荣格:个体化

PART TWO
INDIVIDUA TION
第二部分
个体化
I
THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
无意识的功能
266 There is a destination, a possible goal, beyond the alterna-
tive stages dealt with in our last chapter. That is the way of in¬dividuation. Individuation means becoming an “in-dividual,” and, in so far as “individuality” embraces our innermost, last, and incomparable uniqueness, it also implies becoming one’s own self. We could therefore translate individuation as “coming to selfhood” or “self-realization.”

有一个目的地,一个可能的目标,超越上一章,我们处理的轮换的阶段。那是个体化的方式。个体化意味着称为一个“个人”。因为“个体性”包含我们最内部,最后,跟无与伦比的独异性,个体化也暗示着成为我们自己的自性。 我们因此将个体化翻译成为“回到自性”或“实践-自性”。

267 The possibilities of development discussed in the preceding
chapters were, at bottom, alienations of the self, ways of divest¬ing the self of its reality in favour of an external role or in fa¬vour of an imagined meaning. In the former case the self retires into the background and gives place to social recognition; in the latter, to the auto-suggestive meaning of a primordial image.

在前述的章节讨论的发展的可能,追根究底,是自性的替换。
用这些方式,将自性剥除它的现实,以赞同外在的角色,或赞同被想像的意义。在前者,自性隐退到背景,然后让位给社会的体认。在后者,自性让位给原初的意象的自动-暗示的意义。

In both cases the collective has the upper hand. Self-alienation in favour of the collective corresponds to a social ideal; it even passes for social duty and virtue, although it can also be misused for egotistical purposes. Egoists are called “selfish,” but this, nat¬urally, has nothing to do with the concept of “self” as I am using it here.

在两种情况,集体意识占优势。自性被异化,以赞同集体意识,符合社会的理想。它甚至被认为是社会的责任与品德。虽然它也能够被误用,充当自我中心的目的。自我主义被称为“自私”,但是,这当然没有丝毫关系,跟“自性”的观念,依照我在这里使用的。

On the other hand, self-realization seems to stand in op¬position to self-alienation. This misunderstanding is quite gen¬eral, because we do not sufficiently distinguish between individ¬ualism and individuation. Individualism means deliberately stressing and giving prominence to some supposed peculiarity rather than to collective considerations and obligations.

另一方面,实践-自性似乎跟自性被异化处于对立状态。这个误解是相当普遍,因为我们并没有充分区别个人主义与个体化。个人主义意味着刻意强调并且给予优先性,对于某个被认为的特殊性,而不是给予集体的考虑与义务。

But in¬dividuation means precisely the better and more complete ful-
filment of the collective qualities of the human being, since ade¬quate consideration of the peculiarity of the individual is more conducive to a better social performance than when the pecul¬iarity is neglected or suppressed.

但是个体化意味着,人类的集体的特质的更好,而且更加完整的实现。因为充分地考虑到个人的特殊性,会导致更好的社会的成绩,比起当特殊性被忽略或压制。

173

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
The idiosyncrasy of an individ¬ual is not to be understood as any strangeness in his substance or in his components, but rather as a unique combination, or grad¬ual differentiation, of functions and faculties which in them¬selves are universal. Every human face has a nose, two eyes, ete., but these universal factors are variable, and it is this variability which makes individual peculiarities possible. Individuation, therefore, can only mean a process of psychological development that fulfils the individual qualities given; in other words, it is a process by which a man becomes the definite, unique being he in fact is. In so doing he does not become “selfish” in the ordi¬nary sense of the word, but is merely fulfilling the peculiarity of his nature, and this, as we have said, is vastly different from ego¬tism or individualism.

个人的怪癖不应该被理解,作为任何奇异的东西,在他的物质或在他的成分里。相反地,而是作为独异的组合,或逐渐的差异化,对于在他们自己身上,属于普世性的功能与能力的组合或逐渐差异化。每个人的脸孔拥有一个鼻子,两个眼睛,等等。但是这些普世的因素是具有变数的。就是这个变数让个人的特殊性成为可能。因此,个体化仅能意味著心理发展的过程,它实践被给予的个人的特殊性。换句话说,凭借这个体化的过程,一个人成为明确的独异性的生命实存,他事实上具有这样的生命实存。当他这样做时,他并没有成为普通用法的“自私”。而仅仅是实践他的天性的特殊性。如同我们已经说过,这是跟自我中心或个人主义是大相迳庭的。

~68 Now in so far as the human individual, as a living unit, is
composed of purely universal factors, he is wholly collective and therefore in no sense opposed to collectivity. Hence the individ¬ualistic emphasis on one’s own peculiarity is a contradiction of this basic fact of the living being. Individuation, on the other hand, aims at a living co-operation of all factors. But since the universal factors always appear only in individual form, a full consideration of them will also produce an individual effect, and one which cannot be surpassed by anything else, least of all by individualism.

现在,因为作为活生生的单位,个人由纯粹的普世的因素组成。他完全是集体,因此跟集体意识丝毫没有处于对立。因此,个体化的强调一个人自己的特殊性,是违背这位活生生的人的这个基本的事实。另一方面,个体化目标朝着作为各种因素的活生生的合作。但是,因为普世的因素总是仅以个体的形式出现,充分地考虑它们也将产生一个个人的效果。这个个人的效果无法被任何其他东西超越,个体化尤其没有被超越。

269 The aim of individuation is nothing less than to divest the
self of the false wrappings of the persona on the one hand, and of the suggestive power of primordial images on the other. From what has been said in the previous chapters it should be suffi¬ciently clear what the persona means psychologically. But when we turn to the other side, namely to the influence of the collec¬tive unconscious, we find we are moving in a dark interior world that is vastly more difficult to understand than the psychology of the persona, ,vhich is accessible to everyone. Everyone knows what is meant bv “putting on official airs” or “playing a social role.”

个体化的目标实实在在就是,一方面,将自性剥除掉人格面具的虚假的装扮;另一方面,并剥除掉原初的意象的暗示的力量。从前面几个章节曾经说过的,这应该是充分地清楚,人格面具在心理所意味的东西。但是,当我们转向另外一边,也就是,转向集体无意识的影响。我们发现我们正在移动,朝向黑暗的内部的世界。这个黑暗的内部的世界是极端地难以理解,比起人人可以接近的人格面具的心理学。众所周知,“官方人物的装模作样”或“扮演社会角色”是啥意思。

Through the persona a man tries to appear as this or that, or he hides behind a mask, or he may even build up a definite persona as a barricade. So the problem of the persona should present no great intellectual difficulties.

通过人格面具,一个人尝试出现,作为这个或那个角色。或是他隐藏在面具背后。或是他甚至累积明确的人格面具,作为是堡垒。所以,人格面具的难题,应该不会呈现太大的知识的困难。

174

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

270 It is, however, another thing to describe, in a way that can be
generally understood, those subtle inner processes which invade the conscious mind with such suggestive force. Perhaps we can best portray these influences with the help of examples of men¬tal illness, creative inspiration, and religious conversion.

