荣格:超验的功能

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION 1
超验的功能
Prefatory Note
This essay was written in 1916. Recently it was discovered by stu¬dents of the C. G . .lung Institute, Zurich, and was brought out in a private edition in its first, provisional form, in an ‘English transla¬tion. In order to prepare it for publication, I have worked over the manuscript, while preserving the main trend of thought and the un¬avoidable limitedness of its horizon. After forty-two years, the prob¬lem has lost nothing of its topicality, though its presentation is still in need of extensive improvement, as anyone can see who knows the material.
这篇论文在1916年被写成。最近,苏黎世,荣格研究所的学生发现它。以私人的版本被出版,照它的第一次的暂时的形式,作为英译本。为了准备让它出版。我曾经修正原稿。虽然我保存它思想的倾向与它的视阔的无法避免的有限性。经过42年,这个难题并没有丧失它的主题。虽然它的呈现依旧还需要广泛的修正。如同任何人都会看出,是谁知道这个材料。

The essay may therefore stand, with all its imperfections, as an historical document. It may give the reader some idea of the efforts of understanding which were needed for the first attempts at a syn¬thetic view of the psychic process in analytical treatment. As its basic argument is still valid today, it may stimulate the reader to a broader and deeper understanding of the problem. This problem is identical with the universal question: How does one come to terms in practice with the unconscious?

尽管它的不完美,这篇论文因此充当是历史的文件。它可能给予读者努力要理解的观念。这些理解的努力是需要的,因为这是首次的企图,要综合地理解心灵的过程,在精神分析的治疗里。因为它的基本的论点今天依旧有效。它可能激发读者更加广泛,更加深入地理解这个难题。这个难题认同普世的问题:我们如何跟无意识达成妥协?

1 [Written in 1916 under the title “Die Transzendente Funktion,” the ms. lay in Professor Jung’s files until 1953. First published in 1957 by the Students Associa¬tion, C. G. Jung Institute, Zurich, in an English translation by A. R. Pope. The German original. considerably revised by the author. was published in Geist lJnd Werk … %Urn 75. Geburtstag van Dr. Daniel Brady (Zurich, 1958), together with a prefatory note of more general import specially written for that volume. The author has partially rewritten the note for publication here. The present transla¬tion is based on the revised German version, and Mr. Pope’s translation has been consulted.-EDlTORS.]
67

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
This is the question posed by the philosophy of India, and par¬ticularly by Buddhism and Zen. Indirectly, it is the fundamental question, in practice, of all religions and all philosophies. For the unconscious is not this thing or that; it is the Unknown as it immedi¬ately affects us.

这是印度哲学提出的这个问题,特别是佛教与禅宗。间接地,这是所有的宗教与所有的哲学,实践时的基本的问题。因为无意识并不是这个东西,或那个东西。无意识是未知者,因为它立即影响我们。

The method of “active imagination,” hereinafter described, is the most important auxiliary for the production of those contents of the unconscious which lie, as it were, immediately below the thres¬hold of consciousness and, when intensified, are the most likely to irrupt spontaneously into the conscious mind. The method, there¬fore, is not without its dangers and should, if possible, not be em¬ployed except under expert supervision.

因此而被描述的“积极想像”的方法,是最重要的辅助,对于无意识的那些内容的产生。也就是说,立即隐藏在意识的门槛底下的的无意识。当它被强化时,是最有可能自动自发地爆发进入意识的心灵。因此,这个方法,并不是没有它的危险。假如可能的话,这个方法不应该被使用,除了在专家的监督之下。

One of the lesser dangers is that the procedure may not lead to any positive result, since it easily passes over into the so-called “free association” of Freud, whereupon the patient gets caught in the sterile circle of his own complexes, from which he is .in any case unable to escape. A further danger, in itself harmless, is that, though authentic contents may be produced, the patient evinces an exclusively aesthetic interest in them and con¬sequently remains stuck in an all-enveloping phantasmagoria, so that once more nothing is gained. The meaning and value of these fan¬tasies are revealed only through their integration into the personality as a whole-that is to say, at the moment when one is confronted not only with what they mean but also with their moral demands.

