Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 92

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII
THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
第七章
集体无意识的原型

46 This remark throws an explanatory light on what has hap-
pened: I have taken the place of the friend. The friend has been overcome. The ice of the repression is broken and the patient has entered a new phase of life without knowing it. Now I know that all that was painful and bad in her relation with her friend will devolve upon me, as well as all the good, but it will be in violent conflict with the mysterious x which the patient has never been able to master. A new phase of the transference has started, although it does not as yet clearly reveal the nature of the x that has been projected upon me.
4
这个谈论对于曾经发生的事情,给予解释性的启明。我已经取代这位朋友。朋友已经被克服。压抑的冰已经破解,病人已经进入一个新的生命的时期,自己却不知道它。现在,我知道,所有的令人痛苦而不好的关系,在她跟她的朋友的关系,将会传递到我身上,以及那些美好的东西。但是它将会处于猛烈的冲突,跟这个神秘的x。病人从来没有掌控的x。移情的新的时期已经开始。虽然它尚没有清楚地显示已经被投射到我身上的这个x的特性。

7 One thing is certain: if the patient gets stuck in this form
of transference, the most troublesome misunderstandings lie ahead, for she will be bound to treat me as she treated her friend
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THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
-in other words, the x will be continually in the air giving rise to misunderstandings. It will inevitably turn out that she will see the demon in me, since she cannot accept it in herself. All insoluble conflicts come about in this fashion. And an insoluble conflict means bringing life to a standstill.

有一件事情是确定: 假如病人被卡陷在移情的这个形式,最麻烦的误解隐藏在前头。因为她将会被迫对待我,如同她对待她的朋友。换句话说,这个x将会继续出现在幻想里,产生误解。结果无可避免地将会是,她将会看见我身上的这个恶魔。因为她无法接受它,在她自己身上。所有无法被解救的冲突以这种方式发生。一个无法解决的冲突意味着,让生命停顿下来。

148 Or another possibility: the patient could use her old defence
mechanism against this new difficulty and could simply ignore the point of obscurity. That is to say, she could begin repressing again, instead of keeping things conscious, which is the necessary and obvious demand of the whole method. But nothing would be gained by this; on the contrary, the x now threatens from the unconscious, and that is far more unpleasant.

或许,另外一个可能是:病人能够使用她的防卫机制,来对抗新的困难,并且仅是忽略模糊暧昧的时刻。换句话说,她能够开始再次压抑。而不是让事情被意识到。这是整个方法的必要而且是明显的要求。但是,没有一样东西将会被这个方法获得。相反地,这个x现在威胁从无意识那里。那是更加令人不愉快。

149 Whenever such an unacceptable content appears, we must
consider carefully whether it is a personal quality at all. “Magi¬cian” and “demon” may well represent qualities whose very names make it instantly clear that these are not human and per¬sonal qualities but mythological ones. Magician and demon are mythological figures which express the unknown, “inhuman” feeling that swept over the patient. They are attributes not in any sense applicable to a human personality, although, as intui¬tive judgments not subjected to closer criticism, they are con¬stantly being projected upon our fellow men, to the very great detriment of human relations.

每当这样的无法被接受的内容出现,我们必须仔细考虑到,它是否是一个个人的特质。“魔法师”与“恶魔”很有可能代表那些名称当下清楚的特质。它们并不是人类与个人的特质,而是神话的特质。魔法师与恶魔是神话的人物。这些神话表达病人身上充裕的这个未知,“非人类”的感觉。它们作为并不是可以运用到人类的可能性的属性,虽然,作为直觉的判断,并没有隶属于更加仔细的批判。它们不断地被投射到我们的同胞身上,结果多人的关系产生严重的伤害。

15° These attributes always indicate that contents of the trans-
personal or collective unconscious are being projected. Personal memories cannot account for “demons,” or for “wicked magi¬cians,” although everyone has, of course, at one time or another heard or read of these things. We have all heard of rattlesnakes, but we do not call a lizard or a blindworm a rattlesnake and display the corresponding emotions merely because we have been startled by the rustling of a lizard or a blindworm. Simi¬larly, We do not call one of our fellows a demon unless there really is something demonic in his effect upon us.

这些属性总是指示著,移情或集体无意识的内容正在被投射。个人的记忆无法解释“恶魔”,或解释“邪恶的魔法师”。虽然每个人当然在某个时刻曾经听过或阅读过这些事情。我们大家都听过响尾蛇,但是我们并没有称蜥蜴或无脚蜥蜴,为响尾蛇,然若展示对应的情感,仅因为我们曾经被蜥蜴或无脚蜥蜴的沙沙声惊吓到。同样的,我们并没有称我们的其中一位同伴为恶魔,除非在他对于我们的影响,具有某件恶魔的东西。

But if this effect were truly a part of his personal character, it would show itself everywhere, and then the man would be a demon indeed, a Sort of werewolf. But that is mythology, i.e., collective psyche, and not individual psyche. In so far as through our unconscious We have a share in the historical collective psyche, we live natu¬r~lly and unconsciously in a world of werewolves, demons, magi¬Clans, ete., for these are things which all previous ages have in-
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ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
vested with tremendous affectivity. Equally we have a share in gods and devils, saviours and criminals; but it would be absurd to attribute these potentialities of the unconscious to ourselves personally. It is therefore absolutely essential to make the sharp¬est possible demarcation between the personal and the imper¬sonal attributes of the psyche.