可是,这是另外一回事,当我们要决定那些微妙的内部的过程,用通常能够被理解的方式。那些微妙的内部的过程侵犯到意识的心灵,用如此暗示的力量。或许,我们最善于描绘这些影响,假如我们凭借精神疾病的人们,创造性的启发,与改变宗教信仰者的案例作为帮助。

A most excellent account-taken from life, so to speak-of such an inner transformation is to be found in H. G. Wells’ Christina Alber¬ta’s Father.a Changes of a similar kind are described in Leon Daudet’s eminently readable L’Heredo. A wide range of mate¬rial is contained in William James’ Varieties of Religious Expe¬rience.

在威尔斯的“阿布拿塔的父亲”,我们能够找一个非常优秀的描述,也就是,关于这样的内部的转化。类似种类的改变被描述,在利昂 都德的通俗读物“希瑞德”。广泛的材料被包含在威廉 詹姆斯的“宗教经验杂谈”。

Although in many cases of this kind there are certain external factors which either directly condition the change, or at least provide the occasion for it, yet it is not always the case that the external factor offers a sufficient explanation of these changes of personality. We must recognize the fact that they can also arise from subjective inner causes, opinions, convictions, where external stimuli play no part at all, or a very insignificant one. In pathological changes of personality this can even be said to be the rule.

虽然在这种的许多个案里,有某些的外在的因,若不是直接地制约这个改变,就是至少供应改变的场合。可是,未必总是这个情况,外在的因素提供充分的解释,对于人格的这些改变。我们必须承认这个事实:他们也能够起源于主体的内部的原因,意见,信念。在那里,外在的刺激根本没有扮演角色。或是仅扮演不重要的角色。在人格的病理的改变,这甚至能够被说成是常规。

The cases of psychosis that present a clear and simple reaction to some overwh~lming outside event belong to the exceptions. Hence, for psychiatry, the essential aetiological factor is the inherited or acquired pathological disposition. The same is probably true of most creative intuitions, for we are hardly likely to suppose a purely causal connection between the falling apple and Newton’s theory of gravitation.

精神病的个案呈现清楚而单纯的反应,多余某个压倒性的外边的事件。这些精神病的个案属于例外。因此,对于精神分裂症,这个基本的病因的因素就是这个被继承或被获得的病理的性情。就大部的分创造性的直觉而言,相同的事情可能是真实的。因为我们几乎不可能假设有一个纯粹的因果的关联,在掉落的苹果与牛顿的地心引力的理论。

Similarly all religious conversions that cannot be traced back directly to sug¬gestion and contagious example rest upon independent interior processes culminating in a change of personality. As a rule these processes have the peculiarity of being subliminal, i.e., uncon¬scious, in the first place and of reaching consciousness only grad¬ually. The moment of irruption can, however, be very sudden, so that consciousness is instantaneously flooded with extremely strange and apparently quite unsuspected contents.

同样地,所有的宗教的改变,无法直接被追踪到暗示。传染的例子依靠独立的内部的过程,在人格的改变里达到高潮。通常,这些过程拥有成为升华的特殊性,譬如,首先是成为无意识的特性,其次,才仅是逐渐地到达意识的特性。可是,发作的时刻有时是很突然的。这样,意识瞬间泛滥着极端奇怪而表面上完全无可怀疑的内容。

That is how it looks to the layman and even to the person concerned, but the experienced observer knows that psychological events are never sudden. In reality the irruption has been preparing for many years, often for half a lifetime, and already in childhood all sorts of remarkable signs could have been detected which, in more or less symbolic fashion, hinted at abnormal future developments.

那就是对于外行人看起来的样子,甚至对于相关的这个人。但是,有经验的观察者知道,心理的事件从来就不是突然的。事实上,这个发作已经酝酿好几年了。经常是酝酿大半生。在童年时期,已经有各色各样的明显的迹象,本来能够被觉察出来。用相当象征的方式,在异常的未来的发展里被暗示出来。

a [Concerning the origin of this novel in a conversation between Wells and lung. cf. Bennet, What lung Really Said, p. 93.-EDITORS.]
175

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
I am reminded, for instance, of a mental case who refused all nourishment and created quite extraordinary difficulties in con¬nection with nasal feeding. In fact an anaesthetic was necessary before the tube could be inserted. The patient was able in some remarkable way to swallow his tongue by pressing it back into the throat, a fact that was quite new and unknown to me at the time. In a lucid interval I obtained the following history from the man. As a boy he had often revolved in his mind the idea of how he could take his life, even if every conceivable measure were employed to prevent him.

譬如,我想起一个精神病的个案。他拒绝所有的滋养,并且引起相当特殊的困难,关于鼻腔的餵食。事实上,麻醉是必要的,这样管子才能够被插入。病人以相当明显的方式能够吞下他的舌头,将舌头压到喉咙里面。在当时,这对于我是相当新颖而未曾听过的一个事实。间隔一段清楚的期间,我获得这个人的以下的历史。当他男孩时,他经常在他的心里萦绕这个想法:他如何能够拿掉他的生命,即使每个可以构想的措施都被运用来阻止他。

He first tried to do it by holding his breath, until he found that by the time he was in a semi¬conscious state he had already begun to breathe again. So he gave up these attempts and thought: perhaps it would work if he refused food. This fantasy satisfied him until he discovered that food could be poured into him through the nasal cavity. He therefore considered how this entrance might be closed, and thus it was that he hit upon the idea of pressing his tongue back¬wards. At first he was unsuccessful, and so he began a regular training, until at last he succeeded in swallowing his tongue in much the same way as sometimes happens accidentally during anaesthesia, evidently in his case by artificially relaxing the mus¬cles at the root of the tongue.

他首先尝试凭借摒住呼吸来做它。直到他发现,在他处于半-意识的状态时,他已经开始又再呼吸。所以,他放弃这些企图,并且认为,假如他拒绝食物,或许行得通。他满足于这个幻想,直到他发现,食物能够被注入他的身体,经验鼻腔的洞口。他因此考虑到,这个入口如何能够被封闭。因此,他突然想到这个点子:将他的舌头压退回去。起初,他并没有成功。所以,他开始规律地训练。直到最后,他成功地吞下他的舌头,就像有时意外发生的事情,在麻醉时。显而易见地,在他的个案,他人为地松开舌头的根本的肌肉。

:71 In this strange manner the boy paved the way for his future
psychosis. After the second attack he became incurably insane. This is• only one example among many others, but it suffices to show how the subsequent, apparently sudden irruption of alien contents is really not sudden at all, but is rather the result of an unconscious development that has been going on for years.

用这个奇异的方式,这位男孩替他的未来的精神病铺路。在第二次疾病发作后,他变成无可治疗地疯狂。这是众多的例子当中的唯一的一个。但是它足够显示,外来的内容的随后的表面上突然的发作,确实一点儿也不突然。相反地,它是无意识发展的结果,已经进行好几年了。

l72 The great question now is: in what do these unconscious
processes consist? And how are they constituted? Naturally, so long as they are unconscious, nothing can be said about them. But sometimes they manifest themselves, partly through symp¬toms, partly through actions, opinions, affects, fantasies, and dreams. Aided by such observational material we can draw indi¬rect conclusions as to the momentary state and constitution of the unconscious processes and their development. We should not, however, labour under the illusion that we have now dis- covered the real nature of the unconscious processes. We never succeed in getting further than the hypothetical “as if.”