其中一个次要的危险是,这个程序可能不会导致任何的积极的结果。因为它很容易被传递成为弗洛伊德的所谓的“自由联想”。在“自由联想”里,病人被套陷于他自己的各种情结的贫瘠的圈子里。更加深入的危险,本身是无害的。虽然它的真诚的内容可能被产生,病人逃避对于它们的专属美学的興趣,并且结果,始终被卡陷在涵盖一切的巨大幻影里。所以,再一次,并没有任何东西被获得。这些幻见的意义与价值,被显示出来,仅是凭借体它们的融合进入整体的人格里。换句话说,就在当我们不但面临它们的意义,而且面临它们的道德的要求。

Finally, a third danger-and this may in certain circumstances be a very serious matter-is that the subliminal contents already possess such a high energy charge that, when afforded an outlet by active imagination, they may overpower the conscious mind and take pos¬session of the personality. This. gives rise to a condition which¬temporarily, at least-cannot easily be distinguished from schizo¬phrenia, and may even lead to a genuine “psychotic interval.” The method of active imagination, therefore, is not a plaything for chil¬dren. The prevailing undervaluation of the unconscious adds con¬siderably to the dangers of this method. On the other hand, there can be no doubt that it is an invaluable auxiliary for the psycho¬therapist.

最后,第三个危险。在某些的情况,这可能是一个非常严肃的事情。第三个危险是,升华的内容已经形成如此高的能源负荷量。当它被积极想像给予一个出口,它们可能压倒意识的心灵,并且拥有人格。这会产生一个情况。这个情况暂时,至少不容易跟精神分裂症区别出来。甚至可能导致真诚的“精神病的间隔期间”。因此,积极想像的方法,并不是儿戏之物。目前流行对于无意识的低估,对这个方法的危险,更是雪上加霜。在另一方面,无可置疑地,对于精神病的治疗师,这是个宝贵的辅助之物。

C. G. J.
KiisnachtJ July I958 / September I959
68

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION
1111 There is nothing mysterious or metaphysical about the term
“transcendent function.” It means a psychological function com-parable in its way to a mathematical function of the same name, which is a function of real and imaginary numbers. The psy-chological “transcendent function” arises from the union of conscious and unconscious contents.

关于“超验的功能”,没有什么神秘或形上学之处。“超验的功能”意味著心理的功能,它的方式可类比相同名称的数学的功能。这个数学的功能是实在而想像的数字的功能。心理学的“超验的功能”起源于意识与无意识的内容的统合。

132 Experience in analytical psychology has amply shown that
the conscious and the unconscious seldom agree as to their con¬tents and their tendencies. This lack of parallelism is not just accidental or purposeless, but is due to the fact that the uncon¬scious behaves in a compensatory or complementary manner towards the conscious. We can also put it the other way round and say that the conscious behaves in a complementary manner towards the unconscious. The reasons for this relationship are:

分析心理学的经验充分显示,意识与无意识很少同意一致,关于他们的内容与它们的倾向。相提并论的这个欠缺并不仅是偶然,或没有目的。而是由于这个事实:无意识的行为,是以补偿或辅助的方式,朝向意识。我们也能够将它倒转过来,并且说,意识的行为,是以辅助的方式,朝向无意识。这个关系的理由是:

(1) Consciousness possesses a threshold intensity which its contents must have attained, so that all elements that are too weak remain in the unconscious.

意识拥有一个门槛的张力,意识的内容一定已经获得这个门槛的张力。这样,所有太过于微弱的元素,始终留在无意识里。

(2) Consciousness, because of its directed functions, exercises an inhibition (which Freud calls censorship) on all incompatible material, with the result that it sinks into the unconscious.

因为它的被引导的功能,意识运用一种压抑(弗洛伊德称之为审查),施加在所有不和谐的材料。结果是:意识沉落进入无意识。

(3) Consciousness constitutes the momentary,process of ad-aptation; .•. •whereas the unconscious contains not only all the forgotten material of the individual’s own past, but all the in¬herited behaviour traces constituting the structure of the mind.

