Archive for the ‘拉康:精神分析技术’ Category

The Psychoses 11

January 23, 2012

The Psychoses 11
精神病患
Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

Ill
The Other and psychosis
大他者与精神疾病

HOMOSEXUALITY AND PARANOIA
同性恋与偏执狂

THE WORD AND THE REFRAIN
文字与叠句

AUTOMATISM AND ENDOSCOPY
自动机制与内视镜检视

PARANOID KNOWLEDGE
偏执狂的知识

GRAMMAR OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
无意识的文法

The life of a psychoanalyst – as I was reminded by my analysands [analysis]
several times on the one day – isn’t rosy.

精神分析家的生活并非是美好幸福—如同有一天我的几位分析者跟我提醒好几次。

The comparison that can be made between the analyst and a rubbish dump
is justified. All day long in fact he has to endure utterances that, surely, are
of doubtful value to himself and even more so to the subject who communicates
them to him.

将分析家与垃圾堆做类比,并非空穴来风。事实上,一整天他必须忍受一些表白,的确,这些表白对于他是否有价值值得怀疑,甚至对于跟他沟通的主体,更是如此。

This is a feeling that the psychoanalyst, if he is a real one, has not only been accustomed to overcoming for a long time, but, to be honest, it’s one that he purely and simply abolishes within himself in the exercise of his practice.

这是精神分析家不但长久以来已经习惯于克服的一种感觉,而且坦白地说,这种感觉,他实实在在从他的内心里面废除,当他运用他的实践时,假如他是实实在在的分析家。

I must on the other hand say that this feeling comes alive again with all its force when one is led to go over the sum total of works that make up what is called the analytic literature. There is no more disconcerting an exercise for scientific attention than to be made aware over a short space of time of the points of view that authors have elaborated on the same subjects. And nobody seems to perceive the flagrant and permanent contradictions that are brought into play whenever basic concepts arise.

在另一方面,我必须说,这种感觉再一次鲜活起来,由于它的力量,当我们被引导要温习那一大堆所谓的精神分析文献组成的著作的总数。这是最令人困窘的科学专注的运作,当我们被迫知道作者们对于相同的主题的建构的观点,往往仅维持一段短时期。似乎没有人感觉这些显著而永久的悖论会产生,每当基本的观念出现时。

1
You know that psychoanalysis explains the case of President Schreber, and paranoia in general, by portraying the subject’s unconscious drive as nothing other than a homosexual tendency.1 Drawing attention to all the facts grouped around such a notion was surely fundamentally new, and it profoundly changed our outlook on the pathogenesis of paranoia.

你们知道,精神分析解释苏瑞伯庭长及一般偏执狂的案例,描述主体的无意识冲动,当著实实在在是一种同性恋的倾向。吸引大家注意所有被汇集到事实,这样一个观念,确实基本上是新颖的。它深刻地改变了我们对于偏执狂的病因学。

But as for knowing what this homosexuality is, at which point of subjective economy it acts, how it occasions the psychosis – 1 believe I can testify that, in this sense, all the outlines we have contain the most imprecise, even the most contradictory approaches.

但是关于知道这个同性恋是什么,它根据主体的生命活力的哪一点运作,它如何产生精神疾病。我相信我能够证实,以这个意义,我们拥有的所有的轮廓,包括这个最不准确的,甚至最悖论的方法。

People speak of defense against the supposed irruption – and why this irruption at this point? – of the homosexual tendency. But this is far from having been proved, if one is to give a meaning that is in any way precise to the term defense – which one is very careful not to do, so as to be able to continue cogitating in the dark. It’s nevertheless clear that there is a constitutive ambiguity here and that the defense maintains a far from univocal relation with the cause that provokes it. It’s thought either that the defense helps maintain a certain equilibrium or else that it provokes the illness.

人们谈论对于防止所谓的同性恋倾向发作的防卫机制。为什么会在这个时刻发作?但是这根本没有被证明,假如我们想要给予意义,这个意义就「防卫机制」这个术语而言,实在是正确的。我们非常小心地不要去证明,为了要能够继续在黑暗里探索沉思。可是,显而易见的,在此有一个内容结构的模糊暧昧,这个防卫机制维持一个更加一致的关系,跟引起它的原因。大家也认为,这种防卫机制帮忙维持某种的平衡,要不然它会引起疾病。

We are also assured that the initial determinants of Schreber’s psychosis are to be sought in the moment of onset of the different phases of his illness.

我们也确定,苏瑞伯的精神疾病的这个最初的决定因素,应该被寻找,在他的疾病的不同时期的开始的时刻。

You know that around 1886 he had his first crisis, whose co-ordinates people
try to show us by means of his Memoirs – at that time he had nominated for
the Reichstag, we are told.2 Between this crisis and the second, which covers
a period of eight years, Magistrate Schreber was normal, with the exception
that his hope of paternity was unfulfilled.

你们知道,在1886年,他遭遇的他的第一次危机。人们尝试跟我们显示这次危机的座标,凭借他的回忆录—,在当时,他曾经提名充当首席法官,我们这样被告诉。在这次的危机跟第二次危机之间,中间区隔八年,苏瑞伯法官是正常的,除了,他想要拥有子女的愿望并没有被实现。

At the end of this period he happened to accede, in a way that up to a point was premature and certainly at an age at which it could not have been foreseen, to a very high function, that of Presiding Judge of the Leipzig Court of Appeal. This function, which was in the nature of an eminent distinction, conferred authority on him, so it’s
said, that elevated him to responsibility that, though not quite total, was at least greater and heavier than any he could have hoped for, which gives the impression that there was a relation between his promotion and the onset of the crisis.

在这个时期的结束,他恰巧必须同意,以直到当时是早熟的方式,确实在一个当时很难预见的年纪,他必须同意一个非常高的功用,雷普西格的上诉法庭的首席法官的功用,那是崇高地位的性质,授予权威给他。所以据说,那个权威提升他的责任,这个责任虽然不是全部,至少比起他本来所能期望的更大更沉重。这给予这个印象,在他的升官与危机的开始之间,有密切关系。

In other words, in the former case one appeals to the fact that Schreber was unable to satisfy his ambition, and in the other that it was fulfilled from the outside, in a manner that is virtually consecrated as being undeserved.

换句话说,在前者的个案,我们诉诸于这个事实; 苏瑞伯不能够满足他的企图心。在后者的个案,它从外在被满足,使用的方式几乎是被奉献,作为不值得。

These two events are given the same value as trigger. It’s carefully noted that
the President had no children, so as to assign a prime role to the notion of paternity. But at the same time it’s claimed that because he finally accedes to the position of father, the fear of castration thus comes to life in him again, with a corresponding homosexual craving.

这两个事件被给予相同的价值,作为启动者。我们细心地注意到,苏瑞伯首席法官并没有子女,为了指定一个重要的角色,给予充当父亲的观念。但是同时地,根据宣称,他最后同意的父亲这个位置,阉割的恐惧因此在他的身上,再一次栩栩如生起来,带有一种相应的同性恋的渴望。

This is what is supposed to be directly at issue in the onset of the crisis and to entail all the distortions, pathological deformations, and mirages that progressively evolve into a delusion.

这就是被认为直接引起争论的地方,在危机的开始,并且涵盖所有的扭曲,病态的畸形,及逐渐演化成为一种幻觉。

Surely the fact that the masculine characters in the medical entourage are present from the outset, that they are named one after the other and successively come to the centre of President Schreber’s extreme paranoid persecution, is enough to show their importance.

的确,在医学的照护,男性的角色从一开始就存在,他们陆续地被命名,并且连续第成为苏瑞伯的极端偏执狂的迫害的核心人物。这个事实,就足够显示他们的重要性。

This is, in a word, a transference – which is undoubtedly not to be taken in quite the sense that we usually mean, but it’s something of that order, bound up in a special way with those in whose care he had been.

总之,这是一种移情—无可置疑的,不要用我们通常的意思去理解这种移情,而是某件那种层次的东西,以特别的方式跟他所接受的照顾的方式息息相关。

Undoubtedly this is an adequate explanation of the choice of characters, but before we become too satisfied with this overall arrangement it needs to be observed that, in providing its motivation, the proof by the contrary is neglected. People fail to realize that both fear of the struggle and premature success are given the value of a sign with the same positive sense in each case.

无可置疑地,这是一种充分的解释,对于人物的选择。但是在我们成为太过于满足它所需要被观察到这个全面性的安排。当提供它的动机时,相反的一面的证据被忽略。人们无法体认到,奋斗与过早成功的双重恐惧被给予一种讯息的价值,在两个情况,都具有相同的正面的价值。

If by chance President Schreber had, between his two crises, become a father, this would be emphasized and much would be made of the fact that this paternal function would have been unbearable for him. In short, the notion of conflict is always played upon in an ambiguous manner – the source of conflict and, what is much less easy to see, the absence of conflict are placed on the same level. The conflict leaves an empty place, one might say, and it’s in the empty place of the conflict that a reaction, a
construction, a bringing into play of subjectivity, appears.

假如偶然地,苏瑞伯首席法官在他的两次危机之间,成为父亲,这将会被强调,这是事实将会被重视: 这个父亲的功用对于他而言,本来会上无可忍受的。总之,冲突的观念总是以一个模糊暧昧的方式被扮演。冲突的来源,更加不容易看出的,与冲突的欠缺,被放置在相同的层次。这种冲突留下一个空洞的位置,我们不妨说,这是在冲突的这个空洞的位置,一种反应,一种建构,一种主体性的运作会发生。

This suggestion is only designed to show you that the same ambiguity as the one our last lesson was about is at work, the ambiguity of the very meaning of a delusion, and which here is concerned with what is normally called the content and which I would prefer to call the psychotic statement [dire].

这种建议仅是被设计为了跟你们显示,这个相同的模糊,如同我们上一次研讨班讨论的相同模糊,正在运作。一种幻觉的这个意义的模糊,在此它关系到正常所谓的内容,我宁可称之为精神疾病的陈述。

You think you are dealing with someone who is communicating with you because he speaks the same language as you. And then, what he is saying is so understandable that you get the feeling, particularly if you are a psychoanalyst, that here is someone who has penetrated, in a more profound way than is given to the common lot of mortals, into the very mechanism of the system of the unconscious. Somewhere in the second chapter Schreber expresses it in passing – Enlightenment rarely given to mortals has been given to me}

你们认为你们正在处理某个正在跟你沟通的人,因为他谈论跟你相同的语言。然后,他所正在说的,是如此可了解,以致于你获得这种感觉,特别是假如你是一位精神分析家,在此是某个曾经贯彻的人,以一种更加深刻的方式,超越有限生命的众生的命运,进入无意识的系统的机制。在第二章的某个地方,苏瑞伯偶然这样表达: 我获得到天启,是一般众生难得一见的。

My discourse today is about this ambiguity whereby the very system of the
delusional is supposed to provide us with the elements of its own understanding.

我今天的论述是关于这个模糊,幻觉者的神经系统被认为提供给与我们,以它自己的理解的要素。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Seminar IX :Identification 09

January 4, 2012

Seminar IX :Identification 09
第九研讨班 :认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

1
Seminar 2: Wednesday 22 November 1961

It is quite clear that it is in the measure that we can say to ourselves that we have forgotten it at almost every instant that we will be placed in this uncertainty, for which there is no name, either tragic, or comic, of being able to say to ourselves, at the moment of leaving our lives that we have always been in a certain measure strangers to our own lives.

显而易见地,随着我我们能够对我们自己说,我们已经随时都忘记它,我们被放置在这个不确定的无以名之的位置,无论是悲剧或是喜剧,要能够对我们自己说,就在离开我们生命的这个时刻,我们总是某个程度,是我们自己生命的陌生人。

This indeed is what is at the bottom of the most modern philosophical interrogation,
that through which, even for those who as I might say are only very little fettered by it, even those very people who proclaim their feelings about this obscurity, all the same something is happening, whatever may be said about it, something different is
happening than the popularity of a fashion in the formula of Heidegger recalling us to the existential foundation of being for death.