现在,这个大问题是:这些无意识由什么组成?它们如何被组成?当然,只要它们是无意识,关于它们,我们无法说出任何东西。但是有时,它们展示它们自己,部分通过症状,部分通过行动,意见,情感,幻想,与梦。由于受的这些观察的材料的帮助,我们能够获得间接的结论,关于无意识的过程与发展的暂时的状态与组成结构。可是,我们不应该努力工作,带着这个幻觉:我们现在已经发现无意识的过程的真实特性。我们永远不会成功地更加地深入,除了就是假设的“好像”。
176

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
273 “No mortal mind can plumb the depths of nature”-nor
even the depths of the unconscious. We do know, however, that the unconscious never rests. It seems to be always at work, for even when asleep we dream. There are many people who de¬clare that they never dream, but the probability is that they simply do not remember their dreams. It is significant that peo¬ple who talk in their sleep mostly have no recollection either of the dream which started them talking, or even of the fact that they dreamed at all. Not a day passes but we make some slip of the tongue, or something slips our memory which at other times we know perfectly well, or we are seized by a mood whose cause we cannot trace, etc. These things are all symptoms of some con¬sistent unconscious activity which becomes directly visible at night in dreams, but only occasionally breaks through the inhi¬bitions imposed by our daytime consciousness.

自然的深度,非凡夫的心灵所能探测,遑论无意识的深度。可是,我们确实知道,无意识从来没有休息。无意识似乎总是在运作当中。因为即使当我们睡觉时,我们也在作梦。有许人们宣称,他们从来没有作梦。但是很可能是,他们仅是不记得他们的梦。重要的是,在睡觉中谈话的人们,大部分并没有记得让他们谈话的那个梦,或甚至不记得这个事实:他们做过梦。每一天过去,我们总是会有些口误,或某件事情从我们的记忆溜掉。还有些时刻,我们清楚地知道这个记忆,或我们著迷于某个情绪变化。这个情绪变化的原因,我们无法追踪,等等。这些东西都是某个一贯性的无意识的活动的症状。它们在夜晚的梦里直接可以看见。但是仅1偶然地突破压抑,由我们的白天的意识赋加的压抑。

274 So far as our present experience goes, we can lay it down that
the unconscious processes stand in a compensatory relation to the conscious mind. I expressly use the word “compensatory” and not the word “contrary” because conscious and unconscious are not necessarily in opposition to one another, but comple¬ment one another to form a totality, which is the self. According to this definition the self is a quantity that is supraordinate to the conscious ego. It embraces not only the conscious but also the unconscious psyche, and is therefore, so to speak, a personal-ity which we also are.

就我们目前的经验而言,我们能够确定地说,无意识的过程跟意识的心灵处于互补的关系。我生动地使用这个字词“互补地”,而不是“相反地”。因为意识与无意识未必是处于互相对立的状态。而是互相辅助,为了形成完整性。那就是“自性”。依照这个定义,自性是一个数量,早先存在于意识的自我的数量。自性不但包含意识,而且包含无意识的心灵。因此,自性可以说是我们生命实存的人格。

It is easy enough to think of ourselves as possessing part-souls. Thus we can, for instance, see ourselves as a persona without too much difficulty. But it transcends our powers of imagination to form a clear picture of what we are as a self, for in this operation the part would have to comprehend the whole. There is little hope of our ever being able to reach even approximate consciousness of the self, since however much We may make conscious there will always exist an indeterminate and indeterminable amount of unconscious material which be¬longs to the totality of the self. Hence the self will always remain a supraordinate quantity.

我们足够容易将我们自己视为是拥有部分-灵魂。因此,譬如,我们能够没有太大的困难,看待我们自己,作为是一个人格面具。但是这个人格面具超越我们的想像的力量,为了形成一个清楚的画面,对我我们的生命实存,作为自性。因为在这个运作里,部分灵魂将必须理解整体性。我们几乎没有什么希望能够到达大约地理解这个自性。因为我们如努人让意识知道,总是存在着未被决定,无法被决定的无意识的材料的数量。它们属于自性的整体。因此,自性将总是早先存在于数量。

275 The unconscious processes that compensate the conscious
ego contain all those elements that are necessary for the self¬177
of the psyche as a whole. On the personal level, these are the not consciously recognized personal motives which ap¬pear in dreams, or the meanings of daily situations which we have overlooked, or conclusions we have failed to draw, or affects we hav~ not permitted, or criticisms we have spared our¬selves.

补偿意识的无意识的自我的过程,包含所有那些元素,对于自性,作为整体的心灵,是必要的元素。那些元素意识地组成我们忽略的日常的情境,或我们没有获得的结论。或是我们没有容许的情感,或我们让自己省免的批评。

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS regulation But the more we become conscious of ourselves through self-knowledge, and act accordingly, the more the layer of the personal unconscious that is superimposed on the collective un¬conscious will be diminished. In this way there arises a con¬sciousness which is no longer imprisoned in the petty, oversensi¬tive, personal world of the ego, but participates freely in the wider world of objective interests.

但是,我们越是知道我们自己,通过认识自性,然后採取行动。被超级赋加在个人的无意识的层面,就越加地被减少。用这个方式,就产生一个意识,不再被囚禁于狭窄的过度敏感的个人的自我的世界,而是自由地参与更加广泛的客观利益的世界。

This widened consciousness is no longer that touchy, egotistical bundle of personal wishes, fears, hopes, and ambitions which always has to be compensated or corrected by unconscious counter-tendencies; instead, it is a function of relationship to the world of objects, bringing the individual into absolute, binding, and indissoluble communion with the world at large. The complications arising at this stage are no longer egotistic wish-conflicts, but difficulties that con¬cern others as much as oneself.

被扩宽的意识不再是那个敏感,自我中心的那堆个人的愿望,恐惧,希望,与企图心。它们总是必须被补偿或改造,被无意识的相反的倾向。代替地,这是跟客体的世界的关系的功能,将个人带进绝对的联结,以及无法解决的沟通,跟一般的世界。从这个阶段产生的併发症,不再是自我中心的愿望—冲突。而是跟别人,也跟自己息息相关的各种困难。

At this stage it is fundamentally a question of collective problems, which have activated the collec¬tive unconscious because they require collective rather than per¬sonal compensation. We can now see that the unconscious pro¬duces contents which are valid not only for the person concerned, but for others as well, in fact for a great many people and pos-sibly f0r all.

在这个阶段,基本上的问题是集体的难题。它们触动集体无意识,因为它们要求集体,而不是个人的补偿。我们现在看见,无意识产生的一些内容是有效的,不但对于相关的个人,而且对于别人。事实上,对于许多的人们,可能对于所有的人们。

276 The Elgonyi, natives of the Elgon forests, of central Africa,
explained to me that there are two kinds of dreams: the ordi¬nary dream of the little man, and the “big vision” that only the great man has, e.g., the medicine-man or chief. Little dreams are of no account, but if a man has a “big dream” he summons the whole tribe in order to tell it to everybody.

非州中部的阿甘森林的阿甘尼伊土著,跟我解释,有两种的梦:小人物的普通的梦,跟仅有伟大的人,如巫医或酋长,才拥有的幻景”。缈小的梦是微不足道。但是,假如一个人拥有“伟的的梦”,他召唤整个的部落,为了将梦告诉每个人。

277 How is a man to know whether his dream is a “big” or a
“little” one? He knows it by an instinctive feeling of signifi¬cance. He feels so overwhelmed by the impression it makes that he would never think of keeping the dream to himself. He has to tell it, on the psychologically correct assumption that it is of general significance. Even with us the collective dream has a feeling of importance about it that impels communication. It springs from a conflict of relationship and must therefore be built into our conscious relations, because it compensates these and not just some inner personal quirk.

一个人如何能够知道,他的梦是“伟大”或“缈小“?他知道它,凭借本能的感觉重要感。他感觉被这个重要感的印象压倒,以致于他将不会想到将这个梦据为己有。他必须告诉这个梦。根据心理上是正确的假设:这个梦具有普遍的重要性。即使对于我们,集体的梦拥有一种关于它的重要的感觉,驱使沟通。它起源于关系的冲突,因此,必须被建造成为我们的意识的关系。因为它补偿这些关系,并且不仅是某个内在的个人的习性。

178

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

278 The processes of the collective unconscious are concerned
not only with the more or less personal relations of an individ¬ual to his family or to a wider social group, but with his relations to society and to the human community in general. The more general and impersonal the condition that releases the uncon¬scious reaction, the more significant, bizarre, and overwhelming will be the compensatory manifestation. It impels not just pri¬vate communication, but drives people to revelations and con¬fessions, and even to a dramatic representation of their fantasies.

跟集体无意识的过程息息相关的,不仅是个人跟他的家庭的相当个人的关系,而且跟更加广泛的社会团体,跟一般的人的社会。释放无意识的反应的情况,更加一般性与非个人,补偿的证明越加是重要,古怪与压倒。它不但驱使私人的沟通,而且驱使人们获得启示与坦白,甚至驱使人们获得他们的幻想的戏剧性的再现表象。

279 I will explain by an example how the unconscious manages
to compensate relationships. A somewhat arrogant gentleman once came to me for treatment. He ran a business in partnership with his younger brother. Relations between the two brothers were very strained, and this was one of the essential causes of my patient’s neurosis. From the information he gave me, the real reason for the tension was not altogether clear. He had all kinds of criticisms to make of his brother, whose gifts he certainly did not show in a very favourable light. The brother frequently came into his dreams, always in the role of a Bisma\rck, N apo¬leon, or Julius Caesar. His house looked like the Vatican or Yil¬diz Kiosk. My patient’s unconscious evidently had the need to exalt the rank of the younger brother. From this I concluded that he was setting himself too high and his brother too low. The further course of analysis entirely justified this inference.

我将以一个例子解释,无意识如何成功地补偿关系。一位相当傲慢的绅士有一次前来找我就诊。他跟他的弟弟合股经营一家生意。两个兄弟之间的关系非常紧张。这是我的病人的神经症的基本原因之一。从他给予我的资讯,紧张的真正原因并不完全清楚。他对他的兄弟做各种的批评。他的兄弟的天赋并没有显示有利的观点。兄弟经常进入他的梦,总是以俾斯麦,拿破仑,或凯撒大帝的角色。他的房屋看起来像是梵帝岡,或土耳其宫殿。我的病人的无意识显然拥有这个必要性,要提升年轻弟弟的地位。从这里,我下结论:他正在将他自己提升太高,将他的弟弟贬得太低。精神分析的更进一步原因完整证实这个推测。

280 Another patient, a young woman who clung to her mother
in an extremely sentimental way, always had very sinister dreams about her. She appeared in the dreams as a witch, as a ghost, as a pursuing demon. The mother had spoilt her beyond all reason and had so blinded her by tenderness that the daugh¬ter had no conscious idea of her mother’s harmful influence. Hence the compensatory criticism exercised by the unconscious.

另外一位病人,一位年轻女士紧捉住她的母亲,以一个极端情感的方式,她总是拥有一个古怪的关于母亲的梦。她在梦里出现,作为女巫,作为追逐的恶魔。母亲已经破坏她,非理性所能形容,并且对她爱护有加,让她茫然。女儿无法意识到她的母亲的有害的影响。因此,无意识运作补偿的批评。

281 I myself once happened to put too low a value on a patient,
both intellectually and morally. In a dream I saw a castle perched on a high cliff, and on the topmost tower was a balcony, and there sat my patient. I did not hesitate to tell her this dream at once, naturally with the best results.

我自己有一次恰好过分低估一位病人,在知识与道德方面。在梦里,我看见一个城堡,座落在高的悬崖。在楼塔的顶端有一个阳台。我的病人坐在那里。我立即毫不犹豫地告诉他这个梦。当然,结果非常好。

285
286
THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS the case

282 We all know how apt we are to make fools of ourselves in
front of the very people we have unjustly underrated. Naturally 179
the case can also be reversed, as once happened to a friend of mine. While still a callow student he had written to Virchow, the pathologist, craving an audience with “His Excellency.” When, quaking with fear, he presented himself and tried to give his name, he blurted out, “My name is Virchow.”

我们都知道,我们多么容易愚弄我们自己,就在我们不公正地低估那些人们的前面。当然,这个情况能够被倒转。如同我的朋友发生的事情。当他还是没有经验的学生时,他曾经写信给维州,这位病理学家,渴望“他的阁下’ 作为他的听众。当他恐惧激动地,他出现并且尝试报出他的名字,他模糊喊出,“我的名字是维州。”

Whereupon His Excellency, smiling mischievously, said, “Ah! So your name is Virchow too?” The feeling of his own nullity was evidently too much for the unconscious of my friend, and in consequence it instantly prompted him to present himself as equal to Vir¬chow in grandeur.

这是,这位阁下恶意地微笑着说:“你的名字也是维州?“。他自己的微不足道的感觉显然太过强烈,不适合于我的朋友的无意识。结果,它立即激发他介绍他自己,作为是跟伟大的维州相等。

283 In these more personal relations there is of course no need
for any very collective compensations. On the other hand, the figures employed by the unconscious in our first case are of a definitely collective nature: they are universally recognized he¬roes.

在这些更加是个人的关系,当然并没有需要从事任何集体的补偿。在另一方面,在我们第一个个案被运用的人物,属于明确的集体的特性:它们是普世被体认的英雄。

Here there are two possible interpretations: either my pa¬tient’s younger brother is a man of acknowledged and far¬reaching collective importance, or my patient is overestimating his own importance not merely in relation to his brother but in relation to everybody else as well. For the first assumption there was no support at all, while for the second there was the evi¬dence of one’s own eyes. Since the man’s extreme arrogance affected not only himself, but a far wider social group, the com¬pensation availed itself of a collective image.

