Archive for the ‘精神分析的另一面’ Category

From the other to the Other 72

October 24, 2015

From the other to the Other
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

12.2 69 XI4
I think that I have sufficiently made you sense that by reason of the
(133) function,of the zeros that do not really form part of the results of
a wager that might be made against a partner, because it is precisely
the existence of the partner that is in question and that it is what you
have to wager on. In these conditions the two lines of possibility that
are offered to the gambler do not intersect with any line of possibility
that might belong to the Other, since one can not even be sure of the
existence of the Other. It is then at the same time on the existence or
non-existence of the Other, on what promises his existence and what
allows his inexistence, it is on this that the choice is brought to bear,
and in this case it is plausible – 1 am saying, it is plausible, of course if
one has a mathematical mind – to wager, and to wager in the sense that
Pascal proposes.

我认为我已经充分地让你们理解。凭借这些零的功能,这些零并没有形成赌注的结果的部分。这个赌注可能被用来对康伴侣。因为确实就是因为伴侣的存在受到质疑。这就是你们必须下赌注的地方。在这些情况里,被提供给赌徒的这两行的可能性,并没有互相交会,跟可能属于大他者的可能性的任何一行。因为我们甚至无法确的大他者的存在。因此跟这个被迫的选择息息相关的是跟大他者的存在或非存在同时息息相关,跟许诺大他者的存在与容许大他者的存在息息相关。在这个情况,这似乎是合理的—我正在说,这是合理的。当然,假如我们具有数学头脑—下赌注,下巴斯卡建议的赌注。

Only, you will not forget that I introduced at this state of the affair, in
order of course not to give rise to misunderstanding and the belief that
here I am lending myself to something which would be the indication
of the advantage of this solution, I effectively remarked the following.

只是,你们将不会忘记,在事情的这个状态,我介绍,当然是为了不要产生误解。在此,我正在帮助某件事情的信念,这个事情将会指示这个解答的利益。我有效地陈述如下:

7 . . . And in the very introduction to the reminder of the wager as it is
presented, much less than it is through the grid of the discussions that
have become classic, I pointed out that at this level one could
substitute for the choice to be made on the subject of the existence of
God, the remark that one would fulfil the function – which would
completely change its sense – this remark that what is at stake, that
what could be at stake, is this radical formulation which is that of the
real, in so far as we can conceive of it and as moreover we sometimes
put our finger on it, that it is not conceivable to imagine any other limit
of knowledge than this stopping point at which one has only to deal
with this, something unsayable and which either is or is not. In other
words something that is related to heads or tails.

当我介绍提醒赌注,当它被呈现,不是经由已经变成经典的讨论的框架。我指出,在这个层次,我们能够用这个谈论来替换应该被做的选择,针对上帝的存在的主体。我们将会实践这个功能—将会完全改变它的意义的功能—这个谈论是:岌岌可危的东西,可能岌岌可危的东西,就是这个强烈的说明,实在界的说明。因为我们能够构型它。而且,我们有时候会掌握它。这并非是匪夷所思的,假如我们想像知识的任何其他限制,除了这个停顿点。在那里,我们必须处理这个某件无法说出的东西。它要,就是存在,要不,就是不存在。换句话说,某件跟头或尾巴息息相关的东西。

This was of course to put you in tune with what is invo lved in not
losing the plot. Namely, that we are not amusing ourselves. We are in
the process of trying to give articulations of such a kind that there can
be played out for us the most important decisions that are to be taken.

这当然是要让你们跟不要丧失计谋所牵涉到东西调合一致。换句话说,我们并不是自娱娱人。我们正在尝试要给予表的,对于这种事情。应该被採取的最重要的决的,能够被扮演出来。

As it happens our times mark more and more that these most important
decisions, in so far as they may be those of the psychoanalyst, may
(134) also coincide with those required at a key point in the social
body, namely, the administration of knowledge, for example.

偶然地,我们的时代越来越标示,这些最重要的决的,因为是精神分析家的重要的决定,可能也巧合于被要求的那些重要的决定,在社会的团体的关键的时刻,譬如,知识的行政体制。

But then, even though on this point it is well understood that I cleared
the board, that I am not doing history and that I do not see why such a
precise system, especially if we correctly conceive the joint at which it
is situated, that Pascal’s wager would have less resources for us than it
had for its author.

但是,即使在这一点,我们清楚地理解,我清理赌盘,我并不正在从事历史,我并不明白,为什么这样一个明确的系统。特别是假如我们正确地构想这个联接,在那里,它被定位。对于我们,巴斯卡的赌注拥有的资源将少于对于它的作者。

And we will indeed come back to this question of
the situation, all the better because we are going to illuminate it now. It
is therefore not, as you are going to see right away, doing history, to
remind you, as I recalled the last time to remind you that in Pascal’s
time, Revelation existed.

我们的确将会回到情境的这个问题。尤其是因为我们现在将要启蒙它。如同你们将立即看出,提醒你们,并不是要从事历史,如同我上次提醒你们,在巴斯卡的时代,启蒙运动存在。

And I even stressed what was at stake with
these two levels, the word of the Church, and then Sacred Scripture,
and the function that Sacred Scripture played for Pascal. And it is
obviously not to remind you that Newton also, who had other things on
his mind, produced a big book — my hobby being bibliophilic, it
happens that I have it, it is superb – which is a commentary on the
Apocalypse and of Daniel’s prophecy. He gave just as much care – 1
mean in the calculation, in the manipulation of numbers that are
nevertheless extremely problematic as those that are at stake when it is
a matter of situating the reign of Nebuchadnezzar for example – as in
his study on the laws of gravity. This should be remembered then in
the margin, but it does nothing for us.

我甚至强调,对于这两个层次,岌岌可危的东西,教堂的真理与圣经的真理。圣经替巴斯卡扮演的功能。显而易见地,我并不是要提醒你们,牛顿也产生一大本书,尽管他想的是其他事情。因为我习惯编排目录,我恰好拥有一本目录,非常优秀的目录—针对启示录与丹尼尔的预言的评论。他给予同样的关心—我指的是计算,在数目字的操控。这些数字仍然是极端问题重重,如同那些岌岌可危的数字,当问题是要定位尼布甲尼撤的统治时期—如同他研究地心引力的法则。这应该顺便被记住。但是它对于我们并没有任何帮助。

What is at stake at this stage, is to remark that at the level that Pascal
then proposes his wager to us, whatever may be the relevance of our
remarks about what is involved in it in the final term, namely, that such
a proposition can only be conceived of when the knowledge of science
is bom, it nevertheless remains that, for him, the wager reposes on
what we can call the word of the Other, and the word of the Other
naturally conceived of as truth.

在这个阶段,岌岌可危的东西是要谈论,在巴斯卡跟我们建议他的赌注的层次,可能跟我们的谈论息息相关的东西,关于用最后的术语所牵涉的东西。换句话说,这样一个命题能够被构想,仅有当科学的知识诞生。问题仍然是,对于巴斯卡,这个赌注依靠我们所谓的大他者的话语。大他者的话语当然被构想作为是真理。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

从他者到大他者 71

October 22, 2015

From an other to the Other
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

12.2 69
Seminar 11: Wednesday 12 February 1969
(131) Very bored with everything that is happening, huh! You too I
think. One cannot all the same not notice it, because I am in the
process of asking myself whether I am here to do my usual thing or
whether I am occupying the place! Anyway! Some benevolent ears
were prepared to understand that some of the things that I put forward,
specifically during my second last seminar, had some relationship with
a science — who knows? With perhaps not a new science, but with a
bringing up to date of what is involved for the conditions of science.

他们对每件正在发生的事情感到无聊,呵呵!我想,你们也是。我们无法被仍然注意它,因为我正在询问自己,我在这里,是否是为了做我通常的事情,或是为正在占有这个位置!无论如何!有些好心的耳朵正准备好理解,我提出的某些的事情,明确地在我前两次的研讨,它跟某个科学具有关系—天晓得!或许并不是跟一门新科学,而是跟对于科学的情况所牵涉的东西的新潮流行有关系。
/ ‘
Today I sense, for all sorts of reasons, even if it is only because we are
getting close to Mardi-Gras, so then it is appropriate, that I should
gently change the direction of things. I sense it, like that, after
balancing what I thought out this morning before seeing you. I am
going to bend myself a little bit towards something that you can call
whatever you want, but which is rather a moral note. How could one
moreover escape it, in the aura, in the margin, in the limits of that
through which I tackled something which is Pascal’s wager.

今天,我感觉到,因为各种理由,即使这仅是因为我们正在靠近圣灰狂欢节,所以那时合适的,我应该温和地改变事情的方向。我感觉它,像那样,当我平衡我今天早晨思维出的东西,在跟你们会面之前。我正要稍微倾身朝向你们能够称为你们喜欢的东西。但是,这是道德的语调。而且,我们如何能够逃避它,在这个氛围,在这个边缘,在我克服某件属于巴斯卡的赌注的东西的限制。

It is
certain that we cannot fail to recognise this incidence, even though, of
course, what inspired me to speak to you about it, is that Pascal’s
wager is at a certain joint, and this, all the same, I am going to recall,
But, like that, as a way of introducing things a little and of relaxing,
however little, the atmosphere – 1 told you that we were getting close
to Mardi-Gras — I am going to read you a letter that I received. I am
not going to tell you who sent it to me, nor even from what town it
came.

的确,我们一定会体认出这件意外,当然,即使启发我跟你们言谈它的理由是,巴斯卡的赌注处于某个关节。这仍然是我将要提醒的东西。但是,像那样,作为稍微介绍事情的方式,并且让气氛稍微轻松一点。我告诉你们,我们正要靠近圣灰狂欢节—我将用跟你们阅读我收到的一封信。我将不告诉你们谁寄给我这封信,也不告诉你们信从哪个城镇来。

“Dear Mr Lacan. We are students and we have read almost all o f your
Ecrits. We find a lot o f things in it. Obviously it is not always easy to
approach but this all the same deserves our congratulations….. ” I
don’t get those every day! “We would really like to know how one sets
about writing such difficult things…”

「亲爱的拉康先生。我们是学生,我们都已经阅读你的精神分析论文全集。我们在它里面发现许多东西。显而易见地,要理解并不是那么容易。但是这仍然值得我们恭喜你。」我并不是每天都得到这些恭喜!「我们确实想要知道,你是如何开始书写这些艰涩的东西、、、」

I am not sending anyone up,
and certainly not these chaps that I find really.. .anyway I will tell you
what I think about it; there must have been two of them to write that!

我并不是让任何人都感興趣,的确,并不是这些人们,我发现确实、、、!我将告诉你们我对它的看法。当时一定有两个人书写它!

“… it would be useful to us in our examinations. We may well have a
degree in philosophy, but it is getting more and more complicated to
get through the selection. We think that it would be better to use
trickery and astonish the teachers rather than persisting in a style o f
banal down-to-earth discourse”. And they add “make no mistake.
Could you point us to some little fiddles in this direction?“’ That strikes
(132) me, because all I am saying is that, fundamentally, that is what I
am in the process of doing! “On the other hand, we would like again
to ask you something if it’s not too daring: Do you think you could
send us as a souvenir one o f your lovely bow ties? We would really
like that. Thanking you in advance, we say farewell, Mr Lacan, and
please receive our most respectful h o m a g e I am not going to leave
that lying around because .. .they are not really up to date. They do not
know that I have been wearing a polo neck for some time!

「在我们参加考试时,那是相同有用途。我们很有理由拥有哲学的学位。但是,要通过这些筛选是越来越复杂。我们认为我们最后使用诡计,并且让老师们惊奇,而不是持续陈腔滥调的务实辞说的风格。」然后,他们补充说:「请不要误解,朝这个方向,你能够跟我们指出某些小谜团吗?」那让我感到印象深刻。因为我正在言说的一切,基本上,那是我正处于做的过程!「在另一方面,我们想要再次要求你某件东西,假如这不太冒昧的话:你认为你能够送给我们一个纪念品,你的可爱的胡蝶领结?我们确实喜欢它。预先感谢你,我们说再见。拉康先生,请你接受我们的敬意。」我将不要让那个领结到处流通,它们确实没有消息灵通。他们并不知道,我一直是穿着长领羊毛衫。

For me, that gives an echo, confirmation, a resonance to something that
moves me when I hear right minded people going on, like that, since
the month of May: ‘Things are no long the way they were”. I think
that where we are at, it is more than ever like it was before. And after
all, I am very far of course from limiting the phenomenon to this little
report that this letter gives of what is a comer of the affair. Obviously
there are many other things at stake.

