243 In this chapter we come to a problem which, if overlooked, is
liable to cause the greatest confusion. It will be remembered that in the analysis of the personal unconscious the first things to be added to consciousness are the personal contents, and I sug¬gested that these contents, which have been repressed but are capable of becoming conscious, should be called the personal un¬conscious. I also showed that to annex the deeper layers of the unconscious, which I have called the collective unconscious) pro¬duces an enlargement of the personality leading to the state of inflation. This state is reached by simply continuing the analyti¬cal work, as in the case of the young woman discussed above. By continuing the analysis we add to the personal consciousness cer¬tain fundamental, general, and impersonal characteristics of hu¬manity, thereby bringing about the inflation1 I have just de-
1 Th’is phenomenon, which results from the extension of consciousness, is in no sense specific to analytical treatment. It occurs whenever people are overpowered by knowledge or by some new realization. “Knowledge puffeth up,” Paul writes to the Corinthians, for the new knowledge had turned the heads of many, as in¬deed constantly happens. The inflation has nothing to do with the kind of knowledge, but simply and solely with the fact that any new knowledge can so seize hold of a weak head that he no longer sees and hears anything else. He is hypnotized by it, and instantly believes he has solved the riddle of the universe. But that is equivalent to almighty self-conceit. This process is such a general reaction that, in Genesis 2:17, eating of the tree of knowledge is represented as a deadly sin. It may not be immediately apparent why greater consciousness fol¬lowed by self-conceit should be such a dangerous thing. Genesis represents the act of becoming conscious as a taboo infringement. as though knowledge meant that a sacrosanct barrier had been impiously overstepped. I think that Genesis is right in so far as every step towards greater consciousness is a kind of Prome¬thean guilt: through knowledge, the gods are as it were robbed of their fire, that is, something that was the property of the unconscious powers is torn out of its natural context and subordinated to the whims of the conscious mind. The

THE PERSONA AS A SEGMENT OF THE COLLECTIVE PSYCHE scribed, which might be regarded as one of the unpleasant con¬sequences of becoming fully conscious.


244 From this point of view the conscious personality is a more or
less arbitrary segment of the collective psyche. It consists in a sum of psychic facts that are felt to be personal. The attribute “personal” means: pertaining exclusively to this particular per¬son. A consciousness that is purely personal stresses its proprie¬tary and original right to its contents with a certain anxiety, and in this way seeks to create a whole. But all those contents that refuse to fit into this whole are either overlooked and forgotten or repressed and denied. This is one way of educating oneself, but it is too arbitrary and too much of a violation. Far too much of our common humanity has to be sacrificed in the interests of an ideal image into which one tries to mould oneself. Hence these purely “personal” people are always very sensitive, for something may easily happen that will bring into consciousness an unwelcome portion of their real (“individual”) character.


245 This arbitrary segment of collective psyche-often fashioned
with considerable pains-I have called the persona. The term persona is really a very appropriate expression for this, for origi¬nally it meant the mask once worn by actors to indicate the role they played. If we endeavour to draw a precise distinction be¬tween what psychic material should be considered personal, and what impersonal, we soon find ourselves in the greatest di• lemma, for by definition we have to say of the persona’s contents what we have said of the impersonal unconscious, namely, that it is collective. It is only because the persona represents a more or less arbitrary and fortuitous segment of the collective psyche that we can make the mistake of regarding it in toto as some¬thing individual. It is, as its name implies, only a mask of the collective psyche, a mask that feigns individuality) making others and oneself believe that one is individual, whereas one is simply acting a role through which the collective psyche speaks.


an who has usurped the new knowledge suffers, however, a transformation or enlargement of consciousness, which no longer resembles that of his fellow men. He has raised himself above the human level of his age (“ye shall become like unto God”), but in so doing has alienated himself from humanity. The pain of this loneliness is the vengeance of the gods, for never again can he return to mankind. He is, as the myth says, chained to the lonely cliffs of the Caucasus, forsaken of God and man.

146 When we analyse the persona we strip off the mask, and dis-
cover that what seemed to be individual is at bottom collective; in other words, that the persona was only a mask of the collec¬tive psyche. Fundamentally the persona is nothing real: it is a compromise between individual and society as to what a man should appear to be. He takes a name, earns a title, exercises a function, he is this or that. In a certain sense all this is real, yet in relation to the essential individuality of the person concerned it is only a secondary reality, a compromise formation, in mak¬ing which others often have a greater share than he. The per¬sona is a semblance, a two-dimensional reality, to give it a nick¬name.


!47 It would be wrong to leave the matter as it stands without
at the same time recognizing that there is, after all, something individual in the peculiar choice and delineation of the persona, and that despite the exclusive identity of the ego-consciousness with the persona the unconscious self, one’s real individuality, is always present and makes itself felt indirectly if not directly. Although the ego-consciousness is at first identical with the per-sona-that compromise role in which we parade before the community-yet the unconscious self can never be repressed to the point of extinction. Its influence is chiefly manifest in the special nature of the contrasting and compensating contents of the unconscious.