在此,有两个可能的解释:要就是我的病人的弟弟,是一位被承认与具有深远的重要性的人。要不然就是,我的病人正在过分高估他自己的重要性,不仅跟他的弟弟的关系,而且跟每一位其他的人的关系。对于第一个假设,并没有任何的支持,对于另外一个假设,拥有自己的眼光的证据。因为这个人的极端的高傲,不仅伪装他自己,而且伪装更加广泛的社会的团体。这个补偿利用集体的意象。

284 The same is true of the second case. The “witch” is a collec-
tive image; hence we must conclude that the blind dependence of the y.oung woman applied as much to the wider social group as it did to her mother personally. This was indeed the case, in so far as she was still living in an exclusively infantile world, where the world was identical with her parents.

相同的道理就第二个个案也是一样。“女巫”是一个集体的意象。因此,我们必须做结论:年轻女人的盲目的依靠,同样可以运用到更加广泛的社会团体,如同它运用到她的个人的母亲。这确实是这个情况,因为她依旧还生活在专属婴孩的世界。在那里,世界跟她的父母亲认同。

These examples deal with relations within the personal orbit. There are, how¬ever, impersonal relations which occasionally need unconscious compensation. In such cases collective images appear with a more or less mythological character.

这些例子处理跟个人的轨道的关系。可是,有些非个人的关系,有时需要无意识的补偿。在这些情况,集体意象出现,具有相当神话的特性。

Moral, philosophical, and religious problems are, on account of their universal validity, the most likely to call for mythological compensation. In the aforementioned novel by H. G. Wells we find a classical type of compensation: Mr. Preemby, a midget personality, discovers that he is really a reincarnation of Sargon, King of Kings. Hap¬pily, the genius of the author rescues poor old Sargon from path¬ological absurdity, and even gives the reader a chance to appre-
ciate the tragic and eternal meaning in this lamentable affray.

道德,哲学,与宗教的难题,因为它们具有普世的正确,它们最有可能要求神话的补偿。在前述的威尔斯的小说,我们找到一个古典的补偿的类型: 普瑞比先生,具有渺小的人格,发现到,他确实是萨冈,王中之王的具体化身。快乐地,作者的天份将这个可怜的老萨冈,从病理的荒谬拯救出来。甚至给予读者,赏识悲剧与永恒的意义,在这个令人哀悼的争吵。

180

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
Mr. Preemby, a complete nonentity, recognizes himself as the point of intersection of all ages past and future. This knowledge is not too dearly bought at the cost of a little madness, provided that Preemby is not in the end devoured by that monster of a
primordial image-which is in fact what nearly happens to him.

普瑞比先生,是完全的非实体,他体认他自己,作为是从古至今,跟未来的交会点。这个知识的得来付出不太高昂的代价,那就是
稍微有点疯狂。只要普瑞比最后并没有被原始意象的怪物吞没。这事实上是他几乎发生的事情。

The universal problem of evil and sin is another aspect of
our impersonal relations to the world. Almost more than any other, therefore, this problem produces collective compensa¬tions. One of my patients, aged sixteen, had as the initial symp¬tom of a severe compulsion neurosis the following dream: He is walking along an unfamiliar street. It is dark) and he hears steps coming behind him. With a feeling of fear he quickens his pace. The footsteps come nearer) and his fear increases. He begins to run. But the footsteps seem to be overtaking him. Finally he turns round) and there he sees the devil. In deathly terror he leaps into the air and hangs there suspended. This dream was repeated twice, a sign of its special urgency.

邪恶与原罪的普世的难题,是非个人的跟世界的关系的另一个层面。因此,几乎超过任何其他层面,这个难题产生集体的补偿。我的其中一位病人,16岁,拥有严重的强迫神经症的症状,用以下的梦: 他正在沿着不熟悉的街道行走。天很黑,他听见背后有脚步声。带着恐惧的感觉,他加快他的脚步。脚步越来越近,他的恐惧增加。他开始跑步。但是脚步似乎追赶他。最后,他转过头,他看见这个恶魔。惊骇万分地,他跳跃到空中,然后悬挂在空中。这个梦被重复两次,它具有特别的迫切性的迹象。

It is a notorious fact that the compulsion neuroses, by reason of their meticulousness and ceremonial punctilio, not only have the surface appearance of a moral problem but are indeed brim¬full of inhuman beastliness and ruthless evil, against the inte¬gration of which the very delicately organized personality puts up a desperate struggle.

这是一个恶名昭彰的事实:强迫性的神经症者,凭借他们的讲究细节,与仪式的规范。他们不但拥有道德难题的表面表象,而且确实充满着非人类的残酷的邪恶的野性。精致组织的人格,竖立起拼命的奋斗,对抗残酷的人格的合并。

This explains why so many things have to be performed in ceremonially “correct” style, as though to counteract the evil hovering in the background. After this dream the neurosis started, and its essential feature was that the patient had, as he put it, to keep himself in a “provisional” or “uncontaminated” state of purity. For this purpose he either severed or made “invalid” all contact with the world and with everything that reminded him of the transitoriness of human existence, by means of lunatic formalities, scrupulous cleansing ceremonies, and the anxious observance of innumerable rules and regulations of an unbelievable complexity. Even before the patient had any suspicion of the hellish existence that lay before him, the dream showed him that if he wanted to come down to earth again there would have to be a pact with evil.

这解释为什么如此多的东西必须被执行,用仪式方面“正确”的风格,好像为了反抗邪恶萦绕在背景。经过这个梦后,神经症开始,它的早期的特征,如同病人自己表达它,病人必须保持他自己处于“暂时”或“没有被污染”的纯净的状态。为了这个目的,他要就是跟这个世界的接触分离,要不就是让世界的接触成为无效。跟每一样会让他想起人类存在的短暂,凭借疯狂的正式仪式,费心清理的各种仪式,并且焦虑地遵守无数的规则,与匪夷所思的复杂的规定。即使在病人怀疑展开他面前的这个恶魔的存在之前,这个梦跟他显示:假如他想要再次回到现实,他将必须跟恶魔订合约。

~87 Elsewhere I have described a dream that illustrates the com-
pensation of a religious problem in a young theological student.l 1
involved in all sorts of difficulties of belief, a not un¬common occurrence in the man of today. In his dream he was the pupil of the “white magician,” who, however, was dressed in black.

在别的地方,我曾经描述一个梦,解释宗教的难题的补偿,在一位年轻的神学院的学生身上。在各种各样的信仰的困难。在今天的人们,这也是常见的事情。可是,在他的梦里,“白人魔法师”的学生却穿着黑色的衣服。
“Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious,” par. 71•

181

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

After having instructed him up to a certain point, the white magician told him that they now needed the “black magi¬cian.” The black magician appeared, but clad in a white robe. He declared that he had found the keys of paradise, but needed the wisdom of the white magician in order to understand how to use them. This dream obviously contains the problem of oppo¬sites which, as we know, has found in Taoist philosophy a solu¬tion very different from the views prevailing in the West. The figures employed by the dream are impersonal collective images corresponding to the nature of the impersonal religious prob¬lem. In contrast to the Christian view, the dream stresses the relativity of good and evil in a way that immediately calls to mind the Taoist symbol of Yin and Yang.