对于我,那给予一个回响,肯定,对于感动我的某件事情的回响。当我听见心灵正直的人们正在进行的事情,像那样。自从五月份以来“事情不再是以前的样子、、、“我认为,我们正处于的地方,不再像是以前的样子。毕竟,我当然是根本没有将这个现象,限制与这个小小的报导,这封信给予的报导,关于事情的某个角落的东西。显而易见地,还有许多其他的事情岌岌可危。

Only what is striking, is that from a certain point of view, this letter in
my eyes may very well sum up the way people have listened to me, but
in a zone that is not at all as distant from me as this town which is all
the same a good distance away. As you see, they are not very up to
date! But in any case, it is an aspect of the way that teaching is
received.

只是,耐人寻味的事情是,从某个观点而言,这封信在我的眼里很有理由总结人们曾经倾听我的情况。但是这个领域距离我丝毫并不遥远,比起这个有一段距离的这个小镇。如同你们看见,他们消息并不灵通!但是,无论如何,这是教学被接纳的方式的层面。

And then I do not see why one would blame them for the
bow tie. Because there is someone who played a pivotal role in a
certain examining board, like that, that a certain British Society sent us
a long time ago, who put that down as a point that was quite worthy of
putting in the scales with the rest of my teaching. I mean that that was
how it was, this was on one pan and on the other, my bow tie.

因此,我并不明白为什么我们要责怪他们因为这个胡蝶领结。因为有某个人扮演关键的角色,在某个考试委员会,像那样,某个英国社团很久以前送给我们,他将那个考试委员会归属于某个时刻,相当值得用我的教学平衡的时刻。我指的是,那就是它的当时的情况。这就是某个双关语,我的胡蝶领结。

Namely,
with the help of this accessory the identification of those who
presented themselves at that time as my pupils was supposed to be
possible. So then you see that this is not limited to the level of these
little dears, nice naive people. They are perhaps not so naive as that
because, as they told you, you have to be a little tricky. We will come
back to it.
/
换句话说,凭借当时出现的那些人们的认同的这个附属品,我们的学生当时被认为可能认同的附属品。所以,你们看见,这并不是限制与这些小小的亲爱的,天真可爱的人们。他们或许并没有像那样天真,因为如同他们告诉你们,你们必须稍微具有诡计。我们将回头谈论它。

So then we will take things up where we had dismantled them a little,
namely, in the table of the wager. On the left – the blue lines are made
to show where the limits of each one of these schemas stop, so that,
they do not overlap one another, either really or in your minds – so.
then the one on the left is the one with which I believed I should
complete the matrix in which, in imitation of what is practised in
games theory, one could schematise what was effectively discussed
throughout the whole of the nineteenth and even during a good part of
the beginning of our century around Pascal’s wager. Namely, the way
of demonstrating how, in a way, Pascal was trying to swindle us.

所以,我们将探讨事情,在我们曾经稍微拆解它们的地方。换句话说,在赌注的这个表格。在左边—蓝色线条被用来显示,这些基模的每一个的限制在哪里停止。这样,它们才不会互相重叠,不论是实际上,或是在你们的心理互相重叠。因此,左边的这个表格,就是我相信我应该完成的基模。在那里,当我们模仿游戏理论被实践的东西,我们能够建立基模,将实际上被讨论的东西,在整个的十九世纪,与我们这个世纪的开始的一大部分,环绕巴斯卡的赌注。换句话说,这个方式证明,巴斯卡如何尝试欺骗我们。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

从他者到大他者 70

October 20, 2015

From the other to the Other 70
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

http://www.lacaninireland.com
5.2.69 X 11

You make a list of fifteen quotations. And I must say that here I am being humorous. But he is reaching out to help me. Because of course Bergler has read Freud, anyway I
like to imagine it! But all the same he admits that in order to write this chapter, he
wrote to H H Heart to give him quotations about the superego. The result is that he
can obviously clearly mark, exactly at the same level that all the existing
psychoanalytic reviews are at, except mine, of course, the degree to which it is
incoherent. It begins with the censor at the level of dreams; people believe that the
censor is an innocent, as if it were nothing precisely to have the pair of scissors with
which one subsequently constructs the theory.

你们列举十五个引文的名单。我必须说,在此我正在表现幽默。因为他正伸手出来帮忙我。因为当然,博格勒曾经阅读弗洛伊德。无论如何,我喜欢这样想像!但是他仍然承认,为了书写这个章节,他写信给哈特,为了给予他这些关于超我的引文。结果是,他能够显而易见地标记,在确实相同的层面。所有的现存的精神分析的评论,除了我的评论之外,当然甚至会呈现不一贯。它先以梦的层次的审查者开始。那些人们相信:审查者是一位无辜者,好像拥有一把剪刀,我们随后可以用来建构理论,确实没有什么了不起。

And after all, this becomes something
that titillates you. And then afterwards it becomes a big bad wolf. And then after
that, there is nothing more. And after that, Eros is evoked, Thanatos and the whole
caboodle! Thanatos is going to have to find its place there. And then, I make
arrangements with this superego; I bow and scrape to it.

毕竟,所有这些都变成是挑逗你的东西。后来,它变成一只大野狼。然后,再没有别的东西。之后,性欲被召唤出来。死亡冲动与一整套东西!死亡冲动将必须在那里找到位置。然后,为安排这个超我!我对著超我躬身,装模作样。

Ah! Dear little superego!
Good. Thanks to this presentation, of course, you get something it must be said that is
rather laughable. You really have to be in our epoch for no one to laugh. No one
laughs. Even a professor of philosophy. It must be said that they have got to a point,
(128) in our generation! Even a professor of philosophy can read this stuff without
laughing.

啊!亲爱的小超我!
不错。当然由于这个呈现,你们获得某件东西。我们必须说,这个东西是相当可笑的。你们确实必须在外面的时代,才有人忍住不笑。没有笑。即使是哲学教授。我们必须说,他们已经到达某个点,在我们的世代! 甚至连哲学教授阅读这个材料,也没有笑!

They have been checkmated! There was all the same a time when there
were people who were not especially intelligent, a chap called Charles Blondel, who
shouted and roared about Freud. At least it was something. Nowadays even the
people least in a position to imagine what is involved in a psychoanalysis read these
absolutely astounding things without complaint. No. Everything is possible |
everything is accepted. We are — moreover things are showing their lineaments
elsewhere than in the real before descending into it — really in a regime of intellectual segregation.

他们都遭受围攻!仍然有一段时间,当有些人们并没有特别聪明,有一位名叫布兰德尔,他大力抨击与咆哮弗洛伊德。至少当时是个事件。现在,即使是那些根本就没有资格想像精神分析牵涉什么的人们,当他们阅读这些令人惊奇的事情,他们也没有抱怨。没有。每样事情都是可能的!每样事情都被接受。我们确实处于知识隔离的体制—而且,事情正在显示它们的发展,在别的地方,而不是在实在界, 在他们前来探讨它之前。

Well then, this chap has noticed a whole lot of things. When something is there,
under his nose, he understands it. And I would say that this is what is sad because he
understands it at the level of his nose, which cannot of course be absolutely like that;
it is necessarily pointy. But he sees a tiny little thing. He notices that what is
explained to him, like that, in the quotations from Freud, as being the superego, he
notices, that this ought to have a relationship with what he sees all the time. So then
he begins by noticing, but like that in an intuitive way, at the level of sensation, that
what is called Durcharbeitung, I ‘elaboration as it is translated in French – people
spend their time noticing that it is untranslatable. Durcharbeitung, is not elaboration,
we can do nothing about it; since there is not in French a word to say “work through”,
drilling, it is translated as elaboration; everyone knows that in France, people
elaborate; it is something like smoke.

呵呵,这个人已经注意到整堆事情。当某件东西在那里,在他面前,他理解它。我不妨说,这是悲哀的事情,因为他理解它,在他的面前的层次。当然,事情根本就不是那个样子。事情必然是很锐利的。但是他看见一件小小的事情。他注意到,,对他被解释的东西。像那样,从弗洛伊德的引文,作为是超我。他注意到,这应该拥有一个关系,跟他始终看见的东西。所以,他开始注意到,但是像那样,用直觉的方式,在感官的层次。所谓的Durcharbeitung, ,如同法文的翻译I ‘elaboration。人们花费时间注意到,Durcharbeitung 并不是I ‘elaboration。 我们无法翻译它,因为在法文,没有一个字词说“工作彻底”的錾孔。它被翻译成为elaboration;(建构)。众所周知,在法国,人们建构,那是某件像是抽烟的东西。

Analytic elaboration is not at all like that. People on the couch see that it consists in
coming back the whole time to the same thing. At every turn one is brought back to
the same thing. And it is necessary for that to last in order to get precisely to what I
have explained to you, to the limit, to the end, naturally when one is going in the right
direction, when one encounters a limit. He says ‘That’s an effect of the superego”.

精神分析的建构根本就不是那样。躺在躺椅上的人们看见,它从头到尾都必须回到相同的事情。有时,我们被带回到相同的事情。让那件事情持续下去是必要的,为了要确实到达我已经跟你们解释的东西,到达极限,到达结束。当然,我们将会朝右边的方向前进。当我们遭遇限制。他说:「那就是超我的影响。」

Namely, he notices that this kind of big wicked thing that nevertheless is supposedly
extracted from the Oedipus complex, or again from the devouring mother, or from
anyone of these see-saws. He notices that this has a relationship with this exhausting,
boring, necessary, especially repeated aspect by which one arrives at something that,
in effect, sometimes, has an end. How does he not see that this has nothing in
common with this kind of picture of a scenario where the superego is, as people say,
an agency, which would be nothing, but where people make it live like a person.
Because, people have not well understood what an agency is, we attach the idea to the
superego.

换句话说,他注意到,这种的大的邪恶的事情。这个事情仍然被认为从伊狄浦斯情结抽离出来。或者,从吞噬的母亲,或许从这些摇摆的人们,抽离出来。他注意到,这具有一层关系,跟这个令人疲倦,沉闷,必然,而且特别重复的层面。我们获得某件事情,实际上,这件事情有时具有目的。他如何会没有看见,这根本就没有关系,跟超我作为代理者的戏码的这种画面。这种代理根本不算什么,但是人们让超我生活像个人。因为人们并没有清楚理解代理是什么,我们将这个观念跟超我联接一块。

All of this must happen not on the other stage, the one that Freud spoke about, the one
that functions in dreams, but in a kind of little play, where what is called analytic
(129) teaching makes you play with puppets. The superego is the police
superintendent and he hits the Guignol, which is the ego, on the head. Why, by
simply seeing this rapprochement that he senses so well from the clinical point of
view, with elaboration, Durcharbeitung, does this not suggest to him that the
superego may well be found in something that would not require, like that, the
multiplication of agencies in the personality. And then at every instant he lets it slip,
he admits it, namely, that people have clearly mapped out, he says, that this has a
relation with the ego ideal. But it must be admitted that absolutely nothing is known
about it; no one has yet put things together.

所有这一切都一定发生在另外一个阶段。弗洛伊德谈论到的这个阶段,在梦里发挥功能的这个阶段。但是用一种小游戏。在游戏里,所谓的精神分析的教学让你跟木偶游戏。超我就是警察的督察,他打击“自我”的头。凭借仅是看出这个关系,他如此清楚地从临床的观点理解的关系,用elaboration(建构),这难道不是对他暗示着:超我很有理由被找到,在某件东西?像那样,这个东西并不要求在人格身上各种代理者的多重性。因此在每个时刻,他让它滑溜走。他承认它,换句话说,人们清楚地描绘出,这跟自我理想有关系。但是,我们必须承认,关于自我理想,我们根本什么都不知的。还没有人将事情完全聚拢一块。

All the same, in order that these discourses should be something other than memoirs
of the psychoanalyst, namely, evoking the case of a young woman who, in this
connection, one sees clearly that it was a guilt feeling that made her come into
psychoanalysis. Let us hope that it was the same thing that made her get out of it!
You can perhaps all the same note that, for example, this kind of little manoeuvre of a
measure that is precisely the measure of what cannot be measured because it is the
starting bet.