这将是错误的,假如我们将事情保持目前的状态,而没有同时体认到, 毕竟还是有某件个人的东西,在人格面具的特殊选择与描绘里。尽管自我意识专门地认同于人格面具, 无意识的自性,也就是一个人的真实的个体性,总是出现,并且让它自己间接地被感觉到,虽然并不是直接被感觉到。虽然自我意识起初认同与人格面具—那个作为妥协的角色。以那个角色,我们展示在社会的面前。可是,无意识的自性永远没有办法被压抑到销声匿迹的程度。无意识的自性的影响主要被展示在这个特别的特性:无意识具有作为对照与补偿的内容。

The purely personal attitude of the conscious mind evokes reactions on the part of the unconscious, and these, together with personal repressions, contain the seeds of individ¬ual development in the guise of collective fantasies. Through the analysis of the personal unconscious, the conscious mind be¬comes suffused with collective material which brings with it the elements of individuality. I am well aware that this conclusion must be almost unintelligible to anyone not familiar with my views and technique, and particularly so to those who habitually regard the unconscious from the standpoint of Freudian theory. But if the reader will recall my example of the philosophy stu¬dent, he can form a rough idea of what I mean. At the beginning of the treatment the patient was quite unconscious of the fact that her relation to her father was a fixation, and that she was therefore seeking a man like her father, whom she could then meet with her intellect. This in itself would not have been a mistake if her intellect had not had that peculiarly protesting character such as is unfortunately often encountered in intellec¬tual women.


Such an intellect is always trying to point out mistakes in others; it is pre-eminently critical, with a dis¬agreeably personal undertone, yet it always wants to be consid¬ered objective. This invariably makes a man bad-tempered, par¬ticularly if, as so often happens, the criticism touches on some weak spot which, in the interests of fruitful discussion, were bet¬ter avoided. But far from wishing the discussion to be fruitful, it is the unfortunate peculiarity of this feminine intellect to seek out a man’s weak spots, fasten on them, and exasperate him. This is not usually a conscious aim, but rather has the uncon¬scious purpose of forcing a man into a superior position and thus making him an object of admiration. The man does not as a rule notice that he is having the role of the hero thrust upon him; he merely finds her taunts so odious that in future he will go a long way to avoid meeting the lady. In the end the only man who can stand her is the one who gives in at the start, and therefore has nothing wonderful about him.

248 My patient naturally found much to reflect upon in all this,
for she had no notion of the game she was playing. Moreover she still had to gain insight into the regular romance that had been enacted between her and her father ever since childhood. It would lead us too far to describe in detail how, from her earliest years, with unconscious sympathy, she had played upon the shadow-side of her father which her mother never saw, and how, far in advance of her years, she became her mother’s rival. All this came to light in the analysis of the personal unconscious. Since, if only for professional reasons, I could not allow myself to be irritated, I inevitably became the hero and father-lover.


The transference too consisted at first of contents from the personal unconscious. My role as a hero was just a sham, and so, as it turned me into the merest phantom, she was able to play her traditional role of the supremely wise, very grown-up, all-under¬standing mother-daughter-beloved-an empty role, a persona behind which her real and authentic being, her individual self, lay hidden. Indeed, to the extent that she at first completely identified herself with her role, she was altogether unconscious of her real self. She was still in her nebulous infantile world and had not yet discovered the real world at all. But as, through pro¬gressive analysis, she became conscious of the nature of her transference, the dreams I spoke of in Chapter I began to mate¬rialize.



They brought up bits of the collective unconscious, and that was the end of her infantile world and of all the heroics. She came to herself and to her own real potentialities. This is roughly the way things go in most cases, if the analysis is carried far enough. That the consciousness of her individuality should coincide exactly with the reactivation of an archaic god-image is not just an isolated coincidence, but a very frequent occurrence which, in my view, corresponds to an unconscious law.


19 After this digression, let us turn back to our earlier reflec-
)0 Once the personal repressions are lifted, the individuality
and the collective psyche begin to emerge in a coalescent state, thus releasing the hitherto repressed personal fantasies. The fan¬tasies and dreams which now appear assume a somewhat differ¬ent aspect. An infallible sign of collective images seems to be the appearance of the “cosmic” element, i.e., the images in the dream or fantasy are connected with cosmic qualities, such as temporal and spatial infinity, enormous speed and extension of movement, “astrological” associations, telluric, lunar, and solar analogies, changes in the proportions of the body, etc. The obvi¬ous occurrence of mythological and religious motifs in a dream also points to the activity of the collective unconscious. The col¬lective element is very often announced by peculiar symptoms,2 as for example by dreams where the dreamer is flying through space like a comet, or feels that he is the earth, or the sun, or a star; or else is of immense size, or dwarfishly small; or that he is dead, is in a strange place, is a stranger to himself, confused, mad, etc. Similarly, feelings of disorientation, of dizziness and the like, may appear along with symptoms of inflation.