经过教导他,到达某个时刻,这位白人魔法师告诉他,他们现在需要“黑人魔法师”。黑人魔法师出现,但是穿着白人的衣袍。他宣称:他已经找到天堂的钥匙。但是需要白人魔法师的智慧。为了理解如何使用它们。这个梦显而易见1包含对立力量的难题。我们知道,对立力量的难题,在道家哲学,曾经找到一个解答,非常不同于西方流行的观点。梦所运用的人物,是非个的宗教的难题。跟基督教的观点对照之下,这个梦强调善与恶的相对性,它的方式立即让人想起阴与阳的道家的象征•。

288 We should certainly not conclude from these compensations
that, as the conscious mind becomes more deeply engrossed in universal problems, the unconscious will bring forth corre¬spondingly far-reaching compensations. There is what one might call a legitimate and an illegitimate interest in imper¬sonal problems. Excursions of this kind are legitimate only when they arise from the deepest and truest needs of the indi¬vidual; illegitimate when they are either mere intellectual curi¬osity or a flight from unpleasant reality. In the latter case the uncot;lscious produces all too human and purely personal com¬pensations, whose manifest aim is to bring the conscious mind back to ordinary reality.

根据这些补偿,我们确实不应该下结论说:随着无意识心灵变得更加专注于普世的难题,无意识将会因此导致深远的补偿。这里存在着我们所谓的合法与不合法的利益,在非个人的难题。这样的远足是合法的,仅有当它们起源于个人最深与最真实的需求。它们是不合法的,当它们仅是知识的好奇心,或仅是逃避不愉快的现实。在后者的情况,无意识产生太过人性与纯粹个人的补偿。它们的明显的目标是要将意识的心灵带回普通的现实。

People who go illegitimately mooning after the infinite often have absurdly banal dreams which en¬deavour to damp down their ebullience. Thus, from the nature of the compensation, we can at once draw conclusions as to the seriousness and rightness of the conscious strivings.

不合法地前往沉香永恒的人们,经常拥有陈腐得荒谬的梦。这些梦企图淹没他们的激情。因此,从补偿的天性,我们能够立即获得结论,关于意识的奋斗的严肃与正确性。

289 There are certainly not a few people who are afraid to admit
that the unconscious could ever have “big” ideas. They will ob¬ject, “But do you really believe that the unconscious is capable of offering anything like a constructive criticism of our Western mentality?” Of course, if we take the problem intellectually and impute rational intentions to the unconscious, the thing be¬comes absurd. But it would never do to foist our conscious psy¬chology upon the unconscious.

确实有许多人们害怕承认,无意识能够具有“伟大”的观念。他们反对说:「但是,你确实相信,无意识能够提供任何像是建设性的批评,对于我们西方人的精神?」当然,假如我们以知识看待这个难题,然后灌输理性的意图给无意识,这件事情就变得荒谬。但是这将是行不通的,假如我们将我们的意识的心理学强迫进入无意识。

Its mentality is an instinctive one; it has no differentiated functions, and it does not “think” as we understand “thinking.” It simply creates an image that an¬swers to the conscious situation.

无意识的心灵上本能的心灵;它没有差异化的功能。它没有“思维”,如同我们理解的“思维”。它仅是创造一个意象,回应意识情况的意象。

182

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
This image contains as much thought as feeling, and is anything rather than a product of ra¬tionalistic reflection. Such an image would be better described as an artist’s vision. We tend to forget that a problem like the one which underlies the dream last mentioned cannot, even to the conscious mind of the dreamer, be an intellectual problem, but is profoundly emotional. For a moral man the ethical prob¬lem is a passionate question which has its roots in the deepest instinctual processes as well as in his most idealistic aspirations.

这个意象包含思维与感觉。这个意象绝非是理性的反思的产物。这样的意象最好是被描述作为艺术家的幻景。我们倾向于忘回家,像这样的难题,作为上次被提到的梦的基础,即使对于作梦者的意识的心灵,不可能是知识的难题,而是深度情绪的难题。对于一个道德的人,伦理的难题是一个激情的问题,它根源于最深的本能的过程,以及根源于他最理想的渴望。

The problem for him is devastatingly real. It is not surprising, therefore, that the answer likewise springs from the depths of his nature. The fact that everyone thinks his psychology is the meas¬ure of all things, and, if he also happens to be a fool, will inevi¬tably think that such a problem is beneath his notice, should not trouble the psychologist in the least, for he has to take things objectively, as he finds them, without twisting them to fit his subjective suppositions. The richer and more capacious natures may legitimately be gripped by an impersonal problem, and to the extent that this is so, their unconscious can answer in the same style. And just as the conscious mind can put the question, “Why is there this frightful conflict between good and evil?,” so the unconscious can reply, “Look closer! Each needs the other. The best, just because it is the best, holds the seed of evil, and there is nothing so bad but good can come of it.”

对于他的难题是强烈地真实。因此,这并不令人惊奇,这个答案同样起源于他的天性的深处。每个人思维他的心理学的这个事实,就是一切事情的衡量。假如他也刚好是一位傻瓜,他必然会认为,这样的难题是不值得他的注意,根本就不应该让心理学家感到费心。因为他必须客观地看待事情,当他发现这些难题,但是并没有将它们扭曲,以符合他的主观的假设。非个人的难题合法所掌握的天性,越是丰富与任性,甚至事实就是如此,他们的无意识越是用相同的方式来回答。正如意识的心灵能够提出问题,「为什么善与恶之间会有如此令人害怕的冲突?」无意识能够回答说:「请你更加仔细观看!每一个都需要另外一个。即使是最好的东西,也拥有邪恶的种种,仅是因为它是最好。一件事情,无论如何之坏,它总是会产生善的事情。

29° It might then dawn on the dreamer that the apparently in-
soluble conflict is, perhaps, a prejudice, a frame of mind condi¬tioned by time and place. The seemingly complex dream-image might easily reveal itself as plain, instinctive common sense, as the tiny germ of a rational idea, which a maturer mind could just as well have thought consciously. At all events Chinese phi¬losophy thought of it ages ago.

作梦者可能恍然大悟,这个表面上无法解决的冲突,或许是一个偏见,一个心灵的框架,受到时间与地方的制约。这个看起来复杂的梦的意象,作为是理性观念的小小的种子,假如他是一位更加成熟心灵的人,他本来同样能够从意识构想出来。无论如何,中国的哲学很久以前,就已经想到它。

The singularly apt, plastic config¬uration of thought is the prerogative of that primitive, natural spirit which is alive in all of us and is only obscured by a one¬sided conscious development. If we consider the unconscious compensations from this angle, we might justifiably be accused of judging the unconscious too much from the conscious stand¬point. And indeed, in pursuing these reflections, I have always started from the view that the unconscious simply reacts to the
conscious contents, albeit in a very significant way, but that it lacks initiative.

