Archive for the ‘精神分析基本技巧’ Category

Kant with Sade 004

October 14, 2011

Kant with Sade 02
康德即萨德

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

This shows that jouissance is that by which Sadean experience is modified.
For it only proposes to monopolize a will after having already traversed it in
order to instate itself at the inmost core of the subject whom it provokes
beyond that by offending his sense of modesty [pudeur].

这显示,欢爽是萨德的经验藉以被修改的东西。 因为它仅是提议要笼断一个意志, 在它已经全面研究它之后,为了要安置它自己在主题的最内层核心。 它挑激主体超越那个核心, 以冒犯他的稳重感。

For modesty is an amboceptor with respect to the circumstances of being:
between the two, the one’s immodesty by itself violating the other’s modesty.
A connection that could justify, were such justification necessary, what I said
before regarding the subject’s assertion in the Other’s place.

因为稳重感是一种溶血素,关于生命实存的情境。在两者之间, 一个人的不稳重本身,扰乱另一人的稳重。 若有需要证明,有一个关联能够证明我所说能够成立,关于主体代替大它者所作的主张。

Let us question this jouissance, which is precarious because it depends on
an echo that it sets off in the Other, only to abolish it little by little by attaching
the intolerable to it. In the end, doesn’t it seem to us to be thrilled only by
itself, like another horrible freedom?

让我们质疑这个欢爽, 这是不稳定的欢爽, 因为它依靠它在大它者身上触发的一种回响,结果逐渐给予它无法被忍受的东西,而废除它。最后, 仅是它的本身, 就像另外一个可怕的自由, 难道不是似乎会使我们感到興奋?

Thus we will see appear the third term that, according to Kant, is lacking
in moral experience—namely, the object that Kant, in order to guarantee it to
the will in the implementation of the Law, is constrained to relegate to the
unthinkability of the thing in itself. But is this not the very object we find in
Sadean experience, which is no longer inaccessible and is instead revealed as
the being-in-the-world, the Dasein^ of the tormenting agent?

因此,我们将会看到第三个术语出现,依照康德, 那就是道德经验的欠缺—也就是说, 康德不得不分配给真实界本身的不可思议性的客体, 为了保证它给予使用法则的意志。 但是这并不是我们在萨德的经验里找到的这个客体。这个客体不再能被接近, 代替的,它被显示作为世界里的生命实存, 折磨代理人的生命实存。

Yet it retains the opacity of that which is transcendent. For this object is strangely separated from the subject. Let us observe that the herald of the maxim need be no more here than a point of broadcast. It could be a voice on the radio recalling the right promoted by the supplemental effort the French would have consented to make in response to Sade’s appeal, the maxim having become an organic Law of their regenerated Republic.

可是, 它保留超验的内容的模糊性。 因为这个客体很奇怪地跟生命主体分开。 让我们观察,个人习性的宣布,在此道道地地是一个广播点。 它会像是收音机的一个声音,提醒法国人本来会同意去做辅助的努力以提升的权利,在回应萨德的诉求, 这个个人习性已经成为他们重生动共和国的有机法则。

Such voice-related phenomena, especially those found in psychosis, truly have this object-like appearance. And in its early days, psychoanalysis was not very far from relating the voice of conscience to psychosis.

诸如跟声音有关的现象, 特别是那些在精神病患身上被找到的那些现象, 确实拥有这个像客体一般的表象。 在它早期的日子, 精神分析差不多就是将良心的声音跟精神病联想在一起。

Here we see why Kant views this object as evading every determination of
transcendental aesthetics, even though it does not fail to appear in a certain
bulge in the phenomenal veil, being not without hearth or home, time in intuition,
modality situated in the unreal [irreel], or effect in reality. It is not simply
that Kant’s phenomenology is lacking here, but that the voice—even if
insane—forces [upon us] the idea of the subject, and that the object of the law
must not suggest malignancy on the part of the real God.

在此,我们看到, 为什么康德看待这个客体,当著是逃避超验美学的每个决定,即使它一定会以某种的突起出现在现象界的面纱, 因为它并不是每有火炉或家园。在直觉中的时间, 它的形式被定位在非真实界, 或在现实界的情感。 不仅是因为康德的现象学在此是欠缺, 而且那个声音—即使是疯狂, 会将主体的观念强迫在我们身上。法律的客体一定不要建议说, 它是真实上帝的恶意。

Christianity has assuredly taught men to pay little attention to God’s jouissance, and this is how Kant makes palatable his voluntarism of Law-for- Law’s-sake, which is something that exaggerates, one might say, the ataraxia of the Stoics.

基督教确实教人不要太注意上帝的欢爽。这就是为什么康德让他的志愿者的为了法则而法则的志愿者,那么讨人喜爱的地方。我们不妨说, 它是某件誇张力禁欲学派的「安详」。

One might be tempted to think that Kant feels pressured here by what he hears too close by, not from Sade but from some nearby mystic, in the sigh that muffles what he glimpses beyond, having seen that his God is faceless: Grimmigkeit? Sade says: supremely-evil-being.

我们可能会被引诱去认为,康德在此感觉有压力,由于太靠近听到的东西, 不是从萨德听到,而是从某个附近的神秘主体听到,在错过他所瞥见的东西的讯息里,因为他曾经看见,他的上帝是没有面貌的:Grimmigkeit ? 萨德说: 崇高的邪恶之神。

But humph! Schwarmereien, black swarms—I chase you away in order to
return to the function of presence in the Sadean fantasy.

但是,哼! 这些黑色的虫群—我总是追逐你们,为了回到萨德的幻见到存在的功能。

This fantasy has a structure that we will see again further on; in it the object is but one of the terms in which the quest it figures can die out [s’eteindre].

这个幻见拥有一个结构,我们随后将会再次看到, 在它里面, 这个客体仅是其中一个术语,它所扮演的追寻会逐渐消失。

When jouissance petrifies in the object, it becomes the black fetish, in which can be recognized the form that was verily and truly offered up at a certain time and place, and still is in our own time, so that one can adore the god therein.

在这个客体身上,欢爽惊呆时,它变成黑色的物神。在里面, 我们能够体认到这个形式:它道道地地是在某个时间及某个地方,在我们的时代,依旧被提供的形式。这样,我们能够崇拜这个内在的神。

This is what becomes of the executioner in sadism when, in the most extreme case, his presence is reduced to being no more than the instrument.

这就是在虐待狂里, 行刑者的遭遇。在最极端的情况里,他的存在被还原成为仅是一种工具。

But the fact that the executioner’s jouissance becomes fixated there does not spare his jouissance the humility of an act in which he cannot help but become a being of flesh and, to the very marrow, a slave to pleasure.

但是,行刑者的欢爽变成固定,这个事实并没有替他的欢爽,减免行动的卑下。 在行动里,他身不由己地成为一个肉体的生命实存。 追根究底来说,就是欢乐的奴隶。

This duplication neither reflects nor reciprocates (why wouldn’t it “mutualize”?) the duplication that took place in the Other owing to the subject’s two alterities.

这种复制既没有反射,也没有互惠。 ( 何不说是「彼此利用」?)这个复制发生在大它者,由于生命主体具有两个大它者。

Desire—which is the henchman of the subject’s split—would no doubt be willing to call itself “will to jouissance.” But this appellation would not make desire any more worthy of the will it invokes in the Other, in tempting that will [to go right] to the extreme of its division from its pathos; for when it does so, desire departs [part] beaten down, doomed to impotence.

欲望—是生命主体的分裂的忠实追随者—无可置疑地愿意称它自己是「欢爽的意志」。但是这个名称将不会使欲望配得上意志的价值, 它在大它者身上召唤的意志。它引诱那个意志从它的痛苦里,直接探究它的分裂的极端。因为当它这样做时, 欲望脱离, 被击败,注定无能为力。

For desire disappears [part] under pleasure’s sway, pleasure’s law being such as to make it always fall short of its aim: the homeostasis of the living being, always too quickly reestablished at the lowest threshold of tension at which he scrapes by, the ever early fall of the wing, with which desire is able to sign the reproduction of its form—a wing which here must nevertheless rise to the function of representing the link between sex and death. Let us lay that wing to rest behind its Eleusinian veil.

因为在欢乐的影响下,欲望消失。欢乐的法则是如此, 以致于使欲望总是没有到达它的目标。 人作为生物的体内平衡,总是太快就被重新建立在最低的紧张门槛。存活在那里,这个翅膀的早期掉落。使用这个翅膀, 欲望能够预示它的形式的复制—这一种翅膀在此必须被提升到代表性与死亡之间的联结的功能。 让我们将那个翅膀停靠在阿留辛尼安的面纱背后休息。

Pleasure, a rival of the will in Kant’s system that provides a stimulus, is thus in Sade’s work no more than a flagging [defaillant] accomplice. At the moment of climax [jouissance], it would simply be out of the picture if fantasy did not intervene to sustain it with the very discord to which it succumbs.

欢乐,在康德的系统里,是提供刺激的意志的敌对。在萨德的著作里,欢乐因此仅是一种下垂的共犯。在欢爽高潮的时刻,它仅是脱离画面, 假如幻见没有介入维持它,用它所屈服的不和谐。

Stated differently, fantasy provides the pleasure that is characteristic of desire. Let us recall that desire is not the subject, for it cannot be indicated anywhere in a signifier of any demand whatsoever, for it cannot be articulated in the signifier even though it is articulated there.

用不同角度来陈述, 幻见供应表现欲望特征的欢乐。 让我们回忆一下: 欲望并不是生命主体, 因为欲望无法在要求的能指的任何地方被指示。 因为它无法在能指里被表达,即使它存在那里。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神分析技术的基本原则 p143

June 28, 2011

Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique
精神分析技術的基本原則 p143

BRUCE FINK
布魯斯 芬克

How to Handle Transference
如何處理移情

He indicated, for example, that when the male analyst working with a man whom Gill called “Patient E” made an interpretation to the effect that the patient was worried that there was an intimate, homosexual component to his relationship with the analyst, the patient heard the interpretation “as a homosexual approach” or come-on (p. 1 05).