同时,为了这些辞说应该是某件东西,除了精神分析的记忆。换句话说,引用年轻女人的个案。关于这一点,我们清楚看见,那是罪恶感的感觉,让他进入精神分析。让我们希望,这是相同的事情让他逃避它。你们或许仍然注意到,譬如,这种的策略,所无法被测量的东西的测量的策略,因为那是开始的赌注。

This can in effect in some cases be represented with the greatest
precision and be written on the board. It is in the manner of a certain way of regularly
balancing that one manages to fill up this something that can in certain cases be
represented as the One. You can all the same see that there is some interest in
articulating in a way that is really precise something that allows it to be conceived that
it is not at all in effect an abuse of terms to bring together, even in the name of a
minimal intuition like that, the elaboration, the Durcharbeitung in the treatment, with
the superego.

实际上,在某些的个案,这能够被代表,非常准确地,并且能够被书写在黑板上。用某种的规律地平衡的方式,我们能够成功地填补这个某件东西。在某些的情况,这个东西能够被代表作为这个“一”。你们仍然看出,有某些的興趣要来确地表达某件东西。这个东西让它能够被构想。实际上,这并非是术语的滥用,将治疗中的这个建构跟超我聚集一块,以最小量的直觉的名义。

So then you have to choose. You cannot tell us that the superego is the big bad wolf
and rack your brain to see whether it is not in the identification that I have with some
person that this severe superego is bom. That is not how questions should be put. It
is like the people who tell you that if so-and-so is religious, it is because his
grandfather was. That is not enough for me, because even if you had a religious
grandfather you may also perhaps see that it is stupidity, is that not so?

所以,你们必须选择。你们无法告诉我们,这个超我就是这只大坏野狼。然后你们绞尽脑筋要看出,我是否认同这个严厉超我从他诞生的某个人。那并不是问题应该被提出的方式。就像是有些人们告诉你们,假如某某人是信仰宗教,那是因为他的祖父信仰宗教。对我而言,那是不足够的。因为即使你有一位信仰宗教的祖父,你可能也看出,那是愚蠢的。那难道不是这样吗?

It is necessary all the same to distinguish the direction of identification as compared to
other things It is necessary to know whether identification in analysis is the goal or is
the obstacle. But this might well perhaps be the means by which one engages people
precisely no doubt to do it, but by the same fact, it is abolished. And it is in the fact
that it is abolished precisely because one has done it that they can appear something
else that we can call the hole on this occasion.

这仍然是必要的,要区别认同的方向,跟其他事情比较起来。这是必要的,我们要知道,精神分析里的认同是否就是目标,或是阻碍。但是这很有理由,就是这些工具,我们凭借来让人们无可置疑地参与它。但是根据同样的事实,它被废除掉。就在它被废除掉的这个事实里,确实是因为我们已经做它,它们才能够出现,这是我们在这个场合所谓的空洞的某件其他东西。

I am going to leave you there today. I tried at the end of this discourse, to show you
that it is a discourse that is of direct importance to bring some fresh air into our
(130) practice. By that I mean that by using what were certainly not experiments in
smell, it was not by following his nose that Freud advanced, one can in effect see in it,
in the development of a function through his thinking, the framework that allows its
consistency to be given. But it is indispensable if one wants to advance with
something other than little stories, to assemble this coherence and to give it
consistency and solidity. This would perhaps allow there to be seen quite different
facts than simply analogical facts.

今天,我将要跟你告一段落。我尝试在这篇辞说结束时,跟你们显示:这是一个非常重要的辞说,替我们的精神分析实践,带进某些新鲜的空气。我指的是,凭借使用性质上并非是嗅觉试验的东西。弗洛伊德的前进,并非是遵循他的鼻子的嗅觉。实际上,我们能够在它里面看见这个架构,经由他的思想,一个功能的发展。这个架构让他的辞说产生一贯性。但是,这是不可免除的,假如我们想要前进,带着某件并非是小故事的东西。要将这个一贯性装配起来,并且给予它一贯性与正确性。这或许让完全不同的事实能够被看见,跟仅是类推的事实完全不同。

What I am saying does not take anything away from the importance of detail,
precisely as Bergler insists. But read this chapter to see that even something that is
relevant, well oriented, but oriented like particles of iron filings when you tap into a
field already magnetised, contains no kind of true motivation for the power and the
importance of detail. And why in effect it is only the details, it is quite true, that
interest us. Again it is necessary to see in every case what is interesting. Because if
one does not know it, one brings together disparate details in the name of pure and
simple resemblance, while this is not what is important. We will take it up the next
time at the level of the third figure.

我正在说的东西,并没有将任何东西脱离细节的重要性,确实是依照博格勒所坚持的。但是请你们阅的这个章节,你们就会看出,即使是某件相关的东西,清楚定向的东西,但是像铁条的分子那样的定向,当你将它钉入已经是磁场的领域。它并没有包含任何种类想获取权力的动机。的确,这些细节让我们感到興趣。而且,这是必要的,在每个情况里看见,令人感到興趣的东西。因为假如我们并不知道它,我们将各式各样的细节聚拢一块,以纯粹而单纯是类似的名义。这并非是重要的事情。下一次,我们将要从事探讨,从这第三个人物的层次。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

从他者到大他者 69

October 16, 2015

From an other to the Other 69
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

But he did not need to think to be fixed as o. It is already done, contrary to what can
be imagine^ precisely because of the lamentable shirking, of the more and more
striking futility of all philosophy, namely, that you can upset the gaming table. I can
upset this one, of course, and blow up the tables at Vincennes and elsewhere, but that
does not prevent the read table, the gaming table from being still there. It is not the
university table that is at stake! The table around which the boss is reunited, whether
with the pupils in a pretty little interior, when this interior is his own, nice and warm
and grandfatherly, or the one in which it is framed in model nurseries!

但是他并不需要认为被固定为0。这个0已经被形成,跟我们能够想像的内容恰恰相反。确实是因为令人哀悼的绕过,因为一切哲学的越来越明显的徒劳。换句话说,你们能够扰乱在个赌盘桌。我当然能够扰乱这个赌盘桌,并且在敏西尼与别的地方,弄翻这些赌盘桌。但是那并没有阻止这个看盘的桌子,这个赌盘桌,没有依旧存在那里。岌岌可危的,并不是大学的桌子!老板被重新结合,环绕这个桌子,无论是跟学生重新结合,在非常小的内圈,当这个内圈是他自己的内圈,美好,温暖,而且慈祥。在这个内圈里,它被框架于模范护理。

This precisely is where the question is. That is why I allowed myself, in a scribbling
that I do not know whether you will see appearing or not – it is not at all a scribbling,
I spent a lot of time on it the day before yesterday — anyway I do not know whether
you will see it appearing, because it will appear in only one place or it will not appear
at all, and I am interested in whether it will appear or not appear! In short I went as
far as this delusional exorbitance — because for some time I have been deluding in my
own heart, these things always come out one day, in one form or another — I would
like it to be noticed, this is my delusion or not, that it is no longer possible to play the
role that is necessary for the transmission of knowledge if it does not involve the
transmission of value, even though now this is inscribed in the registers of credits
(unite de valeur), but to grasp what can be called a formation effect.

这确实是问题所在的地方。那是为什么我容许我自己,用潦草书写,我并不知的,你们将会看见它出现与否。那根本就不是潦草书写,前一天,我花费许的时间在书写—无论如何,我并不知的你们是否会看见它出现。因为它将仅是出现在一个地方,或它将根本就不会出现。我感到興趣的是,它是否将会出现,或不会出现!总之,我过分到享受这个幻觉的奢华。因为有段时间,我一直在我的心里产生幻觉。这些东西总是在某一天出来,用某种的形式。我想要它被人注意。这就是我的幻觉与否。这不再是可能的,扮演这个角色,对于知识的传递必要的角色。假如它没有牵涉到价值的传递。即使现在,这被铭记在学分的铭记里,但是要理解所谓的形成的影响。

This is why, in
any case, whoever in the future, precisely because something has happened to this
value o f knowledge., wants to occupy a place that contributes in any way to this place
of formation, even if it is mathematics, biochemistry or anything else whatsoever,
would do well to be a psychoanalyst, if this is how there must be defined someone for
whom there exists this question of the dependence of the subject with respect to the
discourse that holds him, and not that he holds.

这就是为什么,无论如何,在未来,无论是谁想要占有一个位置,对于形成的这个位置有所贡献,因为有某件东西曾经发生到知识的价值。即使那个知识是数学,生物-化学,或任何其他东西。他最好成为一位精神分析家。假如这是某个人必须被定义的方式。对于这个人,主体的依靠的问题存在着,关于维持他的这个辞说,而是他维持这个辞说。

5.2.69
So then it is worth saying, since you see that I have just avoided something because of
the fact that you are all products of the school, namely, of philosophical teaching. I
know that I cannot tackle in too abrupt a fashion what is involved in terms of the
change that is written in the second matrix, namely, pose the question of what is
meant by the fact that here it is not o or zero because it has never been o or zero as I
have just indicated it to you and as Pascal says. But since it is only ever philosophers
that have read him, everyone has remained deaf. He said o is zero, which means that
(126) o is the bet. It was nevertheless clearly specified in games’ theory. No, that
changed nothing, they remained deaf!

所以,这是值得一说的。因为你们看见,我刚刚避免某件东西,因为这个事实:你们都是这个学派的产物。换句话说,这个哲学教学的产物。我知的,我无法用太过于倉促的方式来克服所被牵涉的东西,用在第二个基座所被书写的改变。换句话说,我提出这个问题:在此,这并不是0或零的这个事实,意味着什么。因为它从来就不是0或零,如同我刚刚跟你们指示它,并且依照巴斯卡所说。但是,因为仅是哲学家在阅读巴斯卡,每个人始终充耳不闻。他说0就是零。这意味着,0就是这个赌注。在游戏理论,它仍然清楚地被指明。不,那并没有改变任何东西。人们始终充耳不闻!

And zero is zero with respect to infinity.
Rubbish! What is changed by the fact that there is now not, as has been vainly said,
in an imaginary fashion o or zero, but o or -o. And if-o effectively means what it
seems to say, namely, that it is inverted, what can this thing be? And then also that in
one case, whatever happens, even if it is at the cost of something that to be inscribed,
appears to need to be costly, what again is this correlation, this equivalence that
perhaps allows us to put elsewhere, to perceive that our connecting signs are upset. In
any case here are two links that appear to me to be worth questioning. You see that
they are not classified quite like the earlier ones.

零就是关于无限的零。废话!所被改变的东西,凭借这个事实:现在并没有0或零,而是0或-0,如同曾经徒劳地说过,用想像的方式。假如-0有效地意味着它似乎要说的东西。换句话说,它被倒转,那这个这个被倒转的东西是什么?在某个情况,无论发生什么事,即使是耗费某件东西。这个东西似乎是需要代价昂贵,为了被铭记。这个相关是什么,或许让我们在别的地方能够表达的平衡是什么,让我们能够感知,我们的联接的讯息被扰乱。无论如何,在此是两个联接,我觉得是值得询问的。你们看见,它们并没有完全像早先的那些联接被分类。

Here, I regret not being further on than what I already, but too quickly, articulated in
the last minutes of the last time. Namely, that I recalled that to start from the figure
that is indicated here in Pascal’s scribbling, the first link, this horizontal line from
small o to -oo, we say, is hell. I shouted it out to people who were already making
for the exit. But, on the whole, I pointed out to you that hell is something we know.
It is everyday life. A curious thing, people know it, people say it, people say nothing
but that But it is limited to discourse and to some symptoms of course. Thank God,
if there were no symptoms, it would not be noticed! If neurotic symptoms did not
exist, there would not have been Freud! If the hysterics had not already opened up the
question, there is no chance that even the truth would have show the tip of its ear!

在此,我遗憾我没有更加深入探讨,超过为已经太快地表达的东西,在上次的最后几分钟。换句话说,我提醒,为了从这个数字开始,在巴斯卡的潦草书写里被铭记的东西。这第一个联接,这个水平的线,从小小的0,到-00,我们说,那是地狱。我对人们大声喊出,对于那些已经朝向出口的人们大声喊出。但是,大体上,我跟你们指出,地狱就是某件我们知道的东西。地狱就是日常生活。耐人寻味的事情是,人们知道地狱,人们说出地狱,人们说的仅是地狱。但是,地狱被限制于辞说,当然,地狱被限制于某些的症状。感谢上帝!假如没有症状,地狱将不会被注意到!假如癔症者当时没有展开这个问题,这个真理甚至没有机会出现在它的耳朵的尖端!
5.2.69 X 10

So then here, we must make a short halt. Someone that I thank – because you should
always thank people through whom presents arrive – reminded me for external
reasons about the existence of the chapter of Bergler called “The underestimated
superego”, it is in the famous Basic neurosis that explains everything. You are not
going to tell me that I explain everything. I explain nothing, precisely. This is even
what interests you! I try at different levels, not simply here, to ensure that there are
(127) psychoanalysts who are not imbeciles.