思想的异常地灵活,弹匣的融合,就是原始的自然的精神的特权。这个自然精神在我们每个人身上都存活着,除非被单边的意识的发展所模糊。假如我们从这个角度来考虑无意识的补偿,我们可能很有理由被控诉太过于用意识的观点来判断事情。的确,当我追寻这些反思时,我总是从这个观点开始:无意识的反应,仅是针对意识的内容,虽然用非常重要的方式,但是它欠缺创意。

183

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
It is, however, far from my intention to give the impression that the unconscious is merely reactive in all cases. On the contrary, there is a host of experiences which seem to prove that the unconscious is not only spontaneous but can ac¬tually take the lead. There are innumerable cases of people who lingered on in a pettifogging unconsciousness, only to become neurotic in the end. Thanks to the neurosis contrived by the unconscious, they are shaken out of their apathy, and this in spite of their own laziness and often desperate resistance.

可是,我绝对没有这个意图,要给予这个印象:无意识仅是在所有的情况里才反应。相反地,有许多的经验似乎证明:无意识不但是自动自发,而且能够作为引导。有无数人们的个案,一直留连,保持琐碎的无意识。结果,他们最后成为神经症者。由于被无意识设计的神经症,他们被动摇,摆脱他们的冷漠。尽管他们的懒惰,尽管他们经常绝望地抗拒。

291 Yet it would, in my view, be wrong to suppose that in such
cases the unconscious is working to a deliberate and concerted plan and is striving to realize certain definite ends. I have found nothing to support this assumption. The driving force, so far as it is possible for us to grasp it, seems to be in essence only an urge towards self-realization. If it were a matter of some general teleological plan, then all individuals who enjoy a surplus of un¬consciousness would necessarily be driven towards higher con¬sciousness by an irresistible urge.

可是,依我的观点,这将是错误的,假如我们认为,在这些情况,无意识正在运作,针对一个刻意而一致的计划。并且正在奋斗,为了实现某个明确的目的。我找不到任何东西来支持这个假设。这个驱动的力量,似乎本质上仅是朝向自我实现的渴望,就我们可能理解它而言。假如问题是某个一般的目的论的计划,那么所有享受过剩的无意识的个人,将必然会被驱使朝向更高的意识,被无法抗拒的渴望。

That is plainly not the case. There are vast masses of the population who, despite their no¬torious unconsciousness, never get anywhere near a neurosis. The few who are smitten by such a fate are really persons of the “higher” type who, for one reason or another, have remained too long on a primitive level. Their nature does not in the long run tolerate persistence in what is for them an unnatural torpor.

很明显,情况并不是这样。有很多的人们,尽管他们的恶名昭著的无意识,从来没有到达靠近神经症以外的地方。有些被命运咬啮的人们,他们确实是“更高”种类的人们。因为某个理由,他们始终保持在原初的层次太久。他们的天性最后并没有容忍持续停留在对他们而言是不自然的麻痹的状态。

As a result of their narrow conscious outlook and their cramped existence they save energy; bit by bit it accumulates in the un¬conscious and finally explodes in the form of a more or less acute neurosis. This simple mechanism does not necessarily conceal a “plan.” A perfectly understandable urge towards self-realization would provide a quite satisfactory explanation. We could also speak of a retarded maturation of the personality.

由于他们的狭窄的意识的外观,与他们的扭曲的存在的结果,他们节省能源。最后爆炸,用相当强烈的神经症的方式。这个简单的机械结构,并未必隐藏一个“计划”。一个非常可以理解的渴望,朝向自我实现,将会供应一个相当令人满意的解释。我们也谈论道人格的迟缓的成熟。

292 Since it is highly probable that we are still a long way from
the summit of absolute consciousness, presumably everyone is capable of wider consciousness, and we may assume accordingly that the unconscious processes are constantly supplying us with contents which, if consciously recognized, would extend the range of consciousness. Looked at in this way, the unconscious appears as a field of experience of unlimited extent. If it were merely reactive to the conscious mind, we might aptly call it a psychic mirror-world.

很有可能地,我们拒离绝对意识的山顶,还依旧有一段长距离。我们假定每个人都都能够具有更加广泛的意识。我们因此假定,无意识的过程不断地供应我们内容。这些内容假如被体认的话,将会延伸意识的范围。假如用这个方式观看这些内容,无意识似乎是无限范围的经验的领域。假如无意识仅是对于意识心灵的反应,我们可能轻易地称它为心灵的镜子世界。

184

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
In that case, the real source of all contents and activities would lie in the conscious mind, and there would be absolutely nothing in the unconscious except the distorted reflections of conscious contents. The creative process would be shut up in the conscious mind, and anything new would be nothing but conscious invention or cleverness. The empirical facts give the lie to this. Every creative man knows that spon¬taneity is the very essence of creative thought. Because the unconscious is not just a reactive mirror-reflection, but an in¬dependent, productive activity, its realm of experience is a self¬contained world, having its own reality, of which we can only say that it affects us as we affect it-precisely what we say about our experience of the outer world. And just as material objects are the constituent elements of this world, so psychic factors constitute the objects of that other world.

在那个情况,所有的内容与活动的来源将会在于意识的心灵。将绝对没有任何东西在无意识里,除了被扭曲的反映意识的内容。创造的过程将会被关闭,在意识的心灵。任何新的东西将仅是意识的发明,或灵巧表现。试验性的事实显示情况并非如此。每个创造的人都知道,自动自发就是创造的思想的本质。因为无意识并不仅是反动的镜子-反应。而是独立,产生的动作,它的经验的领域是包容自己的世界,拥有它自己的现实。关于这个现实,我们仅能说,它影响我们,如同我们影响它—确实是我们所说的内容,关于我们在这个外在世界的经验。正如材料的客体是这个世界的形成的元素。心灵的因素组成那里另外的世界的客体。

293 The idea of psychic objectivity is by no means a new discov-
ery. It is in fact one of the earliest and most universal acquisi¬tions of humanity: it is nothing less than the conviction as to the concrete existence of a spirit-world. The spirit-world was cer¬tainly never an invention in the sense that fire-boring was an invention; it was far rather the experience, the conscious accept¬ance of a reality in no way inferior to that of the material world.

心灵的客体的观念,绝非是新的发现。事实上,它是最早与最普世的人类的获得的东西。那实实在在就是信念,关于精神世界的具体的存在。精神世界确实从来不是发明,如同钻木取火是发明。相反地,这个经验,意识的接受现实,比起物质世界的现实,丝毫不逊。

I doubt whether primitives exist anywhere who are not ac¬quainted with magical influence or a magical substance. (“Mag¬ical” is simply another word for “psychic.”) It would also ap¬pear that practically all primitives are aware of the existence of spirits.2 “Spirit” is a psychic fact. Just as we distinguish our own bodiliness from bodies that are strange to us, so primitives-if they have any notion of “souls” at all-distinguish between their own souls and the spirits, which are felt as strange and as “not belonging.”