但是,假如这个影响确实是他的人格的特质的部分,它将会到处显示它自己。然后,这个人将确实是恶魔,一种荒野之狼。但是,那是神话,也就是,集体无意识。我们参与历史的集体的心灵。我们自然地而且无意识地生活在荒野之狼,恶魔,与魔法师的世界。因为这些都是先前时代曾经带着强烈情感投注的事情。同样地,我们参与众神与恶魔,救赎者与罪犯。但是这将是荒谬的,假如我们将无意识的这些潜力归属于我们个人自己。这因此是绝对必要,尽可能地区别这个分界线,处于个人与非个人的心灵的属性。

This is not to deny the sometimes very formidable existence of the contents of the collective un¬conscious, but only to stress that, as contents of the collective psyche, they are opposed to and different from the individual psyche. Simple-minded folk have never, of course, separated these things from their individual consciousness, because the gods and demons were not regarded as psychic projections and hence as contents of the unconscious, but as self-evident reali¬ties. Only in the age of enlightenment did people discover that the gods did not really exist, but were simply projections. Thus the gods were disposed of. But the corresponding psychological function was by no means disposed of; it lapsed into the uncon¬scious, and men were thereupon poisoned by the surplus of li¬bido that had once been laid up in the cult of divine images.

这并不是要否认集体无意识的内容的这个有时是可怕的存在。而是要强调,作为集体心灵的内容,它们对立于,也不同于个人的心灵。当然,心灵单纯的人们从来没有将这些事情跟他们的个人的意识分开。因为众神与恶魔并没有被认为是心灵的投射,因此被认为是无意识的内容。而是作为不证自明的现实。仅有在启蒙的时代,人们才发现,众神并没有确实存在。而仅是投射。因此,众神被罢黜。但是对应的心灵的功能根本就没有被罢黜。它撤退进入无意识。人们因此被力比多的过剩所中毒。这个力比多曾经累积在各种神性意象的偶像崇拜里。
The devaluation and repression of so powerful a function as the religious function naturally have serious consequences for the psychology of the individual. The unconscious is prodigiously strengthened by this reflux of libido, and, through its archaic collective contents, begins to exercise a powerful influence on the conscious mind. The period of the Enlightenment closed, as we know, with the horrors of the French Revolution.

诸如宗教的功能这样强大的功能的被贬抑价值与压抑,当然会有严重的后果,对于个人的心灵。无意识因为这个力比多的重新流动而变得巨大地增强。通过它的古老的集体的内容,无意识开始运营强烈的影响力来,对于意识的心灵。我们知道,启蒙的时期结束,由于法国大革命的恐怖。
And at the present time, too, we are once more experiencing this uprising of the unconscious destructive forces of the collective psyche. The result has been mass-murder on an unparalleled scale.2 This is precisely what the unconscious was after. Its position had been immeasurably strengthened beforehand by the rationalism of modern life, which, by depreciating everything irrational, precipitated the function of the irrational into the unconscious.

目前也是,我们再次经验到无意识的这个动乱,集体心灵的毁灭性的力量。结果曾经是集体的杀害,以史无前例的规模。这确实是无意识追求的东西。它的立场事先曾经无法测量地被强化,被现代生活的理性主义。凭借贬抑每一样非理性的东西,理性主义将非理性的功能投掷进入无意识。

But once this function finds itself in the unconscious, it works unceasing havoc, like an incurable disease whose focus cannot be eradicated because it is invisible. Individual and nation alike are then compelled to live the irrational in their own lives, even devoting their loftiest ideals and their best wits to expressing its madness in the most perfect form. We see the same thing in 2 Written in 1916; superfluous to remark that it is still true today [1943]•
94

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS miniature in our patient, who fled from a course of life that seemed to her irrational-Mrs. X-only to act it out in patholog¬ical form, and with the greatest sacrifices, in her relations with her friend.

但是,一旦这个功能发现它自己处于无意识,它造成不停的破坏。就像是无法治疗的疾病的焦点,无法被抹除,因为它是看不见的。个人与国际同样都是被迫生活于非理性当中,在他们自己的生活里。他们甚至专注他们的崇高的理想与他们最好的机智,来表达它的疯狂,用最完美的形式。我们看见相同的事情,在我们病人的缩影里。她逃离生命的过程,那个过程她觉得是非理性的—X夫人。结果,她扮演这个非理性,用病态的方式,然后带着重大的牺性,在她跟朋友的关系。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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