Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 96

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格


156 That would be to create a permanent state of dissociation, a
split between the individual and the collective psyche. On the one side we should have the differentiated modern ego, and on the other a sort of negroid culture, a very primitive state of affairs. We should have, in fact, what actually exists-a veneer of civilization over a dark-skinned brute; and the cleavage would be clearly demonstrated before our eyes. But such a dissociation requires immediate synthesis and the development of what has remained undeveloped.


There must be a union of the two parts; for, failing that, there is no doubt how the matter would be de¬cided: the primitive man would inevitably lapse back into re¬pression. But that union is possible only where a still valid and therefore living religion exists, which allows the primitive man adequate means of expression through a richly developed sym¬bolism. In other words, in its dogmas and rites, this religion must possess a mode of thinking and acting that harks back to the most primitive level. Such is the case in Catholicism, and this is its special advantage as well as its greatest danger.


157 Before we go into this new question of a possible union, let
us return to the dream from which we started. This whole dis¬cussion has given us a wider understanding of the dream, and particularly of one essential part of it-the feeling of fear. This fear is a primitive dread of the contents of the collective uncon¬scious. As we have seen, the patient identifies herself with Mrs. X, thereby showing that she also has some relation to the myste¬rious artist. It proved that the doctor was identified with the artist, and further we saw that on the subjective level I became an image for the figure of the magician in the collective uncon¬scious.


6 Cf. “Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious,” pars. 74ff.

All this is covered in the dream by the symbol of the crab, which walks backwards. The crab is the living content of the unconscious, and it cannot be exhausted or made ineffective by analysis on the objective level. We can, however, separate the mythological or collective psychic contents from the objects of consciousness, and consolidate them as psychological realities outside the individual psyche. Through the act of cognition we “posit” the reality of the archetypes, or, more precisely, we pos¬tulate the psychic existence of such contents on a cognitive basis. It must emphatically be stated that it is not just a question of cognitive contents, but of transubjective, largely autonomous psychic systems which on that account are only very condition-ally under the control of the conscious mind and for the most part escape it altogether.

所有这一切被涵盖在螃蟹的象征里, 螃蟹往后行走。螃蟹是无意识的活生生的内容。客观层次的精神分析无法穷尽它的涵义或让它没有效力。可是,我们能够分开神话或集体的心灵的内容,跟意识到客体,并且将它们团结,作为心灵的现实,外在于个人的心灵。通过认知的行动,我们“假设”原型的现实。或者,更加确实地说,我们假设这些内容具有心灵的存在,在认知的基础上。我们必须强调地陈述:问题并不仅是认知的内容,而是跨越主观性的内容,主要是具有自主权的心灵的系统。因为那个缘故,具有自主权的心灵的内容仅是有条件地受到意识心灵的控制。它们大部分也一块逃避意识心灵的控制。

So long as the collective unconscious and the individual psyche are coupled together without being differentiated, no progress can be made; or, to speak in terms of the dream, the boundary cannot be crossed. If, despite that, the dreamer makes ready to cross the border-line, the unconscious becomes acti-vated, seizes her, and holds her fast. The dream and its material characterize the collective unconscious partly as a lower animal that lives hidden in the depths of the water, and partly as a dan¬gerous disease that can be cured only by a timely operation. To what extent this characterization is apt has already been seen.


As we have said, the animal symbol points specifically to the extra¬human, the transpersonal; for the contents of the collective un¬conscious are not only the residues of archaic, specifically human modes of functioning, but also the residues of functions from man’s animal ancestry, whose duration in time was infinitely greater than the relatively brief epoch of specifically human existence.


7 In his philosophical dissertation on Leibniz’s theory of the unconscious (Das Unbewusste bei Leibniz in Beziehung zu modernen Theorien), Canz has used the engram theory of R. W. Semon to explain the collective unconscious. The concept of the collective unconscious advanced by me coincides only at certain points with Semon’s concept of the phylogenetic mneme. Cf. Semon, Die Mneme als erhaltendes Prinzip im Wechsel des organischen Geschehens (1904); trans. by L. Simon as The Mneme.


These residues, or “engrams,” as Semon calls them,7 are extremely liable, when activated, not only to retard the pace of development, but actually to force it into regression until the store of energy that activated the unconscious has been used up. But the energy becomes serviceable again by being brought into play through man’s conscious attitude towards the collective un¬conscious. The religions have established this cycle of energy in a concrete way by means of ritual communion with the gods.


This method, however, is too much at variance with our intel¬lectual morality, and has moreover been too radically sup¬planted by Christianity, for us to accept it as an ideal, or even possible, solution of the problem. If on the other hand we take the figures of the unconscious as collective psychic phenomena or functions, this hypothesis in no way violates our intellectual conscience. It offers a rationally acceptable solution, and at the same time a possible method of effecting a settlement with the activated residues of our racial history. This settlement makes the crossing of previous boundaries altogether feasible and is therefore appropriately called the transcendent function. It is synonymous with progressive devc!opment towards a new atti¬tude.


160 The parallel with the hero-myth is very striking. More often
than not the typical struggle of the hero with the monster (the unconscious content) takes place beside the water, perhaps at a ford. This is the case particularly in the Redskin myths with which Longfellow’s Hiawatha has made us familiar. In the deci¬sive battle the hero is, like] onah, invariably swallowed by the monster, as Frobenius has shown8 with a wealth of detail.


But, once inside the monster, the hero begins to settle accounts with the creature in his own way, while it swims eastwards with him towards the rising sun. He cuts off a portion of the viscera, the heart for instance, or some essential organ by virtue of which the monster lives (i.e., the valuable energy that activates the uncon¬Kious). Thus he kills the monster, which then drifts to land, where the hero, new-born through the transcendent function (the “night sea journey,” as Frobenius calls it), steps forth, sometimes in the company of all those whom the monster has previously devoured. In this manner the normal state of things is restored, since the unconscious, robbed of its energy, no longer occupies the dominant position. Thus the myth graphi¬8 Frobenius, Das Zeitalter des Sonnengottes.
cally describes the problem which also engages our patient.9

但是,一旦在怪物里面,英雄开始用他自己的方式,跟怪物达成妥协。当怪物带着它游泳朝向东边,朝向上升的太阳。他切割掉他的内脏的一部分,譬如,心脏。或某个基本的器官。凭借这个基本的器官,怪物活着( 也就是,触动无意识的宝贵的来源)。因此,他杀死怪物,这怪无因此漂浮到岸边。在那里,经由超验的功能,英雄重新诞生(‘夜晚的海洋之旅“如同弗洛边尼斯称呼它,)步走出来,有时被怪物先前吞没的那些人们伴随。以这种方式,事情的正常状态被恢复,因为无意识被剥夺掉它的能源,不再佔据优势的位置。因此,神话生动地描述也让我们的病人著迷的难题。


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