例如,他指示著,,當男性分析師跟一位吉爾稱為的「病人戊」的男人諮商時,解釋的大意是:病人正在憂慮會有親密的同性戀的成分,在他跟分析師之間,病人聽到解釋為「作為同性戀的途徑」或是「誘拐之計」。

The analyst in that case had apparently been sensed for some time by the patient to be encouraging the patient to form a homoerotic 同性戀 bond with him, and the analyst’s interpretation was taken by the patient as confirmation of his preexisting sense.

在那種情況的分析師明顯地被病人相當時間感覺到,是在鼓勵病人跟他形成同性戀的默契。分析師的解釋,被病人接受作是對於他事先存在的感覺的肯定。

Another analysand, whom Gill referred to as “Patient G,” had obviously felt for some time that he was in competition with his analyst and perpetually losing the contest. When his analyst commented at length on this, the patient “experience[d] every interpretation as an enactment 扮演 of the competition. Even interpretations that [were] about that very thing” for example, the analyst proffered, “My saying that you have experienced it as a competition in which I am besting you is yet another move in this game of besting you”–were “experienced as aloof, one-upmanship” on the analyst’s part (p. 1 70).

另外一種受分析者,吉爾提到作為「病人己」,有相當時間感覺到,他是在跟他的分析師競爭,並且連續地漸漸輸掉這場競賽。當他的分析師詳細地評論這一點,病人「經驗每一個解釋,作為競爭的演出。例如,即使是分析師提出的事情,」當我說,你已經經驗到它作為一種我正在擊敗你的競爭,這個說法又是另外一種策略,在這場擊敗你的遊戲。這些解釋被經驗到當作是分析師這一邊「拉開距離,領先對手的策略」。

When his analyst told him he seemed to be seeking the analyst’s
approval, the patient concluded that this was just one more way he was messed up and failing. When the analyst commented that the patient felt the analyst was putting him down, the patient took the comment as another put-down (pp. 1 62-1 64).

當他的分析師告訴他,他似乎正在尋求分析師的認同,病人斷定說,這又是另外一招讓他搞混而且失誤的方式。當分析師評論,病人感覺分析師正在將他擊敗,病人接受這個評論,作為另外一個擊敗。

The analyst’s speech is heard as coming from the person the analysand imputes the analyst to be, not as coming from the person the analyst
thinks he is or would like to be, or as coming from some objective outside
observer. In this sense, interpretation of the transference, which is allegedly engaged in so as to “resolve” or “liquidate” the transference, ends up merely feeding the transference, making it still more intense and unwieldy. 19

分析師的談話,被聽見作為來自受分析者將分析師歸屬成為的那種人,而不是作為來自分析者認為他的本質,或是想要成為的那種人,或是來自某位客觀的外在觀察者。在這層意義上,據宣稱正在進行的移情的解釋,為了要「解決」或「消除」移情,結果僅是將移情滋長,使移情更加強烈而狼狽。

This is one of the reasons why Lacanians will often proffer very short interpretations that omit the subject of the statement (avoiding, for example, “[ think”) and that consist essentially of the analysand’s own words–perhaps strung together in a slightly different order–such that it is not entirely clear to the analysand who authored them. This makes it more difficult for such interpretations (see Chapter 5) to be experienced and rejected “as coming from the transferential Other.”

這就是其中一個理由,為什麼拉康派精神分析往往提供非常簡短的解釋,省略陳述的主詞(例如,避免「我認為」),基本上,那是由受分析者的自己的話所組成—可能以稍微不同方式擺置—以致於受分析者並不完全清楚,誰是這些話語的作者。這使得諸如其類的解釋更加困難被經驗及被排斥,「作為來自移情的大它者。」

Despite an entire volume of theoretical considerations on the interpretation of transference and a second volume of transcriptions of sessions purporting to show the reader how to detect and interpret transference, Gill provided little if any evidence that the interpretation of transference led to enduring change in the analysands he presented.

儘管對於移情的解釋,理論上的考慮,全部是那麼多,以及在諮商晤談時的錄音稿,又再添加的數量,用來跟讀者顯示,如何覺察及解釋移情,吉爾很少證據,即使是有的話,移情的解釋會導致他呈現的這些受分析者,會有永久的變化。

The possible sources and evolution of Patient E’s fear of intimacy and homophobia were never even broached, nor were the probable causes of Patient G’s competition with authority figures. Both of these
patients made it quite clear that fear and competition characterized many of their relationships with others, yet the reader was never given so much as a glimpse of their connection with the patients’ histories.

病人戊的恐懼親密及恐懼同性戀,可能的來源與進展甚至從來沒有被擴大,病人己跟權威人物的競爭的可能原因也沒有。這兩位病人表達得很清楚:恐懼與競爭表現他們與別人的關係的特性,可是讀者從來沒有給予如此多的東西,得以瞥見他們跟病人歷史的關聯。

As important as it may be for analysts to be attuned to “allusions to the transference” (Gill, 1 982, p. 2 1 ) in stories analysands recount during their sessions, and as important as it may be to get analysands to elaborate on such allusions in detail, virtually every direct interpretation of the transference in the sessions Gill and Hoffman collected led to a quandary, a messy soup that the analysts whose cases they presented extracted themselves from only with the greatest of difficulty.

雖然受分析者於諮商晤談時描述的故事裏,分析師要調適「移情的暗示」,可能非常重要,以及雖然要受分析者詳細地構想這樣的暗示非常重要,吉爾與霍夫曼收集的對於諮商晤談時的移情,幾乎每一個直接的解釋,都導致狼狽不堪的窘境。呈現案例的分析師,僅是千辛萬苦,才置身事外。

Unwittingly, Gill and Hoffman appear to have provided ample evidence that it is ‘ counterproductive to interpret the transference.

不知不覺地,吉爾與霍夫曼似乎已經提供充分的證據:解釋移情會產生不良後果。

Although one cannot see any great benefit accruing to the patients they
presented, one can see that the attempt on the part of some of the analysts
whose sessions were included in the volume to find allusions to the transference everywhere and to systematically interpret the transference led them to overlook the most basic facets of psychoanalytic technique:

雖然我們無法看出,對於他們呈現的病人能夠增加任何大的優點,我們能夠看出:在有些分析師這一邊,他們的諮商晤談被包括在一次性裏,為了從每個地方找出對於移情的暗示,及系統化地解釋移情,這種企圖會導致他們忽略精神分析技巧的最基本的面貌:

• They overlooked slips of the tongue (Patient G said, “my being angry with me” instead of “my being angry with him,” implying something very
different, indeed;

—他們忽略了說錯話的口誤(病人己說,「我對我自己生氣」,而不是「我對他生氣」,的確暗示著某件非常不同的事情。)

• They failed to notice mixed metaphors (Patient G said, referring to the upcoming end of the’ therapy, ”Time is running out. The crystal ball
with the sand ends July 2 1 st,” obviously meaning “hourglass” instead of “crystal ball,” and thus referring quite transparently to his view that his analyst was, or at least believed he was, clairvoyant-if not a fortune
teller; p. 1 56).

—他們沒有注意到混合的比喻(病人己說的,提到這個「治療」的即將結束,「時間快要用完了」,沙的水晶球在七月二十一日結束,顯而易見是指「沙漏」而不是「水晶球」。因此這相當明顯是提到他的觀點:他的分析師是通靈的人,或至少他以為他是—即使不是算命者。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神分析技術的基本原則p141

June 27, 2011

Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique
精神分析技術的基本原則 p141

BRUCE FINK
布魯斯 芬克

How to Handle Transference
如何處理移情

Nevertheless, the majority 大多數 of analysts seem to have fallen in with Freud’s ( 19 1 3/ 1 958) point of view that we must interpret the transference whenever it begins to lead to resistance 阻抗:

可是,大多數的分析師似乎已經同意佛洛伊德的觀點:我們必須解釋移情,每當它通往阻抗。

So long as the patients communications 溝通 and ideas run on 進行 without any obstruction 阻礙, the theme of transference should be left untouched 沒有碰觸. One must wait until the transference, [the handling of] which is the most delicate of all procedures 程式, has become a resistance 阻抗. (p. 1 39)

只要病人的溝通及觀念沒有受到阻礙地進行,移情的主體應該留著不要碰觸。我們必須等到移情已經變成阻抗,因為對於移情的處理是最微妙的一種程式。

They seem not to have realized that an interpretation 解釋of the transference that comes from the transferential object herself, the analyst, is not a way out of the transference but simply reproduces 複製 the transference; for, as Lacan (2006, p. 59 1 ) said, ‘The analyst’s speech is [always] heard as coming from the transferential Other.”

分析師似乎沒有體會是,對於移情的解釋,來自移情的客體本身,分析師,並不是解決移情的好方法,而僅是複製移情。如同拉康所說的:「分析師的言談總是被聽見,當作是來自移情的大它者。」

If, for example, the analyst has become associated 聯想 with a critical重要的 parental figure, her interpretation will be heard as critical 重要; if she has become associated with a seductive誘拐 maternal 母親figure, her interpretation will be heard as seductive. We do not achieve some sort ‘of metaposition 形上位置 outside of the transference by interpreting it (the claims of therapists like Levenson, 1 995, p. 88, that we can “metacommunicate” 形上溝通 notwithstanding雖然).

例如,分析師已經跟重要的父母的人物聯想在一塊,她的解釋將會被聽見,當作很重要。假如他已經跟一位誘拐的母親的人物聯想在一塊,她的解釋將會被解釋為誘拐。我們透過解釋移情,並沒有完成某種的移情之外的形上位置。(有些治療師,譬如,李文森,宣稱說:儘管如此,我們能夠「形而上溝通」)

We remain up to our ears 忙碌於 in the transference. As Lacan ( 1967-1968, November 29, 1 967) said, there is “no transference of the transference,” meaning that–just as there is no position outside o f language that allows us to discuss language as a whole without having to rely on language itself in our discussion-there is no way in which we can step completely outside the transference situation in order to discuss what is happening in the transference itself (see also Lacan, 1 998b, p. 428).

