人格面具 2

IV
第四章
NEGATIVE ATTEMPTS TO FREE THE INDIVIDUALITY FROM THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE
负面的企图,想要替个体性,从集体无意识解放
a. Regressive Restoration of the Persona
人格面具的退行的恢复
254 A collapse of the conscious attitude is no small matter. It
always feels like the end of the world, as though everything had tumbled back into original chaos. One feels delivered up, disori¬ented, like a rudderless ship that is abandoned to the moods of the elements. So at least it seems. In reality, however, one has fallen back upon the collective unconscious, which now takes over the leadership. We could multiply examples of cases where, at the critical moment, a “saving” thought, a vision, an “inner voice,” came with an irresistible power of conviction and gave life a new direction.

意识态度的崩塌可不是小事情。它让人总是感觉像是世界的末日。好像每样东西都崩塌成为原初的混乱。我们感觉被解脱,被解离,就像是一只没有舵的船只,任由自然元素的播弄。所以,至少,看起来是这个样子。可是,现实上,我们跌回到集体无意识。现在,集体无意识接管领导权。我们能够举出许多个案的例子。在那里,在关键的时刻,一个“拯救”的思想,一个“内部”的声音,带着无法抗拒的信念的力量前来,给予生命新的方向。

Probably we could mention just as many cases where the collapse meant a catastrophe that destroyed life, for at such moments morbid ideas are also liable to take root, or ideals wither away, which is no less disastrous. In the one case some psychic oddity develops, or a psychosis; in the other, a state of disorientation and demoralization. But once the unconscious contents break through into consciousness, filling it with their uncanny power of conviction, the question arises of how the in¬dividual will react. Will he be overpowered by these contents? Will he credulously accept them? Or will he reject them? (I am disregarding the ideal reaction, namely critical understanding.)

可能,我们能够提到同样多的个案。在那里,崩塌意味著毁灭生命的灾难。因为在这一样的时刻,病态的观念也容易生根。或是理想枯萎掉。这也是同样是灾难。在前者的个案,心灵的古怪性发展,或是在另外一个个案,精神病发作,那是迷失方向与士气瓦解的状态。但是一旦无意识的内容,突破进入无意识,充满对于无意识的信念的奥秘的力量,就产生这个问题:个人要如何反应?他将会被这些内容压倒吗?他将会轻信地接纳它们吗?或是,他将排斥它们?(我正在忽略理想的反应,也就是,批判的理解)。

The first case signifies paranoia or schizophrenia; the second may either become an eccentric with a taste for prophecy, or he may revert to an infantile attitude and be cut off from human society; the third signifies the regressive restoration of the per¬sona. This formulation sounds very technical, and the reader may justifiably suppose that it has something to do with a complicated psychic reaction such as can be observed in the course of analytical treatment. It would, however, be a mistake to think that cases of this kind make their appearance only in analytical treatment.

第一个个案意味着偏执狂,或精神分裂症。第二个个案可能要就是变成怪癖者,具有预言的喜好,要不就是他可能转向婴孩的态度,然后跟人类的社会隔离。第三个个案意味着“人格面具的退行的恢复”。这种说明听起来非常专业术语,读者可能很有理由认为,它跟复杂的心灵的反应有某些的关系。譬如,在精神分析的治疗的过程,能够被观察到的东西。可是,这将是个错误,假如我们认为,这种的个案仅是在精神分析的治疗里出现它们的面貌。

163

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

The process can be observed just as well, and often better, in other situations of life, namely “in all those careers where there has been some violent and destructive intervention of fate. Everyone, presumably, has suffered adverse turns of for¬tune, but mostly they are wounds that heal and leave no crip¬pling mark. But here we are concerned with experiences that are destructive, that can smash a man completely or at least crip¬ple him for good. Let us take as an example a businessman who takes too great a risk and consequently becomes bankrupt.

这个过程同样能够被观察,经常更加清楚地被观察,在生活的其他情况。也就是,“在所有那些生涯里,在那里,命运相当猛烈而且摧毁性地介入”。每个人都认为是曾经遭受命运的逆向的翻转。但是大部分,它们都是痊愈而且没有留下瘫痪标记的伤痕。但是在此,我们关注的是那些具有毁灭性的经验。这些经验会完全摧毁一个人,或是至少永远地瘫痪他。让我们以一位生意人作例子。他做生意过分冒险,结果终告破产。

If he does not allow himself to be discouraged by this depressing ex-perience, but, un dismayed, keeps his former daring, perhaps with a little salutary caution added, his wound will be healed without permanent injury. But if, on the other hand, he goes to pieces, abjures all further risks, and laboriously tries to patch up his social reputation within the confines of a much more limited personality, doing inferior work with the mentality of a scared child, in a post far below him, then, technically speaking, he will have restored his persona in a regressive way. He will as a result of his fright have slipped back to an earlier phase of his person¬ality; he will have demeaned himself, pretending that he is as he was before the crucial experience, though utterly unable even to think of repeating such a risk. Formerly perhaps he wanted more than he could accomplish; now he does not even dare to attempt what he has it in him to do.