)l The forces that burst out of the collective psyche have a con-
fusing and blinding effect. One result of the dissolution of the persona is a release of involuntary fantasy, which is apparently nothing else than the specific activity of the collective psyche. This activity throws up contents whose existence one had never suspected before. But as the influence of the collective unconscious increases, so the conscious mind loses its power of leader¬ship. Imperceptibly it becomes the led, while an unconscious and impersonal process gradually takes control. Thus, without noticing it, the conscious personality is pushed about like a fig¬ure on a chess-board by an invisible player. It is this player who decides the game of fate, not the conscious mind and its plans. This is how the resolution of the transference, apparently so im¬possible to the conscious mind, was brought about in my earlier example.


2 It may not be superfluous to note that collective elements in dreams are not restricted to this stage of the analytical treatment. There are many psychological situations in which the activity of the collective unconscious can come to the surface. But this is not the place to enlarge upon these conditions.


252 The plunge into this process becomes unavoidable whenever
the necessity arises of overcoming an apparently insuperable difficulty. It goes without saying that this necessity does not oc¬cur in every case of neurosis, since perhaps in the majority the prime consideration is only the removal of temporary difficulties of adaptation. Certainly severe cases cannot be cured without a far-reaching change of character or of attitude. In by far the greater number, adaptation to external reality demands so much work that inner adaptation to the collective unconscious cannot be considered for a very long time. But when this inner adapta¬tion becomes a problem, a strange, irresistible attraction pro¬ceeds from the unconscious and exerts a powerful influence on the conscious direction of life.


The predominance of uncon¬scious influences, together with the associated disintegration of the persona and the deposition of the conscious mind from power, constitute a state of psychic disequilibrium which, in analytical treatment, is artificially induced for the therapeutic purpose of resolving a difficulty that might block further devel¬opment. There are of course innumerable obstacles that can be overcome with good advice and a little moral support, aided by goodwill and understanding on the part of the patient. Excel¬lent curative results can be obtained in this way.


Cases are not uncommon where there is no need to breathe a word about the unconscious. But again, there are difficulties for which one can foresee no satisfactory solution. If in these cases the psychic equi¬librium is not already disturbed before treatment begins, it will certainly be upset during the analysis, and sometimes without any interference by the doctor. It often seems as though these patients had only been waiting to find a trustworthy person in order to give up and collapse. Such a loss of balance is similar in prinCIple to a psychotic disturbance; that is, it differs from the initial stages of mental illness only by the fact that it leads in the end to greater health, while the latter leads to yet greater destruction.

寻常见到的一些个案,根本就没有必要谈论到无意识。但是,仍然存在著一些困难,我们无法预见有任何令人满意的解决。假如在这些个案,心灵的平衡,并没有已经受到扰乱,在治疗开始之前。心灵的平衡确实将会被扰乱,在精神分析期间,并且有时没有医生的任何的干扰。它们经常看起来像是这些病人仅是正在等待找到一位可信任的人,为了放弃并崩溃。平衡的这种丧失,原则上,类似精神疾病。换句话说,它跟精神疾病的最初的阶段的差异,仅是根据这个事实: 平衡的丧失最后导致更大的健康。而精神疾病则是导致更大的毁灭。



It is a condition of panic, a letting go in face of appar¬ently hopeless complications.Mostly it was preceded by desper¬ate efforts to master the difficulty by force of will; then came the collapse, and the once guiding will crumbles completely. The energy thus freed disappears from consciousness and falls into the unconscious. As a matter of fact, it is at these moments that the first signs of unconscious activity appear. (I am thinking of the example of that young man who was weak in the head.) Obviously the energy that fell away from consciousness has acti¬vated the unconscious. The immediate result is a change of atti¬tude. One can easily imagine that a stronger head would have taken that vision of the stars as a healing apparition, and would have looked upon human suffering sub specie aeternitatis, in which case his senses would have been restored.3


53 Had this happened, an apparently insurmountable obstacle
would have been removed. Hence I regard the loss of balance as purposive, since it replaces a defective consciousness by the automatic and instinctive activity of the unconscious, which is aiming all the time at the creation of a new balance and will moreover achieve this aim, provided that the conscious mind is capable of assimilating the contents produced by the uncon¬scious, i.e., of understanding and digesting them. If the uncon¬scious simply rides roughshod over the conscious mind, a psy¬chotic condition develops. If it can neither completely prevail nor yet be understood, the result is a conflict that cripples all further advance. But with this question, namely the understand¬ing of the collective unconscious, we come to a formidable diffi¬culty which I have made the theme of my next chapter.



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