我們始終為移情的問題所困。如同拉康所說,「沒有移情的移情」。他的意思是:正如語言之外,沒有立場容許我們討論語言的整體,因為在我們的討論,我們必須依賴語言本身。我們不可能完全跨越到移情情境之外,為了討論移情本身會發生什麼事情。

The interpretation of transference is a vicious cycle 惡性循環! Analysts have tried to get around this vicious cycle by dividing the analysand into two parts: the “experiencing ego” and the “observing 觀察 ego” (Sterba, 1 934).

移情的解釋是一種惡性循環!分析師曾經嘗試將受分析者分成兩個部分,繞過這個惡性循環:「正在經驗的自我」與「正在觀察到自我」。

The trick 竅訣, in their view, is to invite the observing ego, which they consider to be “rational 理性,” to step outside of the transference (which is presumably 假定 engaged in by the experiencing ego alone) into some kind of metaspace 形上空間 , a space outside of the transference where analyst and analysand can meet as “reasonable” observing egos and agree upon what is happening between the irrational, unreasonable, experiencing egos who are caught up in 忙於 the transference/countertransference. 16

依他們之見,這種竅訣是要邀請正在觀察的自我,跨越出移情之外,因為他們認為他是理性的,(這假定移情僅是由正在經驗的自我在進行,)進入某種的形上空間。這種移情之外的空間,在那裏,分析師與受分析者能夠會合,作我「理性的」觀察的自我,並且達成一致看法,對於正在發生於這些非理性,不理智的經驗自我,他們深陷於移情與反移情之中。

It may sound like I am being ironic 反諷here, but many authors 作者speak in precisely 確實these terms, as if “rational 理性,” “irrational,” “reasonable,” and “unreasonable” were simple, serviceable服務 categories1 範疇7 that could be unproblematically associated with one or another of the psychical agencies 代理, and as if–even if an agreement as to what is going on could be reached between reasonable, “dispassionate 冷靜,” observing egos taking a “time out” from the hothouse 溫室 of the transference relationship–it would change anything when they return to the hothouse (apart from encouraging the analysand to suppress 壓抑 any and all transference reactions 反動 in the future) .

聽起來像是我在此冷嘲熱諷。但是許多作者以很明確的這些術語談到,好像「理性」,「非理性」,「理智」「不理智」是簡單,可供服務的分類,能夠毫無棘手地就跟某種心靈的代理互相聯想—即使關於正在進行的事情,能夠獲得一致看法,在理性,「冷靜」的觀察的自我「暫停一段時間」,離開移情關係的溫室—好似這樣,當他們重回溫室時,他們就能一切改觀。(除了就是鼓勵受分析者壓抑未來的任何移情及全部移情。)

The analysand is likely to remain just as hypersensitive 過度敏感 to criticism as he was before, for example, but he may begin to “talk himself down” from his high dudgeon 生氣 when he remembers his discussion with the analyst to the effect that he constantly 不斷地felt criticized批評 by his father as a child, which is the origin 起源of his hypersensitivity to criticism today.

例如,受分析者很可能跟以前一樣,對於批評保持同樣的過度敏感。但是他在老羞成怒中,可能開始「舒解自己」,當他想起他跟分析師的討論,大意是說,他不斷地感到他小時候,受到他的父親的批評。這是他今天對於批評的高度敏感的起因。

The upshot 結局 is that he will still get very angry but will learn how to suppress 壓抑 his anger after the fact instead of acting on it. Or he will still experience women’s comments to him as invariably 一成不變 seductive 誘拐 but will learn how to “reason with himself,” reminding himself on each occasion that he experiences their comments that way because of things that occurred with his mother. Such is the usefulness (or uselessness, as the case may be) of enlisting 徵召 the aid of the analysand’s observing ego!

結局是,他依舊將會憤怒,但是學會如何壓抑他對於這個事實的憤怒,而不是根據這個事實採取行動。或者,他將依舊會經驗到女人對他的評論,作為一定是誘拐,但是學會如何「跟自己講道理」,在每個場合,提醒他自己:他以那種方式,經驗到他們的評論,因為跟他的母親一起發生的事情。徵召受分析者的觀察到自我,來幫忙的這個方法,是如此的有用,(或無用,端看情況而定)!

Gill ( 1 982) is one of the foremost proponents 提議者, in the non-Kleinian analytic world (I will discuss Klein later in this chapter), of the systematic interpretation of transference, yet he acknowledged something (which he appeared to view as a simple anomaly or curiosity, even though he repeated it numerous times in the course of his book) that seems to corroborate Lacan’s view that it is generally pointless to interpret the transference.

在非克萊恩的精神分析界,吉爾是最重要的提倡者之一,(在這個章節,我將會討論克萊恩),關於系統化地解釋移情,可是他承認某件事情(他似乎將它看作是單純的異常或好奇,雖然他在他的書裏,重述這件事好幾次)。這件事情似乎跟拉康的觀點不謀而合:解釋移情通常是沒有意義的。

Gill indicated that in the transcripts of complete sessions he provided in volume 2 of his work, one can see “how regularly the analysis of the transference has its own repercussions on the transference–often repercussions which result in an enactment of the very patterns of interactions to which the interpretations refer”

吉爾指示:在他的著作的第二冊,他提供完整的諮商晤談的錄音稿。我們能夠看出「移情的精神分析,對於移情如何規律地會有它自己的反作用—這些反作用,造成解釋所提到的分析師與受分析者互動模式的扮演。」

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神分析技术的基本原则 p139

June 26, 2011

Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique
精神分析技术的基本原则p139

BRUCE FINK
布魯斯 芬克

How to Handle Transference
如何處理移情

As Freud ( 1 9 1 6- 1 9 1 7/1 963, p. 443) said, we “need not bother about [the transference] so long as it operates in favour of the joint work of analysis.” According to Gill ( 1 982, p. 8 1 ), Ferenczi, Rank, and Reich all maintained that “a strong positive transference, especially near the beginning of analysis, is only a symptom 病徵of resistance 阻抗which requires unmasking 揭發 ” hence they would presumably 假定argue that it is necessary to intervene 介入 in such a way as to temper 緩和 the analysand’s enthusiasm 熱心. Reich, in fact, believed that positive transference always hides a more fundamental, primordial 原初, negative transference.

如佛洛伊德所說,我們「不需要去煩惱移情,只要它運作有利於精神分析的共同工作。」依照吉爾、菲瑞基、髯客,及瑞奇都主張:「一個強烈的正面移情,特別是靠近精神分析的開始,只是一種阻抗的病徵。它要求揭發出來。」因此,它們假定會主張,以這樣一種方式介入是必須的,這樣才能緩和受分析者的熱心關懷。事實上,瑞奇相信,正面的移情總是隱藏一種更加基本,原始,負面的移情。

Recall that psychoanalysis began with a love story: Anna O. (whose real
name was Bertha Pappenheim) came up with 想出 the “talking cure” out of love for Joseph Breuer, the attentive young doctor who made house calls morning and night to work with her for hours at a time. He was the only person whose presence she would notice and the only person she would speak with during certain phases 時期 of her treatment (Freud & Breuer, 1 893-1 895/1955, pp. 2 1-47).

回憶一下,精神分析是以一個戀愛故事開始。安娜,奧(她的真正名字是波莎、帕平涵),由於對於約塞弗、布魯爾的愛慕構想出這個「談話的治療」。這位專心的年輕醫生,日夜地打電話到家裏,為了要跟她一起工作,連續好幾個小時。他是唯一的人,她會注意到他的存在,也是唯一的人,她願意跟他談話,在她接受治療的某些期間。

In the beginning (of psychoanalysis) was love. And her love was inspired 啟發 by a man who, whether she found him good-looking or not, was a well-respected physician whom she could assume 假定 knew something about her condition and how to heal 治療 her (even though, as history shows, she was the one who had virtually all the knowledge and he was simply smart enough to follow her lead ).

精神分析的開始就是愛。她的愛受到一個人的啟發,不管她任為這個人長得好看與否,他是一位受人尊敬的醫生,她假定這位醫生瞭解她的狀況的某件事情,及知道如何治療她(即使,依照歷史所顯示的,她才是是這個人,擁有幾乎所有的知識,而他僅是足夠聰明跟隨她的引導。)

Even though the parties to the love story from which psychoanalysis was born did not live happily ever after together, the fact remains that love, inspired by a belief that the other party possesses 擁有 knowledge, was the mainspring 主要動機 of the treatment Anna O. invented.

雖然精神分析誕生於這個愛的故事,可是愛的故事的雙方,並沒有從此以後就快樂地生活在一起。這個事實依據存在:靠著信仰對方擁有知識而受到啟發的愛,是安娜、奧發明的治療的原動力。

Many of the graduate students in clinical psychology whom I supervise 督導 are quick to try to dispel 驅散 a patient’s belief that they have considerable 相當 knowledge of what ails 苦惱 him. They often do so in the interest 利益, so they say, of honesty and to assure the patient that he has as much power in the relationship as the clinician 臨床醫生.

接受我督導的許多臨床心理學研究生,很快就驅散一位病人的信仰:他們擁有相當的知識,對於他遭受苦惱的原因。據他們說,他們往往這樣做,由於忠於誠實,為了要讓病人確定,在這層關係上,他擁有同樣的力量跟臨床醫生差不多。

As laudable 讚賞 as their goals may be-and it is indeed the patient who has the lion’s share of the knowledge, the practitioner having very little, especially at the outset of the treatment-they often end up undermining 損壞 the patient’s faith in their ability to help him. Rather than “empowering” him, they end up disempowering 解除力量 him, making him feel dejected 沮喪 and despondent 沮喪. He feels that he has no knowledge that is of any use in this domain; if he did, he would not be in the predicament 困境 in which he finds himself in the first place.

雖然他們誠實的目標值得讚賞,而且確實是病人擁有更多部分有關他病徵的知識,開業治療師知道得並不多,特別是在治療開始時,他們的結果往往是逐漸損壞病人對於他們能夠幫忙他的信心。非但沒有「增強」他的信心,他們結果消除他的信心力量,讓他感覺沮喪及灰心。他感覺他並沒有在這個領域有用途的知識。假如他真的擁有,他就不會陷在這種困境,他發現他首先處於的困境。

It is often very important for him to believe that someone else has the knowledge that can help him; dispelling 驅散 that belief is to take away his last shred 一點 of hope.