假如他没有让他自己被这个令人沮丧的经验丧失勇气。代替的,他不要心灰意冷,他保持他先前的大胆,或许稍微补充一点令人尊敬的谨慎,他的创伤将会痊愈,没有留下永久的伤害。但是,假如另一方面,他尝试弥补他的社会的名声,在更加有限的人格的范围里面,做劣等的工作,用受的惊吓的小孩的精神,处于有降他身份的职位。那么专业术语来说,他将会恢复他的人格面具,以一个退行的方式。由于他害怕的结果,他将会重新滑落回到他的人格的早先的时期。他将会贬低他自己,伪装他的生命本质,如同在危机时刻之前的模样。虽然他完全不能够去思维到重复这样的冒险。先前,他或许会想要完成超过自己能力的工作;现在,他甚至不敢企图要做他能力所及的工作。

55 Such experiences occur in every walk of life and in every
possible form, hence in psychological treatment also. Here again it is a question of widening the personality, of taking a risk on one’s circumstances or on one’s nature. What the critical experi¬ence is in actual treatment can be seen from the case of our phi¬losophy student: it is the transference. As I have already indi¬cated, it is possible for the patient to slip over the reef of the transference unconsciously, in which case it does not become an experience and nothing fundamental happens.

这样的经验发生在各行各业,以各种可能的方式。因此,也发生在心理学的治疗里。而且,问题是要扩宽人格,针对自己的环境,或自己的天性,採取冒险。在实际治疗时的危机经验的本质,能够被看出来,根据我们哲学系学生的个案,那就是移情。如同我曾经指示过,病人很有可能无意识地滑越过移情的礁岩。在那个情况,移情并没有成为经验,而且也没有任何基本的事情会发生。

The doctor, for the sake of mere convenience, might well wish for such patients. But if they are intelligent, the patients soon discover the exist¬ence of this problem for themselves. If then the doctor, as in the above case, is exalted into the father-lover and consequently has a flood of demands let loose against him, he must perforce think out ways and means of parrying the onslaught, without himself getting drawn into the maelstrom and without injury to the pa¬tient. A violent rupture of the transference may bring on a com¬plete relapse, or worse; so the problem must be handled with great tact and foresight. Another possibility is the pious hope that “in time” the “nonsense” will stop of its own accord. Cer¬tainly everything stops in time, but it may be an unconscionably long time, and the difficulties may be so unbearable for both sides that one might as well give up the idea of time as a healing factor at once.

为了仅是方便缘故,医生很有理由愿望这样的病人。但是,假如病人足够聪明,他们自己不久就发现这个难题的存在。假如医生,如同在以上的个案里,被提升到父亲-情人的地位,随后涌出的许多要求对他处处不利,他必然会想出各种方法与工具,避开这样的攻击,不要让他自己被捲人这个大的漩涡,不要让病人遭受伤害。移情的猛烈的断裂可能会导致完全的重新发作,或者,更加恶化。所以,这个难题必须异常技巧而又有先见之明地处理。另外一个可能是这个虔诚的希望:“时间到时”,这些“无聊的的事情”将会自动自发地停止。的确,每件事情时间到时都会停止,但是,那个时间可能是无意识地漫长。对于两边,这些困难可能如此无法忍受,以致我们很有理由放弃这个想法:让时间同时充当治疗的因素。

256 A far better instrument for “combatting” the transference
would seem to be offered by the Freudian theory of neurosis. The dependence of the patient is explained as an infantile sex¬ual demand that takes the place of a rational application of sex-
. uality. Similar advantages are offered by the Adlerian theory,1 which explains the transference as an infantile power-aim, and as a “security measure.” Both theories fit the neurotic mentality so neatly that every case of neurosis can be explained by both theories at once.2 This highly remarkable fact, which any un¬prejudiced observer is bound to corroborate, can only rest on the circumstance that Freud’s “infantile eroticism” and Adler’s “power drive” are one and the same thing, regardless of the clash of opinions between the two schools. It is simply a frag¬ment of uncontrolled, and at first uncontrollable, primordial in¬stinct that comes to light in the phenomenon of transference. The archaic fantasy-forms that gradually reach the surface of consciousness are only a further proof of this.

弗洛伊德对于神经症的理论,似乎提供一个更好的工具,来“博斗”移情。病人的依赖性被解释作为是婴孩的性的要求,取代性的理性的运用。类似的利益被阿德勒的理论提供。阿德勒理论解释移情,作为是婴孩的权力的目标,譬如“安全措施”。两种理论都如此清楚地适合神经症的精神状态,所以,神经症的每个个案都能够被解释,同时用两个解释。这个高度引人注意的事情,任何没有偏见的观察者一定都会建构,它仅能依靠这个情况:弗洛伊德的婴孩的性爱主义,与阿德勒的“权力冲动”,都是同样的东西,无论这两派之间,意见的冲突是多么大。那仅是无法控制的原始的本能的片断,起初无法被控制。在移情的现象里,这个无法控制的原始的本能真相大白。逐渐到达意识的表面的旧时的幻想与形式,仅是更进一步证明这个、、、

257 We can try both theories to make the patient see how infan-
tile, impossible, and absurd his demands are, and perhaps in the end he will actually come to his senses again. My patient, how¬ever, was not the only one who did not do this. True enough, the doctor can always save his face with these theories and extri¬cate himself from a painful situation more or less humanely.

我们尝试两个理论,为了让病人看出,他的要求是多么的幼稚,不可能,与荒谬。或许,最后,他将会实际上再次恢复他的理智。可是,我的病人并不是第一位没有恢复他的理智的人。的确,医生总是拯救他的面子,使用这些理论,然后让他自己挣脱一个令人痛苦的情况,相当合乎人性地。

There are indeed patients with whom it is, or seems to be, unre¬warding to go to greater lengths; but there are also cases where these procedures cause senseless psychic injury. In the case of my student I dimly felt something of the sort, and I therefore abandoned my rationalistic attempts in order-with ill-concealed mistrust-to give nature a chance to correct what seemed to me to be her own foolishness. As already mentioned, this taught me something extraordinarily important, namely the existence of an unconscious self-regulation.

的确,有些个案不值得,或似乎不值得,如此详细探讨。但是,也有些个案,这些程序引起没有意义的心灵的伤害。在我的学生的个案,我模糊地感觉到某件类似的东西。我因此放弃我的理性的企图—不信任溢于言表—为了给予自然一个机会来改正我觉得是她自己的愚蠢。如同已经被提到的,这教导我某件特殊重要的东西。换句话说,无意识的自我-规范的存在。

2 Cf. supra, pars. 44ff., for an example of such a case.
165

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
Not only can the unconscious “wish,” it can also cancel its own wishes. This realization, of such immense importance for the integrity of the personality, must remain sealed to anyone who cannot get over the idea that it is simply a question of infantilism. He will turn round on the threshold of this realization and tell himself: “It was all non¬sense of course. I am a crazy visionary! The best thing to do would be to bury the unconscious or throw it overboard with all its works.”

无意识不但能够“愿望”,无意识也能够取消它自己的愿望。这个体会,对于人格的尊严具有如此巨大的重要性。这个体会必须保持不让任何人知道,假如他无法理解这个观念:那仅是婴孩主义的问题。他将会在这个体会的门槛转身,然后告诉他自己:「当然,那都是无稽之谈。我是一位多么疯狂的幻想家!最好的事情就是将无意识埋葬,或是将无意识的一切运作,随着抛下大海。“
The meaning and purpose he so eagerly desired he will see only as infantile maunderings. He will understand that his longing was absurd; he learns to be tolerant with himself, resigned. What can he do? Rather than face the conflict he will turn back and, as best he can, regressively restore his shattered persona, discounting all those hopes and expectations that had blossomed under the transference. He will become smaller, more limited, more rationalistic than he was before. One could not say that this result would be an unqualified misfortune in all cases, for there are all too many who, on account of their notori¬ous ineptitude, thrive better in a rationalistic system than in freedom. Freedom is one of the more difficult things. Those who can stomach this way out can say with Faust:

这个意义与目标,他如此地渴望,以致于他仅是看见,作为是婴孩的无目的漫游。他将理解,他的渴望是荒谬的,他学会对他自己包容,顺服。他能够怎么做呢?他非但没有面对这个冲突,他将会转过头,尽他可能地,退行地恢复他被摧毁的人格面具,贬低所有那些希望与期望,在移情之下曾经盛放的希望与期望。他将会变得更加渺小,更加受到限制,更加理性化,比起他以前的样子。我们无法说,无论什么情况,这个结果将是不应该遭遇的不幸。因为有太多的人们,因为他们恶名昭彰的无能为力,他们在理性的系统里较能张罗,比起在自由里。自由是一件更加困难的事情。那些能够承受这个解脱之道的人们,能够跟随浮士德这样说:

This earthly circle I know well enough. Towards the Beyond the view has been cut off; Fool-who directs that way his dazzled eye, Contrives himself a double in the sky!
Let him look round him here, not stray beyond; To a sound man this world must needs respond. To roam into eternity is vain!
What he perceives, he can attain.
Thus let him walk along his earthlong day; Though phantoms haunt him, let him go his way.3

这个大地的圈子,我甚为熟稔。
朝向超验的景象已经被阻隔;
傻瓜—他用那个方式引导他目眩的眼光,
构想他自己在天上有一个本尊!
让他环顾这里周遭,不要迷失于超验世界
对于一位健全的人,这个世界必要回应,
漫游进入永恒是徒劳!
他所感觉的东西,他能够获得。
因此,让他沿着他的世间的日子前行,
虽然萦绕他的魅影重重,任他前行。

258 Such a solution would be perfect if a man were really able to
shake off the unconscious, drain it of its energy and render it inactive. But experience shows that the unconscious can be de
prived of its energy only in part: it remains continually active, for it not only contains but is itself the source of the libido from which the psychic elements flow.

这样的解决将是完美的,假如一个人确实能够摆脱掉无意识,耗尽无意识的能源,并且让无意识动弹不得。但是,我们根据经验知道,无意识仅有部分能够被解除它的能源;无意识始终继续的保存活跃。因为无意识不但包含力比多的来源,无意识本身就是力比多。心灵的元素就是从力比多流露出来。

¬3 Faust, trans. by Louis MacNeice, p. 283 (Part 11, Act V).
166

NEGATIVE ATTEMpTS TO FREE THE INDIVIDUALITY
It is therefore a delusion to think that by some kind of magical theory or method the uncon¬scious can be finally emptied of libido and thus, as it were, elim¬inated. One may for a while play with this delusion, but the day comes when one is forced to say with Faust:

因此,这是一个幻觉,假如我们认为,凭借某种的魔法的理论或方法,无意识最后能够被掏空力比多,因此,所谓的能够被减少。我们有一阵子,都在玩弄这个幻觉,但是这个日子会来临,当我们被迫跟随浮士德这样说:

But now such spectredom so throngs the air
That none knows how to dodge it, none knows where. Though one day greet us with a rational gleam,
The night entangles us in webs of dream.
We come back happy from the fields of spring¬
And a bird croaks. Croaks what? Some evil thing. Enmeshed in superstition night and morn,
It forms and shows itself and comes to warn.
And we, so scared, stand without friend or kin,
And the door creaks-and nobody comes in.4

但是现在,这样的魅影,如此充塞空中,
以致无人知道如何逃避它,无人知道何方,
虽然白天以理性的光辉欢迎我们
在夜晚,我们被纠缠于梦的网络,
我们从春天的原野,快乐地回来—
乌鸦哀鸣,哀鸣什么?某件不祥之事,
纠缠于迷信里,夜晚或清晨,
它现身,并显示自己,前来警告,
我们如此惊恐,没有朋友或亲属伴随
门吱吱响,没有人进入。

Nobody, of his own free will, can strip the unconscious of its effective power. At best, one can merely deceive oneself on this point. For, as Goethe says:

没有人,出之于他自己的自由意志,能够替无意识剥除掉它的有效的力量。针对这一点,充其量,我们仅能够欺骗自己。因为,如同歌德所说:

Unheard by the outward ear
In the heart I whisper fear;
Changing shape from hour to hour
I employ my savage power.5

没有让外倾的耳朵听见,
在内心,我窃窃私语恐惧;
每个时刻,形状都在改变
我运用我的野性的力量。

Only one thing is effective against the unconscious, and that is hard outer necessity. (Those with rather more knowledge of the unconscious will see behind the outer necessity the same fac~ which once gazed at them from within.) An inner necessity can change into an outer one, and so long as the outer necessity is real, and not just faked, psychic problems remain more or less ineffective. This is why Mephisto offers Faust, who is sick of the “madness of magic,” the following advice:
对抗无意识,仅有一件东西是有效的。那就是坚强外表的必要性。(对于无意识的知识更加丰富的人们,将会看见在坚强的外在必要性背后的那个相同的脸孔,曾经从内在凝视他的相同的脸孔。)内在的必要性能够改变成为外在的必要性。只要外在的必要性是真实的,不仅仅是虚构,心灵的难题始终是非常没有效果。这就是为什么浮士德厌倦于“魔法的疯狂“时,魔鬼梅非斯特提供给浮士德以下的劝告。

4 Ibid., p. 281 (Part 11, Act V).
5 Ibid., p. 282 (Part 11, Act V), modified.
167

260
THE RE:LATIONS BE:TW~E:N THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS Pack

Right. There is one way that needs
No money, no physician, and no witch.
Pack up your things and get back to the land
And there begin to dig and ditch;
Keep to the narrow round, confine your mind, And live on fodder of the simplest kind,
A beast among the beasts; and don’t forget
To use your own dung on the crops you set! 6

没错。有一个方法不需要
金钱,医生,或巫师。
打包你的行囊,回到故土
就在那里挖掘犁沟
保持在狭窄的周围,限制你的心灵,
然后依靠朴实的那些草料维生
如同野兽一般。但是不要忘记
使用你自己的粪便,滋养你播种的穀物

It is a well-known fact that the “simple life” cannot be faked, and therefore the unproblematical existence of a poor man, who really is delivered over to fate, cannot be bought by such cheap imitations. Only the man who lives such a life not as a mere possibility, but is actually driven to it by the necessity of his own nature, will blindly pass over the problem of his soul, since he lacks the capacity to grasp it. But once he has seen the Faustian problem, the escape into the “simple life” is closed for ever. There is of course nothing to stop him from taking a two-room cottage in the country, or from pottering about in a garden and eating raw turnips. But his soul laughs at the deception. Only what is really oneself has the power to heal.

这是众所周知的事实。这种“淡泊的生活“无法被虚构。因此,贫穷的人的没有难题的生存。贫穷的人确实被递交给命运,他无法被便宜的模仿所购买。这样的人过著淡泊生活,不是作为是可能,而且实际上受到他自己的天性的驱使来过这样的生活。仅有这样的人才会盲目地忽略他的灵魂的难题。因为他欠缺理解它的这个能力。但是当他一旦看见弗洛伊德的难题,逃避进入“淡泊”的生活,就永远被关闭了。当然,并没有任何东西阻止他驻居在乡下的两个房间的茅屋里。或是阻止他不能在花园里弄东弄西,与吃野生的郁金香花。但是,他的灵魂会嘲笑这个欺骗。仅有确实是属于自己的人,才具有治疗的力量。

!59 The regressive restoration of the persona is a possible course
only for the man who owes the critical failure of his life to his own inflatedness. With diminished personality, he turns back to the measure he can fill. But in every other case resignation and self-belittlement are an evasion, which in the long run can be kept up only at the cost of neurotic sickliness. From the con¬scious point of view of the person concerned, his condition does not 109k like an evasion at all, but seems to be due to the impos¬sibility of coping with the problem. Usually he is a lonely figure, with little or nothing to help him in our present-day culture. Even psychology has only purely reductive interpretations to offer, since it inevitably underlines the archaic and infantile character of these transitional states and makes them unaccept¬able to him. The fact that a medical theory may also serve the purpose of enabling the doctor to pull his own head more or less elegantly out of the noose does not occur to him. That is pre¬cisely why these reductive theories fit the essence of neurosis so beautifully-because they are of such great service to the doctor.

人格面具的退行的恢复,仅有针对这样的人,才是可能的途径。他将他生活的严重的失败,归咎于他自己的自我膨胀。带着被减少的人格,他回转到他能够填补的程度。但是在每一个其他的个案,顺服与自我-贬抑是一种讨避。追根究底,仅有耗费神经症的疾病作为代价,这个自我膨胀才能够被维持。从相关的这个人的意识的观点,他的情况根本就不像是逃避。而是似乎由于不可能处理这个难题。通常,他是一位孤独的人物,在我们当前时代的文化,几乎没有什么东西可以帮助他。即使是心理学也仅能提供纯粹的还原的解释。因为心理学无可避免会强调这些转移的状态的旧时与婴孩的特性。并且让这些转移的状态无法被他接受。医学的理论也可能充当这个目的:让医生能够相当优雅地从这个牛角尖挣脱出来。医生并没有想到这个事实。那确实是为什么这些还原的理论,如此漂亮地配合神经症者的本质。因为他们对于医生的贡献是如此巨大。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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