅膀,點燃香煙,

   煙圈上昇到空中,

   灰燼下墮到地獄的深淵

  

P263—p264

Earth and Reveries of Will by Gaston Bachelard

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw

   

Earth and Reveries of Will 08

December 15, 2007

Earth and Reveries of Will 08

泥土與意志的幻想

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

 

   The tactile sensation of digging into matter with one’s fingers, discovering its substance beneath form and color gives one the illusion of touching the very essence of matter. Once the material imagination has opened the inner depths of substance to us, untold riches are ours. A material image dynamically experienced, passionately adopted, patiently explored, is an opening in every sense of the world, in its real sense and its figurative sense. It assures the psychological reality of the figurative, the imaginary.

用手指挖掘物質的觸感,在形式及顏色底下發現物質讓人有接觸到物質本質的幻覺。一但物質想像已經打開物質的內在深度,無數的財富是我們的。我們激烈經驗到,熱心採用及耐心探索的物質意象,從世界的意義,真實及象徵的意義來說,都是一種開展。它確定會有象徵在心理上的真實,就是幻奇。

 

The material image transcends immediate existence and deepens superficial existence. This deepening reveals a double perspective; opening into the interior of the active subject and into the inner substance of the inert object encountered by perception. However, in working with matter, this double perspective is reversed. The inner depths of subject and object interchange; a salutary rhythm of introversion and extroversion comes to life in the worker’s spirit.

 物質意象超越立即的存在,並且深化膚淺的存在。這種深化顯示兩種觀點,進入活動主體的內部,及感官所遭遇的惰性客體的內在質性。可是,從事物質時,這雙重觀點或倒轉過來。主體跟客體的內在深度會交換,內向跟外向的良性韻律在工作者的精神裏活躍起來。

 

But if one truly invests an object with form, if one imposes a form on it in spite of its resistance, then introversion and extroversion become more than mere psychological orientations, or indexes of two opposing types of change. The worker necessarily experiences the sequence of such efforts and their immediate results. While in the face of human adversity even the smallest defeat sets back the introvert, in objective material adversity the worker is stimulated by resistance to the very degree that pride in mastery marks an introversion.

但是假如我們真的替客體賦予形式,假如我們不顧它的抗拒,強迫賦予形式,那麼內向跟外向就變成不僅僅是心理上對應,或是兩種相對的改變的指標。工作者需要經驗這種努力的順序及他們立即的結果。雖然面對人類的逆境,即使是最微小的挫敗都會退回內向,但是在客觀的物質逆境,工作者被抗拒所刺激,以致對於掌控的尊嚴表現了它的內向。

 

 In work, a strong introversion is a guarantee of energetic extroversion. Furthermore, the well-chosen material, in restoring to the rhythm of introversion and extroversion its true mobility., produces a means of rhythmanalysis, in the sense that Pinheriro dos Santos uses this term

在工作時,強烈的內向是一種精力外向的保證。而且,仔細選擇的物質,替內向跟外向的韻律恢宏它的機動性,產生一種韻律分析的工具,詩人山多斯所用的這個用詞。

 

 In work –with its righteous dreams, dreams which do not flee from work—this mobility is neither gratuitous nor useless. It finds its place between the dialectical extremes of too hard and too soft, at the point most suitable to the felicitous forces of the laborer. It is in connection with these forces, in the general psychic drive of these forces applied with mastery, that human beings experience the dynamic power of their own imagination. Thus we experience the imagination both moored and penetrant; only an idle persona would speak of the imagination as vagabond.

在工作時,由於夢想光明正大,夢想並沒有逃離工作,這個機動性並非偶發,也非無用。它在太堅硬及太柔軟的辯證法極端,以及在最適合於勞動者的幸福力量,找到它的位置。就在跟這些力量連接,在這些力量控制地使用時產生的的心理欲念中,人類經驗到自己想像的動力。因此,我們經驗到停泊及貫穿狀態的想像。只有懶惰的人才會說想像是四處飄散。

 

Of course the only depths imagination truly penetrates are imaginary, but the desire to penetrate reveals itself in images. In images of material penetration desire assumes a specific dynamic, one of the prudence and determination. Classical psychoanalysis would do well to study closely those images of penetration which accompany action upon various material substances and to study them in their own right without rushing to interpretation, as is too often the case.