相信某個其他的人擁有知識能夠幫忙他,對他而言,往往非常重要。驅散那個信仰等於就是拿掉他最後的一絲希望。

Hence, this attempt to intervene 介入in the patient’s transference of knowledge onto the analyst can lead to despair 絕望.

因此,這個企圖介入病人對於分析師的知識的移情,會導致絕望。

Trying to convince the patient right from the outset 開始that he has as much, if not more, knowledge than the clinician is most likely to succeed when the clinician herself is young and working in a training facility 能力 where all the therapists are either seeing their very first patients or have only a year or two of experience.

嘗試從一開始就讓病人相信:他擁有跟臨床醫生同樣多,甚至更多的知識,很可能會成功,當臨床醫生自己年輕,而且是在訓練單位工作。在那裏,治療師正在觀察他們第一批的病人,要不就是他們僅有一兩年的經驗。

“For in such cases, patients are usually aware that they are getting
what they are paying for, so to speak–that their therapist has comparatively 比較 less “expertise” 專門知識 than other therapists they might seek out in the community who have been practicing for many years.

Nevertheless, in numerous cases the patient simply feels that the clinician “doth protest 抗議 too much” and is just being modest 謙虛 or trying to spare 省掉 his feelings of inferiority.

在這樣的情況,病人通常知道,他們會獲的他們付錢的所得,也就是說,他們的治療師,擁有比較少的「專門知識」,比起他們在社區可能尋找到其他治療師。在無數的情況,病人僅是感覺到,臨床醫生「確實抗議太多」,態度過有謙虛,或是設法避免他的自卑感。

Socrates’s claim 宣稱to know nothing (except about love) never convinced his disciples 門徒 , who continued to believe that he was a veritable 可驗證的 fount 泉源 of knowledge. This points to an extremely important facet of psychoanalytic technique: The attempt to dissipate 驅散 or “liquidate” 消除the analysand’s transference is doomed 駐定 to failure, because the analyst’s disclaimer 拒絕–for example, “I can’t possibly know what the problem is, you’re the one who has the knowledge here”-is heard by the analysand as coming from the person whom he projects her to be: a very knowledgeable person (otherwise, he asks himself, why would she be a clinician in the first place?).

蘇格拉底宣稱什麼都不知道(除了關於愛),但是他的門徒從來不這樣認為。他們繼續相信他,他是知識的可驗證的來源。這指向精神分析技術一個極端重要的面貌:企圖驅散或「消除」受分析者的移情是註定失敗,因為分析師的拒絕承認,例如,「我不可能知道問題是什麼,你才是這裏擁有這個知識的人。」在受分析者聽起來,會當著來自他投射她在上面的這個人:一位非常有知識的人 (否則,他問他自己,為什麼是她首先當臨床醫生?)

The attempt to mitigate 緩和 some of the more cumbersome 麻煩的aspects of the transference by commenting on 評論 or interpreting 解釋it from within the transference (that is, when one is the object of the􀒡 analysand’s transference as opposed to 相對 a third party, such as a friend, colleague同事, or consulting 諮商 physician 醫生) is generally doomed to failure for the very same reason. Should, for example, the analysand have the sense that the analyst is angry at him and the analyst deny 否認 any such anger, her denial will nevertheless be heard by the analysand as coming from someone whom he presumes 假定to be angry; indeed, he may take the denial 否認itself as a sign 跡象 of anger!

同樣的原因,要憑藉從移情內部,來評論或解釋它,以緩和移情的某些麻煩的層面,這種企圖通常註定失敗,(換句話說,當我們成為受分析者的移情,相對于第三者,譬如朋友、同事、或諮商醫生。)例如,受分析者應該感覺,分析師對他生氣,而分析師否認任何這樣的憤怒,她的否認仍然會被受分析者聽見,當著是來自他假定是生氣的某個人;的確,他可能接受這個否認本身,當著是生氣的跡象!

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神分析技術的基本原則p136

June 25, 2011

Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique
精神分析技術的基本原則p136

BRUCE FINK
布魯斯 芬克

How to Handle Transference
如何處理移情

If psychoanalysis is a means, it situates itself in the place of love.
–LAcan (i973-i974, December 1 8, 1973)

假如精神分析是一種工具,它定位它自己在愛的立場。
–拉康(1973-i974, December 1 8, 1973)

Having said a little now about how to recognize what in the analytic situation is owing to transference and what is not (owing instead to countertransference) , let us now turn to the so-called handling of transference.

關於如何認出在精神分析的情境,什麼是由於移情,及什麼不是由於移情(代替的,是由於反移情),略微說明之後,現在讓我們轉向所謂的移情的處理。

Although the parameters 參數 of transference that I have thus far outlined may strike 給印象 the reader as abstract抽象, the experience of transference is anything but, whether considered from the vantage point of the analyst who is on the receiving end of it or from that of the analysand who is in the grips of 掌控it.

雖然移情的三數我迄今所描繪的輪廓,可能會讀者的印象是抽象,但是移情的經驗卻是絲毫不抽象,無論是從處於接受一方的精神分析師的視野角度,或是從受移情掌控的受分析者的視野角度。

Positive Transference
正面的移情

I would say that positive transference is when the person in question, the analyst in this case, is in our good graces 恩典, negative transference is when we keep an eye on 觀看 him.
— Lacan (1 978, p. 1 24)

我將會說,正面的移情是受到置疑的這個人,在這個情況是分析師,是處於我們美好的魅力,而負面的移情則是當我們觀看他的時候。

In certain cases, the analysand finds himself thinking about the analyst a great deal of the time, wondering about her life, and perhaps even trying to find out more about her; in a word, he has become enamored of 傾心於 or even somewhat obsessed with 迷戀 someone he barely 免強 knows and who very likely has few if any of the characteristics 特性 of the women who have been of interest to him in the past (if indeed any women have been of interest to him in the past).

在某些情況,受分析者發現他自己時常想念到精神分析師,想要知道她的生活,或許甚至嘗試要找到更多關於她的事情;總之,他已經變得傾心於,甚至相當迷戀於某個他並不很認識的人。這個人很可能沒有什麼女人的特性,即使是有的話,以前曾經讓他感到興趣,(的確,假如以前有過任何女人讓他感到興趣的話。)

14
Note that even the basic constraints 約束 of the analytic situation itself, such as meeting at scheduled 預定行程 times in a specific 明確location 位置, making regular payments, and so on, can be fodder 飼料for transference, since analysands who refuse to be part of the “system” may rebel against 反叛 such constraints 約束 as representing 代表 Establishment 體制 , authoritarian 權威的values and hold the analyst personally responsible for them.

請注意,甚至是精神分析情境的本身的基本約束,譬如在明確的位置,某些預定的時間會面,定期地付款,等等,都會是移情的飼料。因為拒絕融入「體制」的受分析者,可能會反叛這樣的約束,譬如代表體制,權威的價值,並且要求分析師個人對於它們要負責。

The analyst may not be physically 生理上 attractive to him, may be several decades older or younger than he is, may dress in a manner he finds unflattering不討好 or indicative of 指示 a cultural or class 階級 milieu 環境 that is repugnant to 令人厭惡 his sensibilities 感官, and yet for some reason he may find himself feeling very enthusiastic about 熱心 her and eagerly looking forward to each of his sessions 諮商 with her. (This kind of infatuation迷戀 often occurs among analysands who are of the same sex as their analysts as well.)

對於他而言,分析師可能在生理方面不見得迷人,可能比他老幾十歲,或是比他年輕幾十歲,可能服裝打扮不見得討他喜歡,或是顯示文化或階級的背景讓他的感官深惡痛絕。可是為了某種理由,他可能發現他自己對於她感到熱心關懷,並且渴望她的每一次諮商晤談。(這種的迷戀往往發生在受分析者,跟分析師也是相同性別。)

The analysand feels he has found someone who truly listens to him, can
understand him, and may possibly be able to help him in his time of need. She strikes 給印象 him as knowledgeable–as already knowing or likely to know what his problem is and how to solve it. In a word, he sees her like a positive figure 人物 from his past, like someone who, at least at one point in time, seemed open to him and willing and able to help.

受分析者感覺他已經找到某個人真正地傾聽他,能夠瞭解他,可能能夠幫忙他,在他需要的時刻。她給他的印象是博學多識—已經知道或可能知道他的問題是什麼,以及知道如何解決它。總之,他看見她就像是一位從他的過去前來的正面的人物,就像是某個人,至少在時間的某個點,似乎接納他,願意而且能夠幫忙。

Nevertheless, he does not experience his transference as transference.
He does not say to himself, “The only reason I feel this way about my analyst is because she reminds me of the way my mother was when I was little and she still acted like a mother to me.” Instead, he experiences it as a strong feeling for this particular person, right here, right now. He is caught up in 感到強烈興趣 it, not observing himself at a distance from it: His passion 激情 for his analyst feels very real to him.

可是,他並沒有經驗到他的移情,當作是移情。他並沒有對他自己說,「我的分析師是唯一我以這種方式感覺到人,因為她讓我回想到,當我小時候,我的母親的樣子。她的行為對於我就像母親一樣。」代替的,他經驗到移情,作為一種強烈的感覺,對於這個特別的人,就在這裏,就在現在。他對於這種感覺深深著迷,而不是從距離它的遠處觀察他自己。他對於他的分析師的激情,覺得對於他非常真實,。

As long as his transference takes this form and does not interfere with 干涉 the work he is doing in the therapy, there is no need to intervene 介入 in any way to temper 緩和 his enthusiasm 熱心. Psychoanalysis harnesses 利用 the kind of excitement (libidinal energy) generated 產生by the analytic situation and the case of mistaken identity that it fosters 培養 ; it does not try to neutralize 中立 or dissipate 驅散it as certain other forms of treatment do.

只要他的移情採取這個形式,沒有干涉在治療時他正在做的工作,就沒有必要以任何方式介入緩和他的熱心關懷。精神分析利用分析情境產生這種的興奮(力比多的精力),及它所培養的錯誤認同的情況。它並沒有嘗試去沖和或驅散它,如同某些其他的治療形式所做的。

When one of my supervisees 受督導者 said she was troubled by the fact that a male analysand of hers had told her, “Sometimes I think the only reason I get on the bus to come to therapy is because you’re good looking,” I replied, “At least you’ve got that going for you.” She later indicated to me that it was very helpful to her and to the therapy as well to realize that whatever aesthetic 美學 or erotic 性愛 interest brought her analysand to therapy was fine, as long as it inspired 啟發 him to engage in the work of exploring and changing his life.

當我的一位受督導者說,她對於這個事實感到困擾:她的一位男性的受分析者曾經告訴她,「有時候,當我搭乘公車前來接受治療的唯一原因,是因為你長得好美。」我回答說,「至少你已經讓他有這樣的印象。」她後來跟我指明,這是很有幫助,對於她及對於治療,當她體會到,只要有助於引導受分析者前來接受治療,無論是美感或是性感的興趣,都無所謂,只要它啟發他前來從事探索及改變他的生命的工作。

When the analysand has this kind of positive transference to the analyst, the analyst strives to get the analysand to begin the laborious 費力的 process of the analysis out of love for her, to begin recalling certain parts of his past, as well as daydreams and fantasies 幻見 that he usually pays no attention to, and to begin associating to them. This is hard work, and the analysand needs all the motivation 動機 he can get.

當受分析者擁有這種對於分析師的正面的移情,分析師設法讓受分析者,動機出於對她的愛,開始精神分析這個艱辛的過程,開始回想起他的過去的某些部分,以及他通常沒有注意的白日夢及幻想,並且開始跟它們聯想起來。這是艱辛的工作,受分析者需要他所能夠獲得的一切動機。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神分析技巧的基本原则11

June 19, 2011

Bruce Fink
布魯斯、芬克

“Free-floating Attention”

秦譯「懸浮注意」,彭譯「自由浮動的注意力」。有鑒於它是「自由聯想的對應物」a counterpart to free associations,雄伯認為保留「自由」兩字,較為貼切。

As soon as anyone deliberately 刻意地 concentrates 專注 his attention to a certain degree 某個程度, he begins to select from the material材料 before him; one point will be fixed 固定 in his mind with particular clearness 清楚 and some other will be correspondingly 對應 disregarded忽略, and in making this selection he will be following his expectations or inclinations 傾向. This, however. is precisely 確實 what must not be done. In making the selection, if he follows his expectations 期待he is in danger of never finding anything but what he already knows.
– Freud ( J 9 1 2/IJ958, p. 112)

當任何人刻意地專注他的注意力到某個程度,他開始從面前的素材從事選擇。心裏有某個點特別請楚地被固定。還有些點則是將會相對地被忽略。當他在從事這個選擇時,他會遵循他的期望或傾向。可是,這確實是萬萬不該這樣做。假如他在從事選擇時,遵循他的期望,他陷入的危險是:除了他已經知道的東西外,他永遠找不到別的。
—佛洛伊德 (1912/1958, 112 頁)

What does the analyst listen for? This question presumes 預先假定 that there is something in particular 特別 that the analyst should be listening for, whereas experienced analysts generally 一般 agree that no matter what they might expect to come out in any given 特定 analysis, they are always surprised by what they find.

精神分析師要傾聽什麼呢?這個問題預先假定:特別是有某件東西,是精神分析師應該傾聽的。但是有經驗的精神分析師一般都同意:無論他們期望從任何特定的精神分析中,期望會有什麼出現,他們對於他們所發西的東西總是大吃一驚。

Freud ( 1 9 1 2b/1958, p. 11 1 ) rightly recommended 推薦 that we approach each new case as though it were our first, in the sense that we should presume nothing about what will transpire 透露, employing 使用”evenly-suspended 平均懸置 attention,” also known as “evenly 平均 hovering盤旋 attention” or “free-floating attention,” so that we will be able to hear whatever appears in the analysand’s “free associations 聯想.”

佛洛伊德建議得很有道理:我們應該接近每一個新的個案,好像都是我們的第一次個案。他的意思是,我們不應該預存假設,當我們使用「均勻懸置的注意力」,也被稱為是「均勻盤旋注意力」,或「自由浮動的注意力」。這樣我們將能夠聽到受分析者「自由聯想」出現的任何東西。

Freud rightly recommended that we ( should )approach each new case as though it were our first,

Recommended 後面接子句,作「建議」「推薦」解,帶有假設法定「虛擬」語氣,子句裏的should 時常省略,動詞變成原形動詞。但是中譯時,應該將省略的should (應該)翻出。

Rightly 的意思是「理由充分地」for a good reason, 及「正確地」 in a correct or accurate way 彭譯取「正確地」。

「我們應該接近每一個新的個案,好像都是我們的第一次個案。」這句話說來容易做來難。就像我們永遠無法複製我們的「初戀」及「初夜」一般,「純真」 innocence 就是只有那一次,往後就是越來越麻木了。不過哀莫大於心死也不好。佛洛伊德建議的僅是「好像」,則是還可以勉為其難!

“Free-floating attention” is what allows us to hear what is new and different in what the analysand says–as opposed to 相對於simply hearing what we want to hear or expect in advance 預先 to hear.

「自由浮動的注意力」的方法,使我們能夠從受分析者說的話裏,聽出新穎及不同的東西—而不是僅是聽到我們預先想要聽,或期望要聽的東西。

We cultivate 培養 the practice 練習 of such attention (which is not at all easy to sustain 維持) as part of our attempt 企圖to recognize the otherness of the other, the other’s differences from ourselves. 13

我們培養這種注意力的做法,(要維持下去根本不容易),作為我們部分的企圖,要認出另一個人的「它者」,另一個跟我們自己的差異性。

But what exactly is “free-floating attention”? It is not a kind of attentiveness that latches on to 理解 one particular statement the analysand makes and–in the attempt to etch it 深印 in one’s mind, think it through, or connect it to other things —misses the analysand’s next statement.

但是「自由浮動的注意力」確實是什麼?這不是一種僅是理解受分析者表達的某個特別陳述的注意力—企圖將他的特別陳述印記在心裏,徹底思維,然後再將它連接到其他的事情—這樣做會錯過受分析者的下一個陳述。

It is rather an attentiveness that floats from point to point, from statement 陳述to statement, without necessarily trying to draw any conclusions from them, interpret 解釋them, put them all together, or
sum them all up.

相反地,這是一種注意力,從一點浮動到另一點,從一個陳述浮動到另一個陳述,而沒有需要從它們那裏獲得任何結論,解釋它們,將它們綜合起來,或將它們做一個總結。

It is an attentiveness 注意力 that grasps 理解at least one level of meaning and yet hears all the words and the way they are pronounced 發音as well, including speed, volume 音量, tone 音色, affect 情意, stumbling 結結巴巴, hesitation 猶豫, and so on.

這是一種注意力,理解至少某個層次的意義,可是也能聽到所有字詞,及字詞被表達的方式,包括速度、音量、音色、情意、口給、猶豫等等。

13
Free-floating (or evenly hovering) attention is, as Freud ( 1 9 1 2b/1958, p. 1 1 2) said and Lacan (2006, p. 471) reiterated 重複, supposed to be the analyst’s counterpart 對應物 to the analysand’s “free association.”

第13 注釋
自由浮動(或均勻盤旋)注意力,佛洛伊德說過,拉康也重複再說。它應該是受分析者「自由聯想」的相對應之物。

Yet one of the first things one notices 注意as a practitioner 從業者 is that the analysand’s associations seem to be anything but 絕非 free. The analysand finds himself obliged不得不 to dance circles around certain topics 主題 rather than 而不是 go directly toward them, or to veer away from 改變方向them altogether when the memories and thoughts associated with聯想 them are overly charged 過分負荷.

可是,作為精神分析開業者,我們注意到的首要事情之一是:受分析者的聯想似乎絕非是自由。受分析者發現他自己不得不環繞某些的主題的周圍打轉,而不是直接進入主題,或是當跟主題聯想到的記憶及思想,過分負荷時,受分析者就完全躲開它們。

Bruce Fink
布魯斯、芬克

“Free-floating Attention”

Lacan (2006) ironized about 反諷 certain analysts’ search for a third ear (above all, Theodor Reik),with which to presumably 假定 hear an occult 奧秘 meaning, a meaning beyond the meanings that can already be found in the analysand’s speech:

拉康反諷某些精神分析師尋求第三隻耳朵(尤其是,希德、雷克的主張)。他們假定,用第三隻耳朵能夠聽見奧秘的意義,超越各種意義的意義。那是從受分析者的「話語」裏能夠被找到。

But what need can an analyst have for an extra 額外 ear, when it sometimes seems that two are already too many, since he runs headlong 向前 into the fundamental misunderstanding brought on 導致 by the relationship of understanding?

一位元精神分析師有何需要一隻額外的耳朵呢?有時,似乎兩隻耳朵都嫌太多。假如耳朵所能接受的,總是因為瞭解的關係導致的基本的誤解。

雄伯:
這段確實不好翻譯,直譯很難讓人懂,意譯又必須扭曲英文原有句法。

請參照彭譯:
但是,分析師為什麼需要有一隻多餘的耳朵,當有時候兩隻耳朵似乎都嫌多了,因為他總要一頭栽進理解式的關係所帶來的根本誤解?

the analysand’s speech 受分析者的「話語」,是指無意識的「話語」。

I repeatedly tell my students: “Don’t try to understand !” . . . May one of your ears become as deaf as the other one must be acute敏銳 . And that is the one that you should lend to listen for sounds and phonemes 音素, words, locutions 慣用語, and sentences, not forgetting pauses, scansions 韻律, cuts, periods 句點, and parallelisms 對比.
(p. 47 1 )

我一再地告訴我的學生:「不要設法瞭解!」「、、、但願你們的一隻耳朵聾了,這樣你們的另外一隻耳朵非得敏銳不可、、、就是這隻敏銳的耳朵,你們應該用來傾聽聲音與音素、字詞、慣用語、及句子,並且不要忘記停頓、韻律、裁剪、句點結束,及對比結構。

Lacan’s point here is that when the analyst becomes obsessed with understanding the meaning that the analysand is consciously trying to convey 傳達, with following all the intricacies 複雜of the story he is telling, she often fails to listen to the way in which the analysand conveys 傳達 what he says–to the words and expressions he uses and to his slips and slurs.

