拉康与弗洛伊德的临床实践9

This fragment contains all the elements an analyst needs to diagnose a
pervert. Unlike neurotics, perverts have no difficulty charting their sexual
fantasies and seem to derive enjoyment from embarrassing, shocking or
exciting the analyst with their kinky and sleazy details. This is what
distinguishes them from the patients on whose stories Freud based his
account of the fantasy in ‘A Child is Being Beaten’, because Freud’s
patients expressed their masturbatory fantasies with hesitation, uncertainty,
resistance, shame and guilt (Freud 1919e:179).

这个片段包含所有的元素,精神分析家需要这些元素来诊断倒错症者。不像神经症者,倒错症者并没有任何可困难,来描绘出性的幻想,并且似乎获得快乐,从让精神分析家感到尴尬,惊吓或興奋,用他们的古怪而卑下的细节。这就是区别他们跟那些病人不同的地方。那些病人的故事,弗洛伊德将它们的基础定制幻见的描述里,在“小孩正在被打”。因为弗洛伊德的病人表的他们的手淫式的幻想,用犹豫,不确定,抗拒,羞愧,与罪恶感。

In addition, perverts do
not consult the analyst as a supposed subject of knowing, but as a supposed
subject of enjoying, which means that they assume her to be infatuated
with the same things as they themselves are, or desperately seeking the
satisfaction which the analytic profession does not allow and which they
themselves have on offer. As with everybody else, the pervert prompts the
analyst to let go of her restrictive code and to become an ally, or at least to
endorse the attractiveness of a life and law of enjoyment. Instead of
addressing the analyst as a supposed subject of knowing, perverts present
themselves as supposed subjects of knowing.

除外,倒错症者并没有就诊于精神分析家,作为是被认为是知道的主体。而是作为被认为是享乐的主体。这意味着,他们认为她是著迷于相同的事情,当他们自身正在或併命地寻求这个满足,精神分析的专业病没有容许的满足,他们自己必须提供追寻的满足。如何对应每一位其他的人,倒错症者激励精神分析家放开她的限制的符码,并且为了成为盟友,或至少认可享乐的生活与法则的吸引人。倒错症者并没有对著精神分析家谈论,作为是被认为的知道的主体。倒错症者呈现他们自己,作为被认为是知道的主体。

This perverse knowledge
concerns the pathways to enjoyment and they will try to convince the
analyst, whom they expect to be suffering from an obstinate reluctance to
follow these pathways, of their universal value as royal roads to happiness.60

这个倒错症的知识关系到通往享乐的这些途径。这些途径将会说服精神分析家。他们期望精神分析家遭受痛苦,因为他们顽固地不愿意遵循这些途径,他们让精神分析家相信他们的普世的价值,作为是通往快乐的捷径。

Still, these diagnostic indications provide analysts with little guidance as
to how they should conduct their clinical vehicle when the passenger happens
to be a pervert. In one of his scarce outpourings on the analysis of perverts,
and in sharp contrast to the patent complexity of the situation, Lacan
maintained that perversion ‘is indeed something articulate, interpretable,
analyzable, and on precisely the same level as neurosis’ (Lacan
1977a[1959]:16). Here he reiterated Freud’s conviction that ‘the positive
perversions [perversion proper] are also accessible to psychoanalytic therapy’
(Freud 1905d:232).

可是,这些诊断的暗示并没有供应精神分析家多少的引导,关于他们应该如何运用他们的临床的工具,当来客恰好是一位倒错症者。拉康在一次颇为罕见地发现对于倒错症者的精神分析,并且跟这个情境的专业的复杂性,成强烈对比。拉康主张,倒错症者确实是某件表达清楚,可以解释,可以分析,跟神经症者确实处于相同的层面。在此,拉康重复弗洛伊德的信念:正面的倒错症者(倒错症本体),也可以接受精神分析的治疗。

Freud based his assertion on the idea that the fixation
and regression to an infantile sexual tendency in the ‘positive perversions’
must also originate in a repression of mainstream sexual development,
consistent with the central psychic mechanism in the neuroses. In Lacan’s
reading of Freud this meant that perversion is rooted in the Oedipus complex
or, in his own terminology, that the perverse individual succumbs to symbolic
castration as much as the neurotic does, leading to the installation of divided
subjectivity (), desire, fantasy and (lost) jouissance. Such being the case,
Lacan’s point seemed to be that neurosis and perversion can indeed be
analysed on the same (Oedipal) level.61

弗洛伊德将他的主张,以这个观念为基础:在“正面的倒错症者”的婴孩的性的倾向的固著与退行,也必须起源于主流的性的发展的退行。这个主流的性的发展,跟神经症者的中心的心灵的心理机制互相一致。当拉康阅读弗洛伊德时,这意味着,倒错症根源于伊狄浦斯情结。或者,用他自己的术语来说,倒错症的个人屈从于象征的阉割,跟神经症者一样。这导致的安置是:分裂的主体,0,欲望,幻想,与丧失的欢爽。情况既然是这样,拉康的重点似乎是,神经症与倒错症确实能够被分析,在相同的伊狄浦斯情结。

Nonetheless, the inverted effect of the fantasy in perversion, formalized
as a ? , constitutes yet another major challenge for the analyst, because it
somehow mirrors the analyst’s own position as Lacan conceived it at the
end of the 1960s. For the discourse of the analyst which Lacan constructed
in Seminar XVII (1991a[1969–70]) also has the analyst operating as an
object a and the analysand functioning as a divided subject (, the analytic
effect of hysterisation), which implies that there is a remarkable ‘structural
analogy between the desire of the analyst and the desire of the pervert’
(Andre 1993:17).

可是,在倒错症的幻想的颠倒的影响,被成为正式,作为小客体a,它组成另外一个主要的挑战,对于精神分析家。因为它以某种方式反映出精神分析家自己的位置,依照拉康所构想它,在1960年代的末期。拉康在第17研讨班建构的精神分析家的辞说,也让精神分析家运作,作为一个小客体,而分析者则是充当分裂的主体的功能(让精神分析成为癔症的结果)。这暗示着,有一个明显的结构主义的类比,处于精神分析家的欲望与倒错症者的欲望之间的类比。

This formal congruence elicits at least two cardinal
questions. First, what prevents the analyst from being an institutionalized
pervert? How can we distinguish between the enduring dedication of the
analyst and the quintessential commitment of the pervert? And second,
assuming that there is a crucial difference between analysts and perverts,
how can analysts intervene effectively when their patients represent an
image of themselves? How can the non-perverse analyst work with a
singularly analytic pervert?

这个正式的协调,至少引来两个主要的问题:首先,是什么阻止精神分析家不要成为一个被体制制约的倒错症者?我们如何区别精神分析家持久的奉献,与倒错症者的本质的奉献?其次,当精神分析家假设,在精神分析家与倒错症者之间存在着重大的差异,精神分析家如何有效地介入,当他们的病人代表他们自己的一个意象?这位非-倒错症的精神分析家,如何能够处理一位具有独异性精神分析的倒错症者?

These clinical issues, alongside those emerging from the analysis of
neurotics and psychotics, will be elaborated in the following chapters of
this book, dealing respectively with the position of the Lacanian analyst
within the treatment, the strategies of transference handling and the tactics
of analytic interpretation.

这些临床的问题,伴随着从神经症者与精神病者的精神分析一块出现的问题,将会被建构,在本书的以下的章节。它们各别地处理拉康学派的精神分析家的立场,在治疗的内部,处理移情的策略,以及精神分析解释的技巧。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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