这确实是现代哲学的质疑最追根究底之处。通过这样的质疑,甚至对于那些我不妨说很少受到这种质疑影响的人,甚至那些宣称他们感受到这种模糊暧昧的人,更加是某件事情正在发生,无论对于它可能会被说些什么,某件不同的东西正在发生,某件不同意海德格的公式所谓时潮的流行,提醒我们朝向死亡的主体的生命实存的基础。

Whatever its causes may be, whatever its correlations, or even its impact – one can say – what one can call the profanation of the great phantasies forged for desire by the style of religious thinking is not a contingent phenomenon, this mode of thinking is here what will leave us uncovered, disarmed, giving rise to this hollow, this void, to which this modern philosophical meditation strives to respond, and to which our
experience has also something to contribute, because this is its place, at the instant that I am designating sufficiently for you the same place at which this subject constitutes himself as not being able to know precisely why there is a question for him here of the All.

无论它的原因是什么,无论它的相互关系是什么,或甚至它的影响—我们能够说—我们能够所谓的宗教思想的模式,为了欲望而铸造的伟大幻见的亵渎,这并不是一件偶然的现象,这种思维模式在此将会把我们处于没有遮蔽,没有保护的处境,产生这种空洞,这种空无。对于这种空洞与空无,这个现代哲学的沉思努力要回应。我们精神分析经验也有某件可以作为贡献的东西。因为这是它的位置,正当我正在跟你们充分指明这个相同的位置。在这里,这个主体贡献他自己,作为能够确实地了解,为什么对于他,会有这个「全部」的问题。

This is the value of what Descartes brings us, and that is why it was good to start with him. (9) That is why I am coming back to it today, because it is appropriate to go over it again in order to measure again what is involved in what you were able to hear me designating for you as an impasse, namely the impossibleness (1’impossible) of the “I
think therefore I am”.

这就是笛卡尔带给我们的价值,那就是为什么从他开始是好的。那是为什么我今天回到这里。因为再一次温习它是适当的,为了再一次测量所牵涉的内容,在你们能够听见我跟你们指明,作为一个僵局。换句话说,「我思故我在」的不可能。

It is precisely this impossibleness which gives its price and its value to this subject which Descartes proposes to us, even if it is only the subject around which the age-old cogitations turned before, turn since, it is clear that our objections in our last
discourse take their weight, the very weight implied in the etymology of the French verb penser which means nothing other than peser (to weigh).

确实是因为这种不可能,给予它的代价及它的价值,给予笛卡尔跟我们提出的这个主体,即使这个古老的沉思,以前及以后,均环绕着这个主体打转。显而易见的,在我们上一次我们的反对,衡量过它们的重量,在法文的动词penser的词源学所暗示的重量,那实实在在就是「衡量」。

What can be based on the “I think”, if we know, we analysts, that this “what I am thinking about” which we may grasp, refers back to a “from which and from where I think” which necessarily slips away; and this is indeed why Descartes’ formula questions us to know whether there is not at least this privileged point of the pure “I think” on which we might base ourselves, and this is why it was at the very least important that I should make you pause for an instant.

作为「我思」的这个基础,假如我们精神分析家知道,我们可能了解到这个「我正在思考些什么」,回溯到「我从什么及从哪里思考」,这个我思必然会溜走。这确实是为什么笛卡尔的公式质疑我们要知道是否至少有一个特权的点,对于这个纯粹的「我思」,作为我们自己的基础。这就是为什么就在这个微不足道的东西,我应该让你们思考一下。

his formula seems to imply that it would be necessary for the subject to be careful to think at every instant in order to assure himself of being. Is it sufficient for him to think that he is for him to touch this thinking being?

他的公式似乎暗示着,主体随时需要小心地思考,为了要让他自己确定自己的生命实存。假如他认为他应该碰触到这个思考的生命实存,对他而言,就足够了吗?

For it is indeed on that that Descartes, in this incredible magic of the discourse of the two first meditations, suspends us.

笛卡尔确实就是将为们悬置在那里,用他这个匪夷所思的两篇最早的沉思录的魔力。

He manages to make stand up, I mean in his text, not that once the professor of philosophy has picked out its signifier and shown too easily the artifice which results from formulating that in thinking thus I can say that I am a thing which thinks – it is too easy to refute – but which takes nothing from the force of the progress of the text, except (10) for the fact that we must interrogate this thinking being, ask ourselves if it is not the participle of an être-penser (to be written in the infinitive and in a single word): j ‘être-pense, as one says j’outrecuide (I overween), as our analytic habits make us say “I compensate (je compense), even I decompensate, I overcompensate”. It is the same term and just as legitimate in its composition.

他设法让它站立起来,我是指在他的文本里,倒不是因为,一旦哲学教授已经挑选它的能指并且非常轻易地显示,从说明在思想在造成的巧妙,因此我能够说,我是一件会思考的东西—要反驳真是太容易了—而是它从文本的进展的力量里,什么都没有获得,除了这个事实:我们必须质疑这个思想的主体,询问我们自己,它是否是这个「être-penser」的分词(能够用不定词及一个单词来书写):它被排除,如同我们说「我恣意所为」。
如同我们的分析习惯让我们说:「我补偿,甚至我除掉补偿,我过分补偿」。那是相同的术语,在它的写作里,同样地合理化。

From then on, the “je pense-ëtre” which is proposed to us to introduce us to it, may appear, in this prospective, an artifice that is hard to tolerate because moreover to formulate things in this way, the being already determines the register in which I inaugurate my whole progress; this “je pensetre” – as I told you the last time – cannot even in Descartes’ text, be connoted except with traits of lure and appearance.

从那时开始,这个「我思故我在」,跟我们提出,为了跟我们介绍它。从这个观点,它似乎是一个很难容忍的巧计,因为以这种方式说明事情,这个主体已经决定这个铭记,我用来开启我整个的进展的铭记。这个「我思故我在」。我上一次告诉你们,在笛卡尔的文本里,甚至无法被指明,除了用引诱及外表的特征。

“Je pens être” does not bring with it any greater consistency than that of dreams at which effectively Descartes at several moments of his progress has left us suspended.

「我思故我在」并没有带来更大的一致性,除了就是梦的一致性。在梦里,有效地,笛卡尔在他的进展的好几个时刻,将我们悬置在那里。

The “je pensetre” can for its part also be conjugated like a verb, but it does not go very far: “je pensêtre, tu pensêtres, with l’s if you wish at the end, that may still be allowable, even “il pensêtre”.

这个「我思故我在」就它本身而言,也能够像一个动词一样被结合,但是并没有发挥多大作用。「我思故我在,你思故你在」,你们若是愿意,结尾改成他,也是行得通,甚至他思故他在。

All that we can say is that if we make of it the tenses of the verb with a sort of infinitive of “pensètrer”, we can only connote it with what is written in dictionaries that all the
other forms, except the third person singular of the present, are not used in French. If we want to be humourous we will add that they are supplemented ordinarily by the same form of the verb complementary to pensètrer: the verb s’empêtrer (to become
entangled). What does that mean?

我们所能说的,假如我解释它,用动词的时态,带有某种不定词的「思与在」,我们仅能指明它,用在字典里被书写的,所有的其他形式,除了现在式的第三人称,它们在法文并没有被使用。假如我们想要表现幽默,我将补充说,它们普通被补充,是用相同形式的动车,跟「我思故我在」互补。这个「成为纠缠」的动词,那是什么意思?

The fact is that the act of êtrepenser – because this is what is in question – only ends up for whoever is thinking with a “peut-être je, perhaps I”, and (11) moreover I am not the first nor the only one to have always remarked the contraband trait of the introduction of this “I” into the conclusion “I think therefore I am”.

事实上,我思故我在的行动—因为这是受到质疑的东西—因为这是受到质疑—对于任何正在思想的人,它的结局是「peut-être je,」,或许这个「我」,而且,我并不是第一个,也不是唯一的一个,总是标明这个不合法的特征,对于这个「我」被介绍到「我思故我在」的结论里。

It is quite clear that this “I” remains problematic and that until Descartes’ next step – and we are going to see which one – there is no reason why it should be preserved from the total putting into question that Descartes carries out of the whole process by profiling at the foundations of this process the function of the deceitful God – you know that he goes further: the deceitful God is still a good God: in order to be there, to swamp me with illusions, he goes so far as to be an evil demon, a radical liar, the one who leads me astray in order to lead me astray: this is what has been called hyperbolic doubt. It can in no way be seen how this doubt has spared this “I” and leaves it therefore properly speaking in a fundamental vacillation.

显而易见地,这个「我」始终是问题重重。直到笛卡尔的下一步,我们将要看到,哪一个—没有理由为什么它竟然从整个质疑里被保留下来。笛卡尔执行整个的过程,他在这个过程的基础,描绘欺骗性的上帝的功用。—你们知道,他探讨得更加深入。欺骗性的上帝并不是一个好的上帝:为了在那里,用各种幻觉淹没我,他过分到成为一个邪恶的魔鬼,一个恶性重大大说谎者,这个上帝引导我迷失,就是为了引导我迷失。这就是所谓的誇张的怀疑。它丝毫无法被看出,这个怀疑如何省略过这个「我」,然后适当地说,将它留在一个基本的摇摆当中。

雄伯译
32shiung@pchome.com.tw
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Death instinct 07

January 2, 2012

Death instinct 07
拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XVIII
Desire, life and death
欲望,生命与死亡
4
This to be or not to be is an entirely verbal story. A very funny comedian tried
showing how Shakespeare came upon it, scratching his head – to be or not . . ‘
and he would start again – to be or not . . . to be. If that’s funny, that’s because
this moment is when the entire dimension of language comes into focus. The
dream and the joke emerge on the same level.

这个生存或是死亡,完全是一文辞的故事。一位逗笑的喜剧演员嘗试表现莎士比亚如何想到这个句子,搔搔他的头颅—“生存还是不…” 他再一次开始: 生存或是不…生存。假如那是好玩,那是因为这个时刻是语言的整个维度聚焦点。梦跟笑话出现在同一个层次。

Take this sentence, which is obviously not very funny – The greatest boon is
not to be. ,It is quite striking to realise that for the greatest tragedian of
Antiquity, this was to be found in a religious ceremony. Can you imagine that
being said during mass!

以这个句子为例,它显而易见是好笑的。最大的恩赐就是不生存。耐人寻味的是体会到,对于古代的这位最伟大的悲剧家,这一点在宗教的仪式里能够被找到。你能够想象,在作弥撒时,那句话被说吗?

The comics took it upon themselves to make us laugh at it. It would be better not to be born – Unfortunately, replies the other, that happens to scarcely one in a hundred thousand.9

漫画书负起责任让我们哈哈大笑它。最好是不要出生。不幸地,另外一位回答,不出生的机率几乎十万分之一。

Why is this witty?

为什么这是机智语?
To begin with, because it plays on words, an indispensable technical
element. It would be better not to be born.

首先,因为它玩弄文字,这是一种无法免除的技术因素。最好不要出生。

Of course! This means that here there’s an unthinkable unity, about which absolutely nothing can be said before it comes into existence, from which time it may indeed insist, but one could imagine it not insisting, so that everything passes into the universal rest and silence of the stars, as Pascal puts it.

当然,这意味着,有一个匪夷所思的一致性,关于这个一致性,在它出生之前,绝对没有一样东西能够被说。从生存的时间开始,它可能确实坚持,但是我们能够想象它并没有坚持,所以每一样东西都变成天上星辰的普遍性的休息与沉默,如巴斯卡所说的。

That is true enough, it may be so at the moment when one says it, it would be better not to be born. What is ridiculous is saying it. and entering into the order of the calculus of probabilities. Wit is only wit because it is close enough to our existence to cancel it with laughter.

那确实是真实的,当我们说它的时刻,它可能是如此。最好是不要出生。荒谬的是说这句话,然后又进入机率的微分计算秩序。机智仅是机智,因为它足够靠近我们的实存,可以用哈哈大笑取消它。

The phenomena of the dream. of the psychopathology of everyday life. of the joke are to be found in this zone.

