荣格:人格面具

III
THE PERSONA AS A SEGMENT OF THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE
人格面具作为集体无意识的部分
243 In this chapter we come to a problem which, if overlooked, is
liable to cause the greatest confusion. It will be remembered that in the analysis of the personal unconscious the first things to be added to consciousness are the personal contents, and I sug¬gested that these contents, which have been repressed but are capable of becoming conscious, should be called the personal un¬conscious. I also showed that to annex the deeper layers of the unconscious, which I have called the collective unconscious) pro¬duces an enlargement of the personality leading to the state of inflation. This state is reached by simply continuing the analyti¬cal work, as in the case of the young woman discussed above. By continuing the analysis we add to the personal consciousness cer¬tain fundamental, general, and impersonal characteristics of hu¬manity, thereby bringing about the inflation1 I have just de-
1 Th’is phenomenon, which results from the extension of consciousness, is in no sense specific to analytical treatment. It occurs whenever people are overpowered by knowledge or by some new realization. “Knowledge puffeth up,” Paul writes to the Corinthians, for the new knowledge had turned the heads of many, as in¬deed constantly happens. The inflation has nothing to do with the kind of knowledge, but simply and solely with the fact that any new knowledge can so seize hold of a weak head that he no longer sees and hears anything else. He is hypnotized by it, and instantly believes he has solved the riddle of the universe. But that is equivalent to almighty self-conceit. This process is such a general reaction that, in Genesis 2:17, eating of the tree of knowledge is represented as a deadly sin. It may not be immediately apparent why greater consciousness fol¬lowed by self-conceit should be such a dangerous thing. Genesis represents the act of becoming conscious as a taboo infringement. as though knowledge meant that a sacrosanct barrier had been impiously overstepped. I think that Genesis is right in so far as every step towards greater consciousness is a kind of Prome¬thean guilt: through knowledge, the gods are as it were robbed of their fire, that is, something that was the property of the unconscious powers is torn out of its natural context and subordinated to the whims of the conscious mind. The
156

THE PERSONA AS A SEGMENT OF THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE scribed, which might be regarded as one of the unpleasant con¬sequences of becoming fully conscious.

在这个章节,我们面临一个难题。这个难题假如被忽略,很容易引起极大的混乱。我们将记住,在个人的无意识的分析里,首先能够被增加到意识层面的是个人的内容。我建议,这些已经被压抑,却能够被意识知道的内容,应该被称为是“个人无意识”。我也显示,合并更加深层的无意识,我所谓的集体无意识,会产生人格的扩大。这种人格的扩大会导致自我膨胀的状态。光是凭借精神分析,这个状态就会被到达。如同在上面讨论的年轻女子的个案里。凭借继续精神分析,我们将某些基本,一般,与非个人的人类的特性,增加到个人的意识里。这会导致我刚刚描述的自我膨胀。这种自我膨胀可能会被认为是完全被意识知道时的令人不愉快的结果之一。

244 From this point of view the conscious personality is a more or
less arbitrary segment of the collective psyche. It consists in a sum of psychic facts that are felt to be personal. The attribute “personal” means: pertaining exclusively to this particular per¬son. A consciousness that is purely personal stresses its proprie¬tary and original right to its contents with a certain anxiety, and in this way seeks to create a whole. But all those contents that refuse to fit into this whole are either overlooked and forgotten or repressed and denied. This is one way of educating oneself, but it is too arbitrary and too much of a violation. Far too much of our common humanity has to be sacrificed in the interests of an ideal image into which one tries to mould oneself. Hence these purely “personal” people are always very sensitive, for something may easily happen that will bring into consciousness an unwelcome portion of their real (“individual”) character.

从这个观点,意识的人格是集体无意识的相当任意的部分。它的组成是心灵事实的总和。这些心灵事实被感觉是个人的心灵事实。“个人”的这个属性意味著:专门归属于这个特殊的人。纯粹是个人的意识,强调它拥有财产与原先的权利,对于它的内容,带有某种的焦虑。以这种方式,它尝试创造一个整体。但是所有那些拒绝适应到这个整体的内容,要就是被忽略与忘记,要不就是被压抑与被否认。这是一个教育自己的方法。但是这个方法太过于任意性,太过于违背心灵事实。我们尝试替自己塑造一个理想的意象。为了这个理想的意象的利益,我们的共同人性的太多的部分必须被牺牲。因此,这些纯粹的“个人”的人们,总是非常敏感,对于这些牺性的共同人性的部分。因为很容易发生某件事情,就会让意识知道,他们具有一个并不受欢迎的部分,是他们的真实的(个人)的特性。

