Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 96

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

156 That would be to create a permanent state of dissociation, a
split between the individual and the collective psyche. On the one side we should have the differentiated modern ego, and on the other a sort of negroid culture, a very primitive state of affairs. We should have, in fact, what actually exists-a veneer of civilization over a dark-skinned brute; and the cleavage would be clearly demonstrated before our eyes. But such a dissociation requires immediate synthesis and the development of what has remained undeveloped.

那将是要创造一个永久的解离的状态,个人与无意识心灵的分裂。在一方面,我们应该拥有差异化的现代的自我。另一方面,一种黑人的文化,一种原始的事物的状态。事实上,我们应该拥有实际上存在的东西—文明的装饰外表。盖在黑皮肤的野蛮人身上。这个分裂将会清楚地被展示在我们的眼前。但是,这样的解离要求当下的综合,以及发展那些始终没有被发展的东西。

There must be a union of the two parts; for, failing that, there is no doubt how the matter would be de¬cided: the primitive man would inevitably lapse back into re¬pression. But that union is possible only where a still valid and therefore living religion exists, which allows the primitive man adequate means of expression through a richly developed sym¬bolism. In other words, in its dogmas and rites, this religion must possess a mode of thinking and acting that harks back to the most primitive level. Such is the case in Catholicism, and this is its special advantage as well as its greatest danger.

这两个部分一定要有一个结合。因为,当结合失败时,无可置疑地,事情将会如何被决定:原始的人必然会倒退进入压抑。但是,那个结合是可能,仅有存在著依旧有效,因此具有活力的宗教的地方。这个宗教容下原始的人拥有足够的表达的工具,通过丰富发展的象征主义。换句话说,在宗教的教条与仪式里,宗教必须拥有一个思维与行为的模式。这些思想与行为回溯到最原始的层次。这就是天主教的情况。这就是天主教的特别的优势,以及它的最大的危险。

157 Before we go into this new question of a possible union, let
us return to the dream from which we started. This whole dis¬cussion has given us a wider understanding of the dream, and particularly of one essential part of it-the feeling of fear. This fear is a primitive dread of the contents of the collective uncon¬scious. As we have seen, the patient identifies herself with Mrs. X, thereby showing that she also has some relation to the myste¬rious artist. It proved that the doctor was identified with the artist, and further we saw that on the subjective level I became an image for the figure of the magician in the collective uncon¬scious.

在我们探讨可能的结合的这个新的问题之前,让我们回到我们开始谈论的这个梦。整个的讨论给予我们更加宽广地理解这个梦。特别是梦的一个重要的部分:恐惧的感觉。这个恐惧是原始人的恐惧集体无意识的内容。我们已经看出,病人自己认同X夫人。因此,病人显示,她也拥有某个关系,跟这个神秘的艺术家。这证明,医生被认同为艺术家。更进一步,我们看见,在主观的层次,我变成魔法师的人物的意象,在集体无意识里。

6 Cf. “Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious,” pars. 74ff.
97

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
All this is covered in the dream by the symbol of the crab, which walks backwards. The crab is the living content of the unconscious, and it cannot be exhausted or made ineffective by analysis on the objective level. We can, however, separate the mythological or collective psychic contents from the objects of consciousness, and consolidate them as psychological realities outside the individual psyche. Through the act of cognition we “posit” the reality of the archetypes, or, more precisely, we pos¬tulate the psychic existence of such contents on a cognitive basis. It must emphatically be stated that it is not just a question of cognitive contents, but of transubjective, largely autonomous psychic systems which on that account are only very condition-ally under the control of the conscious mind and for the most part escape it altogether.

所有这一切被涵盖在螃蟹的象征里, 螃蟹往后行走。螃蟹是无意识的活生生的内容。客观层次的精神分析无法穷尽它的涵义或让它没有效力。可是,我们能够分开神话或集体的心灵的内容,跟意识到客体,并且将它们团结,作为心灵的现实,外在于个人的心灵。通过认知的行动,我们“假设”原型的现实。或者,更加确实地说,我们假设这些内容具有心灵的存在,在认知的基础上。我们必须强调地陈述:问题并不仅是认知的内容,而是跨越主观性的内容,主要是具有自主权的心灵的系统。因为那个缘故,具有自主权的心灵的内容仅是有条件地受到意识心灵的控制。它们大部分也一块逃避意识心灵的控制。

So long as the collective unconscious and the individual psyche are coupled together without being differentiated, no progress can be made; or, to speak in terms of the dream, the boundary cannot be crossed. If, despite that, the dreamer makes ready to cross the border-line, the unconscious becomes acti-vated, seizes her, and holds her fast. The dream and its material characterize the collective unconscious partly as a lower animal that lives hidden in the depths of the water, and partly as a dan¬gerous disease that can be cured only by a timely operation. To what extent this characterization is apt has already been seen.

只要集体无意识与个人的心灵结合一块,没有被差异化,就没有任何的进展形成。或者,用梦的术语来说,这个边界无法被跨越。假如,尽管是那样,作梦者准备要跨越这个边界线,无意识变成被触动起来,捉住她,然后紧紧地抱着她。梦与梦的材料表现集体无意识的特性,部分是作为低等的动物,隐藏地生活在水的深处,部分作为危险的疾病,仅能够凭借及时的手术,才能够被治疗。这个特性合宜到什么程度,已经被看成。

As we have said, the animal symbol points specifically to the extra¬human, the transpersonal; for the contents of the collective un¬conscious are not only the residues of archaic, specifically human modes of functioning, but also the residues of functions from man’s animal ancestry, whose duration in time was infinitely greater than the relatively brief epoch of specifically human existence.