我怀疑,原始人们是否存在任何地方,他们对于魔兽的物质的魔术的影响并不熟稔。(魔术仅是“心灵”的另一个字)。这也是显而易见地,几乎所有的原始人们都知道精神的存在。“精神”是心理的事实。正如我们区别我们自己的身体,跟我们陌生的身体。原始人们区别他们自己的灵魂与精神—假如他们拥有“灵魂”的任何观念—这些灵魂与精神都被感觉是奇怪,作为“并不属于”。

They are objects of outward perception, whereas their own soul (or one of several souls where a plurality is as¬sumed), though believed to be essentially akin to the spirits, is not usually an object of so-called sensible perception. After death the soul (or one of the plurality of souls) becomes a spirit which survives the dead man, and often it shows a marked dete- rioration of character that partly contradicts the notion of per¬sonal immortality.

它们是外在感官的客体。虽然他们自己的灵魂(或其中一个灵魂,在那里,多数的灵魂被假设),虽然它被相信基本上类似精神。它通常使用所谓的理性感知的客体。在死亡之后,灵魂(或多数灵魂的其中一个),变成精神。它比死人活得长久。经常它显示人格的明显的恶化,这个人格部分抵触个人的永恒的观念。
2 In cases of reports to the contrary, it must always be borne in mind that the fear of spirits is sometimes so great that people will actually deny that there are any spirits to fear. I have come across this myself among the dwellers on Mount Elgon.
185

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

The Bataks,3 of Sumatra, go so far as to assert that the people who were good in this life turn into malign and dangerous spirits. Nearly everything that the primitives say about the tricks which the spirits play on the living, and the general picture they give of the revenants) corresponds down to the last detail with the phenomena established by spiritualistic experience. And just as the communications from the “Beyond” can be seen to be the activities of broken-off bits of the psyche, so these primitive spirits are manifestations of unconscious com¬plexes.4

苏马特拉的巴塔克人甚至过分地主张:在这一生善良的人们,转变成为恶意而危险的精神。关于这些诡计,精神玩弄活生生的人们,以及他们给出的画面,关于死人回转,原始人们所说的东西,几乎每一样,都详细地对应于这些观念,被精神经验建立的现象。正如从“超验世界”的沟通,能够被视为是心灵的断裂的碎片的这些活动。这些原始的精神都是展示无意识的情结的展示。

The importance that modern psychology attaches to the “parental complex” is a direct continuation of primitive man’s experience of the dangerous power of the ancestral spirits. Even the error of judgment which leads him unthinkingly to assume that the spirits are realities of the external world is carried on in our assumption (which is only partially correct) that the real parents are responsible for the parental complex. In the old trauma theory of Freudian psychoanalysis, and in other quarters as well, this assumption even passed for a scientific explanation. (It was in order to avoid this confusion that I advocated the term “parental imago.” 5)

现代心理学依附于“父母的情结”,这个重要性是直接地延续原始人的经验,对于祖先的精神的危险的力量的经验。即使是判断的错误,不经思索地引导他假设:精神上外在世界的现实。这个判断的错误被执行,在我们的假设(仅是部分正确的假设),真实的父母亲要负责父母的情结。在弗洛伊德的精神分析的古老的创伤的理论,以及其他的部门,这个假设甚至被认为是科学的解释。(那是为了避免这个混淆,我主张“父母意象”的这个术语)。

294 The simple soul is of course quite unaware of the fact that
his nearest relations, who exercise immediate influence over him, create in him an image which is only partly a replica of themselves, while its other part is compounded of elements de¬riv~d from himself.

单纯的灵魂当然完全不知道这个事实:他的最亲近的亲属,他们对于他运用当下的影响,在他身上创造一个意象。这个意象仅是部分复制他们自己。它的其他部分,则是由从他自己得了的元素组成。

The imago is built up of parental influences plus the specific reactions of the child; it is therefore an image that reflects the object with very considerable qualifications. Naturally, the simple soul believes that his parents are as he sees them. The image is unconsciously projected, and when the par¬ents die, the projected image goes on working as though it were a spirit existing on its own. he primitive then speaks of pa¬rental spirits who return by night (revenants), while the mod¬ern man calls it a father or mother complex.

这个意象被建造,由父母的影响被建造,加上小孩的明确的反应。它因此是这个意象,反应具有相当的特质的客体。当然,单纯的灵魂相信:他的父母的本质如同他看见他们。这个意象无意识地被投射。当父母亲死亡时,被投射的意象继续运转,好像它是一个独立存在的精神。原始人因此谈论父母亲的精神。他们在夜间回来。现代的人们则是称它为父亲或母亲情结。

3 Warnecke, Die Religion der Batak (1909).
4 CL “The Psychological Foundations of Belief in Spirits.”
5 [This term was taken up by psychoanalysis, but in analytical psychology it has been largely replaced by “primordial image of the parent” or “parental archetype. “-EDITORS.]
186

THE FUNCTION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS

295 The more limited a man’s field of consciousness is, the more numerous the psychic contents (imagos) which meet him as quasi-external apparitions, either in the form of spirits, or as magical potencies projected upon living people (magicians, witches, etc.). At a rather higher stage of development, where the idea of the soul already exists, not all the imagos continue to be projected (where this happens, even trees and stones talk), but one or the other complex has come near enough to con¬sciOllsness to be felt as no longer strange, but as somehow “be¬longing.”

人的意识的领域越是受到限制,心灵的内容的数量越是多。心灵的内容跟他会面,作为伪-外在的魅影。要就是以精神的形式,或是以魔法的潜力,被投射在活人身上(魔法师,巫师,等等)。在发展的更高阶段。在那里,灵魂的观念已经存在1,并不是所有的意象都继续被投射(在那里,这种事情发生,即使树木与石头都会说话),但是某个情结,都足够靠近意识,为了被感觉,作为不再是陌生,而是作为“归属”的东西。
Nevertheless, the feeling that it “belongs” is not at first sufficiently strong for the complex to be sensed as a subjec¬tive content of consciousness. It remains in a sort of no man’s land between conscious and unconscious, in the half-shadow, in part belonging or akin to the conscious subject, in part an au-tonomous being, and meeting consciousness as such. At all events it is not necessarily obedient to the subject’s intentions, it may even be of a higher order, more often than not a source of inspiration or warning, or of “supernatural” information.

可是,这个情结“归属”,起床并不是足够强壮,为了让情结被理解,作为是意识的主体的内容。它始终保留在某种的无人的领域,处于意识与无意识之间。处于半阴影,部分归属于,或是类似意识的主体。部分是具有自主权的存在,作为这样的存在,跟意识相会。无论如何,它未必是服从于主体的意图。它甚至可能是属于更高的层次,往往是灵感或是警告的来源,或是“超自然”的资讯的来源。

Psy¬chologically such a content could be explained as a partly auton¬omous complex that is not yet fully integrated. The archaic souls, the ba and ka of the Egyptians, are complexes of this kind. At a still higher level, and particularly among the civilized peo¬ples of the West, this complex is invariably of the feminine gen¬der-anima and a fact for which deeper and cogent rea¬sons are not lacking.

心理学而言,这样的内容能够被解释,作为是部分具有自主的情结,这个情结还没有被融合。旧时的灵魂,埃及人的bu与ka,都是属于这种的情结。在更高的层面,特别是西方的文明的人们当中,这个情结一成不变地上属于女性的性别—阿尼玛。对于这一个事实,更加深入 ,更加具有份量的理由,并不欠缺。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: