Collected 7 集体无意识的原型 92

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格


46 This remark throws an explanatory light on what has hap-
pened: I have taken the place of the friend. The friend has been overcome. The ice of the repression is broken and the patient has entered a new phase of life without knowing it. Now I know that all that was painful and bad in her relation with her friend will devolve upon me, as well as all the good, but it will be in violent conflict with the mysterious x which the patient has never been able to master. A new phase of the transference has started, although it does not as yet clearly reveal the nature of the x that has been projected upon me.

7 One thing is certain: if the patient gets stuck in this form
of transference, the most troublesome misunderstandings lie ahead, for she will be bound to treat me as she treated her friend

-in other words, the x will be continually in the air giving rise to misunderstandings. It will inevitably turn out that she will see the demon in me, since she cannot accept it in herself. All insoluble conflicts come about in this fashion. And an insoluble conflict means bringing life to a standstill.

有一件事情是确定: 假如病人被卡陷在移情的这个形式,最麻烦的误解隐藏在前头。因为她将会被迫对待我,如同她对待她的朋友。换句话说,这个x将会继续出现在幻想里,产生误解。结果无可避免地将会是,她将会看见我身上的这个恶魔。因为她无法接受它,在她自己身上。所有无法被解救的冲突以这种方式发生。一个无法解决的冲突意味着,让生命停顿下来。

148 Or another possibility: the patient could use her old defence
mechanism against this new difficulty and could simply ignore the point of obscurity. That is to say, she could begin repressing again, instead of keeping things conscious, which is the necessary and obvious demand of the whole method. But nothing would be gained by this; on the contrary, the x now threatens from the unconscious, and that is far more unpleasant.


149 Whenever such an unacceptable content appears, we must
consider carefully whether it is a personal quality at all. “Magi¬cian” and “demon” may well represent qualities whose very names make it instantly clear that these are not human and per¬sonal qualities but mythological ones. Magician and demon are mythological figures which express the unknown, “inhuman” feeling that swept over the patient. They are attributes not in any sense applicable to a human personality, although, as intui¬tive judgments not subjected to closer criticism, they are con¬stantly being projected upon our fellow men, to the very great detriment of human relations.


15° These attributes always indicate that contents of the trans-
personal or collective unconscious are being projected. Personal memories cannot account for “demons,” or for “wicked magi¬cians,” although everyone has, of course, at one time or another heard or read of these things. We have all heard of rattlesnakes, but we do not call a lizard or a blindworm a rattlesnake and display the corresponding emotions merely because we have been startled by the rustling of a lizard or a blindworm. Simi¬larly, We do not call one of our fellows a demon unless there really is something demonic in his effect upon us.


But if this effect were truly a part of his personal character, it would show itself everywhere, and then the man would be a demon indeed, a Sort of werewolf. But that is mythology, i.e., collective psyche, and not individual psyche. In so far as through our unconscious We have a share in the historical collective psyche, we live natu¬r~lly and unconsciously in a world of werewolves, demons, magi¬Clans, ete., for these are things which all previous ages have in-

vested with tremendous affectivity. Equally we have a share in gods and devils, saviours and criminals; but it would be absurd to attribute these potentialities of the unconscious to ourselves personally. It is therefore absolutely essential to make the sharp¬est possible demarcation between the personal and the imper¬sonal attributes of the psyche.


This is not to deny the sometimes very formidable existence of the contents of the collective un¬conscious, but only to stress that, as contents of the collective psyche, they are opposed to and different from the individual psyche. Simple-minded folk have never, of course, separated these things from their individual consciousness, because the gods and demons were not regarded as psychic projections and hence as contents of the unconscious, but as self-evident reali¬ties. Only in the age of enlightenment did people discover that the gods did not really exist, but were simply projections. Thus the gods were disposed of. But the corresponding psychological function was by no means disposed of; it lapsed into the uncon¬scious, and men were thereupon poisoned by the surplus of li¬bido that had once been laid up in the cult of divine images.

The devaluation and repression of so powerful a function as the religious function naturally have serious consequences for the psychology of the individual. The unconscious is prodigiously strengthened by this reflux of libido, and, through its archaic collective contents, begins to exercise a powerful influence on the conscious mind. The period of the Enlightenment closed, as we know, with the horrors of the French Revolution.

And at the present time, too, we are once more experiencing this uprising of the unconscious destructive forces of the collective psyche. The result has been mass-murder on an unparalleled scale.2 This is precisely what the unconscious was after. Its position had been immeasurably strengthened beforehand by the rationalism of modern life, which, by depreciating everything irrational, precipitated the function of the irrational into the unconscious.


But once this function finds itself in the unconscious, it works unceasing havoc, like an incurable disease whose focus cannot be eradicated because it is invisible. Individual and nation alike are then compelled to live the irrational in their own lives, even devoting their loftiest ideals and their best wits to expressing its madness in the most perfect form. We see the same thing in 2 Written in 1916; superfluous to remark that it is still true today [1943]•

THE ARCHETYPES OF THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS miniature in our patient, who fled from a course of life that seemed to her irrational-Mrs. X-only to act it out in patholog¬ical form, and with the greatest sacrifices, in her relations with her friend.



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