意识构成适应的暂时的过程。而无意识包含不但是所有被个人自己的过去遗忘的材料,而且包含所有的被遗传的行为的痕迹,它们组成心灵的结构。

(4) The unconscious contains all the fantasy combinations which have not yet attained the threshold intensity, but which in the course of time and under suitable conditions will enter the light of consciousness.

无意识包含所有的幻见的组合,这些组合还没有获得门槛的张力。但是随著时间过去,在合适的情况之下。所有的幻想的组合将会进入意识的光辉里。

133 This readily explains the complementary attitude of the
unconscious towards the conscious.

这迅速地解释无意识朝向意识的辅助的态度。

134 The definiteness and directedness of the conscious mind are
qualities that have been acquired relatively late in the history of the human race, and are for instance largely lacking among primitives today. These qualities are often impaired in the neurotic patient, who differs from the normal person in that his threshold of consciousness gets shifted more easily; in other words, the partition between conscious and unconscious is much more permeable. The psychotic, on the other hand; is under the direct influence of the unconscious.

意识心灵的明确性与方向感,是已经被获得的特质,在人类种族的历史的比较晚晴。譬如,在今天的原始种族,主要是欠缺明确性与方向感。这些特质经常受到伤害,在神经症的病人身上。神经症病人遭受正常人的痛苦,因为他的意识的门槛更加容易被转移。换句话说,在意识与无意识之间的间隔,更加被渗透。另一方面,精神病者则是在无意识的直接的影响之下。

135
69

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE

The definiteness and directedness of the conscious mind are extremely important acquisitions which humanity has bought at a very heavy sacrifice, and which in turn have rendered hu¬manity the highest service. Without them science, technology, and civilization would be impossible, for they all presuppose the reliable continuity and directedness of the conscious process. For the statesman, doctor, and engineer as well as for the simplest labourer, these qualities are absolutely indispensable. We may say in general that social worthlessness increases to the degree that these qualities are impaired by the unconscious. Great artists and others distinguished by creative gifts are, of course, exceptions to this rule. The very advantage that such individuals enjoy consists precisely in the permeability of the partition separating the conscious and the unconscious. But, for those professions and social activities which require just this continuity and reliability, these exceptional human beings are as a rule of little value.

意识心灵的明确性与方向感是极端重要的获得之物。人类曾经耗费重大的牺性,才买到的重要的获得之物。然后轮到它们提供人类最崇高的服务。假如没有它们,科学,科技,与文明将是不可能的。因为它们都预先假设意识的过程,具有这个可靠的连续性与方向感。对于政治家,医生,与工程师,以及对于纯朴的劳工,这些特质绝对是无可避免的。我们通常说,社会的没有价值感,随着这些特质的受到无意识的伤害而增加。伟大的艺术家与其他凭借创造的天赋而显著的人们,当然是这个常规的例外。这些个人享受的利益,确实主要是在于分开意识与无意识的间隔的可渗透性。但是,对于那些专业与社会的活动,它们仅是要求这个连续性与可靠性。这些特别的人类,通常并没有多大的价值。

136 It is therefore understandable, and even necessary, that in
each individual the psychic process should be as stable and definite as possible, since the exigencies of life demand it. But this im’olves a certain disadvantage: the quality of directedness makes for the inhibition or exclusion of all those psychic ele¬ments which appear to be, or really are, incompatible with it, ie., likely to bias the intended direction to suit their purpose and so lead to an undesired goal. But how do we know that the concurrent psychic material is “incompatible”? We know it by an act of judgment which determines the direction of the path that is chosen and desired.
因此,这是可以理解的,甚至是必要的。在每个个人身上,心灵的过程应该尽可能地稳的与明确。因为生命的迫切性要求它。但是这牵涉到某个不利:方向感的品质朝向压抑或排除所有那些心灵的元素。表面上,或实际上跟它格格不入的心灵的元素。譬如,很可能让这个意图的方向产生偏见,以适应他们的目的,因此,导致一个并不被欲望的目标。但是,我们如何知道,这个同时发生的心灵的材料是“不相和谐”?我们知道它,凭借判断的行动。这个判断的行动决定被选择,被欲望的途径的方向。

This judgment is partial and preju¬diced, since it chooses one particular possibility at the cost of all the others. The judgment in its turn is always based on experience, i.e., on what is already known. As a rule it is never based on what is new, what is still unknown, and what under certain conditions might considerably enrich the directed proc¬ess. It is evident that it cannot be, for the very reason that the unconscious contents are excluded from consciousness.

这个判断是部分,而且具有偏见。因为它选择一个特殊的可能,牺牲所有其他的可能。然后轮到这个判断总是以经验作为基础。譬如,以已经被知道的东西作为基础。通常,它从来没有以新的东西作为基础,以依旧未被知道的东西,以在某些的情况里,可能会丰富被引导方向的过程作为基础。显而易见地,它不可能是这样。理由是,无意识的内容从意识里被排除出来。

137 Through such acts of judgment the directed process neces-
sarily becomes one-sided, even though the rational judgment may appear many-sided and unprejudiced. The very rationality of the judgment may even be the worst prejudice, since we call reasonable what appears reasonable to us. What appears to us unreasonable is therefore doomed to be excluded because of its
70

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION
irrational character. It may really be irrational, but may equally well merely appear irrational without actually being so when seen from another standpoint.

凭借判断的这些行动,被引导方向的过程必然会成为是单边,即使理性的判断可能看起来是许多边与没有偏见。判断的理性化甚至可能是最糟糕的偏见。因为我们称我们看起来是合理的东西,为合理。我们看起来是不合理的东西,因此注定会被排除,因为它的非理性的特性。它可能确实是非理性的,但是它同样很有理由仅是外表是非理性。但是实际上,从另外一个观点来看,它实际上并没有非理性。

138 One-sidedness is an unavoidable and necessary characteristic
of the directed process, for direction implies one-sidedness. It is an advantage and a drawback at the same time. Even when no outwardly visible drawback seems to be present, there is always an equally pronounced counter-position in the unconscious, unless it happens to be the ideal case where all the psychic components are tending in one and the same direction. This possibility cannot be disputed in theory, but in practice it very rarely happens. The counter-position in the unconscious is not dangerous so long as it .does not possess any high energy-value. But if the tension increases as a result of too great one-sidedness, the counter-tendency breaks through into consciousness, usually just at the moment when it is most important to maintain the conscious direction. Thus the speaker makes a slip of the tongue just when he particularly wishes not to say anything stupid. This moment is critical because it possesses a high energy ten¬sion which, when the unconscious is already charged, may easily “spark” and release the unconscious content.

单边性是被引导的过程的一个无可避免而且必要的特性。因为方向感暗示单边性。它既是利用,又是挫折。甚至,当没有外在的可看见的挫折似乎存在时,还是总是有一个同被宣告的反对-立场,在无意识里。除非,它恰好就是理想的情况。当所有的心灵的成分倾向于朝相同的方向。这个可能性无法用理论来争辩。但是实际上,它很少发生。无意识的反对-立场并不危险,只要它没有拥有高度的能源的价值。但是,假如这个紧张增加,由于太过强烈的单边性的结果。反对的倾向会突破进入意识,通常就是这个时刻,要维持意识的方向是非常重要的时刻。因此,言说者会有口误,正当他特别愿望不要说出任何愚蠢的事情。这个时刻是非常重要的,因为它拥有高度能源的紧张。当无意识已经被负荷,它可能“触发”并且释放无意识的内容。

139 Civilized life today demands concentrated, directed con-
scious functioning, and this entails the risk of a considerable dissociation from the unconscious. The further we are able to remove ourselves from the unconscious through directed func¬tioning, the more readily a powerful counter-position can build up in the unconscious, and when this breaks out it may have disagreeable consequences.

今天的文明生活要求专注的被引导的意识的功能。这涵盖这个冒险:跟无意识解离的冒险。我们越是能够将自己从无意识移除越远,通过被引导的功能,一个反动的离场越是迅速地累积起来。当发生这样的状况时,那可能拥有不和谐的结果。

14° Analysis has given us a profound insight into the importance
of unconscious influences, and we have learnt so much from this for our practical life that we deem it unwise to expect an elimination or standstill of the unconscious after the so-called completion of the treatment. Many patients, obscurely recogniz¬ing this state of affairs, have great difficulty in deciding to give up the analysis, although both they and the analyst find the feeling of dependency irksome. Often they are afraid to risk standing on their own feet, because they know from experience that the unconscious can intervene again and again in their lives in a disturbing and apparently unpredictable manner.

精神分析给予我们深刻的内省,洞察到无意识的影响的重要性。我们从这里学习众多,作为我们的生活,以致我们认人这是不明智的,期望无意识的减少或停滞,经过所谓的知疗的完成。许多病人,模糊地体认事情的这个状态,他们遭遇许多困难,当他们要决的放弃精神分析。虽然他们与分析家发现依靠的感觉是乏味的。经常,他们是害怕独立行事的冒险。因为他们根据经验知道,无意识能够一再地介入他们的生活,用一个令人困扰与明显无法被预测的方式。

141
71

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE

It was formerly assumed that patients were ready to copewith normal life as soon as they had acquired enough practical self-knowledge to understand their own dreams. Experience has shown, however, that even professional analysts, who might be expected to have mastered the art of dream interpretation, often capitulate before their own dreams and have to call in the help of a colleague. If even one who purports to be an expert in the method proves unable to interpret his own dre~ms satis-factorily, how much less can this be expected of the patient. Freud’s hope that the unconscious could be “exhausted” has not be’en fulfilled. Dream-life and intrusions from the unconscious continue-m utatis m utan dis-unim peded.

先前,我们假定,病人准备要处理正常的生活,当他们已经获得足够的实践的自性-知识,为了理解他们自己的梦想。可是,我们根据经验知道,即使是专业的精神分析家,他们被期望已经掌控梦的解释的技艺,他们经常束手无策于他们自己的梦,并且必须召唤同事的帮忙。假如被认为是这个方法的专家,都没有能力令人满意地解释他自己的梦,对于病人,那就更没有什么奢望。 弗洛伊德的希望,无意识能够被“穷尽理解”,并没有被实现。梦与无意识的闯入继续排山倒海而来。

142 There is a widespread prejudice that analysis is something
like a “cure,” to which one submits for a time and is then dis¬charged healed. That is a layman’s error left over from the early days of psychoanalysis. Analytical treatment could be described as a readjustment of psychological attitude achieved with the help of the doctor. Naturally this newly won attitude, which is better suited to the inner and outer conditions, can last a con¬siderable time, but there are very few cases where a single “cure” is permanently successful

有一个广泛的偏见;精神分析是某件像是治疗的东西。我们有一阵子,接受这种治疗,因此被疗愈出院。那是外行人的错误,从精神分析的早期遗留下来。精神分析的治疗能够被描述,作为重新调整心理的态度,凭借医生而获得。当然,这个刚刚被赢得的态度,比较能够适合内在与外在的情况。能够维持相当长久的时间。但是,单一的“治疗”是永久的成功,这样的个案是很少的。

It is true that medical optimism has never stinted itself of publicity and has always been able to report definitive cures. We must, however, not let ourselves be deceived by the all-t0
o-human attitude of the practitioner. but should always remember that the life of the unconscious goes on and continually produces problematical situations. There is no need for pessimism; we have seen too many excellent results achieved with good luck and honest work for that. But this need not prevent us from recognizing that analysis is no once¬and-for-all “cure”; it is no more, at first, than a more or less thorough readjustment. There is no change that is uncondi¬tionally valid over a long period of time. Life has always to be tackled anew.

的确,医学的乐观主义从来没有不引起大众注意,并且总是能够报导明确的治疗。可是,我们一定不要让自己被欺骗,被执业医师的太过于人性的态度欺骗。相反地,我们应该总是记住:无意识的生活继续下去,并且继续产生问题重重的情况。没有悲观主义的需要。我们曾经看见太多的优秀的结果,非常幸运地,而且诚实工作地被获得。但是,这并不需要阻止我们不去体会出,精神分析并没有一劳永逸地被“治疗”。起初,它仅是相当彻地被调整。没有任何改变是无条件地有效漫长的时间。生命总是必须重新被克服。

There are, of course, extremely durable collec¬tive attitudes which permit the solution of typical conflicts. A collective attitude enables the individual to fit into society without friction, since it acts upon him like any other condition of life. But the patient’s difficulty consists precisely in the fact that his individual problem cannot be fitted without friction into a collective norm; it requires the solution of an individual conflict if the whole of his personality is to remain viable. No rational solution can do justice to this task, and there is abso-
72

THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION
lutelyno collective norm that could replace an individual solu¬tion without loss.
当然,会有极端耐久度集体的态度容许典型的冲突的解决。集体的态度让个人能够适应进入社会,而没有冲突。因为它依靠他来行动,就像任何其他的生活的情况。但是,病人的困难确实是在于这个事实:个人的难题无法没有冲突地被调适成为集体的名称。它要求个人的冲突的解决,假如他的人格的整体想要保持行得通。对于这项工作,任何理性的解决都无法彻底。绝对没有一个集体名称能够取代个人的解决,而没有丧失。

143 The new attitude gained in the course of analysis tends
sooner or later to become inadequate in one way or another, and necessarily so, because the constant flow of life again and again demands fresh adaptation. Adaptation is never achieved once and for all. One might certainly demand of analysis that it should enable the patient to gain new orientations in later life, too, without undue difficulty. And expe’rience shows that this is true up to a point. We often find that patients who have gone through a thorough analysis have considerably less difficulty with new adjustments later on.

在精神分析的过程被获得的这个新的态度,倾向于迟早会变成不足够,用某种的方式,而且必然是不足够。因为生命的经常的流动一再地要求新鲜的调适。 调适从来没有一劳永逸地被获得。我们确实可能要求精神分析应该让病人能够获得新的方向,在以后的生活,而没有过分的困难。经验告诉我们,这到达某个时刻是真实的。我们经常发现,曾经经历彻底的精神分析的病人,遭遇较少的困难,对于后来的调适。

Nevertheless, these difficulties prove to be fairly frequent and may at times be really trouble¬some. That is why even patients who have had a thorough analy¬sis often turn to their old analyst for help at some later period. In the light of medical practice in general there is nothing very unusual about this, but it does contradict a certain misplaced enthusiasm on the part of the therapist as well as the view that analysis constitutes a unique “cure.” In the last resort it is highly improbable that there could ever be a therapy that got rid of all difficulties. Man needs difficulties; they are necessary for health. What concerns us here is only an excessive amount of them.

可是,这些困难证明是相当频繁,有时,可能确实引起麻烦。那就是为什么即使是曾经做过彻底的精神分析的病人,经常求助于他们的有经验的分析家帮忙,在某个后来的时期。从一般的医学实践的观点,关于这点,并没有任何不寻常之处。但是,它确实抵触某个误置位置的热忱,在治疗师方面,以及这个观念:精神分析组成一个独特的“治疗”。最后,这会变得非常不可能,要找到一个排除一切困难的治疗方法。人需要困难,困难对于健康是必要的。我们在此关心的事情是,仅是困难的数量过于庞大。

144 The basic question for the therapist is not how to get rid of
the momentary difficulty, but how future difficulties may be successfully countered. The question is: what kind of menta] and moral attitude is it necessary to have towards the disturbing influences of the unconscious, and how can it be conveyed to the patient?

对于治疗师,基本的问题并不是如何排除暂时的困难,而是未来的困难可能如何成功地被应付。这个问题是:必须要拥有什么种类的精神与道德的态度,对待无意识的这个令人困扰的影响?以及它如何被传达给病人?

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