梦,日常生活的心理治疗学,及笑话的这些现象,在这个地区能够被找到。

You must read Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious. Freud’s rigour is
stupefying, but he doesn’t quite give the last word, namely that everything
relating to wit takes place on the vacillating level of speech. If it weren’t there,
nothing would exist. ‘

你们必须阅读笑话及它们跟无意识的关系。弗洛伊德的严峻是令人大吃一惊,但是他并没有完全下最后的论断。换句话说,跟机智语有关的一切,会发生在言说的摇摆的层次。假如不是在那里,那就空无一物存在。

Take the silliest story, the man in a bakery, who pretends he’s got nothing to
pay for – he held out his hand and asked for a cake. he gives the cake back and asks for a glass of liqueur. drinks it, he’s asked to pay for the glass of liqueur and he replies – But I gave you the cake in exchange/or it. – But you haven’t paid/or the cake either – But I hadn’t eaten it. 10

以那个愚蠢的故事,面包店的那个人,他假装他没有什么东西要付钱—他伸出他的手,然后要求一块面包,他将面包放回去,然后要求一杯水,喝完它。他被要求要付饮料的钱,他回答说:但是我给你蛋糕交换它。店员说:但是你并也没有付蛋糕的钱。他回答:但是我并没有吃蛋糕。

There was an exchange. But how did the exchange begin? At some point • . something must have entered the circle of exchange. So the exchange must have already been set up.

有一种交换。但是这种交换如何开始?在某个时刻,某件事情一定曾经进入交换的循环。所以交换一定是已经被建立。

That is to say that when all is said and done. one is always left paying for the small glass of liqueur with a cake one hasn’t paid for.

换句话说,当一切都说都做了,我们总是离开,用我们并没有付钱的蛋糕,来付那一小杯水。

The absolutely sublime marriage-broker stories are also funny for the same
reason. ‘The one you introduced me to has an unbearable mother. ‘ – ‘Listen, you’re marrying the daughter. not the mother. ‘ – ‘But she isn’t exactly pretty. nor a spring chicken. ‘ – ‘She’ll be all the more faithful for it. ‘ – ‘But she hasn’t got much money. ”

这个绝对崇高的婚姻经纪人的故事,因为相同的理由让人觉得好笑。「你跟我介绍那个人,她的老妈真的让人受不了。」「听着,你是在娶女儿,又不是娶老妈。」「但是她长得并不漂亮,也不是处女。」「这样她才会对婚姻更忠实。」「但是她没有很多的钱。」

You can ‘t expect everything. ‘And so on. The conjoiner. the marriage-broker, conjoins on a completely different plane than that of reality. since the plane of
an engagement, of love, has nothing to do with reality.

「你不能样样都要。」等等。联结者,也就是婚姻经纪人,用跟现实界完全不同的层次来联结。因为订婚的层,爱的层次,跟现实界没有丝毫关系。

By definition. The marriage-broker. paid to deceive. can never fall into crass realities. Desire always becomes manifest at the joint of speech, where it makes its appearance, its sudden emergence. its surge forwards.

根据定义,婚姻经纪人被付金钱,就是要欺骗,她永远不会掉人粗俗的现实。欲望总是在语言的联结点显现出来。在那里,欲望出现,突然地出现,洶涌向前。

Desire emerges just as it becomes embodied in speech, it emerges with symbolism.

欲望出现,正当它在言说中具体显现。它跟符号象征一起出现。

To be sure. symbolism links up a certain number of these natural signs, of
these loci. which captivate the human being. There is even the beginnings of
symbolism in the instinctual capture of one animal by another. But that isn’t
what constitutes symbolism, it’s the symbolising Merken which make what
doesn’t exist exist.

的确,符号象征联接某些的这些自然的符号,某些的这些轨迹,它们让人类感到著迷。在一个动物被另外一个动物捕捉时,甚至会有符号象征的这些开始。但是那并不是组成符号象征的东西。这个符号象征让并不存在的东西存在。

You mark the six sides of a die, you roll the die – from this rolling die emerges desire. I am not saying human desire, for, after all, the man who plays with the die is captive to the desire thus put into play. He doesn’t know the origin of his desire, as it rolls with the symbol written on its six sides.

你们标示一个骰子的六个边,你滚动这个骰子。欲望就从这个骰子的滚动出现。我并不是说人类的欲望,因为,毕竟,玩弄骰子的这个人,受到因此而运作的欲望的俘虏。他并不知道他的欲望的起源,当欲望跟随被写在骰子的六边形的符号而滚动。

Why is it only man who plays dice? Why don’t the planets speak? Questions I’ll leave open for today.
.1 8 May 1 955

为什么仅有人玩弄骰盅?为什么这些行星不说话?今天我将留下这些问题。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Death instinct 06

January 2, 2012

Death instinct 06
拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XVIII
Desire, life and death
欲望,生命与死亡

3
Edgar Poe always juxtaposed the themes of life and of death,in a way not
lacking in significance. As an echo of this liquifaction of Oedipus. I would
choose The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar.

爱伦坡总是以某种并非缺乏意义的方式,将生命与死亡的主体相提并论。作为伊底普斯的死亡的迴响,我将会选择「范德马的案例报告」。

It’s about an experiment in the sustentation of the subject in speech. by
means of what was then called magnetism. a form of theorisation of hypnosis someone in articulo mortis is hypnotised to see what will happen.

那是关于言说的主体的维持生命的试验,凭借着当时所谓的磁场引力,一种催眠的理论的形式。也就是在弥留时刻的某个人,给予催眠,为了看看会发生什么事。

A man at the end of his life is chosen. he only has some few breaths left. and in every other way he’s dying. It’s been explained to him that if he wants to become one of humanity’s heroes. he has only to signal to the hypnotiser .

一个濒临死亡的人被选择。他仅剩几口气呼吸,从每个其他方式来看,他快要死了。曾经跟他解释过,假如他想要成为人类之一,他仅要发出讯号给催眠师。

If this could be set up in the few hours preceding his last breath. one would find out. This is fine poetical imagination,which ranges much further than our timid medical imaginations. although we all try hard along that road.

我们将会发现到,在他最后的弥留时刻前的几个小时,能够被证实。这是美好的诗的想象,范围比我们胆小的医学的想象更加深入,虽然我们都尝试朝着这条途径前进。

In fact, the subject passes from life into death. and remains for some months
in a state of sufficient aggregation to be still in fair condition – a corpse on a bed. which. from time to time. speaks. saying I am dead.

事实上,主体从生命到死亡,有好几个月都处于充分聚精会神的良好情况—等于在躺在床上的尸体,有时候会说出:「我是死人。」

This state of affairs is maintained. with the help of all kinds of tricks and digs
in the ribs. until the passes contrary to those that put him to sleep are started in
order to wake him up. when several screams from the poor wretch are heard –
For God’s sake! – quick! quick! – put me to sleep – or, quick! – waken me! – quick! –I SAY TO YOU THAT I AM DEAD!

事情被维持这样的状态,凭借各种的技巧及在肋骨的碰触,直到跟让他睡著的那些过程相反的过程被启动,为了唤醒他。这时,这位可怜的人物被听见发出几声尖叫:我的天啊!快!快!让我睡著,或是,快!换醒我,快!我跟你们说,我是死人!

He’s already been saying he’s dead for six months. but when he is awakened.
M. Valdemar is no more than a disgusting liquefaction. something for which no
language has a name. the naked apparition. pure. simple, brutal. of this figure
which it is impossible to gaze at face on. which hovers in the background of all
the imaginings of human destiny ,which is beyond all qualification, and for
which the word carrion is completely inadequate. the complete collapse of this species of swelling that is life – the bubble bursts and dissolves down into
inanimate putrid liquid,
他已经一直在说,他已经死了六个月了。但是当他被唤醒时,范德马先生仅仅就是一个令人厌恶的瓦解的东西,没有语言能够形容他,这个赤裸的魅影,纯粹,简单,而悲惨的这个人物,正面真是惨不忍睹。这样的人物逡巡在人类命运所有的意象的背景里, 他的特质实在是无法形容,「行尸走肉」这个成语都不足以形容,生命的虚张声势的东西完全崩坍—像泡沫爆裂,瓦解成为一滩没有生命的死水。

That is what happens in the case of Oedipus. As everything right from the
start of the tragedy goes to show, Oedipus is nothing more than the scum of the earth, the refuse, the residue, a thing empty of any plausible appearance.

这就是伊底普斯所发生的情况。如同从悲剧的开始直接而来的一切用来证明,伊底普斯仅仅就是人间的人渣,废料,渣滓,被剥除任何合理外表的无用之物。

Oedipus at Colonus, whose being lies entirely within the word [parole]
proferred by his destiny, makes actual the conjunction of death and life. He lives a life which is dead, which is that death which is precisely there under life,

在科隆那斯的伊底普斯,他的生命完全在由他的命运提供的言说的这个范围之内。他让死亡与生命之间的连接具体实现。他过著一种死亡的生活。那种死亡确实是生命之下的死亡。

That is also where Freud’s lengthy text leads us, where he tells us – Don’t believe that life is an exalting goddess who has arisen to culminate in that most beautiful of forms, that there is the slightest power of achievement and progress in life. Life is a blister, a mould, characterised – as others besides Freud have written – by nothing beyond its aptitude for death.

那也是弗洛伊德的冗长的文本引导我们去的地方。他在文本里告诉我们:不要相信,生命是一个崇高的女神,以各种美丽的形态绚烂诱人,有丝毫的成就力量及生命的进展。生命是一个剥落的漆,一个特有的霉菌。除外,弗洛伊德曾经写到,生命除了对于死亡的响往外,别无一物。

That is what life is – a detour, a dogged detour, in itself transitory and
precarious, and deprived of any significance. Why, in that of its manifestations
called man, does something happen, which insists throughout this life, which is
called a meaning? We call it human, but are we so sure? Is this meaning as
human as all that? A meaning is an order, that is to say, a sudden emergence.

这就是生命的本质—一个迂迴,一个固执的迂迴,本身是瞬息变化而不稳定,并且被剥夺任何的意义。在所谓人的展示的迂迴当中,为什么会有某件事情发生,终其一生坚持著要具有意义?我们称它为人的意义,但是我们如此确定吗?这个意义真的是人的意义吗?意义是一种秩序,换句话说,一种突然的出现。

A meaning is an order which suddenly emerges. A life insists on entering into it, but it expresses something which is perhaps completely beyond this life, since when we get to the root of this life, behind the drama of the passage into
existence, we find nothing besides life conjoined to death. That is where the
Freudian dialectic leads us.

一种意义上突然出现的一种秩序。一种生命坚持要进入意义,但是它表达某件东西,或许是完全超越这个生命的东西。因为我们到达这个生命的根源,在进入生命实存的过程的这个戏剧背后,除了生命跟死亡紧密相连外,我们发现什么也没有。那就是弗洛伊德的辩证法引导我们去的地方。

Up to a certain point, Freudian theory may seem to explain everything,
including what’s related to death, within the framework of a closed libidinal
economy, regulated by the pleasure principle and a return to equilibrium,
involving specific relations between objects.

直到某个点,弗洛伊德的理论似乎可以用来解释一切,包括跟死亡相关的东西,在一个封闭的力比多的生命力的架构里,受到快乐原则的规范,以及回到平衡,牵涉到客体之间的明确关系。

The merging of the libido with activities which on the surface are at odds with it, aggressivity for instance, is put down to imaginary identification. Instead of beating up the other confronting him, the subject identifies himself, and turns against himself this gentle aggressivity, which is thought of as a libidinal object relation, and is founded upon what are called the instincts of the ego, that is to say the need for order and harmony.

生命力比多跟行动的融合,表面上说跟它冲突的,譬如,攻击性本被认为是想象的认同。非但没有刺激对方来面对他,主体认同他自己,然后将这个温和的攻击性,回转过来对抗自己。这个温和的攻击性被认为是一种生命力比多的客体关系,它的基础是所谓的自我的本能。换句话说,那就是对于秩序与和谐的这个需求。

After all, one must eat .- when the pantry is empty, one tucks into one’s fellow being [semblable]. The libidinal adventure is here objectified in the order of living things, and one assumes that the behaviour of subjects, their inter-aggressivity, is conditioned and capable of explication by a desire which is fundamentally adequate to its object.

毕竟,我们必须吃食物,当食橱空空如也,我们就会侵犯到别人身上。力比多的冒险在此以生物的秩序被客体化,我们假定,主体的行为,他们的内在攻击性,是被制约,而且能够用欲望来诠释。这个欲望基本上是对于它的客体是充分的。

The significance of Beyond the Pleasure Principle is that that isn’t enough.
Masochism is not inverted sadism, the phenomenon of aggressivity isn’t to be
explained simply on the level of imaginary identification.

超越快乐原则的意义上,那并不足够。受虐狂并不是倒转的虐待狂,攻击性的现象并不能仅是在想象的认同的层次来解释。

What Freud’s primary masochism teaches us is that, when life has been dispossessed of its speech, its final word can only be the final malediction expressed at the end of Oedipus at Colonus, Life doesn’t want to be healed.

弗洛伊德的主要的受虐狂教导我们的是,当生命已经被剥夺到它的言说,它最后的话语仅会是这个最后的诅咒,伊底普斯在科隆那斯的结局所表达到。生命不想要被治疗。

The negative therapeutic reaction is fundamental to it. Anyway, what is healing? The realisation of the subject through a speech which comes from elsewhere, traversing it.

这个负面的治疗的反应对于它是基本的。无论如何,什么是治疗?主体通过言说的实践,这个言说来自其他地方,并且旅行过那个地方。

This life we’re captive of, this essentially alienated life, ex-sisting, this life in
the other, is: as such joined to death, it always returns to death, and is only
drawn into increasingly large and more roundabout circuits by what Freud
calls the elements of the external world.

我们是其俘虏的这个生命,这个基本上是异化的生命,是外部存在,存在于他者的生命,它的本身是跟死亡连接在一块。它总是回归到死亡。它仅是被吸引到越来越大,越来越迂迴的迴圈,根据弗洛伊德所谓的外在世界的那些因素。

All that life is concerned with is seeking repose as much as possible while
awaiting death. That is what devours the time of the suckling baby at the
beginning of its existence. with hourly segments which allow him just to take a
peep from time to time. You have to try bloody hard to draw him out of this for
him to find the rhythm by which we get attuned to the world.

生命所关心的一切,就是在等待死亡的时刻,尽可能寻求安逸。那就是为什么吸奶的婴儿在它生命存在的开始,所消耗的时间,仅有几小时的片刻,容许他有时偷窥一下。你们必须用力地尝试将他从这里拉开,为了让他找到这个节奏,我们赖以跟这个世界调和的节奏。

If the nameless desire can appear at the level of the desire to sleep, which you mentioned the other day,:Valabrega, that’s because it is in an intermediary state -dozing off is -the most natural of all vital states. Life is concerned solely with dying -To die, to sleep, perchance to dream, as a certain gentleman put it, just when what was at issue was exactly that – to be or not to be.7

假如这个无名的欲望出现在想要睡觉的层次,你们前天提到的,范拉瑞嘉。那是因为那是一个仲介的状态—沉沉入睡的状态,所有生命力最自然的状态。生命仅是关心著死亡—死亡,睡觉,或许会作梦,如哈姆雷特这个角色所说的,正当受到争论的确实是这个问题:要活着?还是要死亡?

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
http://springhero.wordpress.com

Death instinct 05

January 1, 2012

Death instinct 05
拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XVIII
Desire, life and death
欲望,生命与死亡

3
To fill in what I am in the middle of articulating for you. I told you that we had
an example. which I took because I happened to come across it – the example of Oedipus finding his end. the beyond of Oedipus.

为了填补我正在跟你们表达的东西,我告诉你们,我们有一个例子,因为我恰好碰到,採用过来。伊底普斯发现他的结局,伊底普斯的超越。

The fact that Oedipus is the patronymic hero of the Oedipus complex isn’t a
coincidence. Another one could have been chosen. since all the heroes of Greek mythology have some sort of connection with this myth. they embody it under different guises. reveal other aspects of it. There was certainly a reason why Freud was guided towards this one.

伊底普斯是伊底普斯情结的家族名称。这个事实并不是巧合。本来会有另外一个名称被选择,因为希腊神话的所有的英雄,跟这个神话拥有某种的关联。它们在不同的伪装下代表它,显示它的其他面貌。确实有一个理由,为什么弗洛伊德被引导朝向这个。

Throughout his life. Oedipus is always this myth. He is himself nothing other
than the passage from myth to existence. Whether he existed or not is of little
importance to us. since he exists in each of us. in a palely reflected form. he is
ubiquitous. and he exists far more than if he really had existed.

终其一生,伊底普斯总是这个神话。他自己实实在在就是从神话过渡到生命实存。他是否存在,对我们而言,并不是很重要。因为他存在于我们每个人之中,以一个苍白反映的形式。他是无所不在的,而且他存在远超过他的实际存活期间。

One can say that a thing does or doesn’t really exist. On the other hand, I was
surprised to see. regarding the archetypal cure. one of our colleagues oppose
the term psychic reality to that of true reality. I think that I have put you all in
enough of a state of suggestion for this term to seem to you a contradiction in
adjecto.

我们能够说,一件事情存在或没有确实存在。在另一方面,我很惊讶地看到,关于这个原型的治疗。我们的一位同事将这个心理现实的术语,跟真实现实的术语相提并论。我认为,我曾经将你们放置于建议的状态,为了让这个术语,对你们而言,本身就是悖论。

Whether a thing really exists or not doesn’t much matter. It can perfectly
easily exist in the full sense of the term. even if it doesn’t really exist. By
definition. there is something so improbable about all existence that one is in
effect perpetually questioning oneself about its reality.

一件事情是否确实存在,并不重要。就这个术语的充分意义来说,它能够轻而易举地存在,即使它并没有确实存在。根据定义,关于我们实际上永远在质疑自己,有关它的真实性的各种存在,有某件如此不可能的东西。

So Oedipus does exist. and he fully realised his destiny. He realised it to that
final point which is nothing more than something strictly identical to a striking
down. a tearing apart. a laceration of himself -r- he is no longer, no longer
anything. at all. And it is at that moment that he says the phrase I evoked last
time – Am I made man in the hour when I cease to be?

所以,伊底普斯确实存在,而且他充分地体会到他的命运。他体会到他的命运,到达这一点,你仅是某件严格来说等同于是身败名裂,一个撕裂点,他自己的被撕裂。他根本不再是任何东西。就在那个时刻,他说了上一次我引用的这个句子—在我不再成为人的时刻,我才成为人。

I’ve tom this phrase out of its context. and I must put it back there so that you
avoid acquiring the illusion that. for instance. the term of man would at this
moment have some sort of significance.

我将这个句子从它的文本里撕扯出来,而且我必须将它放回那里,所以你们避免获得这个幻觉:譬如,人的这个术语在这个时刻会有某种的意义。

In all strictness, it has none. precisely in as much as Oedipus achieved the full realisation of the speech of the oracles which already named his destiny even before he was born.

严格来说,人的这个术语没有任何意义,确实地,伊底普斯完成预言的言说的全部实现。即使在他出生之前,这个预言已经注定他的命运。

Before his birth his parents were told those things which required that he be hurled towards his destiny, that is that no sooner was he born, he be exposed hung by a foot. It is with this initial act that he begins to realize his destiny.

在他诞生以前,他的父母被告诉那些事情,要求他应该被投掷到他的命运。那就是,当他一出生,他应被垂吊死掉。以这个最初的行动,他开始实行他的命运。

So everything is written from the start, and unfolds right up to its final end, including the fact that Oedipus assumes it through his own action. I, he says, have nothing to do with it.

所以,每一件事情从一开头就被写好,然后展开一直到它的最后终结,包括这个事实:伊底普斯通过他自己的行动承担这个命运。他说,我跟这个命运没有丝毫关系。

The people of Thebes, in their exaltation, gave me this woman as reward for having delivered them from the Sphinx, and this guy, I didn’t know who he was, I beat him up, he was old, I can’t help it, I hit him a bit hard, it has to be said I was quite a guy.

西伯斯的百姓,在欢欣鼓舞当中,给予我这个女人,作为酬劳,因为我解救他们从司芬克斯人面狮身怪兽。而这个人,我不知道他是谁,我打败他,他是如此衰老,我情非得已,我用了击倒他。大家必须承认,我真是条汉子。

He accepts his destiny at the moment when he mutilates himself, but he had
already accepted it at the moment when he accepted the crown. It is when he is king that he draws down all the maledictions on the city, and that there is an
order of the gods, a law of retributions and punishments. It is quite natural for
everything to come down on Oedipus since he is the central knot of speech.

他接受他的命运,就在他自残眼瞎的时刻,但是他已经接受这个命运,就在当他接受这个皇冠的时刻。就在当他作为国王的时刻,他给城市招致各种的诅咒。有一个众神的命令,矫正与处罚的法律。自然而然,每一样都降临到伊底普斯身上,因为他是言说的中心环结。

The question is whether he will accept it or not. He thinks that. after all, he is
innocent. but he fully accepts it since he tears himself apart. And he asks to be
allowed to sit at Colonus. in the sacred precinct of the Eumenides. He thus fulfills the prophecy (parole] down to the last detail.

这个问题是,他是否接受这一切。他认为,毕竟,他说无辜的,但是他充分接受它,因为他将自己眼睛挖出。他要求被放逐到科伦那斯,在尤门尼底斯的神圣的辖域。他因此彻彻底底地实现这个预言。

Meanwhile, people in Thebes continue to gossip. The people of Thebes are
told – Just a minute! You pushed it a bit far. It was all very well for Oedipus to mortify himself. Except, you found him disgusting and you drove him away.

同时,西伯斯的百姓继续说三道四。西伯斯的百姓被告诉—请等一下,你推论得太过份。伊底普斯羞辱他自己,没有什么不对。除外,你发现他令人厌恶,并且你们将他赶走。

Now, the future of Thebes hangs precisely on this embodied speech which you couldn’t recognise when it was here, with its ensuing tearing, cancelling of man.

现在,西伯斯的未来确实就依赖著这个具体实现的言说。当这个言说在那里时,由于它随后的撕裂,及将人撤销,你们无法体认出来。

You exiled him. Thebes beware – if you don ‘t bring him back, if not within the limits of your land. at least nearby, so that he doesn ‘t slip away from you. If the speech which is his destiny begins to wander, it will take with it your destiny as well. Athens will reap the harvest of true existence which he embodies. and she will secure every advantage over you and will have every triumph.

你们放逐他。西伯斯人知道—假如你们不将他带回了,假如不是在你们的土地范围之内,至少要在附近,这样他才不会从你们那里溜走。假如属于他的命运的言说开始散开,你们的命运也将随之散开。雅典将会收获他具体实现的真实的存在。雅典将会获得一切胜过你们的利益,而且将会获得每次都胜利。

They run after him. Hearing that he is about to receive some visit, all kinds of
ambassadors. wise men. politicians. enthusiasts. his son. Oedipus then says –
Am I made man in the hour when I cease to be?

他们追求他。当他们听到他即将要接受某人的拜访,各种的大使,智慧的人,政治家,热心人士,及他的儿子,伊底普斯于是说:难道就在我不再成为人的时刻,我才成为人吗?

That is where beyond the pleasure principle begins. When the oracle’s
prophecy (parole] is entirely fulfilled. when the life of Oedipus has completely
passed over into his destiny, what remains of Oedipus? That is what Oedipus at Colonus shows us – the essential drama of destiny. the total absence of charity,of fraternity. of anything whatsoever relating to what one calls human feeling.

这就是超越快乐原则开始的地方。当这个预言的内容完全被实现,当伊底普斯的一生已经完整地传递成为他的命运。伊底普斯剩余下什么?那就是在科隆那斯的伊底普斯跟我们显示的—命运的基本播弄,完全欠缺仁慈,欠缺博爱,欠缺关于所谓的跟人类的感情相关的一切。

What does the theme of Oedipus at Colonus amount to? The chorus says – Say what you will, the greatest boon is not to be:/ But, life begun, soonest to end is best •

在科隆那斯的伊底普斯的主题相当等于什么?戏剧的合唱队说: 无论你怎么说,最大的恩赐尚未给予,但是生命一旦开始,越早结束越好。

. . . And Oedipus calls down the most extreme maledictions upon posterity and
the city for which he was a burnt offering – read the maledictions addressed to
his son, Polynices.

伊底普斯招致最极端的惩罚在他的子女身上,他被燃烧作为献祭的城市。请阅读对于他的儿子,普利尼西斯所宣讲的诅咒。

And then there is the negation of the prophecy (parole], which takes place
within the precinct, upon whose borders the whole drama takes place.

然后,有著这个预言内容的否定。这个预言发生在这个辖域之内,整个戏剧就发生在这个辖域的边界。

The precinct in the place where it is forbidden to speak. the central point where
silence is obligatory. for there live avenging goddesses. who do not forgive and
who catch hold of the human being at every opportunity. You get Oedipus to
come out of there each time you want to get a few words from him. for if he says them in that place. something awful will happen.

在言说被禁止的这个地方的辖域,沉默被强制的中心点,有些报复的女神就住在那里。她们并不原谅,而她们一有机会就会捉住人类。每一次你们想要从伊底普斯获得一些预言,你们就让他从那里出来。因为假如他在那个地方说预言,某件可怕的事情将会发生。

The sacred always has its raisons detre. Why is there always somewhere
where speech peters out? Perhaps so that it subsists in this precinct.
What happens at that moment?

神圣的事情总是会有它的理由。为什么总是在某个地方,言说耗尽?或许,言说就是生存在这个辖域。在那个时刻发生什么事情?

The death of Oedipus. It comes about under extremely peculiar circumstances. Someone whose gaze from afar has followed the two men as they go towards the centre of the sacred place.

伊底普斯的死亡。它发生在极端特别的情况。某个人从遥远处凝视,曾经跟随这两个人,当他们朝着这个神圣的地方的中央。

Turns around and sees only one of the two men hiding his face with his arm in an attitude of sacred awe. You have the feeling that it isn’t very pretty to look at. A kind of volatilisation of the presence of one who has said his last words.

他转过身,仅看见两人中间的一位隐藏他的脸孔在他的手臂,带着神圣敬畏的态度。你拥有这种感觉,这观看起来并不是很好看,就像是当一个人说完他最后的话语后,生命的存在就蒸发。

I think that Oedipus at Colonus here is alluding to some unknown thing which was revealed in the mysteries. which are here always in the background. But for us. if I wanted to picture it. I would look for it yet again in Edgar Poe.

我认为在科隆那斯的伊底普斯在此是提到某种未知的东西。这个东西被遮蔽在神秘之中。这些神秘在此总是在背景里。但是对于我们,假如我想要描绘它,我会在爱伦坡的小说里寻找它。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Death instinct 04

January 1, 2012

Death instinct 04
拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XVIII
Desire, life and death
欲望,生命与死亡

In the perspective which I’m opening up for you, it’s you who provoke
resistance. In the sense in which you understand resistance, that is a resistance which resists, it only resists because that’s where you’re pushing.

在我正在跟你们展开的观点,是你们挑起抗拒。以你们所了解的抗拒的意义,那是一种抗拒的抗拒,它仅是抗拒,因为那时你正在推逼的地方。

There is no resistance on the part of the subject. What’s at stake is delivering the insistence that is to be found in the symptom. What Freud himself calls inertia in this context isn’t a resistance – like any kind of inertia, it is a kind of ideal point. It’s you who presuppose it, in order to understand what’s happening.

在主体的这一边,没有抗拒。岌岌可危的是,传达在病征里能够被找到的这个抗拒。在这个文本里,弗洛伊德他自己所谓的墮性,并不是抗拒。就像任何的墮性一样,这是一种理想点。是你们在预先假设这个墮性,为了了解什么正在发生。

You aren’t wrong so long as you don’t forget that it is your hypothesis. It simply means that there’s a process, and that in order to understand it you imagine a zero point. Resistance only starts once you try to make the subject move on from this point.

你们错了,假如你们没有忘记,那是你们的假设。那仅是意味着,有一个过程。为了了解它,你们想像一个零度点。一旦你们尝试让主体从这个点向前移动,抗拒才会开始。

In other words, resistance is the present state of an interpretation of the
subject. It is the manner in which. at the same time, the subject interprets the
point he’s got to.

换句话说,抗拒就是主体的解释的目前状态。它同时是主体解释他到达的那个点的方式。

This resistance is an abstract ideal point. It is you who call it resistance. It simply means that he cannot move any faster, and you have no say in the matter. The subject is where he is at. The question is one of knowing
whether or not he is making progress.

这个抗拒是一个抽象的理想点。你们称它为抗拒。它仅是意味着,他无法移动得更快,你们在这种事情上,没有发言权。主体是他从事的地方。这个问题是要如何知道,是否他正在进步。

It is clear that he has no inclination whatsoever to move on, but however little he speaks. however little value what he says might have. what he says is his interpretation of the moment, and the rest of what he says is the totality of his successive interpretations.

显而易见,他根本就没有倾向要向前移动,但是无论他多么少谈论,他所说的内容多么没有价值,他所说的内容就是他这个时刻的解释。他其余所说的内容,就是他连续性的解释的整体。

Properly speaking. resistance is an abstraction which you locate inside so as to find your way around. You introduce the idea of a deadlock, which you call resistance, and of a force, which makes it move on. Up to that point, that is entirely correct.

适当来说,抗拒是一种你定位在里面的精炼物,为了找到你四周的位置。你介绍一个僵局的观念,你称为抗拒。你介绍一个力量的观念,会使它向前移动。直到那点,那是完全正确。

But if you invariably then resort to the idea that resistance is to be liquidated, as is written all over the place, you are ending up with pure, unqualified absurdity.

但是假如你们一成不变地诉诸于这个观念,抗拒能够被废除,如同被书写在所有的位置上,你们正在获得的结果是纯粹而无以名之的荒谬。

Having created an abstraction, you say – we have to make this abstraction
disappear, there mustn ‘t be any inertia.

因为你已经创造一种提炼物,你说—我们必须让这个提炼物消失。一定不能有任何墮性。

There is only one resistance. the resistance of the analyst. The analyst resists
when he doesn’t understand what he is dealing with. He doesn’t understand
what he is dealing with when he thinks that interpreting is showing the
subject that what he desires is this particular sexual object. He’s mistaken.

只有一种抗拒,分析家的抗拒。分析家抗拒,当他不了解他正在处理什么。他并不了解他正在处理什么,当他认为,解释正在显示主体,他所欲望的是这个特别的性的客体。他错了。

What he here takes to be objective is just a pure and simple abstraction. He’s the one who’s in a state of inertia and of resistance.

他在此认为的客体,仅是一种纯粹而简单的提炼物。他是这个人,处于墮性与抗拒的状态的人。

In contrast. what’s important is to teach the subject to name, to articulate, to
bring this desire into existence. this desire which. quite literally, is on this side of existence, which is why it insists. If desire doesn’t dare to speak its name, it’s because the subject hasn’t yet caused this name to come forth.

对照起来,重要的是要教导主体命名,表达,让这个欲望存在。这就是为什么它坚持。假如欲望并不敢谈论它的名字,那是因为主体还没有引起这个名字出现。

That the subject should come to recognise and to name his desire, that is the efficacious action of analysis. But it isn’t a question of recognising something which would be entirely given, ready to be coapted. In naming it. the subject creates, brings forth. a new presence in the world.

主体应该渐渐会承认并且命名他的欲望,那就是精神分析的有效的行动。但是问题并不是要承认某件完全是给予的东西,准备要被紧密地结合。当主体在命名它时,主体在创造,在这个世界里,展现一个新的存在。

He introduces presence as such. and by the same token. hollows out absence as such. It is only at this level that one can conceive of the action’ of interpretation.

他介绍存在的本身,然后同时地,掏空欠缺的本身。仅是在这个层次,我们能够构想解释的行动。

Since we’re always engaged in a balancing-act between Freud’s text and
experience. go back to the text, to see how Beyond really does locate desire
beyond any instinctual cycle definable by its conditions.

因为我们总是从事于弗洛伊德的文本与经验之间的平衡行动,让我们回到这个文本,为了看出,这个「超越」确实将欲望定位在,被它的条件定义的本能的循环的超越。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Death instinct 03

January 1, 2012

Death 03
拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XVIII
Desire, life and death
If we were to operate in the world of science, if it were sufficient to change the
objective conditions in order to obtain different effects, if sexual desire followed
objectified cycles, we would end up abandoning analysis. How could sexual
desire thus defined be influenced by the experience of speech – except by
adopting magical thinking?

假如我们想要在科学的世界运作,假如改变这些客体的状况就足够获得不同的影响,假如性的欲望遵照客体化的循环,我们结果将会放弃精神分析。除了採用魔术般的思维外,因而被定义性的欲望,如何能够被语言的经验所影响?

It isn’t Freud who discovered that the libido is the determining factor in
human behaviour. Aristotle was already offering a theory of hysteria based on
the fact that the uterus is a small animal which lives inside the woman’s body,
and which moved about bloody violently when it wasn’t given something to
tuck into;,

并不是弗洛伊德发现,力比多是人类行为的决定因素。亚里斯多德已经提供一种歇斯底里的理论,根据这个事实:子宫是一个生活在女人身体里的小动物。当它没有给予任何东西粘附时,它胡乱地到处走动。

Obviously he used this example because he didn’t want to take a far
more obvious one, the male sexual organ, for which you don’t need any sort of
theoretician to remind you of its surgings.

显而易见地,他使用这个例子,因为他并不想要取更明显的例子,男性的性器官。对于这个男性器官,你不需要任何种类的理论,来提醒你有关它的奔腾。

Except Aristotle never thought matters would be helped by having
conversations with the little animal inside the woman’s belly. In other words,
to speak like a chansonnier who, in his obscenity, was infected from time to
time with a kind of sacred fury [fureur] verging on prophecy• – a ne mange pas de pain, 􀅼a ne parle pas non plus, et puis 􀅼a n ‘en tend rien [it doesn’t take up space, nor does it talk, neither does it hear]. It is not open to reason. If the experience of speech has an effect under these circumstances, it is because we are somewhere other than Aristotle.

除外,亚里斯多德从来没有想到,凭借跟女人肚子里的这个小动物谈话,对于事情会有帮助。换句话,像一位激情歌手般谈话,他由于地位卑微,有时像是有一种类似预言的神的愤怒,附在身上。 (这种神的愤怒并没有佔有空间,没有谈话,没有听见)。它没有开放给理性,假如在这些情况之下,言说的经验没有影响,那是因为我们处于跟亚里斯多德不同的地方。

Of course, the desire we deal with in analysis isn’t totally unrelated to this
desire.

当然,我们在精神分析处理的欲望,跟这个欲望完全没有关系。

Given the level at which desire is to be found in the Freudian experience, why
are we nonetheless called upon to embody it in this desire?

假如考虑到,在弗洛伊德的精神分析精验,欲望能够被找到的层次,为什么我们被召唤来在这个欲望里具体表达它?

You tell me, my dear Valabrega, that there’s a kind of satisfaction of desire in
dreams. I assume that you are thinking of children’s dreams, as indeed about
every kind of hallucinatory satisfaction of desire.

你告诉我,亲爱的范拉瑞嘉,在梦里有某种欲望的满足。我认为你正在想到小孩的梦,如同确实是关于欲望的每一种产生幻觉的满足。

But what does Freud tell us? It is true, in the child there’s no distortion of
desire, during the day he wants cherries and he dreams of cherries. Except,
Freud nonetheless emphasises that, even at this infantile stage, the desire of the dream as of the symptom is a sexual desire. He is adamant about that.
Look at the Wolfman.

但是弗洛伊德告诉我们什么?这是真实的,在小孩身上,并没有欲望的扭曲,在白天,他想要樱桃,他就梦想樱桃。除外,弗洛伊德仍然强调:即使在这个婴孩阶段,梦的欲望作为病征,是一个性的欲望。他坚持那一点。请看「狼人」就知道。

With Jung, the libido gets drowned in the concerns of the soul, the great dreamer, the centre of the world, the ethereal embodiment of the subject. Freud is categorically opposed to that, and moreover at an extremely delicate moment in time, when he is tempted to give in to Jungian reductionism, since at that point he realises that the perspective of the past of the subject may well only be fantasy.

对于荣格,力比多被淹没在对于灵魂的关心。灵魂这个梦想家,世界的中心,主体的空中楼阁的具体化身。弗洛伊德在概念是反对灵魂之说。而且,曾经在一个极端微妙的时刻,当他被引诱要屈从于荣格式的还原主义,因为在那一点,他体会到,主体的过去的观点,很有理由仅是幻见。

The door is open to pass from the notion of desire which is directed towards, which is captivated by, mirages, to the notion of the universal mirage. It isn’t the same thing.

门是开放著,为了从被引导向前的被著迷的欲望的这个观念,传递到这个普遍性的幻见的观念,情况并不一样。

The full signification of the fact that Freud retains the term ‘sexual desire’
every time desire is at issue can be seen in those cases when something else
clearly seems to be involved, the hallucination of needs for instance. It all seems entirely natural – why wouldn’t needs be hallucinated?

弗洛伊德保留「性的欲望」这个术语,每一次欲望受到争议时,这个事实的充分的意义就能够被看得出来,在那些情况,当某件其他的事情很清楚地牵涉在内,譬如,各种需要的这个幻觉。这似乎非常自然—为什么需要会被形成幻觉?

It’s so much easier to believe on account of there being a kind of mirage at the second level, called mirage of the mirage. Since we experience the mirage, its presence is entirely natural. But once you start thinking, you ought to be astonished by the existence of mirages, and not only by what they show us.

要相信幻觉似乎更加容易,因为在第二层次,有某种的幻觉,被称为幻觉的幻觉。因为我们试验过这种幻觉,它的存在完全是自然的。但是一旦你开始思想,你应该大吃一惊,对于幻觉的存在,不但对于幻觉跟我们显示的。

We never stop long enough to consider the hallucination of the child’s dream
or the dream of the starving. We don’t notice one fine detail, which is that when
the child wanted cherries during the day, she doesn’t dream only of cherries.

我们从来没有停止足够久来考虑小孩梦想的幻觉,或是饥肠辘辘者作的梦。我们没有注意到一个非常清楚的细节,那就是当小孩白天想要樱桃时,她不仅只梦想到樱桃。

To cite the young Anna Freud, since the dream is hers, with her baby talk in which certain consonants are missing, she also dreams of custard, of cake, just as the person starving to death doesn’t dream of the hunk of bread and glass of water which would sate him, rather he dreams of Pantagruelian meals.

引述一下安娜、弗洛伊德,因为这个梦是她的梦,她婴儿般的谈话。在这个谈话里,某种的子音遗漏掉。她也梦想牛奶汤,蛋糕,正如这位饥饿得要死的人,并没有梦想到大块面包及可以止渴的饮水。相反的,他梦想到豪华盛宴。

O . M A N N O N I : The dream about the cherries and the one about the cake aren’t the same. The desire at issue/even the one that is said to be distorted, is already beyond the coaptation of need. Even the simplest of desires is very problematic.
奥、曼伦尼: 关于樱桃的梦,以及关于蛋糕的梦并不一样。这个欲望受到争议,甚至这个据说是被扭曲的欲望,已经超越了需要的的衔合。即使是最单纯的欲望都是问题重重。

O . M A N N O N I: The desire isn ‘t the same, since she recounts her dream.
I’m very much aware that you have an admirable understanding of what I’m
saying. Of course.. that’s what it’s really about, but that isn’t clear to everyone, and I’m trying to bring the evidence to bear just where it can reach the greatest
number of people. Let me stick to the level I’m working on.

奥、曼伦尼:这个欲望并不相同,因为她描述她的梦想。我知道得很清楚,你拥有令人崇敬的了解,对于我正在说的话。当然,那是它实际的内容,但是并不是每个人都清楚。我正在尝试提供这个证据,让它尽可能到达更多的人。让我坚持我正在从事的这个层次。

In the end, at this existential level, we can only talk about the libido satisfactorily in a mythical way – it is the genitrix, hominum divumque voluptas.

结果,在这个存在的层次,我们仅能够以神秘的方式满意地谈论到力比多。这是
genitrix, hominum divumque voluptas.

That is what Freud is getting at. In former days what returns here used to be
expressed in terms of the gods, and one must proceed with care before turning it into an algebtaic sign. They’re extremely useful. algebraic signs, but on
condition that you restore their dimensions to them. That is what I am trying to
do when I talk to you about machines.

那就是弗洛伊德所获得的。在以前的日子,在此回转的东西,以前用这些众神的术语来表达,我们必须小心翼翼地前进,才能将它转变成为代数的符号。它们是极端有用的代数的符号。但是条件是,你给它们恢复它们的维度。那就是我正在尝试做的,当我跟你们谈论有关机器。

When does Freud tell us about a beyond of the pleasure principle? Just when
the analysts have taken the path Freud taught them, and think they know.
Freud tells them that desire is sexual desire, and they believe it. That is precisely where they err – for they don’t understand what that means.

什么时候弗洛伊德告诉我们,有关一个超越快乐原则?正当这种精神分析採取弗洛伊德教导他们的途径, 并且认为他们知道。弗洛伊德告诉他们,欲望是性的欲望,他们相信它。那确实是他们犯错误的地方。因为他们并不了解那是什么意思。

Why for most of the time is desire something other than what it appears to
be? Why is that what Freud calls sexual desire? The reason for it remains
concealed, just as concealed as the beyond which the one who experiences the sexual desire looks for behind an experience subjected to all the lures in nature as a whole. “

为什么大部分时间欲望是某件并非是它表面看起来的样子?为什么你就是弗洛伊德所说的性的欲望?它的原因始终被隐藏,正如同这个超越被隐藏。经验到性的欲望的这个人,在作为天性的整体里,隶属于各种诱惑的经验的背后,寻找这个超越。

If there’s something which shows, not only in ordinary experience, but in
experiments. the efficacity of the lure in animal behaviour, that something is
sexual experience.

假如有某件东西显示,不但在日常的经验里,而且在试验里,在动物行为的诱惑的有效性,某件东西是性的经验。

There’s nothing easier than fooling an animal about the qualities which turn an object, of whatever appearance, into the thing towards which he’ll advance as if towards his partner. The captivating Gestalten, the innate releasing mechanisms are inscribed in the register of parade and pairing.

要愚弄动物,关于将一个不论是什么表象的客体,转变成为这个东西,他将会前进,好像那个东西是他的伴侣,这真是再容易不过的事情。令人著迷的格式塔行为主义,天生的释放机械功能,被铭记在展示及配对的铭记里。

When Freud maintains that sexual desire is the heart of human desire, all
those wile follow him believe it, believe it so strongly that they manage to
persuade themselves that it is all very simple, and that all that’s left to do is to
turn it into a science, the science of sexual desire, a constant force.

当弗洛伊德主张,性的欲望是人类欲望的核心,所有那些跟随他的人都相信它,如此强烈地相信,以致于他们成功地说服他们自己,那是非常简单,一切剩余下来要做的是,将它转变成为科学,性的欲望的科学,一种固定的力量。

All it takes is to remove the obstacles, and it will work all by itself. All it takes is to tell the patient – you don’t realise it, but the object is here. That is at first sight what an interpretation seems to be like.

所需要做的,就是移除这些阻碍,然后它就会自行运作。它所需要的是告诉病人—你没有体会到它,但是这个客体在这里。那就是乍然一看,解释似乎是什么样子。

Except it doesn’t work. This is when – and this is the turning-point – it is said
that the subject resists. Why do we say that? Because Freud also said it. But we haven’t understood what resisting means any more than we have understood sexual desire. We think that we should press on.

除了那个客体并没有运作。这是当—这是个转捩点—据说主体会抗拒。为什么我们那样说?因为弗洛伊德也说它。但是我们并没有了解,抗拒是什么意思,正如我们没有了解性的欲望。我们认为我们应该继续下去。

And that is when the analyst himself succumbs to the lure. I showed you what the insistence on the side of the suffering patient means. Well then, the analyst places himself at the same level, he insists in his own way, an obviously far more stupid way, since it is conscious.

那就是当精神分析家本身屈服于这个诱惑。我跟你们显示在痛苦的病人的这一边的抗拒是什么意思。呵呵,分析家将自己放在相同的层次,他以他自己的方式坚持,以显而易见更加愚蠢的方式,因为那是意识的努力。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Death 02

December 31, 2011

Death 02
拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

XVIII
Desire, life and death
This famous object relation, which we are gargling with these days. has a
tendency to be employed as a model. a pattern of the adaptation of the subject to its normal objects.

这个著们的客体关系,我们这些日子正在表达,具有一种倾向被使用,作为主体适应正常客体的一种模式,一种样板。

However. this term. in so far as it can be of use in the experience of analysis. can only acquire a meaning from ideas concerning the evolution of the libido. the pregenital stage. the genital stage. Can one say that the structure. the maturity. the fully-fledged realisation of the object depends on the libido?•.At the genital stage. the libido is thought to bring a new object. another structuration. another sort of existence for the object into the world.
bringing its fullness. its maturity to completion. And this has nothing to do with
traditional aspects of the theory of man’ s relations to the world – the opposition
of being to appearance.

可是,因为这个术语对于精神分析经验有些同途,它仅能从有关力比多,到前性器官阶段,到性器官阶的的进化的观念,获得一种意义。我们能够说,这个客体的结构,成熟,及充分地实现,是依靠力比多吗?在性器官的阶段,力比多被认为会带来一个新的客体,另外一种结构,另外一种存在,让这个客体进入世界,带来它的充实,它的成熟的完成。这跟传统的人与世界的关系的理论,丝毫没有关系—也就是存在与表象的对立关系。

Within the classical. theoretical perspective. between subject and object
there is coaptation. co-naissancez – a play on words retaining all its force. for the theory of knowledge lies at the heart of any discussion of the relation of man to the world. The subject has to place himself in adequation with the thing. in a relation of-being to being – the relation of a subjective being. but one that is
truly real. Or a being aware of being to a being one knows to be.

在古典的理论的观点,在主体与客体之间,有一种互相适应,互相了解—这是保留所有它的力量的文字遊戏。因为知识的理论在于人与世界的关系的任何讨论的核心。主体必须放置他自己在跟事物的充分适应,在生命实存与生命实存的关系。一个主观性的生命实存的关系。但又是实在真实的关系。或是一个知道生命实存的生命,对于一个我们知道具有实存的生命。

The domain of the Freudian experience is established within a very different
register of relations. Desire is a relation of being to lack. This lack is the lack of
being properly speaking. It isn’t the lack of this or that. but lack of being
whereby the being exists.

弗洛伊德精神分析经验的领域被建立在一个非常不同的关系的铭记里。欲望是生命实存对欠缺的关系。适当来说,这个欠缺是生命实存的欠缺。它并不是这个或那个的欠缺,而是生命存在所在地生命实存的欠缺。

This lack is beyond anything which can represent it. It is only ever
represented as a reflection on a veil. The libido. but now no longer as used
theoretically as a quantitative quantity. is the name of what animates the deepseated conflict at the heart of human action.

这个欠缺超越任何能够代表它的东西。这个欠缺从来仅能作为一个遮蔽的一种反思,而被代表。力比多就是这个名称,它激发人的行动的核心的根深蒂固的冲突,虽然现在它在理论上被使用作为一种可量化的数量。

We necessarily believe that. at the centre. things are really there. solid.
established, waiting to be recognised. and that the conflict is marginal. But
what does the Freudian experience teach us? If not that what happens in the domain of so-called consciousness. that is on the level of the recognition of objects. is equally misleading in relation to what the being is looking for?