拉康在此的重點是,當精神分析師專注於瞭解受分析者有意識地設法傳達的意義,及其他正在敍述的故事的各個複雜內容,分析師往往沒有傾聽受分析者正在傳達說話內容的方式,沒有傾聽他使用的字詞及措辭,及沒有傾聽他的口誤及含糊之詞。

she often fails to listen to the way in which the analysand conveys 傳達 what he says–to the words and expressions he uses and to his slips and slurs.

這個句子包含三個對比的省略片語,很容易誤讀誤譯。我不妨將它們還原:
She often fails to listen to the way in which the analysand conveys what he says.
She often fails to listen to the words and expressions he uses
She often fails to listen to his slips and slurs.

Better to plug up the ear that listens only for meaning, he suggests, than to render the ear that listens to speech itself superfluous by adding a third one. When, for example, the analysand begins a sentence with “on the one hand,” we can be pretty sure he has another “hand” in mind; yet by the time the first “hand” is laid out, he may well have forgotten the second “hand,” in which case he is likely to say, “Well anyway,” and blithely turn to something else.

拉康建議,我們最好將僅是傾聽意義的那隻耳朵堵住,而不是多增加一隻耳朵,然後將傾聽「無意識話語本體」的那隻耳朵荒廢。例如,當受分析者使用「在一方面」,開始一個句子時,我們能夠相當確定,他心裏還有「另外一名」要表達。可是在第一個「方面」被呈現來之前,他很有可能已經忘記第二個「方面。」在那種情況,他可能會說:「嗯,就是這樣,」然後愉快地轉到某件其他的事情。

The analyst must not, however, take it so lightly: What, indeed, was that other hand? Its importance derives from the very fact that it has been (at least momentarily) forgotten.

可是,精神分析師一定不要忽視這一件事。的確,那「另外一面」是什麼呢?它的重要性來自這個事實:它已經受人遺忘(至少是暫時地)。

雄伯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
Http:springhero.wordpress.com

精神分析技術的基本原則 p13

June 16, 2011

Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique

精神分析技術的基本原則 p13

 

BRUCE FINK

布魯斯 芬克

 

1

Listening and Hearing

傾聽與聽到

 

 

布魯斯 芬克 BRUCE FINK 的「精神分析技術的基本原則」 The Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique,我才譯了幾頁,讀書會的C,就給我一份彭榮邦教授的翻譯手稿。由於彭教授的翻譯相當精確,而且文詞順暢,我再重譯似乎沒有什麼意義。於是臨機一動,改為注釋與對照。

 

P13

The Story Makes No Sense (or Too Much Sense)

 

彭译:毫无道理(或太有道理的)故事

雄伯:故事没有意义(或拥有意义太多)

(英文是整个句子,而非是形容词子句,修饰story)

 

The unconscious is not about losing ones memory; it is about not recalling what one knows.

-Lacan (1 968b, p. 35)

 

彭译:

无意识涉及到并不是失去记忆,而是记不得知道的事情。

 

雄伯:

「失去记忆」跟「记不得知道的事情」有什么差别?这个句子语义有点朦胧,是意识「失去记忆」,还是无意识「失去记忆」,是谁「记不得知道的事情」,意识,还是无意识?这样的无意识,意识如何跟它打交道?

 

 

The analysand tells a story about himself that is highly partial, in both senses of the term: He leaves out a great deal of the story–feeling that it is not important, germane, or flattering to himself, or having simply “forgotten” it and he presents the story as though he played a crystal-clear role in it as the hero, the victim, “the good guy,” or (less commonly) the jerk or criminal.

彭译:

分析者是他自己的故事时相当地以偏盖全,这里的「偏」有两层意思:他遗漏了故事的很多部分—觉得那不重要,无关,或自我吹嘘,或就是「忘记」了—而且把故事讲得好像他在那里头扮演的是再清楚不过的角色,是个英雄,是个受害者,或者(必较不常见地),是个混蛋或罪犯。

 

雄伯:

彭译真是无懈可击!

 

The story he tells is always piecemeal, fragmentary, riddled with gaps and holes, and essentially comprehensible to no one but him, for only he is privy to what has been left out (although sometimes he, too, is in the dark) and only he fully embraces his own perspective on his predicament.

 

彭译:

他所说的故事总是片面之词,断简残篇,充满破绽,除了他之外,根本没有人会懂,因为那些被遗漏洞部分只有他自己知道(虽然有时候连他自己也被蒙在鼓里),况且即便是别人在他的困境中,也不会跟他的观点全然一致。

 

雄伯!

Riddled with gaps and holes 充满差距与破绽

 

The story is essentially comprehensible to no one but him.

= No one but him can essentially comprehend the story.

基本上,除了他之外,没有人能够理解这个故事。

 

Only he is privy to what has been left out (although sometimes he, too, is in the dark)

所被遗漏的部分,只有他私下被告知。(虽然有时连他自己也不知道。)

 

Privy to 的意思是「被告知某件秘密及通常不为人所知的事情 」(followed by ‘to’) informed about something secret or not generally known

 

Only he fully embraces his own perspective on his predicament.

只有他完全接受他自己对于他身处困境时的观点。

 

Embrace 的意思是「接纳目标,意识形态,做法,方法,当著是自己的」Take up the cause, ideology, practice, method, of someone and use it as one’s own

 

Even then, he himself may be of two minds (or even more) about his own participation in the story: In session, he may try to convince the analyst, and thereby convince himself, that he was nothing but a victim in the situation, but he may not fully endorse that view in his heart of hearts.

 

彭译:

甚至在当时,他对自己怎么参与了这个故事,他可能早有贰心( 甚至更多)。在晤谈中,他可能试着说服分析师,从而说服自己,他在当时的情境中只是个受害者,然而他自己却不见得全心全意地为这样的说法背书。

 

雄伯

of two minds (about someone or something)

Fig. holding conflicting opinions about someone or something; being undecided about someone or something.

 

拥有冲突的意见,关于某个人,或某件事情,犹豫不决

例句

I am of two minds about whether I should go to the convention.

对于我是否应该参加那个会议,我犹豫不决。

 

 

Part of the analyst’s job is to ensure that the part of him that does not endorse this view has a chance to speak its piece and gets a fair hearing, so to speak.

 

彭译:

我们可以这样说,分析师的工作之一,就是要让他不为这样的说法背书的部分,也能为自己说话,得到所谓公正听证的机会。

 

雄伯

Speak your piece means “state your opinion or view.”

「说出你的意见」意思是「陈述你的意见或观点」

例句

He’d planned to speak his piece at the next meeting.

他计划在下次会议中说出他的意见。

( Merriam-Webster Learner Dictionary)

 

 

Often the story as told simply makes no sense to a listener, no matter how creative or intuitive, because too much is being left out; the analyst’s task, in such cases, is to draw the analysand out in an attempt to fill in the gaps (which recalls Freud’s notion that the main purpose of an analysis is to fill in the gaps in the analysand’s history ).

 

彭译:

通常,对听者而言,分析者所说的故事毫无道理可言,无论他多有创意或多符合直觉,因为太多的事情被遗漏了;分析师的任务,在这样的情况下,就是要引蛇出洞,让分析者试著填补破绽(我们不禁想起佛洛伊德当初的设想,分析的主要目标是填补分析者生命史当中的破绽)。

 

雄伯:

Often the story as told simply makes no sense to a listener, no matter how creative or intuitive, because too much is being left out.

= Often the story ,as it is told by the analysand,  simply makes no sense to a listener, no matter how creative or intuitive it may be, because he is leaving out too much .

 

往往,依照受分析者所说的故事,对于听者而言,就是没有什么意义,不管故事是多么的有创意,或多么靠近直觉,因为正在受到遗漏的事情太多。

 
The analyst’s task, in such cases, is to draw the analysand out in an attempt to fill in the gaps.

 

在这样的情况,分析师的工作就是鼓励受分析者把话说出来,设法填补这些空白部分。

 

draw  someone out 的意思是「鼓励某人说出话」to encourage ( someone ) , esp. to talk,不是彭译的「引蛇出洞」。

 

例句:

Mary is very quiet; try to draw her out at the party.

玛丽如此沉默;你应该设法鼓励她在宴席中说话。

( 见 Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs )

 

in an attempt to fill in the gaps. (设法填补这些罅隙)

 

由于是分析师鼓励受分析者说出,至于是谁「设法填补这些罅隙」,并非一定就是彭译的「分析者」,畢竟「填补分析者生命史当中的空白部分」是「精神分析的主要目标」。

 

which recalls Freud’s notion that the main purpose of an analysis is to fill in the gaps in the analysand’s history

 

这个工作让我们想起佛洛伊德构想:精神分析的主要目标是要填补受分析者历史的空白部分。

 

which 指的是前面的The analyst’s task

 

 

In other cases, however, the story is wrapped up very nicely and neatly, with a pretty bow on top, and yet it seems incommensurate with the affect attached to it, does not make any sense in the context of the analysand’s life as it has thus far been portrayed, or seems too cut and dried.

 

彭译

然而,在其他的情况下,分析者所说的故事被包装的乾净整齐,上面还打了蝴蝶结,可是看起里就是和故事所蕴含的情感不相称,因为故事的刻画太工整,太没血肉,放在分析者的生命脉络之中,也看不出什么道理。

 

Wrapped up—包裹

Nicely and neatly—整齐漂亮

Incommensurate with—格格不入

The affect attached to it

= the affect which is attached to it

跟故事连繫在一块的情感

 

 

Cut and dried 的意思是「没有弹性,可预测出来,不可能適应改变,情感的压力」inflexible; predictable; not likely to adapt to change, emotional pressure

 

( 见 Oxford Dictionary of Current Idiomatic English)

 

 

Indeed, the analysand may seem extremely content with his explanation of the event in question and yet the analyst may wonder why, if he is so at peace with the explanation, it is being mentioned at all.

 

彭译:

实际上,分析者对于某个事件的解释可能显得相当满意,但是分析师可能还是要问,为什么他会对于这个解释显得这么平和,甚至为什么要多做解释。

 

雄伯:

的确,受分析者对于受到置疑的事件的解释,似乎极端满意。可是分析师可能想要知道,如果受分析者对于解释,是如此的心安理得,现在为什么要连连提起?

 

Something about it does not fit, does not make any sense-it is not a problem with the story itself, but with the fact that it is being told in an analytic session at this particular point in the therapy.

 

彭译:

分析者的故事就是有点不相称,没道理—不是故事本身有问题,而是它为什么会在治疗的这个时间点,在分析的唔谈中被提起。

 

雄伯:

关于故事,就是有某件搭配不上的事情,它无法产生任何意义。问题不是出在故事的本身,而是出在这个事实:故事是在諮商晤谈时说的,在治疗的这个特别时刻说。

(在治疗时刻说,表示你就是无法心安理得才来!)

 

 

 

精神分析技術的基本原則 p12

June 15, 2011

Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique
精神分析技術的基本原則 p12

BRUCE FINK
布魯斯 芬克

1
Listening and Hearing
傾聽與聽到

P12
Getting caught up in the story being told is one of the biggest traps for new analysts and, not surprisingly, they get most easily caught up in the story the closer it seems to their own interests or the more closely it seems to concern or reflect upon them as individuals or clinicians.

彭譯
對分析者所說的故事太過投入,這是新手分析師最常掉入的陷阱,而令人不意外的是,似乎是和他們的興趣最接近的,或是和他們做為一個人,做為一個臨床工作者最有關的,或是最能映照出他們自己的那些故事,最容易讓他們一個頭栽進去。

Get caught up in 的意思是 「深深感到興趣並且忙碌於」to be deeply interested in and busy with

Getting caught in the story 是動名詞片語,充當is 的主詞

being told 是分詞片語,修飾前面的story,可改為形容詞子句,which is being told

Getting caught up in the story being told is one of the biggest traps for new analysts

著迷於受分析者所說的故事,是剛出道的分析師最大的陷阱之一。

Not surprisingly, they get most easily caught up in the story.
= It is not surprising that they get most easily caught up in the story.

分析師輕易地著迷於故事,是不足為奇的事情。

Not surprisingly,they get most easily caught up in the story the closer it seems to their own interests or the more closely it seems to concern or reflect upon them as individuals or clinicians.

=Not surprisingly, when the story seems to be closer to analysts’ own interests, or the story seems to more closely concern or reflect upon analysts as individuals or clinicians, they get more easily caught up in the story.

雄伯譯
這是不足為奇的,當故事似乎越是靠近分析師的興趣,或故事越是跟分析師有密切關係,或密切地映照分析師作為個人或臨床分析師,分析師越是會對故事著迷。

這個句子容易混淆的地方在於「the more、、、the more」 的句型被倒置。一般的寫法是將the +比較級的副詞子句置前,the closer it seems to their own interests or the more closely it seems to concern or reflect upon them as individuals or clinicians,主要主句置後they get most easily caught up in the story。本句則是因為承接前面句子的關係,主要子句被放置在前,而the+比較級放置在後。中譯時,應該先從the+比較級的副詞子句翻譯,才符合「越是、、、越是、、、」的句型。

另外一個混淆的原因是Bruce Fink 將主要子句的比較級the more 改用most 來強調,這樣的用法是否合乎常規,還有待更多的例證。

What is most important to the analysand, especially at the beginning of the analysis, is that the analyst–like anyone else he talks to in other walks of life–grasp his point, the conceptual point he is trying to make.

What is most important to the analysand (對於受分析者最重要的事情)
名詞子句,充當後面的is ,當主詞

that the analyst grasp his point, the conceptual point he is trying to make

彭譯:分析師能夠掌握他的觀點,知道他想要傳達的意思是什麼。

雄伯譯: 分析師應該瞭解他的觀點,他正在設法表達的觀點。

Grasp 是有「掌握」Hold firmly及「瞭解」Get the meaning of something解釋。依雄伯之見,對於「觀點」the conceptual point,「瞭解」應比「掌握」來的說得通。

What is most important to the analysand, especially at the beginning of the analysis, is that the analyst–like anyone else he talks to in other walks of life–grasp his point, the conceptual point he is trying to make.

 

仔細再審視,這個grasp 不加s 的道理,應該是帶有「虛擬」的語氣,grasp 前面省略should 的關係,

例句

It is essential that the analyst should ( grasp)  his point.

It is important that the analyst should ( grasp) his point.

What is important is that the analyst should ( grasp) his point.

重要的是,分析師應該瞭解他的觀點。

 

He rarely begins analysis with the explicit hope that the analyst will hear something in what he is saying that is different than the point he is consciously trying to get across.

彭譯:
他很少在分析的一開始,就明白地希望分析師會在他所說的話當中,聽到和他想要傳達的不一樣的事情。

雄伯:
精神分析開始時,受分析者很少帶有明確的希望,從他正在說的內容裏,分析師將會聽出某件迴異於他意識上設法讓人明白的事情。

that the analyst will hear something 名詞子句,充當the explicit hope 的同位語
what he is saying 名詞子句,充當介係詞in 的受詞
that is different than the point 形容詞子句,修飾前面的something
he is consciously trying to get across 形容詞子句,修飾前面的the point

get across 的意思是「讓人瞭解或接受」become understood or accepted

The analyst, on the other hand, must wean herself from listening in the conventional way and realize that it is often of far less importance to understand the story or point than it is to hear the way in which it is delivered.

彭譯:
另一方面,分析師卻必須戒除自己用傳統方式傾聽的習慣,而且體認到體聽到故事如何被傳達,往往比理解故事或觀點要重要得多。

Wean from 的意思是「使某人漸漸脫離(某個觀念,習慣,或惡友)」 to turn ( someone) gradually away from ( an idea, habit, bad companions, etc)

雄伯譯
另一方面,分析師必須漸漸替自己戒除用傳統方式傾聽的習慣,並且體認到:更加重要的,與其說是瞭解故事或是觀點,不如說是,要聽出故事如何被表達的方式。

Free-floating attention is a practice–indeed, a discipline–designed to
teach us to hear without understanding .

彭譯:
自由浮動的注意力,就是用來教導我們如何在不理解的狀況下諦聽的一種練習—甚至,可說是一種自律。

雄伯:
自由浮動的注意力,是一種練習—的確,它是一種訓練—它被設計來教導我們傾聽,但不急於理解。

To hear without understanding 跟前面的標題 deferring understanding (不急於理解)對應

Apart from the fact that understanding generally tends to bring the analyst herself front and center, introducing a plethora of imaginary phenomena (for example, comparing herself to the analysand and
worrying about her self-image as reflected back by the analysand’s speech, as I indicated earlier), there is often precious little that could be understood anyway in the analysand’s discourse. Why is that?

彭譯:
事實上,除了理解會把分析師她自己帶到舞臺的中心,引進了太多想像的現象(例如,把她自己跟分析者比較,被她自己透過分析者的說話映照回來的自我形象所困擾,如我在之前說過的),分析者的話語中值得理解的其實並不太多。這到底是為什麼?

雄伯譯
不僅是這個事實:理解通常會傾向于讓分析師本身成為矚目中心,引進多餘的想像的現象,(例如,將自己跟受分析者比較,然後擔心受分析者的言語反映回來的自己的形象,如我早先所指示的),而且,不管怎樣,在受分析者的真理論述裏,能夠被理解的東西,極端地少。為什麼會是那樣?

Apart from the fact 不僅是這個事實
Apart from 作「以及」as well as 解釋,不作「除外」except for 解釋
例句
Apart from the cost, the hat doesn’t suit me.
這頂帽子既昂貴,又不合我戴。

Front and center 的意思是「處於最重要的位置」in or into the most important position
Plethora 過多的,多餘的The property of being extremely abundant

Precious little 的意思是「非常少」very little, 跟「值得」沒有關係
(見Oxford Dictionary of current Idiomatic English )

Precious 的意思是「非常地,極端地」very, extremely (The New American Heritage Dictionary of The English Language)

拉岡的discourse 非一般的「話語」,而是指「真理論述」。他分為Master discourse 主人真理論述, hysteric discourse 歇斯底里患者真理論述, university discourse 大學真理論述, psychoanalysis discourse 精神分析真理論述(見Jacques Lacan,The Other Side of Psychoanalysis)

雄伯
布魯斯 芬克 BRUCE FINK 的「精神分析技術的基本原則」 The Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique,我才譯了幾頁,讀書會的C,就給我一份彭榮邦教授的翻譯手稿。由於彭教授的翻譯相當精確,而且文詞順暢,我再重譯似乎沒有什麼意義。於是臨機一動,改為注釋與對照。

32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神分析技術的基本原則 p6

June 14, 2011

Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique
精神分析技術的基本原則 p6

BRUCE FINK
布魯斯 芬克

1
Listening and Hearing
傾聽與聽到

P6

Listening for all this makes the analyst constitutionally incapable of hearing a great many things that the analysand says–first and foremost slips of the tongue, which, as they are often nonsensical, do not immediately reflect upon the analyst and thus are generally ignored by her.

彭譯
以這種方式來傾聽,會使的分析師根本無力去聽分析者說出來的許多東西—其中最重要的是說溜嘴,由於說溜嘴往往沒有意思,分析師無法立即映照出些什麼,因此通常都被忽略了。

雄伯
listen for 的意思是「注意聽,為了要確定聽到的內容」 to pay attention so as to be sure of hearing

例句
Listen for the moment when the music changes. 注意聽,聽音樂何時響起。

listen for all this 的 all this 是指前段所說When operating in the imaginary dimension of experience, the analyst is focused on her own self-image as reflected back to her by the analysand and hears what the analysand says only insofar as it reflects upon her.(當分析師在經驗的想像維度運時,她所關注的是由分析者所映照回來的自我意象,而分析者所說的話,她也聽到反映出自己的部分。)

constitutional的意思是「身心有關的」of a person’s body‘mind
a constitutional weakness 則是「身心的弱點」

constitutionally incapable of hearing a great many things
身心體質上無法聽到許多事情(彭譯為「根本無力去聽分析者說出來的許多東西」) 「身心體質上」與「根本」有段距離

first and foremost slips of the tongue, which, as they are often nonsensical, do not immediately reflect upon the analyst

which 是關係代名詞,代替slips of the tongue,充當do not immediately reflect upon the analyst 的主詞。彭譯:「其中最重要的是說溜嘴,由於說溜嘴往往沒有意思,分析師無法立即映照出些什麼。」analyst 在句子原來是受詞,現在變為主詞,理論上句子應該改為被動語態。

slips of the tongue do not immediately reflect upon the analyst「說溜嘴並沒有立即反映在分析者身上」,直接照英文的主動語態翻譯不行嗎?

When the analyst is operating primarily within the imaginary dimension or register, everything that cannot easily be compared with her own experiences (her own sense of self–in short, her own “ego,” as I shall use the term) goes unattended to and, indeed, often remains simply unheard?

彭譯:
當分析師主要是在想像的維度上運作或記注,那些無法簡單地和她自己的經驗(她的自我感—簡言之,她的「自我」ego,我會繼續使用這個術語)相比較的一切,就不會被注意到,事實上,往往連聽都沒有聽到。

within the imaginary dimension or register「在想像界的維度之內」,within是「之內」,不是「之上」。Imaginary 應該是指拉康的三個維度:「象徵界」the symbolic, 「想像界」the imaginary,「真實界」the real。

go unattended to 「沒有受到注意」的主詞,是第二行的everything,that cannot easily be compared with her own experiences 是形容詞子句,修飾everything

indeed 的意思是「的確」,in fact 才是「事實上」

Everything often remains simply unheard? 是「有聽,但是沒有聽進去」,不是「連聽都沒有聽到」。

布魯斯、芬克對於這一段,自己提供一個注釋:

7 Lacan (2006, p. 595) referred to this as the “dyadic relation,” by which he meant that the analytic relationship is construed in such cases as nothing more than a relationship between two egos.

彭譯:
拉岡稱之為「二元關係」,意即將分析關係解釋為不過是兩個自我之間的關係。

雄伯:
拉岡心目中理想的分析關係應該是「四元關係」quadratic relation。也就是分析者,分析者的無意識,分析師,分析師的無意識四元關係的交叉互動。

A supervisee of mine once let a patient break off his therapy after a slight lifting of his deep depression.
彭譯:
我督導的一位治療師,曾經讓某個極度憂悒的病人,在病況稍微好轉之後就中斷治療。

When I asked her why she had not tried to keep him in therapy to see if his depression could be further dissipated, she explained that it seemed to her that there were good reasons to think life depressing. Isn’t some depression, she retorted, a sensible response to life in our times?

彭譯:
我問它,怎麼不試著讓他繼續治療,看看憂悒的狀況能否進一步改善,她的解釋是,她覺得人生本來就是令人沮喪—她反駁說,難道些微的憂悒不是對我們這個時代的生命處境的一種合理反應嗎?

雄伯:
there were good reasons to think life depressing
「認為人生是令人沮喪,是具有充分的理由。」彭譯漏「good reasons」

坦白說,分析師的這個立場,雄伯還心有戚戚焉!

I pointed out to her that, regardless of her theoretical perspective on the matter, she seemed to be assuming that her patient’s reasons for being depressed were the same as hers (or what she believed to be hers), when his might well have been entirely different from hers.

彭譯:
我向她指出,不管她自己的理論觀點為何,她似乎預設了她的病人之所以憂悒,和她自己的理由(或者她相信自己的理由)是一樣的,儘管兩人的理由可能南轅北轍。

雄伯:
regardless of her theoretical perspective on the matter,
= whether her theoretical perspective on the matter is right or wrong
「無論她對於那件事情的理論上的觀點是對或錯」

Regardless of 的用法跟 in spite of 或 despite 不一樣。In spite of 及 despite 引導的內容,會跟主要字句內容相反。但是regardless of 引導的內容卻是中性的。

我舉例比較一下:
In spite of their low intelligence, I did my best to educate them.
= Though their intelligence was very low, I did my best to educate them.
儘管他們的智力很低,我依舊盡全力教育他們。

Regardless of their intelligence level, they are extremely difficult to educate.
= Whether their intelligence is high or low, they are extremely difficult to educate.
無論他們的智力是高或低,他們都極端難於教育。

when his might well have been entirely different from hers.
= when his reasons for being depressed might well have been entirely different from her reasons for being depressed。
雖然分析者沮喪的理由,跟分析師沮喪的理由,本來很有可能完全不同。

when 在這裏的解釋是「雖然」「儘管」although
例句:
She stopped trying, when she might have succeeded next time.
她停止嘗試,雖然她本來在下一次就會成功。

Might well 的意思「很有可能」to be likely to ,後面接完成式時態,代表對於過去的推測,所以我翻譯時,多加「本來」兩字,作為強調。

his 是所有格代名詞,充當句子的主詞。
例句
Mine is a big family. = My family is a big family.
我的家庭是一個大家庭。

In comparing his reasons to her own, she was excluding or failing to hear the ways in which they potentially differed.

彭譯:
當她把病人的理由和自己的(理由)相比時,她排除或不再聽到兩人之間可能存在的差異。

See Lacan’s ( 1 990) highly original take on sadness and depression as a moral failing or moral weakness, at times going as far as a “rejection of the unconscious” (p. 22), which is equivalent in this context to foreclosure (see Chapter 10).

請參閱拉岡高度原創性的觀點,他將悲傷和憂悒視為良心的失敗或良心的脆弱,有時甚至達到「對無意識的拒斥」的程度,而「對於無意識的拒斥」在此脈絡下相當於除權棄絕( foreclosure)。

雄伯:
布魯斯、芬克的這番注釋真是越描越黑,是學院派學者愛掉書袋的通病。

See Lacan’s ( 1 990) highly original take on sadness and depression as a moral failing or moral weakness

首先要注意的是,highly original take 的這個take,是名詞,不是動詞,可譯為「嘗試」any attempt or try ,而不是彭譯的「觀點」(見The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language )

棄絕贖回( foreclosure) 是拉岡介紹的一個術語,有位學者就以它作為一篇論文的題目,要詳說當然不容易。簡單說,就是對於無意識的拒斥,僅限於潛抑作用repression階段,通常發生在神經症患者neurosis,棄絕贖回foreclosure則是發生在精神病患psychosis 身上,狀況比較嚴重。

雄伯
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精神分析技术的基本原则p19

June 14, 2011

P19
For example, a “hmm” sound I occasionalIy make to indicate simply that
I have heard something an analysand has just said is sometimes interpreted
as a skeptical sound by an analysand who is not too comfortable with the
perspective he has been propounding–that is, he believes I am caIling his perspective into question.

彭譯

舉例來說,某個我偶而用來表示為聽到分析者剛剛說了什麼的「嗯」,往往被某位對自己的看法覺得不太自在的分析者,詮釋成存疑的聲音—也就是說,他相信我認為他的看法有問題。

雄伯

I occasionalIy make 是形容詞子句,修飾前面的 a “humm” sound,應譯為:我偶爾發出的「嗯」聲音。而不是「偶而用來表示為」。

to ndicate simply「僅僅為了指示著」,不定詞片語,表目的,可改成 in order that I may indicate simply,,,,

that
that I have heard something 名詞子句,充當 indicate 的受詞

an analysand has just said 形容詞子句,前面省略一個that,修飾前面的something

is not too comfortable with the perspective 裏的is 的主詞是前面的a “hmm” sound (嗯的聲音)

perspective 「觀點」「看法」「視野」,大陸翻為「視角」。

an analysand who is not too comfortable with the perspective he has been propounding (對於他一直在提供考慮的觀點不太自在的受分析者)‘

is sometimes interpreted as a skeptical sound (有時被詮釋為可疑的聲音)
雄伯:聲音是「可疑」,人才會「存疑」。

that is, he believes I am caIling his perspective into question.

彭譯:也就是說,他相信我認為他的看法有問題。
雄伯:受分析者相信我是在懷疑他的觀點。

Call into question的意思是「懷疑」doubt

I often have had no such intent when making that particular sound, but the “hmm” is sufficiently ambiguous that an analysand who is suspicious of his own motives or perspectives can “hear” it as a request for him to explore the latter.

當我發出那個特定的聲音時,我往往沒有那樣的意思,但是這個「嗯」的聲音夠曖昧,因此懷疑自己的動機或看法的分析者,會將它「聽為」一種繼續探索下去的要求。

雄伯

when making that particular sound= when I am making that particular sound
當我正在發出那個特定的聲音時,(英文是進行式的省略,那個特定聲音指「嗯」的聲音。)

I often have had no such intent
我並沒有這樣的意圖 他he intended meaning of a communication。「意圖」intent跟「意思」meaning,有段距離。

an analysand who is suspicious of his own motives or perspectives
懷疑自己的動機或看法的分析者

can “hear” it as a request for him to explore the latter.
會將它「聽為」一種要他繼續探索後者的要求。

it 指的是前面的“ hmm ” 「嗯」的聲音。 彭譯漏譯「for him」及「the latter 」。him 指的是受分析者,而the latter 指的是his own motives or perspectives(自己的動機或看法)

He projects his own suspicions onto me, and his own suspicions can only come to the fore and be discussed when they are attributed to me first.

彭譯

他將自己的懷疑投射到我身上,而唯有先將它們投射到我這裏,他自己的懷疑才能夠浮上枱面,而且被拿出來討論。

雄伯

Only,,,when they are attributed to me first.

只有當這些懷疑首先被歸屬於我

they 指his own suspicions (他自己的懷疑),attribute to 歸屬於,或歸咎於

come to the fore 的意思「成為重要或受人注意」「扮演重要地位 」to be or become important and noticed by people; to play an important part,不是彭譯的「浮上枱面」

sufficiently、、、that 有點類似so、、、that 及such、、、that 的副詞子句,that 是連接詞,引導副詞子句,表示結果。有sufficiently 就不再用
so 或 such 。這是蠻特殊的句法。

雄伯
布魯斯 芬克 BRUCE FINK 的「精神分析技術的基本原則」 The Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique,我才譯了幾頁,讀書會的C,就給我一份彭榮邦教授的翻譯手稿。由於彭教授的翻譯相當精確,而且文詞順暢,我再重譯似乎沒有什麼意義。於是臨機一動,改為注釋與對照。

雄伯譯
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