所以,在此,我们必须短暂地停顿一下。我感谢某个人-因为你们应该总是感谢人们,礼物是经由这些人们呈现。这个人提醒我,因为外在的理由,关于被称为“被低估的超我”的博格勒的章节的存在。在这个著名的“基本”里,神经者解释一切。你们将不要告诉我,我解释一切。我什么都没有解释,确实地。这甚至是你们感到興趣的东西!我在不同的层面尝试,不仅是在这里,为了确认:并不是所有精神分析家都是白痴!

My operation is an advertising
operation, not to draw people into the hole of a school, but to try to give the
equivalent of what psychoanalysts ought to have to people who have no means of
getting it. It is a despairing enterprise. But experience proved that the other also, that
of teaching it to psychoanalysts themselves, seems destined to fail, as I already wrote.
Imbeciles, I mean as subjects, because as regards getting on in their practice, they are
pretty smart! And it is precisely a consequence of what I am in the process of stating
here. It is in conformity with the theory.

我的运作是广告的运作,并不是要将人们吸引到学派的空洞里,而是要尝试给予这个相等物,精神分析应该要拥有的东西,对于没有获得它的工具的人们。这是一个令人绝望的企业。但是精神分析经验证明,另外一个企业似乎注定失败。教导精神分析的企业,对精神分析家自己。如同我已经书写过。白痴,我指的是主体。因为关于在他们的实践里获得成功,他们卖弄聪明!这确实是我的生命的本质的结果,当我在此处于陈述的过程。这个结果是跟理论保持一致。

This is what proves not alone that there is
no need to be a philosopher but that it is much better not to be one. Only that has a
consequence, which is that one understands nothing. Hence what I also spend my
time stating, that it is much better not to understand. Only the problem is that they
understand all kinds of little things, so it is swarming.

这就是所证明的东西,不单是,没有需要成为哲学家,而且,最好是不要成为哲学家。只是,那会有一个结果。那就是,我们什么都没有理解。因此,我也花费我的时间在陈述的东西,最好不要去理解。只是这个难题是,他们理解各式各样的琐碎的事物,所以蜂拥一团。

For example ‘The
underestimated superego” is a brilliant chapter, first of all because it collects together
all the ways in which the superego has been articulated in Freud. Since he is not a
philosopher, he absolutely does not see that they all hang together. Moreover he is
charming, and he admits it. That is what is good about psychoanalysts, they admit
everything! He admits that he has written to a gentleman, it is in a note, Mr H H
Heart, who was making extracts from Freud. So then he wrote to him: “Send me
some quotations about the superego”. After all that can be done; it is moreover also in
conformity with the theory; you can take things like that, with a pair of scissors, if
writing is so important, everywhere there is superego, snip, snip, you cut it out!

譬如,“这个被低估的超我”是一篇优秀的章节。首先,因为它将所有的方式收集一块。在弗洛伊德那里,超我曾经被表达过的方式。因为他并非是一位哲学家,他绝对没有看错,这些方式都垂挂一块。而且,他很迷人,他承认这一点。那就是关于精神分析家美好的东西。他们承认一切!他承认,他曾经写信给一位绅士,那是以纸条的方式。霍特先生从弗洛伊德那里抽取出来。所以,当时他写信给他:「请你寄给我关于超我的引述段落」。毕竟,那件事情能够被做到。而且,也与理论保持一致。你们能够像那样看待事情,用一把剪刀。假如书写时如此重要,每个地方,都有超我,咔嚓,咔嚓,你们将超我剪开

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

http://www.lacaninireland.com
5.2.69 X 11

拉康与弗洛伊德的精神分析实践2

October 9, 2015

Jacques Lacan and the Freudian Practice of
Psychoanalysis

雅克 拉康与弗洛伊德的精神分析实践
Dany Nobus
丹尼 诺布斯

Chapter 1
Diagnosis via speech and
Transference
第一章
经由言说与移情的诊断

DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA
诊断的标准
So how does the analyst actually arrive at a diagnosis? In ‘On Beginning
the Treatment’, Freud was not very forthcoming about how to distinguish
practically neurosis from psychosis, yet he did warn his readers about
the deceitfulness of the clinical picture:

所以,精神分析家实际上获得诊断没有?在“论治疗的开始”,弗洛伊德并没有直接提出如何实践时区别神经症与精神病。可是,他确实警告他的读者,关于这个临床画面的欺骗性。

Often enough, when one sees a neurosis with hysterical or
obsessional symptoms, which is not excessively marked and has
not been in existence for long—just the type of case, that is, that
one would regard as suitable for treatment—one has to reckon with
the possibility that it may be a preliminary stage of what is known
as dementia praecox (‘schizophrenia’, in Bleuler’s terminology;
‘paraphrenia’, as I have proposed to call it), and that sooner or
later it will show a well-marked picture of that affection.

经常地,当我们看见一位神经诊者具有癔症或妄想症的症状时,这并不是过分明显,并且并没有长久存在。它仅是这种个案,换句话说,我们将会认为这位神经症是适合于治疗。我们必须考虑这个可能性:这可能是一个初期的阶段,对于众所周知的“精神病”(精神分裂症schizophrenia,用布鲁尔的术语,paraphrenia,依照我对它的建议称呼)。迟早,它将会显示一个属于那种情感的明显的画面。

(Freud 1913c:124)
8 Jacques Lacan and the Freudian practice of psychoanalysis
Freud contended that ostensibly neurotic symptoms (such as elusive
bodily pains and compulsive behaviours) should not be taken as
unambiguous signs of an underlying neurotic illness, however
conspicuous they may be.

弗洛伊德主张,夸张的神经症的症状(譬如,难以捉摸的身体的疼痛与强迫性的行为),应该被视为是并不模糊的迹象,属于潜在的神经症疾病,无论它们可能很明显。

A psychosis can hide under the mask of a
neurosis, and the analyst should not be misled by the colours of the clinical
guise.2 To many of his contemporaries, Freud’s admonition must have
seemed odd, used as they were in privileging strict relationships between
certain symptoms and certain disorders. Yet it may also surprise those
contemporary clinicians who still believe that hallucinations are sufficient
for diagnosing psychosis or that persistent offending is pathognomonic
for psychopathy.

精神病有时隐藏在神经症的面具之下。精神分析家不应该被临床时的伪装模样所误导。对于许多他的当代的人们,弗洛伊德的警告当时一定显得奇怪。虽然它们被用来让某些的症状与某些的疾病之间的严谨的关系具有特权。可是,那些当代的临床医生可能也会大吃一惊,因为他们依旧相信,光凭幻觉就足够诊断精神病,或是他们相信,持续的冒犯是属于精神病的特殊病症。

None the less, Freud’s first, negative diagnostic rule
read that one should not take symptoms at face value. Mental organization
had to be dislodged from observable phenomena, and analysts were urged
to suspend their judgement and to look for more reliable criteria.
Defining such criteria proved more onerous than exposing the
misleading ones though.

现在仍然是如此,弗洛伊德的最初,负面的诊断的规则写著:我们不应该将症状就表面看待。精神病的组织必须跟可被观察到现象驱离开来。精神分析家被建议要悬置他们的判断,并且寻找更多可靠的标准。定义这些标准证明更加的繁重,比起揭露那些误导的标准。

Freud was adamant that the psychoanalytic
process is unpredictable and that the analyst’s initial diagnosis can always
be disproved by the vicissitudes of the treatment, in which case analysts
should be willing to change their minds about the patient’s psychic
economy. Paradoxically, the most correct analytic diagnosis would be
that which the analyst is able to formulate at the end of the treatment,
which is unfortunately a point of no return. The whole diagnostic
enterprise reminded Freud (1933a[1932]:155) of the medieval ordeal by
water, albeit with the analyst rather than the patient in the position of the
victim.

弗洛伊德坚决主张,精神分析的过程是无法被预测的,精神分析家的最初的诊断有时能够被反驳,由于治疗的起伏。在治疗的情况,精神分析家应该愿意改变他们的心意,关于病人的心灵的活动。悖论地,即使是最正确的精神分析的诊断都将会是精神分析家能够说明的东西,在治疗的结束时。很不幸地,那是没有回转的时刻。整个的诊断的企业让弗洛伊德想起中世纪的用水的磨难,虽然处于受害者的立场的是精神分析家,而非病人。

Despite these problems, and despite his advocacy of a ‘dynamic
diagnosis’, Freud did suggest at least two positive diagnostic criteria.
The first criterion can be inferred from his alternative tabulation of
neuroses and psychoses as transference neuroses and narcissistic neuroses
respectively. On the one hand, Freud classified anxiety hysteria (phobia),
conversion hysteria and obsessional neurosis as transference neuroses,
because the emotional tie connecting the patient to the analyst acquires
in these cases an ‘extraordinary, and for the treatment, positively central,
importance’ (Freud 1916–17a[1915–17]:445).

尽管这些难题,尽管弗洛伊德主张“动态的诊断“,他确实建议至少要有两个正面的诊断的标准。第一个标准能够被推论,根据神经症者与精神病者的替换的表格,分别作为移情的神经症与自恋的神经症。在一方面,弗洛伊德将焦虑的癔症(恐惧症),转化的癔症与妄想的神经症,分类为移情的神经症。因为情感的关系,连系病人跟分析家,在这些个案里,获得”特殊的重要性,对于治疗而言,是非常核心的重要性“。

On the other hand, patients
suffering from a narcissistic neurosis—dementia praecox, paranoia or
melancholia—‘have no capacity for transference or only insufficient
residues of it’ (ibid.: 447). When faced with the task of distinguishing
between neurosis and psychosis, the analyst should thus investigate
whether the patient is capable of developing and maintaining an emotional
tie, the absence of such an ability indicating psychosis and giving the
analyst enough reason to rule out psychoanalytic treatment.

另一方面,遭受自恋的神经症痛苦的病人—精神分裂症,妄想症或忧郁症—他们“并没有移情的能力,或仅是移情的不充足的残渣“。当他们面对区别的工作,区别神经症与精神病,精神分析家因此应该研究病人是否能够发展或维持情感的关联。缺乏这样的能力指示精神病,并且给予精神分析足够理由来排除精神分析的治疗。

Here Freud
exchanged the objective diagnosis based on ‘symptoms interpreted as
signs’ for an intersubjective diagnosis, resting on the evaluation of a
relationship.

在此,弗洛伊德将客观的诊断,以被解释为迹象的症状作为基础的客体的诊断,交换为互为主观性的诊断。这个诊断依靠关系的评估。

However, transference was not the only and perhaps not even the most
significant criterion Freud employed to discriminate between neurosis
and psychosis. In his metapsychological paper ‘The Unconscious’
(1915e), he opposed schizophrenia to hysteria and obsessional neurosis
on no other grounds than the patient’s speech. According to Freud, a
schizophrenic patient’s speech bears witness to a remarkable
meticulousness, with expressions often displaying a degree of artificiality,
sentences becoming disorganized and words getting strangely mixed up
with the body.