我们必须要相信,在核心,东西确实在那里,具体而稳固,等待受人承认,并且冲突是在边缘。但是弗洛伊德的精神分析经验教导我们什么?难道不就是:在所谓的意识的领域所发生的事情,在客体受到承认的层次,跟这个生命实存正在寻找的东西的关系,同样是一种误导?

In so far as the libido creates the different stages of the object, the objects are never it- except from the moment when that would be entirely it, thanks to a genital maturation of the libido, the experience of which in analysis retains a character which is, there is no denying it, Ineffable ,since as soon as one wants to spell it out, one ends up in all sorts of contradictions, including the impasse of narcissism.

虽然力比多创造了这个客体的不同阶段,这些客体从来就不是力比多。除了从完全是力比多的那个时刻开始,由于力比多的性器官的成熟。在精神分析,这个力比多的经验保留一种特性。无可否认的,这个特性是难以表达的,因为当我们想要说明它,我们结果陷入各种的矛盾,包括自恋的这个僵局。

Desire. a function central to all human experience. is the desire for nothing
nameable. And at the same time this desire lies at the origin of every variety of
animation. If being were only what it is. there wouldn’t even be room to talk
about it.

欲望是对于人类经验很重要的一种功用,对于无以名状的东西的欲望。同时,这种欲望在于各种动物性的变化的起源。假如生命实存仅是它本来的样子,我们连讨论它的空间都没有。

Being comes into existence as an exact function of this lack. Being
attains a sense of self in relation to being as a function of this lack. In the experience of desire. In the pursuit of this beyond, which is nothing, it harks
back to the feeling of a being with self-consciousness, which is nothing but its
own reflection in the world of things. For it is the companion of beings there before it, who do not in fact know themselves.

生命实存存在作为这种欠缺的确实的功用。生命实存获得一种自我的感觉,相关于生命实存作为这个欠缺的功用,在欲望的经验里。在这种对于这种超越的追求,也就是对于空无的追求,它回溯到一种生命实存具有自我意识的感觉。这种自我意识仅是它自己在事物的世界里的反思。因为在这个自我意识之前的相聚的生命主体,他们事实上并不认识他们自己。

The self-conscious being, transparent to itself, which classical theory places
at the centre of human experience, appears, from this perspective, as a manner of locating, in the world of objects, this being of desire who cannot perceive itself as such, except in its lack. If this lack of being, it perceived that it is lacking being, and that the being is there, in all the things which do not know
themselves to be. And it imagines itself, for its part, as one more object, for it sees no other difference. It says – I’m the one who knows that I am.

这个自我意识的主体,对于自己是透明的。古典的理论将它摆放在人类经验的核心。从这个观点,这个自我意识的主体,出现作为一种在客体的世界里,定位欲望的生命实存。它感觉到,它欠缺生命实存。这个生命实存在那里,在不知的他们自己的所有主体当中。它想像它自己,就它自己而言,作为仅仅是多了一个客体。因为它并没有看到什么别的不同。它说:我就是知道我是谁的这个人。

Unfortunately, If it does perhaps know that it is, it knows nothing at all about what it is. That is what is lacking in every being.

不幸地,或许他即使确实知道它是存在,可是对它存在的本质,它却根本就不了解。这就是每一位主体欠缺的地方。

In short, there is a confusion between the capacity to erect a fundamental
distress whereby being arises as presence from a background of absence, and
what we commonly call the capacity for consciousness, for becoming aware,
which is only a neutral and abstract, and even abstracted, form of the totality of
the possible mirages.

总之,有一种混淆处于这个能力跟我们所谓的意识到能力之间。前者的能力竖立起一种基本的困境,在这个困境那里,生命实存产生,作为从欠缺的背景里出现的存在。后者是意识的能力,知道的能力。这种能力仅是一种中立而且抽象,甚至是整体的可能的幻觉的精炼形态。

Relations between human beings are really established before one gets to the
domain of consciousness. It is desire which achieves the primitive structuration
of the human world, desire as unconscious. In this respect, we must appraise
Freud’s advance.

人类之间的关系,确实在我们到达意识的领域之前就被建立。欲望获得人类世界的原始的结构,欲望作为无意识。在这一方面,我们必须赞赏弗洛伊德的作为开先锋。

Copernican revolution, when it comes down to it, is, as you can see, a crass
metaphor. It goes without saying that Copernicus produced a revolution, but in
the world of determined and determinable things.

哥白尼的革命,如你们所看到,总结来说,就是一种粗略的比喻。哥白尼产生一种革命是自不待言。但是这种革命发生在被命定及可命定的世界。

Freud’s advance constitutes, I would say, a revolution in an opposite direction, because before Copernicus, the world owed its structure precisely to the fact that so much of man was already in it. And to tell the truth, we’ve never really decanted it completely, although we’ve done enough.

我将会说,弗洛伊德的开先锋朝著相反的方向,创造一种革命。因为在哥白尼之前,这个世界将它的结构确实归属于这个事实:人的大部分都已经是在这个世界里。坦白说,我们从来没有真正完全走出这个世界,虽然我们足够努力。

Freud’s advance isn’t to be explained by the basic and precarious experience
of the fact of having to care for someone, it really is the correlate of a revolution
carried through over the entire domain constituted by man’s thinking concerning himself and his experience; over the entire domain of philosophy since after all we must give it its name.

弗洛伊德的开先锋,不应该根据这种基本而不稳定的事实的经验来解释。这种事实必须要讨好每个人。这个事实实际上跟一种革命有关系。这种革命被贯彻在人类思想所组成的整个领域,关于他自己跟他的经验。也被贯彻在哲学的整个领域,因为毕竟我们必须给予它哲学的名称。

This revolution brings man back into the world as creator. But the latter risks
being entirely dispossessed of his creation by the simple trick, always put on one side in classical theory, which consists in saying – God is no deceiver.

这种革命将人类带回到这个世界,作为创造者。但是这个创造者冒的危险是:他会被他的创造物剥夺。因为在古典的理论里,这种简单的诡计总是被放置在一边。这个古典的理论在于说:上帝并不是欺骗者。

That is so essential that, when it came to it, Einstein got stuck at the same
point as Descartes. The Lord, he used to say, is certainly a crafty fellow, but he
isn’t dishonest. It was essential to his organisation of the world that God not be
a deceiver. But this, precisely, is what we don’t know.

这个古典的理论上如此重要,当提到它时,爱因斯坦跟笛卡尔一样动弹不得。他过去时常说,上帝确实是一位很灵巧的人,但是他并不是不诚实。这对他建构这个世界是非常重要的:上帝不应该是一个欺骗者。但这确实是我们并不知道的事情。

The decisive element of the Freudian experience could be summed up as follows – don’t forget that consciousness isn’t universal. Modern experience
awoke from a long fascination with the property of consciousness)” and
considers man’s experience within its own structure, which is the structure of
desire. That is the only starting-point for explaining the fact that there are men.

弗洛伊德的精神分析经验的关键因素,可以总结如下:不要忘记意识并非是普遍性的。现代的精神分析经验从长期对意识的特性的著迷觉醒过来,并且从它自己的结构里面,也就是欲望的结构,来考虑人的经验。这是仅有的开始点,用来解释这个事实:人存在世界上。

Not men as a herd, but men who speak, with this speech through which
something is introduced into the world which weighs as heavily as the whole of the real.

人存在世界上,不是作为一群动物,而是作为会具有言说能力而言说的人。通过这种言说,某件东西被介绍到这个世界。这个世界跟整个真实界份量一样地重要。

There is a fundamental ambiguity in the use we make of the word ‘desire’.
Sometimes we objectify it – and we have to do so, if only to talk about it. On the
contrary, sometimes we locate it as the primitive term in relation to any
objectification.”

当我们使用到「欲望」这个字词时,有一个基本的模糊暧昧。有时,我们让它客观化。我们必须如此做,假如我们想要谈论它。相反地,有时,我们定位它作为原始的术语,跟任何的客体化相关。

In fact, sexual desire in our experience has nothing objectified about it. It is
neither an abstraction, nor a purified x, as the notion of force in physics has
become.

事实上,在精神分析经验里,性的欲望并没有丝毫被客体化。它既不是一个抽象的东西,也不是一个被纯净化的未知物,如同物理学的力量的观念那样。

Doubtless we make use of it, and it’s very handy, for describing a
certain biologieal cycle, or more precisely a certain number of cycles which are
more or less tied up with biological systems.

无可置疑地,我们使用欲望这个字词,它很方便,作为描述某种生物的循环,或更确实地说,某种数量的循环是跟生物的系统息息相关。

But what we have to deal with is a subject which}s here, who truly is desiring, and the desire in question is prior to any kind of conceptualisation – every conceptualisation stems from it.

但是我们必须处理的是,一个主体在这里,他确实是在欲望。而这个受到置疑的欲望,早先存在于任何的观念化之前,每一个观念化都是起源于欲望。

The proof that analysis does indeed lead to our approaching things this way is that the largest part of what the subject takes to be a certainty after due reflection is for us only the superficial, rationalised, subsequently justified ordering of what his desire foments, which gives his world and his action its essential curvature.

精神分析确实以这种方式引导我们接近事情。证据是:主体经过适当的沉思之后,认为是千真万确的绝大部分,对于我们而言,仅是他的欲望蕴酿的东西的这个肤浅的理性化,随后再自圆其说。这种情况让他的世界及他的行动,产生它根本上扭曲观照。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

迴圈 08

December 28, 2011

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII The circuit 06
第七章: 迴圈
4
Here, it’s more complicated. We call that a message. It’s very ambiguous.
What is a message inside a machine? Something which proceeds by opening
and not opening, the way an electronic lamp does, by yes or no. It’s something
articulated, of the same order as the fundamental oppositions of the symbolic
register.

在此,它变得更加复杂。我们称那个为一个讯息。这个讯息非常模糊暧昧的。一台机器里面的讯息是什么?某件东西以开放与不开放的方式前进,就像一台电子灯笼的方式,一闪一灭。它是被表达的某件东西,跟符号象征的铭记的基本的对立,属于相同的层次。

At any given moment, this something which turns has to, or doesn’t,
come back into play. It is always ready to give a reply, and be completed by this self same act of replyIng, that is to say by ceasing to function as an isolated and closed circuit, by entering into the general run of things. Now this comes very close to what we can conceive of as Zwang, the compulsion to repeat.

在任何特定的时刻,这个某件会回转的东西,必须回来运作,或是没有。它总是准备给予一个回答,然后被这个自我的相同的回答举动来完成。换句话说,它停止作为一个孤立而封闭的迴圈的功用,它进入事情的一般运转。现在,这种运转非常靠近我们能够构想作为「重复的推动力」。

As soon as we have this little model, we realise that in the very anatomy of
the cerebral apparatus there are things which return back on themselves.

当我们拥有这个小模式,我们体会到,在脑的仪器的解剖里,有些东西会回转到它们本身。

Thanks to Riguet, on whose recommendation I read the work of an English
neurologist, l became very interested in a certain octopus.

感谢黎桂特,由于他的推荐,我阅读一位脑神经科专家的著作。我对于某种的章鱼感到强烈興趣。

It seems that its nervous system is sufficiently simple to have an isolated nerve which governs what is called the jet, or the propulsion of liquid, thanks to which the octopus has this delightful way of moving.

似乎,章鱼的神经系统非常简单,拥有一个孤立的神经。这个神经统管所谓的这个喷射,液体的喷射。由于这个喷射,章鱼拥有这种愉快的移动方式。

You can also think of its memory apparatus being pretty much reduced to this message circulating between Paris and Paris, on tiny points of the nervous system.

你们也想到它的记忆的仪器,相当地被减化成为流通在巴黎与巴黎之间的这个讯息,在神经系统的微小点上。

Think back on what we said in preceding years about those striking
coincidences Freud noted in the sphere of what he calls telepathy. Very
important things, in the way of transference, occur in parallel in two patients,
whether one is in analysis and the other just on its fringes, or whether both are
in analysis.