當然,唯一想像真正貫穿的的深度是幻奇,但是想要貫穿的欲望會以意像顯現出來。在貫穿物質時,欲望顯出一種明確的動力,謹慎跟決心的動力。古典的精神分析最好仔細研究伴隨各種物質貫穿行動的這些意象,並適情地研究他們,而不要像平常一樣匆促去詮釋。

 

Perhaps then the imagination would no longer be accused of wielding the power of substitution alone. It would be seen as a drive for images, an instinct for images which accompanies quite normally instincts of rougher, duller nature, for example, instincts as slow to develop as sexual desire. The constant opportunity offered by the imagination that renews and multiplies itself through diverse material images will not fail to become apparent if one studies the most active images of material penetration. One would thus see the psychological utility of bringing together the will to penetrate with images that encourage actual penetration.

可能他們因此不再控訴想像只是權且充當代理。想像將會被視為是意象的欲念,一種意象的本能,非常正常地,隨之而來會是更魯鈍的本能,慢慢醞釀成性的慾望。想像不斷提供的機會,透過各種物質意象更新繁盛本身,終會顯現出來,假如我們研究貫穿物質的活躍意象。我們因此會從團結貫穿的意志跟鼓勵實際貫穿,看到心理學的實用性。

 

This rapproachement reveals the intersection of reciprocal exchange where images become “ impulsive” and impulses themselves augment their gratification through images. The act and its image—there is a heightened state of being, dynamic existence which suppresses static existence so completely that passivity is reduced to nothingness. There is no question that imagery uplifts us, improves us; it gives us the potential to become more than what we are.

 兩者團結顯示:意象成為「衝動」,而衝動透過意象本身加強他們的滿足,彼此互惠交會。行動及其意象,使生命及動力的存在強化,並全然壓抑靜態的存在,以致被動淪為空無。無可置疑地,意象提昇我們,改善我們,給我們潛力超越我們本來的自己。

 

Thus I consider the imagination the center from which the dual orientations of all ambivalence—extroversion and introversion—extend. And if one examines images in their detail, one will recognize that the moral and aesthetic qualities attributed to images divide along these same lines of ambivalence. Images carry out quite subtly the massive battle of wills which rages at the core of one being, using one essential ruse—the technique of revealing and concealing by turns. For example, in a cherished visual image one may perceive the scoptophilia which certain psychoanalysis, such as Lacan, have shown to unite the dual tendencies of seeing and being seen!

因此我認為想像是內向跟外向延伸時,各種矛盾心理雙重位置的中心。假如我們檢查一下意象的細節,我們會承認,用意象表現的道德跟美學的特質,由於彼此矛盾而分道揚鑣。意象微妙地從事巨大的的意志的戰鬥,激烈進行在我們存在的核心,使用一個基本的策略,顯示跟隱藏交替的策略。例如,在一個大家所喜愛的視覺影像,可能被認為是窺視狂,某些精神分析師,如拉崗,就認為是連接看與被看的雙重傾向。

 

How many images full of ostentation are only masks of this sort! Naturally, however, material images are more deeply motivated; they represent an explicit, dynamic engagement with the world. Where the essence of material reality is concerned, human aggressiveity—whether straightforward, wily, direct, or oblique—assumes the opposing aspects of strength and skill, discovering in the experience of strength its extrovert certitudes, and in the awareness of skill its introvert convictions. The work and the worker are thus mutually determined—doubtless a banal truth, but one which is multiplied by nuances so numerous and varied that it would require long research to define it precisely.

有多少虛飾誇張的意象只是這種假面具!可是,物質意象當然動機較為深刻。他們代表明確而動力地參與這個世界。就物質的本質而言,人的攻擊性,無論是坦然,狡獪,直接,或拐彎抹角,都有力量跟技巧兩個相反面,在力量的經驗中發現外向的確定性,在技巧的熟稔中,找到內向的信心。工作跟工作者因此是相輔相成,無疑是老生常談,但還是有其微妙變化的細膩,值得我們再費心研究,才能明確下定義。

 

In the next chapter I lay out a preliminary explanation of this mutual self-determination, beginning with a brief discussion of incisive will—the will to cut and to carve—followed by a swift digression into actual work with real materials in order to call attention to the dynamic character of tools, too often considered only in their formal aspect. It is my intention to provide an initial illustration of the double perspective mentioned above, first by means of a kind of psychoanalytic survey, and then through reflection on the dynamic conditions of one’s earliest successes in the working of matter.

在下一章節,我首先簡短地討論敏銳意志,也就是切割及雕刻的意志,來初步詮釋這個相輔相成。然後再快速離題談論真實物質,為了提醒大家注意工具的動力特性,這是在其正常用法中所忽略的。我要對於以上所提的雙重觀點,提供初步的全詮釋,首先用精神分析的調查方法,然後反映到在從事物質工作時,我們早期獲得成功的動力狀況。

 

P24—p26

Earth and Reveries of Will 08

By Gaston Bachelard 巴舍拉

Translated by Springhero 雄伯

https://springhero.wordpress.com

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw