Archive for the ‘精神分析基本技巧’ Category

精神分析技術的基本原則 p6

June 14, 2011

Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique
精神分析技術的基本原則 p6

BRUCE FINK
布魯斯 芬克

1
Listening and Hearing
傾聽與聽到

P 6
Deferring Understanding
彭譯
不急著理解

雄伯
Defer 的意思「拖延到後來」to delay until a later time。為什麼要將「理解拖延到後來呢?」因為自以為的「理解」,往往不是「真的理解」,反而因此封閉了對方無意識的「言說」speech 必須要說的話。

Within himself as well as in the external world, [the analyst] must always expect to find something new.
–Freud (J912b/J958, p. JJ7)

彭譯
無論是在他自己的內部或是外在的世界,(分析師)必須隨時期待發現新的事物。

As well as 的意思是「以及」,而不是「或」。不過中文的「無論、、、或」聽起來又有點兩者兼具的意味。英文其實也有這樣的用法。

There are trees on both sides of the road.
= There are trees on either side of the road.
= There are tree on this side of the road as well as the other side of the road.

這句的重點在something new ,為什麼總是要「新的事物」呢?「舊的事物」不行嗎?分析師如何在「他自己的內部」,或「外在的世界」「期待發現新的事物」呢?而且一兩次,還不夠,要「總是」!

The unconscious shuts down insofar as the analyst no longer “supports speech, ” because he already knows or thinks he knows what speech has to say.
–Lacan (2006, p. 359)
彭譯:
當分析師不再「支持說話」(support speech)時,無意識就擺工了,因為他已經知道或自以為知道病人要說什麼。
 拉岡 ( 2006, 359)
雄伯
Insofar as 是連接詞,表示「程度」to the degree,一般譯為「依據」或「隨著」,如insofar as I know it 「依據我我對它的瞭解」。

無意識的shut down 是「關閉」close firmly ,或是「罷工」?

he already knows or thinks he knows what speech has to say 句子裏的he,指分析師,has to say 的主詞,應該是speech 言說,而不是病人

“supports speech,” 「支持說話」,多加一個引號,因為speech 是指無意識的speech「說話」,跟病人要說什麼是兩回事。

If our attempts to “understand” ineluctably lead us to reduce what another
person is saying to what we think we already know (indeed, that could serve
as a pretty fair definition of understanding in general), one of the first steps we must take is to stop trying to understand so quickly.

彭譯
如果我們「理解」的嘗試,無可避免地讓我們將別人說的話,化約成為我們以為自己知的事情(實際上,以此來界定一般所謂的理解,似乎並無不妥),我們必須採取得步驟之一,就是不要這麼快就試著去理解。

雄伯
Ineluctably—by necessity 無可避免地,修飾lead ,不是修飾 understand
to understand 是不定詞片語,形容詞用法,修飾前面的our attempts

lead us to reduce 「導致或促成我們去化約」,「讓」聽起來像是「容許」permission 。

reduce「化約」,大陸習慣譯為「還原」

another person 是「另外一個人」,others 或other people 才是「別人」。

what another person is saying 「另外一個人正在說的話」。英文的子句是現在進行式,強調當下的動作。

Indeed 的意思「的確」it is true, in fact 才是「實際上」

that could serve as 「大可用來充當、、、」could 而不是can ,帶有虛擬及委婉的意味

a pretty fair definition of understanding in general
充當一般所謂「理解」的定義,真是恰到好處。

It is not by showing the analysand that we understand what he is saying that we build an alliance with him–especially given the fact that our attempts to show him that we understand often fall flat and demonstrate the exact opposite–but, rather, by listening to him in a way that he has never been listened to before.

彭譯
我們和分析者得以形成治療的同盟關係,並不是藉由向他表達我們理解他說的話—尤其是當我們已經知道,我們每次嘗試向他傳達理解之意,不是起不了作用,就是適得其反—而是藉由傾聽,以他從未被傾聽過的方式來聽他說話。

雄伯:
analysand 一般譯為「受分析者」,大陸則譯為「參訪者」。彭榮邦演講時,特別解釋,譯為「分析者」,強調拉岡Jacques Lacan,(大陸譯為拉康)的觀點:「受分析者」自己要先能分析自己,「分析師」才有辦法介入。故具有「主動」意味,不完全是「被動」。

we build an alliance with him 我們和分析者得以形成治療的同盟關係。這個we 指的是analysts 「分析師」。英文沒有「治療的」,譯者自加,大概是為了幫助理解。

but, rather, by listening to him in a way that he has never been listened to before.
而是藉由傾聽,以他從未被傾聽過的方式來聽他說話。

Rather 有「相反地」的意思,被漏譯。

「以他從未被傾聽過的方式來聽他說話」是什麼意思?分析師的傾聽跟情侶,朋友,同事,及家人之間的傾聽有什麼不同?為什麼有感情關係的人無法擁有這樣的傾聽?而花錢去參訪的「分析師」才能以這樣的方式傾聽?連「傾聽」都要花錢才能買到,這樣的世界,你我沒錢時,要怎麼活?

especially given the fact that our attempts to show him that we understand often fall flat and demonstrate the exact opposite

彭譯
尤其是當我們已經知道,我們每次嘗試向他傳達理解之意,不是起不了作用,就是適得其反

雄伯
given that 的意思是「假如我們考慮到」if one take into account ,不是「當我們已經知道」。

Fall flat 「沒有效用」「起不了作用」 have no effect,主詞是前面的attempts「嘗試」 ,to show him that we understand 是不定詞片語,形容詞片語,修飾attempts。

demonstrate the exact opposite 證明「恰恰相反」。Demonstrate 被漏譯。

雄伯
布魯斯 芬克 BRUCE FINK 的「精神分析技術的基本原則」 The Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique,我才譯了幾頁,讀書會的C,就給我一份彭榮邦教授的翻譯手稿。由於彭教授的翻譯相當精確,而且文詞順暢,我再重譯似乎沒有什麼意義。於是臨機一動,改為注釋與對照。

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神分析的基本技巧

June 12, 2011

Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique
精神分析的基本技巧

BRUCE FINK
布魯斯 芬克

1
Listening and Hearing
傾聽與聽到

Freud remarked that there is perhaps a kind of speaking that is worthwhile precisely because up until now it was merely interdicted–which means spoken between, between the lines. That is what he called the repressed.
–Lacan (1 974-1975, Aprils, 1 9 75)

佛洛伊德說過,可能有一種言說之所以具有價值,確實是因為直到當時,它僅是被禁止—此話的意思透露在言說之間,字裏行間。那就是他所謂的潛抑。
–拉康 (1 974-1975, 4月, 1 9 75)

THE PSYCHOANALYSTS first task is to listen and to listen carefuIly.

精神分析師的首要工作,就是傾聽與仔細聽,

Although this has been emphasized by many authors, there are surprisingly few good listeners in the psychotherapeutic world. Why is that? There are several reasons, some of which are primarily personal and others of which are more structural, but one of the most important reasons is that we tend to hear everything in relation to ourselves. When someone tells us a story, we think of similar stories (or more extreme stories) we ourselves could tell in turn.

雖然許多作者強調過這一點,令人驚奇的是,在心理治療的這塊領域,善解人意的傾聽者非常罕見。為何會如此?原因有好幾個。有些主要是屬於個人的原因;還有些則是屬於更加是結構上的原因。但是其中最重要的原因是,我們傾向於聽到跟我們自己有關的一切。當某個人跟我們說個故事,我們會想到類似的故事(或更激烈的故事),那是輪到我們能夠說的故事。

We start thinking about things that have happened to us that allow us to “relate to” the other person’s experience, to “know” what it must have been like, or at least to imagine how we ourselves would have felt had we been in the other person’s shoes. In other words, our usual way of listening is centered to a great degree on ourselves our own similar life experiences, our own similar feelings, our own perspectives.

我們開始思考到曾經發生到我們身上的事情。這些事情使我們能夠「理解同情」另外一個人的經驗,「瞭解」那種經驗當時一定像個什麼樣子,或是至少想像,假如我們當時處於另一個人的立場設身處地,我們自己本來會是怎樣的感覺。換句話說,我們通常的傾聽方式,很大比率專注於我們自己,我們自己類似的生活經驗,我們自己類似的感覺,我們自己的觀點。

When we can locate experiences, feelings, and perspectives of our
own that resemble the other person’s, we believe that we “relate to” that
person: We say things like “1 know what you mean,” ”Yeah,” “1 hear you,”
“1 feel for you,” or “1 feel your pain” (perhaps less often “1 feel your joy”).

當我們能夠定位我們自己類似另外一個人的經驗,感覺,及觀點時,我們相信,我們「理解同情」那個人:我們說些話,像是「我瞭解你的意思」,「是的」,「我聽到你說的話」,「我同情你」,或是「你的痛苦,我感同身受」(可能比較罕聽到的是「我領受你的歡喜」)。

At such moments, we feel sympathy, empathy, or pity for this other who seems like us; “That must have been painful (or wonderful) for you,” we say, imagining the pain (or joy) we ourselves would have experienced in such a situation.

在這樣的時刻,我們對於這位另一個人,感覺到同情,同理心,或憐憫。他似乎像我們一樣;「你當時一定覺得很痛苦(或很神奇)!」我們一邊說,一邊想像,假如我們處在這樣一種情境,我們自己本來會經驗到的痛苦(或歡喜)。

When we are unable to locate experiences, feelings, or perspectives that
resemble the other person’s, we have the sense that we do not understand that person–indeed, we may find the person strange, if not obtuse or irrational.

當我們無法定位類似另外一個人的經驗,感覺,或觀點,我們會覺得,我們並不瞭解那個人—的確,我們可能發現那個人很奇怪,即使不是愚鈍,或是無理性。

When someone does not operate in the same way that we do or does not react
to situations as we do, we are often baffled, incredulous, or even dumbfounded.

當某個人運作的方式跟我們不一樣,或是沒有跟我們一樣地對某些情況起反應,我們時常感覺困惑,難於置信,或甚至目瞪口呆。

We are inclined, in the latter situation, to try to correct the other’s perspectives, to persuade him to see things the way we see them and to feel what we ourselves would feel were we in such a predicament. In more extreme cases, we simply become judgmental: How could anyone, we ask ourselves, believe such a thing or act or feel that way􀑏

在後者的情況,我們傾向於設法糾正另外一個人的觀點,勸服他從我們看見他們的方式來看事情,並且感受,假如我們處在這樣的困境,我們自己會有怎樣的感覺。在更加極端的情況,我們就是會變得提出判斷:我們訊問自己,怎們可能有任會相信這樣的事情,或那樣行動或感覺。

Most simply stated, our usual way of listening overlooks or rejects the otherness of the other. We rarely listen to what makes a story as told by another person unique, specific to that person alone; we quickly assimilate it to other stories that we have heard others tell about themselves or that we could tell about ourselves, overlooking the differences between the story being told and the ones with which we are already familiar. We rush to gloss over the differences and make the stories similar if not identical. In our haste to identify with the
other, to have something in common with him, we forcibly equate stories that are often incommensurate, reducing what we are hearing to what we already know.

一言以蔽之,我們通常的傾聽方式會忽略或排斥另一個人的差異性。我們很少傾聽另外一個人說故事時,會讓他覺得獨特之處,僅是對那個人有明確意義的部分。我們很快地將它比作,我們曾經聽別人說過,關於他們自己的其他故事。或是我們可能說的關於我們自己的故事,而忽略了正在被說的這個故事,跟我們已經耳熟能詳的故事,其中的差別。我們趕緊掩飾這些差異,然後使故事類似,即使不是相同。由於我們匆促要認同另外一個人,要跟他有共同之處,我們迫不得己將往往是格格不入的故事,設法匹配,將我們聽到的內容,還原成為我們已經知道的內容。

What we find most difficult to hear is what is utterly new and different:
thoughts, experiences, and emotions that are quite foreign to our own and
even to any we have thus far learned about.

我們發現最困難聽到的是,全然新穎及不同的東西:跟我們自己迴然不同的的思想,經驗,及情感,甚至跟我們迄今所獲知的思想,經驗,及情感迴然不同。

It is often believed that we human beings share many of the same feelings
and reactions to the world, which is what allows us to more or less understand each other and constitutes the foundation of our shared humanity.

我們往往相信,我們人類分享許多對於世界的相同的感覺及反應。因為這樣,我們才能夠或多或少瞭解別人,並且組成我們共用人性的基礎。

In an attempt to combat a certain stereotype of the psychoanalyst as a detached, unfeeling scientist rather than as a living, breathing human being, certain practitioners have suggested that the analyst should regularly empathize with the analysand, highlighting what they have in common, in order to establish a solid therapeutic alliance.

當我們企圖反對某一種精神分析師的典型,作為一種疏離,冷漠的科學家,而不是一位活生生,有呼吸的人,某些的精神分析從業者曾經建議:精神分析師應該經常地對受分析者產生同理心,強調他們擁有共同的東西,為了要建立牢固的治療的密切關係。

Although these practitioners have a number of good intentions
(for example, to debunk the belief in the analyst’s objectivity), expressions of empathy can emphasize the analyst’s and analysand’s shared humanity in a way that whitewashes or rides roughshod over aspects of their humanity that are unshared.

雖然這些精神分析從業者具有許多善意,(例如,拆除精神分析師具有客觀性的信念),同理心的表達,能夠加強精神分析師與受分析者共有的人性,粉飾或對於沒有共有的他們人性那些方們視若無睹。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
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