可是,移情并不是唯一,或许甚至并不是最重要的标准,弗洛伊德使用来区别神经症与精神病。在他的后设心理学的论文,“无意识”,他将精神分裂症跟癔症与妄想症相提并论,根据的理由仅是病人的言词。依照弗洛伊德,精神分裂的病人的言词见证到明显的讲究细节,表达经常展示矫揉造作的程度,句子变得散乱,文词跟身体奇怪地混合一块。

Schizophrenic patients appear to be using ‘condensed
speech’, because whole series of thoughts find an outlet in single words,
which consequently acquire massive meaning and become linked to a
bodily organ or process.3 Freud attributed these extraordinary
schizophrenic speech characteristics to the prevalence of wordconnections
over thing-connections in psychosis. In psychotic patients,
the relationship between what Freud called ‘word-presentations’
(Wortvorstellungen) and ‘thing-presentations’ (Sachvorstellungen) has
been severed, resulting in a closed circuit of symptomatic wordconnections.
Patients are no longer concerned about the actual ‘things’
that words represent in a particular language; they merely relate to their
verbal content.4

精神分裂症的病人似乎使用“浓缩的言词”,因为思想的整个的意义就在这些字词里找到发泄。这些字词结果获得重大的意义,并且跟身体的器官或过程连接一块。弗洛伊德将这些特殊的精神分析的言词特征,归属于精神病的字词连接压倒过事物的连接。在精神病的病人,这个关系已经比分割,弗洛伊德所谓的“字词-表象”与“物表象”之间的关系。结果形成症状的字词的一个封闭的迴圈。病人不再关心现实的事物,那是字词用特殊的语言所代表。它们仅是跟它们的文词内容有关系。

A clear illustration of this radical inertia of thing-presentations in
psychosis is offered by a girl who complains that her eyes have been
twisted—an example Freud borrowed from Victor Tausk (1919) —
because her lover is a genuine eye-twister (Augenverdreher). In German,
an Augenverdreher is an arrant deceiver, and although the woman is aware
of this meaning (the thing-presentation), she is unable to assimilate it.
She can only relate to the literal meaning (the word-presentation) of
Augenverdreher, through which she is forced to conclude that her lover
has twisted her eyes physically.5 The woman’s conviction that she is
suffering from twisted eyes (her symptom) is determined by the broken
connection between the word-presentation and the thing-presentation.
Although she knows the thing-presentation, it is impossible for her to
use this meaning in order to relativize the literal one.

在精神病,物表象的这个强烈的贯性,有一个清楚的例子,由一位女孩提供。她抱怨她的眼睛已经被障眼—弗洛伊德从维克多 陶斯特借用的一个例子—因为她的爱人是一位真诚的障眼术者。在德文,障眼术者是一位声名狼藉的欺骗者。虽然这位女人知道这个意义(物表象),她不能够接受它。她仅是描述障眼术者的字面意义(词表象)。通过这个意义,她被迫下结论说,她的爱人已经在生理方面障眼她的眼睛。这位女人确信,她正在遭受被障眼的痛苦(她的症状),是由于字词表象与物表象之间的关联度中断所造成。虽然她并不知道物表象,她不可能使用这个意义,为了将字面意义相对化。

Another example of this linguistic mechanism, reported to me by a
colleague, concerns a man who threatens to sabotage the central heating
of the psychiatric clinic where he was based, and even to set the whole
building on fire, in order to take revenge on those members of staff who
have left him out in the cold. Like the female patient, this man is incapable
of assimilating the thing-presentation of the expression ‘to be left out in
the cold’, i.e. to be left behind, although he is perfectly aware of it. To
him, ‘to be left out in the cold’ means that some people have tried to
lower his body temperature, and therefore he feels that these scoundrels
deserve tit for tat.

这个语言的机制的另外一个例子,一位同事跟我报导,关于一个人。他威胁要破坏精神病诊所的中央冷气系统,他以那里作为基地。他甚至要放火烧掉整栋建筑物,为了报复那些将他排除在外的成员。就像那位女性病人,这位男人无法接受“被冷落在外”的这个表达的物表象,也就是被抛弃一旁,虽然他完全知道它。对于他,“被冷落在外”意味着,某些人们尝试降低他的身体的温度,因此,他感觉,这些坏蛋应该被以牙还牙。

On the surface, neurotic patients can suffer from the same kinds of
symptoms (twisted eyes, physical coldness) as psychotics, which is
exactly what Freud intended to demonstrate, but the neurotic symptoms
respond to an entirely different psychic economy. In neurosis, the wordpresentation
has not been cut off from the thing-presentation, but the
word-presentation has been repressed. It has been driven out of the
patient’s consciousness into the unconscious. The upshot is that the wordpresentation
exercises its influence without the patient being aware of
what has produced the symptoms.

表面上,神经症的病人会遭受相同种类的症状的痛苦(眼睛被障眼,生理感到寒冷),当作是精神病。这确实是弗洛伊德打算要证明的。但是,神经症的症状回应一个完全不同的心灵的活动。在神经症者,字词表象并没有跟物表象隔离开来。而是字词表象已经被压抑。字词表象已经从病人的意识驱赶进入无意识。结果是,字词表象运用它的影响,而病人却不知道是什么产生这个症状。

In neurosis, symptoms are determined
by a repressed, unconscious representation and it is the analyst’s task to
bring the patient to the point where this hidden factor can be retrieved.
Put differently, neurotic patients somehow suffer from a ‘lacking word’,
which the analytic process can help to recover. In psychosis, matters are
completely different. Although symptoms are also determined by wordpresentations,
the latter are not repressed and neither are the thingpresentations.

在神经症,症状被决定,根据被压抑的无意识的表象。精神分析家的工作就是要将病人带到这个时刻,这个被隐藏的因素能够被重新获得的时刻。换句话说,神经症的病人有些遭受“文词欠缺”的痛苦,精神分析的过程能够帮忙他重新获得。在精神病,事情完全不同。虽然症状被决定,也是由于字词表象,字词表象并没有被压抑,物表象也没有。

Whereas a neurotic patient fails to find the building blocks
of her symptoms, a psychotic patient has nothing to hide. All the materials
are out in the open. This is why Freud, talking about the schizophrenic
woman, observed: ‘The patient’s comments…have the value of an
analysis…They throw light at the same time on the meaning and the
genesis of schizophrenic word-formation’ (Freud 1915e:198). Of course,
the drama is that in psychosis the ‘analytic’ value of the patient’s
utterances has no bearing whatsoever on the destabilization of the
symptoms.

虽然神经症的病人无法找到她的症状的建筑方块,精神病的病人却是没有什么东西可让他隐藏。所有的材料都暴露在外面。这就是为什么弗洛伊德谈论关于精神分裂症的女人时,他观察到:「这位病人的评论具有精神分析的价值。这些评论同时让我们明白精神分裂症者的字词形成的意义与戏剧。当然,戏剧是,在精神病,病人的表达的“精神分析的价值”,跟症状的不稳定,并没有丝毫的关系。

Freud’s considerations on differential diagnostics form the nucleus
of Lacan’s distinctions between neurosis, psychosis and perversion.
Within a Lacanian orientation, psychic structures do not differ as far as
the clinical picture is concerned, but on the basis of speech and language,
and with respect to the subject’s relationships with his peers, family
members, colleagues, lovers, therapists, etc.

弗洛伊德对不同的诊断的考虑,形成拉康的区别的核心,区别神经症,精神病与倒错症。在拉康的定向里,心灵的结构并没有差异,就临床的画面而言。而是,根据言说与语言的基础,关于主体跟他的同侪,家庭成员,同事,情人,治疗师等等的关系。

Lacan had already drawn
attention to both these criteria in his earliest writings on paranoia (Lacan
1975a[1931]; 1975b[1932]; 1988d[1933]), but they did not start to gain
momentum until the 1950s, as part of his ‘return to Freud’ and his
aspiration to restore the value of speech and language in psychoanalysis.
Perhaps as a result of his own training as a clinical psychiatrist working
with psychotic patients, Lacan detailed these criteria most emphatically
for the psychic structure of psychosis and he was least explicit concerning
perversion.

拉康已经注意到这两个标准,在他的早期探讨妄想症的著作。但是,直到1950年代,这些著作才开始获得重视,作为他“回到弗洛伊德”的部分。拉康渴望恢复言说与语言在精神分析的价值。或许,由于他自己作为临床精神病医生的训练的结果,他研究精神病人。拉康因此强调地详细列举这些标准,作为精神病的心灵的结构。关于倒错症,他则是没讲得那么明确。

Moreover, in his discussion of the various psychic structures
he usually highlighted the speech and language features, the nature of
the transference being regarded as an effect of these characteristics.
In the subsequent sections of this chapter, I will follow a similar
trajectory, from psychosis to neurosis and perversion, and from speech
to transference. As Lacan’s comments on perversion are less elaborated
and coherent than those on psychosis and neurosis, the section on
perversion will necessarily be more tributary to others’ and my own
interpretations of Lacan’s works than the preceding ones.

而且,当他讨论各色各样的心灵结构时,他通常强调言说与语言的特征。移情的特性则是被认为是这些特征的影响。在这个章节的随后的部分,我将遵循类似的途径,从精神病到神经症与倒错症,并且从言说到移情。因为拉康评论倒错症,并没有像评论精神病与神经症那么精细与一致性。讨论倒错的部分将必然更加枝枝节节,比起其他两个,以及我自己对于拉康的著作的解释,比起前面的那些解释。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

拉康与弗洛伊德的临床实践

October 8, 2015

Jacques Lacan and the Freudian Practice of
Psychoanalysis

雅克 拉康与弗洛伊德的精神分析实践
Dany Nobus
丹尼 诺布斯

Chapter 1
Diagnosis via speech and
Transference
第一章
经由言说与移情的诊断
WHY DIAGNOSIS?
为什么诊断?

Throughout his works, Lacan insisted on the differences between various
mental organizations, on the analyst’s need to recognize these differences,
and on the mandatory adoption of a differential treatment approach in
the light of the psychic economy the analyst has acknowledged in the
patient. The ‘Lacanian analyst’ has to bear in mind some basic nosological
categories and is held to diagnose patients at the earliest stage of the
clinical process, because her position within the treatment should differ
according to the psychic structure of the patient. Hence, the initial
assessment of the patient is not merely a matter of registration, due to
the fact that it has major clinical consequences.

在拉康的著作里,他坚持这些差异,在各色各样的精神病组织之间的差异,当它们探讨分析家体认这些差异的需要,与探讨义务地採用差异的治疗方法,从分析家在病人身上洞见的心灵活动的观点。“拉康派的分析家”必须将一些基本的疾病分类牢记在心,并且被认为应该诊断病人,在临床过程的最早期的阶段,因为分析家在治疗中的立场应该有所不同,依照病人的心灵的结构。因此,对于病人的最初的评估不仅是铭记的事情,由于这个事实:它具有重大的临床的结果。

Like so many other aspects of Lacan’s clinical theory, the importance
of a correct diagnosis prior to the beginning of psychoanalytic treatment
is rooted in Freud’s papers on technique. In ‘On Beginning the Treatment’
(Freud 1913c), Freud argued in favour of a trial period (Probezeit,
Erprobung, Sondierung) of one or two weeks before the start of the
treatment, for which he adduced the necessary, yet laborious diagnostic
procedure as one of the main reasons.

像拉康的临床理论的许多其他的层面,在精神分析的治疗的开始之前,正确的诊断的重要性,是以弗洛伊德探讨精神分析技术的论文作为依据。在“论治疗的开始”(弗洛伊德1913c),弗洛伊主张,他赞同在治疗开始之前,要有一段大约一到两个星期的尝试期。他举出这个必要,但是费力的诊断的程序,作为这个尝试期的其中一个主要的理由。

Until the end of his career, Freud
remained convinced that the standard method of psychoanalysis was of
no use to people suffering from paraphrenia—or some other form of
psychosis—which prompted him to demand that the analyst recognize
this contraindication during the trial period (ibid.: 124).1 Failure to do
so, or making a diagnostic mistake, would be disastrous as some patients
(neurotics wrongly diagnosed as paraphrenics) would be unjustly
excluded from treatment, whereas others (paraphrenics erroneously
qualified as neurotics) would be unjustly admitted.

一直到他从事业退休,弗洛伊德始终相信,精神分析的这个标准方法对于患精神分裂症的人们是没有用途,或是对某个其他种类的精神病。这引起他做这个要求:精神分析家应该在尝试期,就体认这个禁忌徵侯。假如精神分析家没有体认出来,或是犯了诊断的错误,那将会是个灾难。因为病人(神经症者被错误诊断成为精神分裂症者),将会不公平地被排除在治疗之外。另一方面,其他的病人(精神分裂症者被错误地被认为是神经症者的特质),将会不公平地被接纳看诊。

Compared to Freud’s dual opposition of neurosis and psychosis,
Lacan’s nosological framework is slightly more sophisticated and its
categories more mutually exclusive. Whereas Freud also designated the
psychoses as narcissistic neuroses (and the neuroses proper as
transference neuroses) (Freud 1916–17a[1915–17]:420), Lacan defined
neurosis and psychosis as fundamentally different psychic structures with
separate causalities.

跟弗洛伊德将神经症与精神病的双重对立比较起来,拉康的疾病分类架构就稍微更加精细。这个疾病分类的范畴更加将两种疾病互相排除。虽然弗洛伊德也将精神病者指明作为是自恋的神经症者(并且将神经者的本身作为是移情的神经症者),拉康则是定义神经症与精神病,作为是基本上不同的心灵的结构,具有差异的因果关系。

To the Freudian neurosis/psychosis dualism he also
added the distinct psychic structure of perversion, which Freud chiefly
addressed on a purely phenomenological level—as sadism, masochism,
exhibitionism, voyeurism, etc. Indeed, Freud never sharply discriminated
between psychosis and perversion, and his only formal distinction
between perversion and neurosis resides in his thesis that the latter is the
negative of the former, which he defended for example in ‘Three Essays
on the Theory of Sexuality’ (1905d:165). Lacan rationalized and
systematized Freud’s diagnostic categories, ultimately constructing the
triptych of neurosis, psychosis and perversion, in which each of the terms
represents a separate clinical entity.

在弗洛伊德的神经症与精神病的双重区分之上,拉康补充倒错症,作为明显的心灵的结构。弗洛伊德则是依据纯粹现象学的层面,来处理倒错症的心灵结构,作为是虐待狂,受虐狂,暴露狂,窥视狂,等等。的确,弗洛伊德从来没有明显区别精神病与倒错症的不同。他对于倒错症与神经症的唯一的正式的区别在于他的那个主要论述:神经症是倒错症的否定。他辩护这个主要论述,譬如,在“性学三论”。拉康则是将弗洛伊德的诊断的范畴合理化与系统化。他最后建构神经症,精神病,与倒错症的三个连环。在这三个连环里,每一个术语都代表分开的临床实体。

Furthermore, the clinical impact of these categories within Lacanian
analysis no longer concerns the patient’s possible entry to the treatment,
but rather the analyst’s prescribed position within the treatment and his
preferable handling of transference. Unlike Freud, Lacan did not regard
psychotics as unsuitable candidates for analysis. This does not imply
that for Lacan the Freudian dispositions remain valid under all
circumstances, but that the clinical premises of Freudian psychoanalysis
can and should be modified, without therefore losing their vigour, to
accommodate different types of patients.

而且,在拉康的精神分析里,这些范畴对于临床的影响,不再是关注于病人是否可能进入治疗。而是关注于精神分析家在治疗里被指定的立场,以及他较为有利地处理移情。不像弗洛伊德,拉康并没有将精神病视为是精神分析的不合适的对象。这并没有意味着,对于拉康,弗洛伊德的性情无论在什么情况始都是正确。而是意味著,弗洛伊德的精神分析的临床的假设能够,而且应该被修正。但是不要因此就丧失这些假设的力量,这是为了接纳不同种类的病人。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

From an other to the Other 68

October 8, 2015

From an other to the Other 68

从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康
5.2.69

(123) After all, since nothing forces us to precipitate any movement, because it is
precisely in these/precipitations that errors are produced, we can indeed abstain from
justifying this zero in a way that is symmetrical to what is involved in the other.
Because we have something that appears sufficiently in the discussion that the
philosophers have had about Pascal’s montage.

毕竟,因为没有东西强迫我们突然发动任何行动,因为确实就是在这些突然发动行动中,错误被产生。我们确实能够抑制不要证明这个零的理由,用跟大他者所被牵涉的东西均称的方式。因为我们拥有某件东西充分出现在这个讨论里,关于巴斯卡的面面观,哲学家们曾经有过的讨论。

Namely, that it appears in effect that
the zero represents not the constitutive loss of the bet but, at least in the dialogue
between Pascal and Mere which is not unimportant for the way Pascal writes and at
the same time leads us astray – it is never, of course, without our collaboration –
about the interest of the montage itself.

换句话说,实际上看起来,这个零代表的并不是赌注的输掉,而是关于这个面面观的自身的興趣,至少在巴斯卡与弥尔的对谈之间,这对于巴斯卡所写的方式来说并不重要,同时也引导我们迷失。

Namely, that what dominates, is in effect that
this zero can be the inscription of one of the choices that are offered which is not to sit
down at this table. This is what is done by the person who, in this not simply ideal
but effective dialogue, the one to whom there is addressed this schema o f the wager.
The zero does not mean the constitutive loss of the bet, but inscribes on the table the
“no bet”, namely, the one who does not sit down at the gaming table.
3 aac oo
0 — ‘JCA’O

换句话说,重要的是,作为支配的东西,实际上是,这个零有时是被提供的这些选择的其中一个选择的铭记。这个铭记不应该放置在这个空格里。这就是这个人所做的事情,在这个不仅是理想而且是有效的对谈里,当面对谈的这个人,赌注的0的这个基模被提出。

5.2.69
It is starting from there that we have to question what is produced in the second
matrix to see how, in it, there can be divided up what is involved in the game. In
effect, I already indicated the last time the representations that can be given in the text
of our practice. In truth, I was able to indicate it as rapidly as I did because already a
certain graph of it had been constructed with what I recalled earlier at the beginning of my articulation.

从那里开始,我们必须质疑所被产生东西,在第二个基模里,为了看见,在它里面,游戏所被牵涉到东西被区分。实际上,我上次已经指示这些表象,在我们的实践能够被给予的这些表象。实际上,我能够指示它,如同我以前一样的快速。因为有关它的某个图形已经被建构起来,用我早先所提醒的东西,在我的表达的开始。

Namely, not the hypothesis, but what can be inscribed and hence the
tangible. This means that o itself may well be only the effect of the entry of the life of
man into the game. Pascal warns us about it in these terms no doubt not explicitly
formulated, I mean in the very one that I am going to state: “You are engaged”, he
tells us, and it is true. It does not seem necessary to him, because he grounds himself
on the word, on the word that for him of course is that of the Church.

换句话说,并不是这个假设,而是所能够被铭记,因此也是具体的东西。这意味着,0的本身很有理由仅是人的生命进入这个游戏的结果。巴斯卡警告我们关于它。他用的这些术语无可置疑地并没有明确地被阐释。我指ds我将要陈述的这个术语:「你已经参与其中!」他告诉我们,这是真实的。对他而言,这似乎并不必要,因为他将他自己定位在真理。当然,对于他而言,这个真理就是教会的真理。

It is curious that
he does not distinguish from it what — this is the blind point of centuries that were not
for all that obscurantist — nevertheless provides him with a lot. It is assuredly because of the uneliminatable character of Holy Scripture throughout centuries of thought, that the most radical writing that, for us, appears in it in filigree is not really
distinguished.

耐人寻味的,他并没有跟它区别出来,仍然供应给他的许多东西。这是几世纪的盲点,那几世纪并不赞同所有那个蒙昧主义。这确实是因为圣经具有无法删减的特性,在那几世纪的思想里。即使是最激进的写作,对于我们而言,以精雕细琢的方式出现在它里面,并没有确实地被区别出来。

But if I go looking for the weave of this writing in mathematical logic,
this leaves my position homologous to his, except that, for us, we can no longer avoid
(124) posing the question whether the stake itself is not as such essentially dependent
on this function of writing. Let us observe yet another difference, the one that I put as
an exergue in the first phase of my statements this year and which can be expressed,
since it is not the exact formula, as simply: what I prefer, is a discourse without
words, which means nothing other than this discourse that writing supports.

但是,假如我前往寻找这个写作的编织,用数学的逻辑,那会让我跟他处于类似的立场。除了就我们而言,我们不再能够避免提出这个问题:赌注本身是否也是依靠写作的这个功能。让我们观察另外一个差异,我提出的这个差异,作为是今年我的陈述的第一个部分的题词。因为它并不是确实的公式,它能够被表达作为仅是:我宁可要的东西是没有文字的辞说。这个辞说指的实实在在是书写支持的这个辞说。
Here a little time to measure the import, the line, the absolutely solidary character of
what I am stating at this point this year, with everything that I began to announce
under the triad of the Symbolic, the Imaginary and the Real. Note carefully, and this
is something that should be insisted on, the difference between philosophical
discourse, whatever it may be, and what we are introduced to by this nothing other
that is distinguished by starting from repetition.

在此,我们要一些时间来测量这个意义,这个线条,这个绝对团结的特性,对于我今年的这个时刻正在陈述的东西。用没样我开始宣告的东西,在象征界,想像界与实在界的三角模式。请你们仔细注意,这是某件应该被件被坚持的东西,在无论是哪一种的哲学的辞说,与我们被介绍的东西之间,被这个实实在在就是被区别出来东西,从重复开始的东西。

Philosophical discourse, whatever it may be, always ends up by detaching itself from
what it nevertheless brandishes as a system in the material of language. The whole
philosophical tradition comes up against the refutation by Kant of the ontological
argument; in the name of what? Of the fact that the forms of pure reason, the
transcendental analytic, fall under the influence of an imaginary suspicion, and this
moreover is what constitutes the single objection, it is philosophical, to Pascal’s
wager.

哲学的辞说,无论是什么哲学辞说,结果总是将它自己隔离出来,跟它仍然挥舞作为系统的东西,在语言的材料里。整个的哲学的传统遭遇康德的反驳,有关本体论的论点。以什么的名义呢?有关这个事实:纯粹理性的形式,超验的分析,都遭受想像的怀疑的影响。而且,这是组成单一反对巴斯卡的赌注的东西。那是哲学的反对。

“This God whose existence you may conceive to be necessary, says Kant, it
nevertheless remains that you only conceive o f him in the framework o f a thinking that is only based on the prior suspense from which there comes the aesthetic” qualified on this occasion as transcendental. This means nothing other than: you cannot state anything, state anything in words, except in the time and in the space whose existence, by philosophical convention, we put in suspense in so far as it is supposed to be radical.

「康德说,你们构想是必要的上帝的存在。这个问题仍然是,你们仅是构想他,在思想的架构里,这个思想仅是以先前段悬置作为基础,美学就来自这个先前的悬置。」在这个场合,这个美学的特质作为是超验的美学。这指的实实在在就是,你们能够陈述任何事情,用文字陈述任何事情,除了在这个时刻,在这个空间,根据哲学的传统,它的存在,我们反置在悬置当中,因为它被认为是激进的。

Only there is a problem, and this is what gives Pascal’s wager its interest. That is why
I will permit myself, whatever people may think about having recourse to outworn
ideas, to find in it an exemplary turning point. The fact is that in no case is the God of
Pascal to be put in question on the imaginary plane because it is not the God of
philosophers; it is not even the God of any knowledge. We do not know, writes
Pascal, either what he is, of course, or even if he is. This indeed is why there is no
way of leaving Him in abeyance by means of any philosophy, because it is not
philosophy that grounds him.

只是有个难题在那里,这就是为什么巴斯卡的赌注会引起它的興趣。那就是为什么我容许自己在它那里找到一个典范的转捩点。事实是,巴斯卡的上帝绝对无法被质疑,在想像的层次,因为它并非是哲学家们的上帝,它甚至不是任何知识的上帝。巴斯卡写道,我们并不知道,上帝是什么,当然,要不然就是即使上帝存在,我们也不知道。这确实是为什么我们不可能将上帝留在搁置当中,凭借任何哲学。因为作为上帝的基础并非是哲学。

Now what is at stake and what my discourse in particular means, when I take up again
that of Freud, is very precisely that in grounding myself on what this discourse has
opened up, it is essentially distinguished from philosophical discourse, in the fact that
it is not detached from what we are caught up and engaged in, as Pascal says. But
tha^ rather than making use of a discourse, when all is said and done, to fix its law to
the world, its norms to history or inversely, it puts itself at this place where first of all
(125) the thinking subject perceives that he can only recognise himself as an effect of
language. In other words that before being thinking, to go quickly, to pinpoint in the
shortest possible way what I am in the process of saying, once you set up the gaming
table, and God knows if it has already been set up, he is first of all o. And it is
afterwards that the question is posed of harmonising with it the fact that he thinks.

