Collected 7 个人无意识与集体无意识 75

Collected 7
V
The
Personal, and the Collective (OR TRANSPERSONAL) UNCONSCIOUS
个人无意识与集体无意识(或跨越个人无意识)

uS We mentioned earlier that the unconscious contains, as it
were, two layers: the personal and the collective. The personal layer ends at the earliest memories of infancy, but the collective layer comprises the pre-infantile period, that is, the residues of ancestral life. Whereas the memory-images of the personal un¬conscious are, as it were, filled out, because they are images per¬sonally experienced by the individual, the archetypes of the col¬lective unconscious are not filled out because they are forms not personally experienced. When, on the other hand, psychic en¬ergy regresses, going beyond even the period of early infancy, and breaks into the legacy of ancestral life, the mythological im¬ages are awakened: these are the archetypes.15 An interior spirit¬ual world whose existence we never suspected opens out and dis¬plays contents which seem to stand in sharpest contrast to all our former ideas.

我们早先提到,无意识包括所谓的两层:个人无意识与集体无意识。个人无意识的层面结束于婴孩的最早的记忆。但是集体无意识的层面包含前-婴孩时期。换句话说,祖先生活的残渣。虽然个人无意识的记忆意象会被所谓的填满,因为它们是个人被经验的意象,被个人经验。而集体无意识的原型并没有被填满,因为它们并不是个人经验的形式。当另一方面,心灵的能源退转,甚至退到超过早期婴孩的时期,并且闯入祖先生活的遗产。神话的意象被唤醒,这些都是原型。我们从来没有怀疑,我们拥有较低劣的精神的世界的存在。这个世界的存在现在展开,并且展示内容。这些内容跟我们以前的一切观念,处于明显的对照。

These images are so intense that it is quite under¬standable why millions of cultivated persons should be taken in by theosophy and anthroposophy. This happens simply because such modern gnostic systems meet the need for expressing and formulating the wordless occurrences going on within ourselves better than any of the existing forms of Christianity, not ex¬cepting Catholicism. The latter is certainly able to express, far more comprehensively than Protestantism, the facts in question through its dogma and ritual symbolism. But neither in the past nor in the present has even Catholicism attained anything like the richness of the old pagan symbolism, which is why this symbolism persisted far into Christianity and then gradually went underground, forming currents that, from the early Middle Ages to modern times, have never quite lost their vitality.

这些意象如此强烈,以致于这是相当可理解的,为什么好几百万具有文化素养的人们竟然被欺骗,被神智学与人智学所欺骗。这种事情发生,仅是因为这些现代诺斯教派的系统满足这个需求,表达与铨释这些无声的发生事件,在我们内部进行,胜过于基督教的现存的形式,天主教也不例外。天主教确实能够表达,比起基督教更加全面西,表达受到质疑的这些事实,经由它的教条与仪式的象征。但是,在过去与现在,甚至连天主教也没有获得任何像是古老异教徒的象征主义的丰富的东西。这就是为什么象征主义持续进入基督教,并且缓慢地潜入地下,形成一些潜流。从早期的中世纪的到现代,它们都没有完全丧失它们的精力。
15 The reader will note the admixture here of a new element in the idea of the archetypes, not previously mentioned. This admixture is not a piece of uninten¬tional obscurantism, but a deliberate extension of the archetype by means of the karmic factor, which is so very important in Indian philosophy. The karma aspect is essential to a deeper understanding of the nature of an archetype. Without entering here into a closer description of this factor, I would like at least to mention its existence. I have been severely attacked by critics for my idea of archetypes. I admit at once that it is a controversial idea and more than a little perplexing. But I have always wondered what sort of idea my critics would have used to characterize the empirical material in question.
77

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
To a large extent they vanished from the surface; but, changing their form, they come back again to compensate the one-sidedness of our conscious mind with its modern orientation.16 Our con¬sciousness is so saturated with Christianity, so utterly moulded by it, that the unconscious counter-position can discover no foot¬hold there, for the simple reason that it seems too much the antithesis of our ruling ideas. The more one-sidedly, rigidly, and absolutely the one position is held, the more aggressive, hostile, and incompatible will the other become, so that at first sight there would seem to be little prospect of reconciling the two. But once the conscious mind admits at least the relative validity of all human opinion, then the opposition loses something of its irreconcilable character. In the meantime the conflict casts round for appropriate expression in, for instance, the oriental religions-Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism. The syncretism of theosophy goes a long way towards meeting this need, and that explains its numerous successes.

有很大程度,它们从表面消失。但是,当它们改变它们的形式时,它们再次回来补偿我们的意识心灵的单边性,带着它的现代的定向。我们的意识是如此饱满著基督教,如此完全地被基督教塑造,以致于无意识的相反的立场无法在那里找到立足点。理由很简单,它是我们的统辖的各种观念的对立。这一个立场被採取越是单边性质,越是僵化与成为绝对化,另外一个立场就会变成更加的侵凌性,更加具有敌意,更加不和谐。所以,乍然一看,要将这两个立场调和似乎没有多大展望。但是,一旦意识的心灵至少承认所有人类的意见的相对地正确,那么,这个对立就丧失某件属于它的不可调和的特性的东西。同时,这个冲突投向四周,寻求适当的表达。譬如,东方的宗教–佛教,印度教,道教。神智学的融合有很大的进步,朝向满足这个需求,并且解释它的无数的成功。

19 The work involved in analytical treatment gives rise to ex-
periences of an archetypal nature which require to be expressed and shaped. Obviously this is not the only occasion for experi¬ences of such a kind; often they occur quite spontaneously, and by no means only in the case of “psychological-minded” people. I have heard the most curious dreams and visions from the lips of people whose mental sanity not even the professional psychol¬ogist could doubt. The experience of the archetype is frequently guarded as the closest personal secret, because it is felt to strike into the very core of one’s being. It is like a primordial experi-ence of the non-ego, of an interior opponent who throws down a challenge to the understanding.

在精神分析治疗时被牵涉到的工作产生具有原型特质的各种经验。这些经验要求被表达与被塑造。显而易见地,这并不是唯一的场合,表达诸如其类的各种经验。它们往往相当自动自发地发生。并且绝非仅是发生在“具有心理学的心灵”的人们的个案。我曾经听过最耐人寻味的梦境与幻境,从那些人们的嘴中。他们的精神的清醒,即使是专业的心理学家也无法怀疑。原型的经验经常被防卫著,作为是最密切的个人的秘密。因为它被感觉敲打进入我们的生命实存的这个核心。就像是一位自卑对手的非-自我的原始的经验。他抛出一个挑战,看看我们是否能够理解。

Naturally enough we then look round for helpful parallels, and it happens all too easily that the original occurrence is interpreted in terms of derivative ideas. A typical instance of this kind is the Trinity vision of Brother Nicholas of Fliie,17 or again, St. Ignatius’ vision of the snake with multiple eyes, which he interpreted first as a divine apparition and then as a visitation from the devil. Through these peri¬phrastic interpretations the authentic experience is replaced by images and words borrowed from a foreign source, and by views, ideas, and forms that have not grown on our soil and have no ties with our hearts, but only with our heads.

当然,我们因此四周观看,寻求帮助的并列。非常容易发生的事情是,原初的发生被解释,用延伸的观念的术语。属于这种的典型的例子,就是尼古拉兄弟的三位一体的幻景。或是圣 伊格那修斯的多重眼睛的蛇的幻景。他首先解释,作为是神性的魅影。因此作为是恶魔的拜访。通过这些累赘的解释,真诚的经验被取代,被从外国来源借用过来的意象与文字所取代,被一些观点,观念,与形式所取代。它们已经在我们的灵魂身上成长,并且跟我们的心没有关系,而仅是跟我们的头。
16 Cf. “ParaceIsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon” and Psychology and Alchemy.
17 Cf. “Brother Klaus,”
78

THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS

Indeed, not even our thought can clearly grasp them, because it never invented them. It is a case of stolen goods that bring no prosperity. Such substitutes make men shadowy and unreal; they put empty words in the place of living realities, and slip out of the painful tension of opposites into a wan, two-dimensional, phantasmal world where everything vital and creative withers and dies.

的确,即使是我们的思想也无法清楚地理解它们。因为我们的思想从来没有杜撰它们。这是一个偷窃的东西的状况,它们没有带来所有权。这样的替换让人们成为阴影,而且不真实。它们将空洞的话语替代活生生的关系。然若从对立力量的令人痛苦的紧张里,滑溜进入苍白,两个维度的幻影的世界,在那里,每样有生命与创造力的东西都枯萎,然后死去。

120 The wordless occurrences which are called forth by regression
to the pre-infantile period need no substitutes; they demand to be individually shaped in and by each man’s life and work. They are images sprung from the life, the joys and sorrows, of our ancestors; and to life they seek to return, not in experience only, but in deed. Because of their opposition to the conscious mind they cannot be translated straight into our world; hence a way must be found that can mediate between conscious and un¬conscious reality.

这个沉默的发生事情,被退转召唤到这个前-婴孩时期,这些事情并被需要替代品。它们要求被各别地塑造,在每个人都生活与工作里,也被它们所塑造。它们是一些意象从生活,快乐与悲伤里,诞生出来。从我们的祖先诞生出来。它们寻求回转到生命,不仅是在经验里。而是在行为里。因为它们跟意识心灵的的对立里,它们无法被直接翻译进入我们的世界。因此,必须找到一个方法能够作为中介,处于意识与无意识的现实。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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