245 This arbitrary segment of collective psyche-often fashioned
with considerable pains-I have called the persona. The term persona is really a very appropriate expression for this, for origi¬nally it meant the mask once worn by actors to indicate the role they played. If we endeavour to draw a precise distinction be¬tween what psychic material should be considered personal, and what impersonal, we soon find ourselves in the greatest di• lemma, for by definition we have to say of the persona’s contents what we have said of the impersonal unconscious, namely, that it is collective. It is only because the persona represents a more or less arbitrary and fortuitous segment of the collective psyche that we can make the mistake of regarding it in toto as some¬thing individual. It is, as its name implies, only a mask of the collective psyche, a mask that feigns individuality) making others and oneself believe that one is individual, whereas one is simply acting a role through which the collective psyche speaks.

集体心灵的任意性部分,我称之为“人格面具”,通常是费尽心力才塑造而成。“人格面具”的这个术语确实是一个非常合适的表达集体心灵的任意性部分。因为它原先的意义是演员所戴的“面具”,为了指示他们扮演的角色。假如我们尝试获得明确的区别,在应该被认为是个人的心灵的材料,与应该被认为是非个人的心灵材料之间的区别。我们不久就发现我们自己处于进退维谷当中。因为定义上,我们必须将我们曾经说到的非个人的无意识,说成就是人格面具的内容。欢句话说,人格面具是集体无意识。仅是因为人格面具代表集体心灵的相当任意性与偶然性的部分时,我们才会犯上这个错误,错误地将完整的集体心灵,视为是某件个人的东西。顾名思义,人格面具仅是集体心灵的面具。这一个人格面具伪装成为个人,让别人与自己相信:我是个人,虽然我仅是扮演一个角色。通过这个角色,集体的心灵言说。

an who has usurped the new knowledge suffers, however, a transformation or enlargement of consciousness, which no longer resembles that of his fellow men. He has raised himself above the human level of his age (“ye shall become like unto God”), but in so doing has alienated himself from humanity. The pain of this loneliness is the vengeance of the gods, for never again can he return to mankind. He is, as the myth says, chained to the lonely cliffs of the Caucasus, forsaken of God and man.
157

TH::f: RELATiONS nETWEEN TH:E EGO AND Tt-lE UNCONSCIOUS
146 When we analyse the persona we strip off the mask, and dis-
cover that what seemed to be individual is at bottom collective; in other words, that the persona was only a mask of the collec¬tive psyche. Fundamentally the persona is nothing real: it is a compromise between individual and society as to what a man should appear to be. He takes a name, earns a title, exercises a function, he is this or that. In a certain sense all this is real, yet in relation to the essential individuality of the person concerned it is only a secondary reality, a compromise formation, in mak¬ing which others often have a greater share than he. The per¬sona is a semblance, a two-dimensional reality, to give it a nick¬name.

当我们分析这个人格面具时,我们剥除掉这个面具,然后发现,表面似乎是个人心灵,骨子里却是集体心灵。换句话说,人格面具仅是集体心灵的面具。基本上,人格面具并非是真实的东西:人格面具仅是个人与社会之间的一种妥协,关于一个人应该显现怎么的样子。他取一个名字,获得一个头衔,运用一个功能,他是这个,他是那个。从某个意义来说,所有这一切都是真实。可是,就相关的个人的基本的个体性而言,人格面具仅是一个次要的现实,一个妥协的形成。从事这个妥协的形成时,别的人经常比他具有更多的参与。人格面具是一个类似物,给它取一个绰号,“二维度的现实”。

!47 It would be wrong to leave the matter as it stands without
at the same time recognizing that there is, after all, something individual in the peculiar choice and delineation of the persona, and that despite the exclusive identity of the ego-consciousness with the persona the unconscious self, one’s real individuality, is always present and makes itself felt indirectly if not directly. Although the ego-consciousness is at first identical with the per-sona-that compromise role in which we parade before the community-yet the unconscious self can never be repressed to the point of extinction. Its influence is chiefly manifest in the special nature of the contrasting and compensating contents of the unconscious.