现在岌岌可危的是,特别是我的辞说的意义,当我再次探讨弗洛伊德的辞说。那确实是,当我将我自己定位在这个辞说所展开的东西,它基本上被区别出来,跟哲学的辞说区别出来。事实上,它并没有跟我们被套陷与参与的东西隔离开来,如同巴斯卡所说的。但是,它非但没有利用一个辞说,当一切都说都做了,为了将它的法则固定到这个世界,将它的名称固定到历史,或是颠倒过来固定。它将它自己放置在这个地方:首先,思想的主体感知,他仅能够体认它自己,作为是语言的结果。换句话说,在生命实存之前,思想,很快地进行,用尽肯简短的方式,强调我的生命的意义,在言说的过程。一旦你建立起游戏的表格,上帝知道,它是否已经被建立。上帝就是首先的这个0。后来,要将上帝会思维的这个事实相和谐的这个问题才被提出,

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

From an other to the Other 67

October 7, 2015

From an other to the Other
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

5.2.69

o o 0
What I am pointing out here is the fragile character of this sort of writing, inasmuch as by following games’ theory, the conjunctures can only be determined from the
intersection of the play of two adversaries. Namely, that the subject ought to be in
this position, while the enigmatic Other, the one involved in short as to whether he
holds the wager or not, ought to find himself in that place, God exists or does not
exist.

我在此正在指出的东西是这种书写的脆弱的特性,因为凭借以下的游戏理论,这些连接仅能够从这两个敌对者的游戏的交会来决定。换句话说,主体应该处于这个位置。当这个谜团的大他者,总之被牵涉在内的这个大他者,关于他是否拥有这个赌注,这个谜团的大他者应该发现他自己在那个位置。上帝存在或不存在。
/ o
P
•3*0.0 o O
0

But God is not involved. In any case, nothing allows us to affirm it. It is from this
fact that it paradoxically results that face to face with him, on the table, as I might say,
there is not man but the subject defined by this wager. The stake is confused with the
existence of the partner, and that is why the signs written on this table have to be
reinterpreted. The choice is made at the level of God exists or God does not exist.

但是上帝并没有被牵涉在内。无论如何,没有任何东西让我们能够肯定它。根据这个事实,它悖论的结果是,跟上帝面对面时,在这个表格上,我不妨说,没有任何人,除了就是被这个赌注定义的主体。这个赌注跟伴侣的存在混淆一块。那就是为什么被书写在这个表格上的讯号必须重新解释。选择被做成,在上帝存在或上帝不存在的层次。

The formulation of the wager starts from that. And starting from there, only from
there, it is clear that if there is no reason to hesitate, namely, that what you may win
by wagering that God exists is not comparable to what you can certainly win, even
though this certainty can easily be questioned. Because what will you win? o is
precisely not defined.

赌注的铨释从那里开始。从那里开始,仅是从那里,显而易见帝,假如没有任何犹豫的理由。换句话说,你们可能会赢的东西,凭借赌注上帝存在,可以类比成为你们确实会应的东西。即使这个确实很容易被质疑。因为你们将赢得什么?0确实没有被定义。

o OO
0
5.2.69
It is here that I open the question – not at the level of a formula that has nevertheless
the interest of taking at its source the question of the intervention of the signifier, of
what is involved in any act of choice whatsoever. This is where I pointed out the
inadequacy of a table that is incomplete because it does not highlight that in taking
things at the second stage, the one, perhaps, that restores the correct position of what
the matrix involves as it is used in games’ theory, is where there should be placed
what I distinguish from the subject, the subject that is purely identical to the
inscription of the stakes as well as the one that can envisage the case where even if
God exists, he wagers against, namely, chooses o to his cost.

就在这里,我展开这个问题—不是在公式的层次。这个公式仍然拥有这个興趣,接受能指的介入的问题,在它的起源。在任何选择的行动里,被牵涉到东西的问题。这就是我指出表格的不足够的地方,在第二个阶段。或许,这个阶段恢复这个基座牵涉的东西的这个正确的位置,依照它在游戏理论被使用的方式。我从主体区别出来的东西,应该被放在哪里,以及这个能够构想这个情况的主体。在那个情况,即使上帝存在,他下赌注反对,换句话说,他选择0,作为他的代价。

Namely, knowing what
this choice involves, that he positively loses the infinite, the infinity of happy lives
that is offered him, so that there is reproduced in the two boxes that are marked here
what first of all occupied the first matrix, there still remains this fourth to be filled.
Namely, that it can be supposed that, even if God does not exist, the o as holding the
(122) place that you see it occupying in the first box can be abandoned, this time in an
explicit way. And because of this fact it appears in the negative, the subtraction of o
with what we are writing here without any further commentary.

换句话说,当他知道这个选择牵涉的东西,他肯定会丧失这个无限性,被提供给他的这些快乐生活的无限性。所以,在这两个空格里被复制,这两个盒子首先被标记占有第一个基座的东西,依旧还存在着应该被填补的这个第四个空格。换句话说,我们能够假设,即使上帝不存在,这个0,作为拥有这个位置,你们看见它占据,在第一个空格,这个0能够被放弃。这一次,用明确的方式。因为这个事实,它出现在负面,0的扣除,用我们在此正在书写的东西,没有任何进一步的评论。

And you see that
even though it appears to be self-evident as zero, in effect it still constitutes a problem
ao 9 , – o °
– 0, 0,

你们看见,即使它作为零似乎是不证自明,实际上,它依旧形成一个难题。

In effect, let us now extract in order to isolate it simply in a new matrix something
added on by our second composition, namely, 0,-oQ, – o, zero. To be honest, I
explicitly mark what I have just indicated in passing in this very discourse, that this
zero takes on the value of a question.

实际上,让我们现在抽离出某件东西,为了在新的基座里孤立它,我们第二次组成增加东西,换句话说,0,-00,-0,零。坦诚说,我明确地标记我刚刚顺便指示的东西,在这个辞说里。这个零形成一个问题的价值。
O — cx->
– Q 3*oo ?
In effect, if the zeros were able to be thus posited in the first matrix, this is something
that deserves to hold our attention, because what did I say earlier if not that in truth
the only thing that counts in this position of the gambler, of the subject who alone
exists, the only thing to be taken into account is the infinite and the finite o.

实际上,假如这些零能够被假设在第一个基座,这是某件东西应该值得我们注意。因为我早先所说的东西,难道不就是,实际上,在赌徒的立场,关于主体的唯一重要的东西,仅是这个主体存在,唯一能够被考虑的东西,就是这个无限与有限的0。

What do
these zeros designate if not that by putting some stake on the table, as Pascal
underlined in introducing the theory of gaming, nothing correct can be stated about a
game unless you start from this, unless by having a beginning and an end fixed in the
rule.

这些零指明的东西,难道不就是,凭借将一些赌注放进这个表格,如同巴斯卡强调的,当他介绍游戏理论,没有任何正确的东西能够被陈述,关于一个游戏。除非你从这个开始,除非凭借拥有一个开始与结束被固定在规则里。

What is put on the table, what is called the bet, is lost from the start. The game
only exists starting from the fact that it is on the table, as one might say, in a common
mass. What the game is is implied and therefore from its constitution the game can
here only produce zero. This zero only indicates that you are playing; without this
zero, there is no game.

被放置在表格里的东西,所谓的赌注,从一开始就输掉。这个游戏仅是根据这个事实才存在:赌注在表格里。我们不妨说,赌注处于共同的集体里。游戏的本质的东西被暗示,因此从游戏的形成,游戏在此仅能产生零。这个零仅指示,你们正在赌博。没有这个零,就没有这个游戏。

Assuredly you could say the same thing about the other zero,
namely, this one, that it represents the loss to which the other player resigns himself
by bringing this infinity into play. But since precisely what is at stake is the existence
of the other player, it is here, in the first matrix, that the zero qua sign of the loss
becomes problematic.

的确,你们能够说相同的事情,关于这另外一个零。换句话说,这个零,它代表这个输掉。另外一位赌徒甘心接受的输掉,凭借运作这个无限。但是确实地,所以下赌注的东西,就是这另外一位赌徒的存在。就在这里,在第一个基座,这个零,作为是输掉的讯号,变成是问题重重。

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Collected 7 集体无意识的原型104

September 27, 2015

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

In these associations the patient is describing a very impor-
tant experience of his childhood. As in nearly all cases of this kind, he had a particularly close tie with his mother. By this we are not to understand a particularly good or intense conscious relationship, but something in the nature of a secret, subterra-nean tie which expresses itself consciously, perhaps, only in the retarded development of character,.i.e., in a relative infantilism. The developing personality naturally veers away from such an unconscious infantile bond; for nothing is more obstructive to development than persistence in an unconscious-we could also say, a psychically embryonic-state. For this reason instinct seizes on the first opportunity to replace the mother by another object.

在这些联想里,病人正在描述有关他的童年的一个非常重要的经验。如同在几乎所有诸如其类的个案,他跟母亲具有特殊亲密的关系。凭借这一点,我们并不是要理解特殊的好或强烈意识的关系。而是某件像是秘密性质的关系,以意识状态表达自己的潜在的关系,或许,仅是人格的迟缓的发展,譬如,以相对待婴孩的状态。这种正在发展的人格自然突然转向离开无意识的婴孩的默契关系。因为没有一样东西更加具有毁灭性,对于发展,比起无意识的持续。我们也能够是,这是一种心灵的初萌状态。因为这个理由,本能掌握最初的机会,要取代母亲,凭借另外一个客体。

If it is to be a real mother-substitute, this object must be, in some sense, an analogy of her. This is entirely the case with our patient. The intensity with which his childish fantasy seized upon the symbol of Cologne Cathedral corresponds to the strength of his unconscious need to find a substitute for the mother. The unconscious need is heightened still further in a case where the infantile bond could become harmful. Hence the enthusiasm with which his childish imagination took up the idea of the Church; for the Church is, in the fullest sense, a mother.

假如这个替代想要成为真实的母亲-替代,这个客体必须在某个意义上说她的类比。就我们的病人而言,这完全是这个情况。他的孩童的幻想强烈地掌握科伦尼大教堂。这种强烈程度符合他的无意识需要的力量,需要找到一个对于母亲的替代。这个无意识的需要被更加一步强化,在这个个案,婴孩的默契关系有时是有害的。因此,他的童孩的想像热忱地接纳教堂的这个观念.因为教堂的最完整的意义是母亲。

11 The idea of compensation has already been extensively used by Alfred Adler.
104

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
of the Ch
We speak not only of Mother Church, but even of the Church’s womb. In the ceremony known as the benedictio fontis) the bap¬tismal font is apostrophized as “immaculatus divini fontis uterus”-the immaculate womb of the divine font. We naturally think that a man must have known this meaning consciously be¬fore it could get to work in his fantasy, and that an unknowing child could not possibly be affected by these significations. Such analogies certainly do not work by way of the conscious mind, but in quite another manner.

我们不仅谈论母亲-教堂,而且谈论到教堂的子宫。在众所周知的“洗礼的盆子”的典礼里,洗礼的盆子被简略成为“纯洁的神性的盆部子宫”。我们当然认为,一个人当时一定意识地知道这个意义,他才能够从事他的幻想。一位无知的小孩不可能受到这些意义的影响。这些类比确实并没有运作,凭借意识的心灵。而是用另外一个方式。

172 The Church represents a higher spiritual substitute for the
purely natural, or “carnal,” tie to the parents. Consequently it frees the individual from an unconscious natural relationship which, strictly speaking, is not a relationship at all but simply a condition of inchoate, unconscious identity. This, just because it is unconscious, possesses a tremendous inertia and offers the utmost resistance to any kind of spiritual development. It would be hard to say what the essential difference is between this state and the soul of an animal.

教堂代表一个更高的精神的替代纯粹自然,或跟父母亲的“肉身”的关系。严格来说,这根本就不是关系,而仅是不成熟的无意识的认同的情况。仅是因为它是无意识,这拥有巨大的惯性,并且提供最大的抗拒,对于任何具有精神发展。我们很困难地说这个基本的差异是什么,存在于这个状态与动物的灵魂之间。

Now, it is by no means the special prerogative of the Christian Church to try to make it possible for the individual to detach himself from his original, animal¬like condition; the Church is simply the latest, and specifically Western, form of an instinctive striving that is probably as old as mankind itself. It is a striving that can be found in the most varied forms among all primitive peoples who are in any way developed and have not yet become degenerate: I mean the in• stitution or rite of initiation into manhood. When he has reached puberty the young man is conducted to the “men’s house,” or some other place of consecration, where he is system• atically alienated from his family.

现在,这决非是基督教教堂的特权,尝试让个人有可能将自己更他的原初的像动物一样的情况隔离开来。教堂仅是最近,明确是西方的形式,作为本能的追寻的形式。这个形式可能更人类本身一样的古老。这一种追寻能够被找到,以各色各样的形式,在原始的民族当中。他们以任何方式被发展,而且还没有变得恶化。我指的是由入会到成年的体制与仪式。当他到达青春期时,年轻柔被引导到” 成年人之屋“,或是某个奉献的地方。在那里,他跟他的家庭制度方面被隔离。

At the same time he is initi¬ated into the religious mysteries, and in this way is ushered not only into a wholly new set of relationships, but, as a renewed and changed personality, into a new world, like one reborn (quasimodo genitus). The initiation is often attended by all kinds of tortures, sometimes including such things as circumci• sion and the like. These practices are undoubtedly very old. They have almost become instinctive mechanisms, with the re¬sult that they continue to repeat themselves without external compulsion, as in the “baptisms” of German students or the even more wildly extravagant initiations in American students’ fraternities. They are engraved on the unconscious as a primor¬dial image.

同时,他被引导入会,进入宗教的神秘。以这个方式,他被引导不但进入完全新的一套关系,而且,作为被更新与改变的人格,进入新的世界。像一个新生的小孩。这个入会仪式经常伴随着各色各样的折磨,有时包括切割包皮,等等。这些做法无可置疑地非常古老。它们几乎已经变成本能的机制。结果,它们继续重复它们自己,而没有外在的冲动,如同在德国学生的‘洗礼会“,或是更加豪华的入会仪式,在美国的兄弟会。他们被铭记在无意识,作为是原初的意象。

105

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

173 When his mother told him as a little boy about Cologne Ca-
thedral, this primordial image was stirred and awakened to life. But there was no priestly instructor to develop it further, so the child remained in his mother’s hands. Yet the longing for a man’s leadership continued to grow in the boy, taking the form of homosexual leanings-a faulty developmeJ;1t that might never have come about had a man been there to educate his childish fantasies.

作为小孩时, 当他的母亲告诉他关于科伦尼大教堂,这个原初的意象被触动,并且甦醒复活。但是,并没有僧侣的教师来更加深入地发展它。所以,小孩始终留在他的母亲的手中。可是,对于男人的领导的渴望继续在男孩身上成长,採取同性恋的习性的形式—错误的发展。假如当时有人在那里教育他的童年的幻想,这样的错误的发展本来可能不会发生。

The deviation towards homosexuality has, to be sure, numerous historical precedents. In ancient Greece, as also in certain primitive communities, homosexuality and education were practically synonymous. Viewed in this light, the homosex¬uality of adolescence is only a misunderstanding of the otherwise very appropriate need for masculine guidance. One might also say that the fear of incest which is based on the mother-complex extends to women in general; but in my opinion an immature man is quite right to be afraid of women, because his relations with women are generally disastrous.

的确,朝向同性恋的偏离拥有无数的历史的先例。在古代希腊,如同在某些的原始人的社群里,同性恋与教育几乎是同义词。从这个观点来看,青春期的同性恋仅是一种误解,从另外一个角度看,那是非常合宜的对于男性引导的需要。我们也不妨说,对于乱伦的恐惧,以母亲情结作为基础,延伸到一般女人。但是,依我之见,一个不成熟的男人完全有权利害怕女人,因为他跟女人的关系通常是灾难的。

174 According to the dream, then, what the initiation of the
treatment signifies for the patient is the fulfilment of the true meaning of his homosexuality, i.e., his entry into the world of the adult man. All that we h<l¥e been forced to discuss here in such tedious and long-winded detail, in order to understand it properly, the dream has condensed into a few vivid metaphors, thus creating a picture which works far more effectively on the imagination, feeling, and understanding of the dreamer than any learned discourse.

依照这个梦,对于病人,治疗的入会象征的东西,是满足同性恋的真实的意义。譬如,他进入成年人的世界。我们一直被迫在此讨论的东西,用如此冗长而累赘的细节,为了合适地理解它。这个梦已经浓缩成为一些生动的隐喻。因此创造一个画面,更加有效地运作在想像,感觉,与梦的理解里,比起任何有学问到辞说。

Consequently the patient was better and more intelligently prepared for the treatment than if he had been overwhelmed with medical and pedagogical maxims. (For this reason I regard dreams not only as a valuable source of in¬formation but as an extraordinarily effective instrument of edu¬cation.)

结果,病人转好,而且更加聪明地准备接受治疗,比起假如他当时被充斥着医学与教学的公理。(因为这个理由,我认为梦不仅作为有价值的资讯的来源,而且作为特殊有效的教育的工具。

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From an other to the other 66

September 26, 2015

From an other to the Other 66
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康
5.2.69
Seminar 10: Wednesday 5 February 1969
I am going to restart from where I left you the last time. I said a lot of things the last
time, and in particular I succeeded in touching some people by the mathematical
evidence that I believe I succeeded in giving of the genesis of what is involved in o,
through the simple virtue of the One qua mark.

我将要重新开始,从我上次离开你们的地方。我上次说了许多事情,特别是我成功地碰触到某些人们,凭借数学的证据。我相信我成功地给予在个创世纪,在这个0所牵涉到东西的创世纪,经营这个“一”作为标记的单纯的品德。

This depends on this factum, this
fabrication that results from the simplest use of this One in so far as it multiplies once
it is repeated, since it is only posited in order to attempt the repetition of, to rediscover
enjoyment in so far as it has already fled. The first One, by rediscovering what was
not marked at the origin, already alters it, since at the origin it was not marked. It is
already posited then by grounding a difference that it does not constitute as such but
in so far as it produces it. This is this original point that makes of repetition the key of
a process about which the question is posed, once it has been opened up, of whether
or not it can find its term.

这依靠这个事实,这个建构,因为简单地运用这个“一”而造成的建构。因为它一旦被重复后,会加倍乘上去。因为它被提出,仅是为了企图从事重复,为了重新发现享乐,因为它已经逃走。这第一个“一”已经改变它,凭借重新发现在起源没有被标记的东西。因为在起义,它并没有被标记。它当时被提出,凭借作为差异的基础,它并没有构成作为这样的本质,而是因为它产生它。这是原初的点,将重复解释为过程的解答,关于这个过程,这个问题被提出。一旦它已经被开展,关于它是否能够找到它的术语。

You see that we are immediately brought to the question that is only terminal when
applied to a single career, that of Freud, in so far as subject on the one hand, he was
also a man of action, let us say a man who inaugurated a path. How did he inaugurate
it? This is something that is worthwhile recalling perhaps at a detour in what I will
say to you today. But every man’s career is committed to something that has death as
its limit, and it is only from this point of view that we can find the term of the path
traced by Freud in the question that he poses, of the end of analysis, terminable or
interminable.

你们看出,我们立即被带到这个问题,仅有当它被运用到一个单一的生涯里,弗洛依德的生涯,它才会是终点。因为一方面,作为主体,他也是一位行动的人。我们不妨说,一位开启途径的人。他如何开启这个途径呢?有某件东西是值得回忆的,或许在迂回处,在我今天跟你们所说的东西。但是,每个人都生涯都奉献于某件东西,以死亡作为它的限制的东西。仅有从这个观点,我们才能够找到途径的这个项目,被弗洛依德追踪的项目,在他提出的这个问题,精神分析的结束的问题,精神分析终止或没有终止。

This only marks the phase of the question that I am opening up in
saying: is what is engaged for the subject by the fact of repetition as origin, itself a
process that has its limit or not? This is what I left open, in abeyance, but
nevertheless advanced, by showing on the board the last time in the clearest possible
fashion what I was able to express as the division, the bi-partition of two infinities,
marking that this is what is fundamentally in question in Pascal’s wager. The infinity
on which it is based is the infinity of number. Now, by taking this infinity, as I might
say, by further accelerating by setting up the Fibonacci series, which it is easy to show
is exponential, that the numbers that it generates grow not arithmetically but
geometrically.

这仅是标示我正在开展的问题的时期,当我在言说:对于主体,作被参与的东西,凭借重复的这个事实作为起源。它的本身是一个过程,这个过程有它的限制与否?这就是我展开的东西,一个暂时的停顿。可是,我前进,凭借上次用尽可能清楚的方式在黑板上显示,我能够表达,作为区分的东西。两个无限的双重区隔。它标示着,这是在巴斯卡的赌注里,基本上受到质疑的东西。巴斯卡的赌注以无限作为基础。这个无限是数字的无限。现在,凭借接纳这个无限,我不妨说,凭借更进一步加速度,凭借建立费伯那奇的数列。这个数列很容易显示是指数的系列。它产生的数字不是算术方式,而是几何级数成长。

This is the very thing that generates, and precisely in the measure that
we are more distant from its origin, the proportion articulated in o. In the measure
that these numbers grow, o intervenes there under its inverted form in a more
circumscribed and constant fashion. This is all the more striking in that it ties the 1 to
o, that it is l/o, that this proportion of one number to another ends up in the more and
more rigorous constant of this l/o, in the measure that the numbers increase.
I also wrote, taking it at its origin, the series that results from taking things in the other sense.

这就是产生的东西。确实是以我们距离它的起源更加遥远的程度。在0被表达的比例。随着这些数字的成长,0介入那里,在它的逆转的形式,以更加被限制与固定的形式。这是更加耐人寻味,因为它将这个1跟0绑在一块。那就是1/0.一个数字跟另外一个数字的这个比例,结果成为这个1/0越来越严谨的常数,随着这些数字的增加。我也书写到,在它的起源处接纳它,这些系列,因为另一个意义接纳事情的结果的系列。

There, because of the fact that o is less than 1, you see the process ends up not
simply in a proportion but in a limit. Whatever you add of what is produced,
inversely, by proceeding through subtraction, in such a way that it is always true that,
in this chain, by taking things in an ascending way, each term is the sum of the two
preceding ones, you will find again the function of o in so far as this time it reaches a
limit That in whatever numbers you add these terms, you will not go beyond 1 + o,
which seems to indicate that by taking things in this direction, what repetition
generates has a term.

这是因为这个事实:0少于1. 你们看见这个过程结果,不仅是一个比例,而是一个限制。关于所被产生的东西,无论你们增加什么,逆转地,凭借扣除继续前进,用它总是真实的这样的方式。在这个锁链里,凭借以上升的方式接纳事情。每个项目都是前面的两个项目的总和。你们再次发现0的这个功能。因为在这个时候,它到达一个限制。不管用什么数字,你们增加这些项目。你们将不会超越1+0.那似乎指示,凭借朝这个方向接纳事情,重复产生的东西拥有一个项目。

This is where there intervenes the well known table in which those, in short, who miss
what is involved in Pascal’s wager, write what is involved in terms of games*theory.
Namely, in a matrix that is constructed from distinct boxes, formulate what is
involved, if God exists, and write as zero what results from the observation of these
commandments, confused here with the renunciation of something. Whether we call it
pleasure or something else, it nevertheless remains that here, in appreciating it by a
spontaneity whose astonishing aspect we will see, that they write what is left in this
life for believers as zero.

这就是这个著名的表格介入的地方。用这个表格,总之,那些错过巴斯卡的赌注被牵涉的东西的那些人们,书写所被牵涉的东西,用遊戏理论的术语。换句话说,在一个用清楚的盒子建造的基座,阐释所被牵涉的东西,假如上帝存在。将这些戒令的遵守造成的的结果,书写为0。在此,这个0跟某件东西的捨弃混淆一块。无论我们称它为快乐或某件东西,问题仍然是,在这里,当我们欣赏它,凭借自动自发,它的令人惊奇的效果,我们将会看见。他们书写所剩余的东西,在这一生,对于信仰者,作为零。

As a result of which a future life is marked by the term
infinity, an infinity of lives promised to be infinitely happy. In other words, by
supposing that God does not exist, the subject, which we write as o, is presumed to be
still caught up in the game, make no mistake, literally to know the limited and
moreover problematic happiness that is offered him in this life. It is not groundless to
choose this if, since God does not exist, it seems clear that there is nothing to expect
from the other life.

由于这个零的结果,未来的生命被无限的这个术语所标示。生命的无限被承诺成为无限的快乐。换句话说,凭借假设,上帝并不存在,主体,我们书写作为0,被假定依旧是被套陷于这个遊戏里。请你们不要误解,我们实质上是要知道这个被限制,而且问题重重的快乐。在这一生被提供给他的快乐。选择这个并不是没有基础。假如,因为上帝并不存在,似乎清楚的是,没有一样东西能够期望,从另外一生。

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