如同我们已经说过,动物的象征明确地指向特殊的人,这个跨越个人的人,集体无意识的内容的人,并不仅是过时的残留物。明确地说,它们不但是是人类的功能的模式,而且是从人的动物的祖先的残留物。祖先存在的时间的期间,比起明确是人类的存在的比较短暂的时代,无限地更加长久。

7 In his philosophical dissertation on Leibniz’s theory of the unconscious (Das Unbewusste bei Leibniz in Beziehung zu modernen Theorien), Canz has used the engram theory of R. W. Semon to explain the collective unconscious. The concept of the collective unconscious advanced by me coincides only at certain points with Semon’s concept of the phylogenetic mneme. Cf. Semon, Die Mneme als erhaltendes Prinzip im Wechsel des organischen Geschehens (1904); trans. by L. Simon as The Mneme.
98

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS

These residues, or “engrams,” as Semon calls them,7 are extremely liable, when activated, not only to retard the pace of development, but actually to force it into regression until the store of energy that activated the unconscious has been used up. But the energy becomes serviceable again by being brought into play through man’s conscious attitude towards the collective un¬conscious. The religions have established this cycle of energy in a concrete way by means of ritual communion with the gods.

这西残余物,或“记忆痕迹”,如同西门称呼它们。当它们被触动时,它们不但极端地容易迟缓发展的步调,而且实际上容易强迫发展进入倒退,直到触动无意识的能源的储存已经被耗尽。但是,能源变得再次可以服务,凭借被运作,通过人的意识的态度,朝向集体的无意识。宗教已经证实能源的这个循环,用具体的方式,凭借仪式跟众神沟通。

This method, however, is too much at variance with our intel¬lectual morality, and has moreover been too radically sup¬planted by Christianity, for us to accept it as an ideal, or even possible, solution of the problem. If on the other hand we take the figures of the unconscious as collective psychic phenomena or functions, this hypothesis in no way violates our intellectual conscience. It offers a rationally acceptable solution, and at the same time a possible method of effecting a settlement with the activated residues of our racial history. This settlement makes the crossing of previous boundaries altogether feasible and is therefore appropriately called the transcendent function. It is synonymous with progressive devc!opment towards a new atti¬tude.

可是,这个方法跟我们的知识点道德太过于背离。而且,这个方法已经被基督教强烈地取代。为了让我们接纳作为一种理想,或甚至是难题的可能的解决。假如另一方面,我们接纳无意识的人物,作为是集体的心灵的现象或功能,这个假设丝毫没有违背知识的良心。它提供理性能够接纳的解决,同时接纳一个可能的方法,跟我们的种族的历史的被触动的残渣达成妥协。这个妥协让先前的各个边界的跨越成为完全可行。并且因此合宜地被称为是“超验的功能”。它更朝向新的态度的进展的发展是同义词。

160 The parallel with the hero-myth is very striking. More often
than not the typical struggle of the hero with the monster (the unconscious content) takes place beside the water, perhaps at a ford. This is the case particularly in the Redskin myths with which Longfellow’s Hiawatha has made us familiar. In the deci¬sive battle the hero is, like] onah, invariably swallowed by the monster, as Frobenius has shown8 with a wealth of detail.

英雄神话的对比是非常有趣的。经常,英雄跟怪物的典型的奋斗(无意识的内容),发生在水的旁边,或许在渡口。在雷斯金的神话里,特别是这个情况。朗费罗的“希瓦萨”让我们对这个神话耳熟能详。在决定性的战斗里,像奥那这样的英雄,必然是被怪物吞没。如同弗洛边尼斯曾经用许多细节显示的。

But, once inside the monster, the hero begins to settle accounts with the creature in his own way, while it swims eastwards with him towards the rising sun. He cuts off a portion of the viscera, the heart for instance, or some essential organ by virtue of which the monster lives (i.e., the valuable energy that activates the uncon¬Kious). Thus he kills the monster, which then drifts to land, where the hero, new-born through the transcendent function (the “night sea journey,” as Frobenius calls it), steps forth, sometimes in the company of all those whom the monster has previously devoured. In this manner the normal state of things is restored, since the unconscious, robbed of its energy, no longer occupies the dominant position. Thus the myth graphi¬8 Frobenius, Das Zeitalter des Sonnengottes.
ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
cally describes the problem which also engages our patient.9

但是,一旦在怪物里面,英雄开始用他自己的方式,跟怪物达成妥协。当怪物带着它游泳朝向东边,朝向上升的太阳。他切割掉他的内脏的一部分,譬如,心脏。或某个基本的器官。凭借这个基本的器官,怪物活着( 也就是,触动无意识的宝贵的来源)。因此,他杀死怪物,这怪无因此漂浮到岸边。在那里,经由超验的功能,英雄重新诞生(‘夜晚的海洋之旅“如同弗洛边尼斯称呼它,)步走出来,有时被怪物先前吞没的那些人们伴随。以这种方式,事情的正常状态被恢复,因为无意识被剥夺掉它的能源,不再佔据优势的位置。因此,神话生动地描述也让我们的病人著迷的难题。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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