这将是错误的,假如我们将事情保持目前的状态,而没有同时体认到, 毕竟还是有某件个人的东西,在人格面具的特殊选择与描绘里。尽管自我意识专门地认同于人格面具, 无意识的自性,也就是一个人的真实的个体性,总是出现,并且让它自己间接地被感觉到,虽然并不是直接被感觉到。虽然自我意识起初认同与人格面具—那个作为妥协的角色。以那个角色,我们展示在社会的面前。可是,无意识的自性永远没有办法被压抑到销声匿迹的程度。无意识的自性的影响主要被展示在这个特别的特性:无意识具有作为对照与补偿的内容。

The purely personal attitude of the conscious mind evokes reactions on the part of the unconscious, and these, together with personal repressions, contain the seeds of individ¬ual development in the guise of collective fantasies. Through the analysis of the personal unconscious, the conscious mind be¬comes suffused with collective material which brings with it the elements of individuality. I am well aware that this conclusion must be almost unintelligible to anyone not familiar with my views and technique, and particularly so to those who habitually regard the unconscious from the standpoint of Freudian theory. But if the reader will recall my example of the philosophy stu¬dent, he can form a rough idea of what I mean. At the beginning of the treatment the patient was quite unconscious of the fact that her relation to her father was a fixation, and that she was therefore seeking a man like her father, whom she could then meet with her intellect. This in itself would not have been a mistake if her intellect had not had that peculiarly protesting character such as is unfortunately often encountered in intellec¬tual women.

意识心灵的这个纯粹个人的态度,会引起反动抗拒,在无意识的这方面。这些反动抗拒,再加上个人的压抑,就包含个人的发展的种种,以集体的幻想作为伪装。通过个人的意识的分析,意识的心灵变成充满了集体的材料。这个集体材料随之带来个体化的元素。我清楚知道,这个结论一定是匪夷所思,对于任何不熟悉我的观点与精神分析技术的人而言。特别是习惯于用弗洛伊德的理论的观点,来看待无意识的人们。但是假如读者愿意回想一下我举的哲学系学生的例子,对于我的意思,他能够建构粗略的观念。在治疗的开始,病人完全不知道这个事实:她跟她的父亲的关系是一种固著。她因此寻找一位像是她的父亲的人物。这个人物在知识能力,能够跟她匹配。这个关系的本身本来不会是错误,假如她的知识能力当时不是那么具有特殊的抗议的性质。譬如,在知识份子的女人身上,很不幸地经常遭遇到的特殊抗议的性质。
158

THE PERSONA AS A SEGMENT OF THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE
Such an intellect is always trying to point out mistakes in others; it is pre-eminently critical, with a dis¬agreeably personal undertone, yet it always wants to be consid¬ered objective. This invariably makes a man bad-tempered, par¬ticularly if, as so often happens, the criticism touches on some weak spot which, in the interests of fruitful discussion, were bet¬ter avoided. But far from wishing the discussion to be fruitful, it is the unfortunate peculiarity of this feminine intellect to seek out a man’s weak spots, fasten on them, and exasperate him. This is not usually a conscious aim, but rather has the uncon¬scious purpose of forcing a man into a superior position and thus making him an object of admiration. The man does not as a rule notice that he is having the role of the hero thrust upon him; he merely finds her taunts so odious that in future he will go a long way to avoid meeting the lady. In the end the only man who can stand her is the one who gives in at the start, and therefore has nothing wonderful about him.
这样的知识份子总是尝试指出别人身上的错误。显而易见,这是批评性质,具有令人不愉快的个人的语气,可是,它又总是想要被认为是具有客观性。这必然会让男人脾气发作,特别是,如同经常所发生的状况,这种批评触及到某的弱点。为了让讨论具有成果的利益,对于弱点的人身攻击最后避免。但是,女性知识份子根本就不想要讨论具有成果,她具有不幸的特殊性质,就像想要寻找出男人的弱点,紧盯着这些弱点,然后激怒他。这通常并不是一个意识的目的。相反地,这具有无意识的目的,就是强迫男人进入一个比较优秀的立场,然后,让他成为的崇拜的目标。这个男人通常每有注意到,他正在扮演强迫在他身上的英雄的角色。他发现她的挑衅如此令人厌恶,以致于未来,他将会刻意迴避,避免见到这位女士。最后,唯一能够忍受这位女性知识份子的男人,就是从一开始就屈服的男人。因此,这样的男人并没有什么出奇之处。

248 My patient naturally found much to reflect upon in all this,
for she had no notion of the game she was playing. Moreover she still had to gain insight into the regular romance that had been enacted between her and her father ever since childhood. It would lead us too far to describe in detail how, from her earliest years, with unconscious sympathy, she had played upon the shadow-side of her father which her mother never saw, and how, far in advance of her years, she became her mother’s rival. All this came to light in the analysis of the personal unconscious. Since, if only for professional reasons, I could not allow myself to be irritated, I inevitably became the hero and father-lover.

我的病人当然会在这一切当中发现有许多值得反思之处。因为她并不知的她正在扮演的游戏。而且,她依旧必须获得洞察力,对于曾经被扮演过的规律的浪漫情怀,在她跟她的父亲之间,自从童年以来。这将会牵扯太远,以致我们无法详细描述,她如何从她的早年开始,就带着无意识的同情,扮演她的父亲的阴影的面向。那是她的母亲从来没有看见的。以及她如何变成熟她的母亲的情敌,在她成长之前的岁月里。在个人无意识的精神分析里,所有这一切都真相大白。因为我无可避免地就成为她的英雄与父亲兼情人。仅是为了专业的理由,我不能够让我自己被她激怒。

The transference too consisted at first of contents from the personal unconscious. My role as a hero was just a sham, and so, as it turned me into the merest phantom, she was able to play her traditional role of the supremely wise, very grown-up, all-under¬standing mother-daughter-beloved-an empty role, a persona behind which her real and authentic being, her individual self, lay hidden. Indeed, to the extent that she at first completely identified herself with her role, she was altogether unconscious of her real self. She was still in her nebulous infantile world and had not yet discovered the real world at all. But as, through pro¬gressive analysis, she became conscious of the nature of her transference, the dreams I spoke of in Chapter I began to mate¬rialize.

移情首先也是由个人无意识的内容组成。我作为英雄的角色仅是一种伪装。所以,当移情将我转变成为仅是一个魅影人物。她能够扮演她的传统的角色,超级聪明,成熟稳重,通情达理的母亲兼女儿兼情人的角色,一个空洞的角色,一个人格面具。在这个人格面具背后,她的真实与真诚的生命实存,她的个人的自性,隐藏起来。的确,当她起初完全将她自己完全认同她的角色,她完全不知道她的真实的自性。她依旧是处于朦胧的婴孩的世界,她根本就还没有发现真实的世界。但是,经历过逐渐进步的精神分析,她逐渐知道她的移情的特性,我在第一节谈论到的那些梦,开始具体成形。

159

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
They brought up bits of the collective unconscious, and that was the end of her infantile world and of all the heroics. She came to herself and to her own real potentialities. This is roughly the way things go in most cases, if the analysis is carried far enough. That the consciousness of her individuality should coincide exactly with the reactivation of an archaic god-image is not just an isolated coincidence, but a very frequent occurrence which, in my view, corresponds to an unconscious law.

这些梦显露集体无意识的片断。那就是她的婴孩的世界与所有的英雄行为的结束。她苏醒过来,恢复她自己的真实的潜力。在大部分的个案,这大约就是事情进行的方式,假如精神分析被充分贯彻。她的个体性的意识竟然确实巧合于旧时的神性-意象的重新触动。这不仅是孤立的巧合,而且是经常发生的事情。依照我的观的,经常的发生的事情符合无意识的法则。

19 After this digression, let us turn back to our earlier reflec-
tions.
)0 Once the personal repressions are lifted, the individuality
and the collective psyche begin to emerge in a coalescent state, thus releasing the hitherto repressed personal fantasies. The fan¬tasies and dreams which now appear assume a somewhat differ¬ent aspect. An infallible sign of collective images seems to be the appearance of the “cosmic” element, i.e., the images in the dream or fantasy are connected with cosmic qualities, such as temporal and spatial infinity, enormous speed and extension of movement, “astrological” associations, telluric, lunar, and solar analogies, changes in the proportions of the body, etc. The obvi¬ous occurrence of mythological and religious motifs in a dream also points to the activity of the collective unconscious. The col¬lective element is very often announced by peculiar symptoms,2 as for example by dreams where the dreamer is flying through space like a comet, or feels that he is the earth, or the sun, or a star; or else is of immense size, or dwarfishly small; or that he is dead, is in a strange place, is a stranger to himself, confused, mad, etc. Similarly, feelings of disorientation, of dizziness and the like, may appear along with symptoms of inflation.

经过这场离题。让我们回到我们早先的反思。一旦个人的压抑被撤除,个体性与集体心灵开始出现在融合的状态。因此释放出迄今被压抑的个人的幻想。现在出现的这些幻想与梦,扮演一个相当不同的面向。集体的各种意象的无误的讯号,似乎就是“宇宙”的元素的出现。换句话说,在梦里或幻想里的各种意象,跟宇宙的特质息息相关。譬如,时间与空间的无限,运动的强烈快速与范围。“天文学的联想”,大地电流,月亮与太阳的类比,身体的比例的变化,等等。在梦里,神话与宗教的母题的明显的出现,也指向集体无意识的活动。集体的因素经常由特殊的症状宣告出来。譬如,有这些梦宣告出来:在这个梦里,作梦者正在飞行,像是彗星,穿越过太空。或是,作梦者感觉他就是地球,或是太阳,或是星星。要不然就是,他的体积特别巨大,或是特别矮小。或是他死亡,在一个陌生的地方,他自己陌生的地方,迷惘,疯狂,等等。同样地,失序的感觉,晕眩的感觉,等等,可能会伴随自我膨胀的症状出现。

)l The forces that burst out of the collective psyche have a con-
fusing and blinding effect. One result of the dissolution of the persona is a release of involuntary fantasy, which is apparently nothing else than the specific activity of the collective psyche. This activity throws up contents whose existence one had never suspected before. But as the influence of the collective unconscious increases, so the conscious mind loses its power of leader¬ship. Imperceptibly it becomes the led, while an unconscious and impersonal process gradually takes control. Thus, without noticing it, the conscious personality is pushed about like a fig¬ure on a chess-board by an invisible player. It is this player who decides the game of fate, not the conscious mind and its plans. This is how the resolution of the transference, apparently so im¬possible to the conscious mind, was brought about in my earlier example.

从集体心灵突然爆发的各种力量,具有令人混乱,令人目眩的效果。人格面具的瓦解的结果是释放非自愿的幻想。这些非自愿的幻想,显而易见不是别的,实实在在就是集体心灵的明确的活动。这个活动产生我们以前从来没有怀疑是存在的内容。但是,随着集体无意识的影响的增加,意识的心灵逐渐丧失它的领导的力量。不知不觉地,意识的心灵变成是被引导者,而无意识与非个人的过程逐渐掌控一切。因此,意识的人格并没有注意到这个转变。就像祺盘上的祺子,意识的人格被推来推去,被一位隐形的下祺者。这位隐形的下祺者决定命运的祺戏,而不是意识的心灵与其计划。在我早先的例子,这就是移情的解决被达成的方式。虽然对于意识的心灵,这显而易见是非常的不可能。

2 It may not be superfluous to note that collective elements in dreams are not restricted to this stage of the analytical treatment. There are many psychological situations in which the activity of the collective unconscious can come to the surface. But this is not the place to enlarge upon these conditions.
160

THE PERSONA AS A SEGMENT OF THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE scious

252 The plunge into this process becomes unavoidable whenever
the necessity arises of overcoming an apparently insuperable difficulty. It goes without saying that this necessity does not oc¬cur in every case of neurosis, since perhaps in the majority the prime consideration is only the removal of temporary difficulties of adaptation. Certainly severe cases cannot be cured without a far-reaching change of character or of attitude. In by far the greater number, adaptation to external reality demands so much work that inner adaptation to the collective unconscious cannot be considered for a very long time. But when this inner adapta¬tion becomes a problem, a strange, irresistible attraction pro¬ceeds from the unconscious and exerts a powerful influence on the conscious direction of life.

投掷进入这个过程变成是无可避免,每当产生这个必要性:要克服明显是无法克服的困难。自不待言的是,这个必要性并没有发生在神经症者的每个个案里。因为或许在大多数的个案,主要的考虑仅是要移除暂时的适应的困难。的确,严重的个案被治疗时,总是会有深远的人格的改变或态度的改变。就大多数的神经症这的个案而言,对于外在现实的适应要求费尽心力,以致有很漫长的时间,对于集体无意识的适应无法被考虑到。但是当内心的适应成为难题时,一个奇异,无法抗拒的吸引力就从无意识前进,从事强烈的影响,对于意识的生命的方向。

The predominance of uncon¬scious influences, together with the associated disintegration of the persona and the deposition of the conscious mind from power, constitute a state of psychic disequilibrium which, in analytical treatment, is artificially induced for the therapeutic purpose of resolving a difficulty that might block further devel¬opment. There are of course innumerable obstacles that can be overcome with good advice and a little moral support, aided by goodwill and understanding on the part of the patient. Excel¬lent curative results can be obtained in this way.

