人格面具3

NEGATIVE ATTEMPTS TO FREE THE INDIVIDUALITY
b. Identification with the Collective Psyche
认同集体无意识
The second way leads to identification with the collective
psyche. This would amount to an acceptance of inflation, but now exalted into a system. That is to say, one would be the for¬tunate possessor of the great truth which was only waiting to be discovered, of the eschatological knowledge which spells the healing of the nations. This attitude is not necessarily megalo¬mania in direct form, but in the milder and more familiar form of prophetic inspiration and desire for martyrdom. For weak¬minded persons, who as often as not possess more than their fair share of ambition, vanity, and misplaced naivete, the danger of yielding to this temptation is very great.

第二个方法导致认同集体心灵。这将是等于接受自我膨胀。但是现在,被提升成为系统。换句话说,我们将是这个伟大真理的拥有者,仅是等待被发现的伟大的真理,属于天启的知识,暗示着各个国家的治疗。这个态度并未必是自大狂的直接的形式。而是以温和,而且更加熟悉的预言的启发以及作为烈士的欲望的形式。对人心灵软弱的人们,他们经常拥有的仅是份内的企图心,虚荣心,与摆错位置的天真,屈服于这个诱惑的危险非常大。

Access to the collective psyche means a renewal of life for the individual, no matter whether this renewal is felt as pleasant or unpleasant. Everybody would like to hold fast to this renewal: one man because it en¬hances his life-feeling, another because it promises a rich harvest of knowledge, a third because he has discovered the key that will transform his whole life. Therefore all those who do not wish to deprive themselves of the great treasures that lie buried in the collective psyche will strive by every means possible to maintain their newly won connection with the primal source of life.7 Identification would seem to be the shortest road to this, for the dissolution of the persona in the collective psyche positively in¬vites one to wed oneself with the abyss and blot out all memory in its embrace. This piece of mysticism is innate in all better men as the “longing for the mother,” the nostalgia for the Source from which we came.

接近集体心灵意味著生命的新生,对于个人而言。无论这个新生被感觉是愉快或是不愉快。每个人都想要紧紧掌握这个新生:某个人是因为新生强化他的生命的感觉,另外一个人是因为它承诺给予丰富的知识的收获,第三者则是因为他发现将会转化他的整个的生命的钥匙。因此,所有那些并没有希望剥夺自己的伟大的财宝的人们,那些财宝被埋藏在集体心灵里。他们将会奋斗,凭借一切可能的方法,为了维持他们刚刚获得的关联,跟生命的原初的来源。认同似乎就是最短的捷径,到达这里。因为人格面具的瓦解,在集体心灵里,正面地邀请我们跟这个深渊结合,然后抹除掉深渊所掌握的一切记忆。这个神秘主义与生俱有地存在于所有较佳的人们,作为是“对母亲的渴望”,对于他们来自的来源的怀旧。

261 As I have shown in my book on libido, there lie at the root of
the regressive longing, which Freud conceives as “infantile fixa¬tion” or the “incest wish,” a specific value and a specific need which are made explicit in myths. It is precisely the strongest and best among men, the heroes, who give way to their regressive longing and purposely expose themselves to the danger of being devoured by the monster of the maternal abyss.

如同我在探讨力比多的书里所显示,在退行的渴望的根源里隐藏著力比多。弗洛伊德构想这个退行的渴望,作为是“婴孩的固著”,或是“乱伦的愿望”。这一个明确的价值与明确的需要,在神话里明确被表达。确实就是这个最强壮,最优秀的人们,英雄人物,他们屈服于他们的退行的渴望。然后刻意地暴露他们自己,于被吞没的危险当中,被母亲深夜的怪物吞没。

169

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
But if a man is a hero, he is a hero because, in the final reckoning, he did not let the monster devour him, but subdued it, not once but many times. Victory over the collective psyche alone yields the true value-the capture of the hoard, the invincible weapon, the magic talisman, or whatever it be that the myth deems most de¬sirable. Anyone who identifies with the collective psyche-or, in mythological terms, lets himself be devoured by the monster-and vanishes in it, attains the treasure that the dragon guards, but he does so in spite of himself and to his own greatest harm.
但是假如一个人是位英雄,他是一位英雄,因为在他最后的估算,他并没有让他的怪物吞没他,而是征服他的怪物。不仅一次,而且是好几次。光是战胜集体心灵的胜利,就产生真实的价值。或是任何神话认为是最被欲望的东西。任何认同于集体心灵的人,用神话的术语来说,他会让他自己被怪物吞没,然后消失在怪物里面。获得这个财宝,龙守卫著的财宝。但是,他这样做,奋不顾身,结果造成自己受伤惨重。

262 Probably no one who was conscious of the absurdity of this
identification would have the courage to make a principle of it. But the danger is that very many people lack the necessary hu¬mour, or else it fails them at this particular juncture; they are seized by a sort of pathos, everything seems pregnant with mean¬ing, and all effective self-criticism is checked. I would not deny in general the existence of genuine prophets, but in the name of caution I would begin by doubting each individual case; for it is far too serious a matter for us lightly to accept a man as a genu¬ine prophet. Every respectable prophet strives manfully against the unconscious pretensions of his role. When therefore a prophet” appears at a moment’s notice, we would be better ad¬vised to contemplate a possible psychic disequilibrium.

可能,知道这种认同的人们,没有一位会有勇气将它定为原则。但是危险是,很多的人们欠缺这个必要的性情,或者,这个性情在这个特殊的时刻,让他们功败垂成。他们被笼罩于一股哀怜之情。每一样东西都孕育着意义,所有的有效的自我-批评都被审查。我将不否认,通常会有真诚的预言家的存在。但是以谨慎的名义,我将开始,凭借怀疑每一个个人的案例。因为这是太过严肃的一件事,我们无法轻易地接受一个人,作为是真诚的预言家。每一位可尊敬的预言家,勇敢地奋斗,反抗他的角色,作为无意识的伪装。假如我们沉思可能的心灵的不平衡,可能较为明智之举。

263 But besides the possibility of becoming a prophet, there is
another alluring joy, subtler and apparently more legitimate: the joy of becoming a prophet’s disciple. This, for the vast ma¬jority of people, is an altogether ideal technique. Its advantages are: the odium dignitatis) the superhuman responsibility of the prophet, turns into the so much sweeter otium indignitatis. The disciple is unworthy; modestly he sits at the Master’s feet and guards against having ideas of his own. Mental laziness becomes a virtue; one can at least bask in the sun of a semidivine being. He can enjoy the archaism and infantilism of his unconscious fantasies without loss to himself, for all responsibility is laid at the Master’s door. Through his deification of the Master, the disciple, apparently without noticing it, waxes in stature; more¬over, does he not possess the great truth-not his own discovery, of course, but received straight from the Master’s hands? Natu¬rally the disciples always stick together, not out of love, but for the very understandable purpose of effortlessly confirming their own convictions by engendering an air of collective agreement.

但是,除了成为预言家的可能性之外,还有另外一个诱人的享乐,比较微妙,但是明显地更加合理:成为预言家的门徒。对于大多数的人们而言,这是一个完全理性的技术。它的利益是:预言家的超人的责任,转变成为如此更加甜蜜的退休的休闲。门徒是无足轻重,谦虚地,他端坐在大师的脚边,并且警卫著不要有属于自己的观念。精神的懒散成为是一种品德。我们至少能够沐浴于半神性的阳光里。他能够享受属于他的无意识的幻想的旧时回忆与婴孩主义。但是他并没有迷失自己。因为所有的责任都被放置在大师的门边。凭借将大师奉为神性,门徒很明显并没有注意到这件事,他的身形消隐。而且,他难道没有拥有他自己的伟大的真理吗?当然,并不是他自己发现的真理,而是直接从大师的手中获得的真理?当然,门徒总是聚集一块,不是由于爱,而是为了这个可以理解的目的,不费力气地证实他们自己的信念,凭借产生集体一致1气氛。

17°

NEGATIVE ATTEMPTS TO FREE THE INDIVIDUALITY
264 Now this is an identification with the collective psyche that
seems altogether more commendable: somebody else has the honour of being a prophet, but also the dangerous responsibil¬ity. For one’s own part, one is a mere disciple, but nonetheless a joint guardian of the great treasure which the Master has found. One feels the full dignity and burden of such a position, deem¬ing it a solemn duty and a moral necessity to revile others not of a like mind, to enrol proselytes and to hold up a light to the Gentiles, exactly as though one were the prophet oneself. And these people, who creep about behind an apparently modest persona, are the very ones who, when inflated by identification with the collective psyche, suddenly burst upon the world scene. For, just as the prophet is a primordial image from the collective psyche, so also is the disciple of the prophet.

现在,这个认同于集体心灵,似乎完全更加可被赞赏:某个其他的人拥有这个荣幸,成为预言家。但是也有危险的责任。就我们自己而言,我们仅是一位门徒,但是仍然是大师发现的伟大的财宝的共同守护者。我们感觉这个充分的尊严,与如此的地位的负担。他认为这是一个严肃的责任与道德的必要性,要抨击没有具有相同心灵的别人,登记为改变信仰者,然后举起灯光,照亮非犹太人。确实好像我们自己就是预言家。这些人们,在谦虚的人格面具背后鬼鬼祟祟。当他们由于认同集体心灵而自我膨胀,他们突然闯进世界的场景。因为,正如预言家是从集体心灵的原初的意象,预言家的门徒,也是心灵的原初的意象。

265 In both cases inflation is brought about by the collective un-
conscious, and the independence of the individuality suffers in¬jury. But since by no means all individualities have the strength to be independent, the disciple-fantasy is perhaps the best they can accomplish. The gratifications of the accompanying infla¬tion at least do something to make up for the loss of spiritual freedom. Nor should we underestimate the fact that the life of a real or imagined prophet is full of sorrows, disappointments, and privations, so that the hosanna-shouting band of disciples has the value of a compensation. All this is so humanly under¬standable that it would be a matter for astonishment if it led to any further destination whatever.

在这两个情况,自我膨胀被集体无意识导致。个体性的独立遭受伤害的痛苦。但是,因为所有的个体性决非拥有独立的力量,门徒-幻想或许就是他能够完成的最佳表现。伴随而来的自我膨胀的满足,至少有助于补偿精神自由的丧失。我们也不应该低估这个事实:一位真实或被想像的预言家的生活,充满了悲伤,失望,与被剥夺。所以,门徒的欢呼崇拜具有补偿的价值。所有这一切,在人性方面是可以理解的。假如它导致任何更进一步的目标,那将会令人大吃一惊。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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