回顾一下我们在前几年所说的,关于弗洛伊德注意到那些引人注意到巧合,发生在他所谓的心电感应的领域。非常重要的事情,以移情的方式,在两个病人身上,对比地发生,无论一位是在精神分析,另外一个就在精神分析的外围,或是两位都在精神分析。

At that time, I showed you how it is through being links, supports,
rings in the same circle of discourse, agents integrated in the same circle of
discourse, .that the subjects simultaneously experience such and such a
symptomatic act, or discover such and such a memory.

在当时,我跟你们显示,如何在论述的相同圈子里,代理物被合并在论述的相同圈子里,通过成为连接,成为支持,成为环圈,主体同时经验到诸如其类的病征的举动,或是发现诸如其类的记忆。

At the point we have reached, I propose, looking ahead, that you conceive of
the need for repetition, such as it concretely manifests itself in the subject, in
analysis for instance, as the form of behaviour staged in the past and
reproduced in the present in a way which doesn’t conform much with vital
adaptation.

在我们到达的这个时刻,往前展望时,我建议,你们应该构想这个重复的需要,譬如它具体地在主体身上展现它自己,譬如在精神分析里,作为过去被展示,及现在被复制到行为的形态。它们的方式并没有很符合精力能量的适应。

Here we rediscover what I’ve already pointed out to you, namely that the
unconscious is the discourse of the other.

在此,我们发现我们已经跟你们指出来的东西,换句话说,无意识是大他者的真理论述。

This discourse of the other is not the discourse of the abstract other, of the other in the dyad, of my correspondent, nor even of my slave, it is the discourse of the circuit in which I am integrated. I am one of its links.

大他者的真理论述,并不是这个抽象的大他者的真理论述,在这个四角对立关系的大他者的真理论述,也不是我的奴隶的真理论述。它是我被合并在里面的这个迴圈的真理论述。我是迴圈的联线的其中之一。

It is the discourse of my father for instance, in so far as my father made mistakes which I am absolutely condemned to reproduce – that’s what we call the super-ego.

譬如,这是我的父亲的真理论述,因为我的父亲犯了错误,我绝对被注定要复制。那就是我们所谓的超我。

I am condemned to reproduce them because I am obliged to pick up again the discourse he bequeathed to me, not simply because I am his son, but because one can’t stop the chain of discourse, and it is precisely my duty to transmit it in its aberrant form to someone else.

我被注定要复制他们,因为我不得不再一次接续他遗留给我的这个真理论述,不仅是因为我是他的儿子,而是因为我们无法阻止真理论述的锁链。这确实是我的责任,要以偏离的方式传递它,给某个其它的人。

I have to put to someone else the problem of a situation of life or death in which the chances are that it is just as likely that he will falter, in such a way that this discourse produces a small circuit in which an entire family, an entire coterie, an entire camp. an entire nation or half of the world will be caught.

我必须跟某个其他的人,提出生存或死亡的情境的问题。在这个情境里,很有可能,他同样可能摇摆,以这样一种方式,这个真理论述产生一种小的迴圈。在这个迴圈里,一整个家庭,一个排外的圈子,一整个阵营,一整个国家,或一半的世界被陷住。

The circular form of a speech which is just at the limit between sense and non-sense. which is problematic.

一种言说的循环的形式,就处于意义与无意义之间的限制,这是问题重重。

That’s what the need for repetition is. as we see it emerge beyond the pleasure
principle. It vacillates beyond all the biological mechanisms of equilibration. of
harmonisation and of agreement. It 1s only introduced by the register of
language, by the function of the symbol, by the problematic of the question
within the human order.

那就是重复的需要的本质。如同我们看见它在超越快乐原则里出现。这个重复的需要摇摆,超越所有平衡,和谐及协同的生物机械结构。它被介绍,仅是凭借语言的铭记,凭借符号象征的功用,凭借在人类的层次里的问题重重。

How does Freud project that in the most literal manner on to a level which
ostensibly belongs to the order of biology? We will have to come back to that the next few times. Life is only caught up in the symbolic piece-meal, decomposed, The human being himself is in part outside life. He partakes of the death instinct.

弗洛伊德如何以最实质的方式投射那一点,到虚饰地属于生物秩序的层次?我们将必须回的以下的几行。生命仅是被切碎,被瓦解地套陷在这个符号象征里。人作为生命的本身,有部分是在生命之外。他参与到这个死亡本能。

Only from there can he engage in the register of life.
1 9 January 1 955

仅有死亡本能那里,人才是从事于生命的铭记。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

迴圈 07

December 28, 2011

拉康第二研讨班
The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-1955
弗洛伊德理论的自我与精神分析技术

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VII The circuit 06
第七章: 迴圈
4
Kierkegaard. who was, as you know, a humorist. discussed the difference
between the pagan world and the world of grace, which Christianity
introduces. Something of the ability to recognise his natural object, so apparent in animals, is present in man.

你们知道,齐克果是一位幽默大师,他讨论异教徒的世界,跟承受上帝恩典的世界之间的差异。人的身上具有某种的能力,认识他的自然的能力,这种能力在动物身上是如此显而易见。

There is being captured by form, being seized by play, being gripped by the mirage of life. That is what a theoretical. or theorial, or contemplative, or Platonic thought refers itself to, and it isn’t an accident that Plato places reminiscence at the centre of his entire theory of knowledge.

有种生命实存被形态捕捉,被遊戏掌握,被生命的幻觉迷惑。那就是一种理论,沉思,或柏拉图思想提到的东西。所以,柏拉图将「回顾」放置在他的知识的完整理论的核心,不是偶然的。

The natural object, the harmonic correspondent of the living being, is
recognisable because its outline has already been sketched. And for it to-have
been sketched, it must already have been within the object which is going to
join itself to it. That is the relation of the dyad. Plato’s entire theory of
knowledge – Jean Hyppolite won’t contradict me – is dyadic.

自然的客体,生物的和谐的对应,能够被体认出来。因为它的轮廓已经被描绘出来。然后为了让它曾经被描绘,它一定已经是在将要跟它结合的客体里。那就是这个四角对立的关系。柏拉图的整个知识的理论是四角对立。海坡来特的观点跟我没有牴触。

But for certain specific reasons, a change occurred. Sin is from then on
present as the third term, and it is no longer by following the path of
reminiscence, but rather in following that of repetition, that man finds his way.

但是为了某种明确的理由,一种改变发生。从那时开始,原罪被呈现作为第三个术语。它不再跟随回顾的图径,而是跟随重复的途径,人才找到他的道路。

That is precisely what puts Kierkegaard on the track of our Freudian intuitions,
in a small book called Repetition. I recommend reading it to those who are
already somewhat ahead. Those who don’t have much time should at least
read the first part.

那确实是让齐克果前往追踪我们的弗洛伊德的直觉,在一本被称为「重复」的小书。我推荐那些已经具有相当基础的人去阅读它。那些时间不充裕的人,至少应该阅读第一部分。

Kierkegaard wants to avoid precisely those problems which stem from his
accession to a new order, and he encounters the dam of his own reminiscences, of who he thinks he is and of what he knows he will never be able to become.

齐克果想要确实避免那些起源于他认同新秩序的问题。他遭遇到他自己回顾的阻拦水坝,他以为他是什么,他知道他永远不会成为是什么的这个水坝阻拦。

He then tries the experiment of repetition. He returns to Berlin where. during his previous stay he had experienced infinite pleasure. and he retraces his own steps.

他于是尝试重复的这个试验。他回到柏林,在那里,他以前停留时,他曾经经验到无限的快乐。然后他重新追踪他自己的脚步。

You will see what happens to him , seeking his well-being in the shadow of his pleasure. The experiment fails totally. But as a result of that ,he puts us on
the track of our problem. Namely, how and why everything which pertains to
an advance essential to the human being must take the path of a tenacious
repetition.

你们将会看出他发生什么事情,他在他的快乐的阴影里寻找他的幸福。这个试验完全失败。但是作为那件事情的结果,他让我们追踪到我们的问题的途径。换句话说,属于人类非常重要的一种进步的一切事情,都必须採取不屈不桡的重复的途径。

I’m getting close to the model which I want to leave with you today. so you
can see the meaning of man’s need for repetition. It’s all to do with the intrusion
of the symbolic register. Only, I’ll illustrate it for you.

我渐渐靠近我今天想要跟你们告一段的这个模式。这样,你们能够看出:人需要重复,具有什么意义。这完全跟符号铭记的介入有关系。只是我还要跟你们说明。

Models are very important. Not that they mean anything – they mean
nothing. But that’s the way we are – that’s our animal weakness – we need
images. And. sometimes, for lack of images, some symbols don’t see the light of day.

模式是非常重要的。倒不是因为它们有任何的意义—它们什么意义也没有。但是那就是我们生存的方式。那就是我们作为动物的弱点—我们需要意象。有时候,由于缺乏意象,某些的符号象征永远就不见天日。

In general. it is rather the symbolic deficiency which is worrisome. The
image comes to us from an essentially symbolic creation, that is to say from a
machine, that most modem of machines, far more dangerous for man than the
atom bomb, the adding machine.

相反地,通常是符号象征的欠缺会令人焦虑。这个意象从一个基本上是符号象征的创造,来到我们这里。换句话说,从一台机器,最现代化的机器,对于人类而言,计算机比原子弹还要危险万分。

You’ve been told, you’ve understood, and you don’t believe it – the adding
machine has a memory. You quite like saying it, but you don’t believe it. Do get
it right! The sort of memory it has is destined to put all the images of memory
which up to now we had given ourselves into question.

你们曾经听过,你们曾经了解,但是你们并不相信,计算机拥有记忆。你们很喜欢谈到计算机,但是你们并不相信它。请你们接纳它吧!它拥有的这种记忆,注定会将迄今我们给予自己的所有的记忆的意象,让它们受到质疑。

The best thing we’ve found for giving an image of the phenomenon of memory is the Babylonian wax seal. a thing with a few little reliefs and some lines which you roll out on to a wax plaque, what we call an engram. The seal is also a machine, only no one notices that.

我们曾经找到的最好的东西,给予记忆的现象的一种意象,就是巴比伦的腊封印,这一个东西拥有一些小小浮雕及线条,你们将它们倾倒在腊的嵌板上,这就是我们所谓的浮雕版。这个腊封印也是一台机器,只是没有人注意到这一点。

For machines to remember every question, questions which have already
been put to them, which is sometimes necessary, something a bit more cunning was discovered -the machine’s first experience circulates inside it in the form of a message.

然机器记忆每个问题,已经跟它提过的问题,这有时候是需要的。在这里,有某件更加狡狯的事情被发现—机器的第一个经验,以一种讯息的形式,在它内部演算。

Suppose that I send a telegram from here to Le Mans, with the request that Le
Mans send it back to Tours, from there to Sens, from there to Fontainebleau,
and from there to Paris, and so on indefinitely.

假如我从这里送出一个电报到雷曼思,要求雷曼思将电报送回给涂尔思,从那里送到贤思,从那里送到范滕尼洛,从那里送到巴黎,等等,不断送过去。

What’s needed is that when I reach the tail of my message, the head should not yet have arrived back. The message must have time to tum around. It turns quickly, it doesn’t stop turning, it turns around in circles.

所需要的是,当我到达我的讯息的尾端,头部本来应该还没有回来。这个讯息当时一定有时间回转。它很快地回转。它并没有停止回转,它绕着圈子回转。

It’s funny. this thing turning back on itself. It’s called feedback,s and its
related to the homeostat. You know that that is how the admission of steam
into a steam-engine is controlled. If it heats up too quickly, a governor registers
it, two things are forced apart by the centrifugal force. and the admission of
steam is regulated. We have oscillation about a point of equilibrium.

这真是好可笑。这个东西回转到它自己本身。这被称为回馈。这种回馈跟体内平衡有关系。你们知道,那就是蒸汽被容许进入蒸汽机,能够被控制的方式。假如它加热得太快,一个控制开关规范他,两样东西被这个离心力量强迫分开。蒸汽的被容许进入被规范。我们对于平衡点,会有摇摆。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com