无意识的影响的占优势,跟人格面具的联想的瓦解,与拥有权力的意识心灵的性情,形成心灵的不平衡的状态。在精神分析的治疗里,这个心灵的不平衡,人为地被减少。为了治疗的目的:解决可能阻碍更进一步的发展的困难。这些能够用良好劝告与一些道德支持来克服的障碍,当然然数量无限。在病人方面,它们也受的善意与理解的帮助。用这种方式,能够获得治疗的效果。

Cases are not uncommon where there is no need to breathe a word about the unconscious. But again, there are difficulties for which one can foresee no satisfactory solution. If in these cases the psychic equi¬librium is not already disturbed before treatment begins, it will certainly be upset during the analysis, and sometimes without any interference by the doctor. It often seems as though these patients had only been waiting to find a trustworthy person in order to give up and collapse. Such a loss of balance is similar in prinCIple to a psychotic disturbance; that is, it differs from the initial stages of mental illness only by the fact that it leads in the end to greater health, while the latter leads to yet greater destruction.

寻常见到的一些个案,根本就没有必要谈论到无意识。但是,仍然存在著一些困难,我们无法预见有任何令人满意的解决。假如在这些个案,心灵的平衡,并没有已经受到扰乱,在治疗开始之前。心灵的平衡确实将会被扰乱,在精神分析期间,并且有时没有医生的任何的干扰。它们经常看起来像是这些病人仅是正在等待找到一位可信任的人,为了放弃并崩溃。平衡的这种丧失,原则上,类似精神疾病。换句话说,它跟精神疾病的最初的阶段的差异,仅是根据这个事实: 平衡的丧失最后导致更大的健康。而精神疾病则是导致更大的毁灭。

161

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS

It is a condition of panic, a letting go in face of appar¬ently hopeless complications.Mostly it was preceded by desper¬ate efforts to master the difficulty by force of will; then came the collapse, and the once guiding will crumbles completely. The energy thus freed disappears from consciousness and falls into the unconscious. As a matter of fact, it is at these moments that the first signs of unconscious activity appear. (I am thinking of the example of that young man who was weak in the head.) Obviously the energy that fell away from consciousness has acti¬vated the unconscious. The immediate result is a change of atti¬tude. One can easily imagine that a stronger head would have taken that vision of the stars as a healing apparition, and would have looked upon human suffering sub specie aeternitatis, in which case his senses would have been restored.3

这是惊慌的情况,面临明显无助的併发症,束手无策。大部分的情况,前导存在着绝望的努力,想要掌控这个困难,凭借意志的力量,然后逐渐崩溃。这个曾经作为引导的意志,完全崩溃了。因此被解放出来的能源,从意识消失,然后掉落到无意识。事实上,就在这些时刻,无意识的活动的最初的迹象出现。(我正想到那位头脑薄弱的年轻人的例子。显而易见地,从意识掉落的能源已经触动无意识。当下的结果是态度的转变。我们很容易想像,假如他当时是一位头脑更加强壮的人,他本来会将那些星星的幻景,视为是治疗的魅影。他本来会俯瞰人类的痛苦,从永恒的观照之下。在永恒的观照之下的情况,他的各种感觉本来会被恢复的。

53 Had this happened, an apparently insurmountable obstacle
would have been removed. Hence I regard the loss of balance as purposive, since it replaces a defective consciousness by the automatic and instinctive activity of the unconscious, which is aiming all the time at the creation of a new balance and will moreover achieve this aim, provided that the conscious mind is capable of assimilating the contents produced by the uncon¬scious, i.e., of understanding and digesting them. If the uncon¬scious simply rides roughshod over the conscious mind, a psy¬chotic condition develops. If it can neither completely prevail nor yet be understood, the result is a conflict that cripples all further advance. But with this question, namely the understand¬ing of the collective unconscious, we come to a formidable diffi¬culty which I have made the theme of my next chapter.

假如发生这种状况,无法被克服的阻碍本来会被移除的。因此,我将平衡的丧失视为是具有目的的。因为平衡的丧失取代具有缺点的意识,被无意识的自动与本能的活动取代。无意识的自动与本能的活动目标始终是朝向创造新的平衡。而且,将会获得这个目标,只要意识的心灵能够吸收无意识产生的内容。譬如,理解与消化它们的内容。假如无意识仅是霸凌意识的心灵,那将会显示精神病的状况。假如无意识既不是完全地占优势,也无法被理解,结果将是一场冲突,瘫痪所有的前进的发展。但是,就这个问题而言,也就是,对于集体无意识的理解,我们逐渐遭遇巨大的困难。我已经订好我下次的章节的主题。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: