Collected 7 态度与类型的难题8

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung

90 The problem for the adult is very different. He has put this
part of the road behind him with or without difficulty. He has cut loose from his parents, long since dead perhaps, and has sought and found the mother in the wife, or, in the case of a woman, the father in the husband. He has duly honoured his fathers and their institutions, has himself become a father, and, with all this in the past, has possibly come to realize that what

originally meant advancement and satisfaction has now become a boring mistake, part of the illusion of youth, upon which h looks back with mingled regret and envy, because nothing no> awaits him but old age and the end of all illusions. Here there are no more fathers and mothers; all the illusions he projected upon the world and upon things gradually come home to him jaded and way-worn. The energy streaming back from these manifold relationships falls into the unconscious and activate all the things he had neglected to develop.


91 In a young man, the instinctual forces tied up in the neurosi
give him, when released, buoyancy and hope and the chance tl extend the scope of his life. To the man in the second half of life, the development of the function of opposites lying dormant in the unconscious means a renewal; but this development no longer proceeds via the dissolution of infantile ties, the destruction of infantile illusions and the transference of old imagos te new figures: it proceeds via the problem of opposites.


92 The principle of opposition is, of course, fundamental eve I
in adolescence, and a psychological theory of the adolescen psyche is bound to recognize this fact. Hence the Freudian ani Adlerian viewpoints contradict each other only when they clain to be generally applicable theories. But so long as they are con tent to be technical, auxiliary concepts, they do not contradict or exclude one another. A psychological theory, if it is to h more than a technical makeshift, must base itself on the prin ciple of opposition; for without this it could only re-establish; neurotically unbalanced psyche. There is no balance, no systen of self-regulation, without opposition. The psyche is just such: self-regulating system.

93 If at this point we take up the thread we let fall earlier, WI
shall now see clearly why it is that the values which the individual lacks are to be found in the neurosis itself. At this point, too we can return to the case of the young woman and apply the insight we have gained. Let us suppose that this patient is “analysed,” i.e., she has, through the treatment, come to understand the nature of the unconscious thoughts lurking behind the symptoms, and has thus regained possession of the unconscious energy which constituted the strength of those symptoms. The question then arises:What to do with the so-called disposable energy?



question then arises: w

In accordance with the psychological type of the pa¬tient, it would be rational to transfer this energy to an object-to philanthropic work, for example, or some useful activity. With exceptionally energetic natures that are not afraid of wearing themselves to the bone, if need be, or with people who delight in the toil and moil of such activities, this way is possible, but mostly it is impossible.


For-do not forget-the libido, as this psychic energy is technically called, already possesses its object unconsciously, in the form of the young Italian or some equally real human substitute. In these circumstances a sublimation is as impossible as it is desirable, because the real object generally offers the energy a much better gradient than do the most ad¬mirable ethical activities. Unfortunately far too many of us talk about a man only as it would be desirable for him to be, never about the man as he really is. But the doctor has always to do with the real man, who remains obstinately himself until all sides of his reality are recognized. True education can only start from naked reality, not from a delusive ideal.


94 It is unhappily the case that no man can direct the so-called
disposable energy at will. It follows its own gradient. Indeed, it had already found that gradient even before we set the energy free from the unserviceable form to which it was linked. For we discover that the patient’s fantasies, previously occupied with the young Italian, have now transferred themselves to the doc¬tor.12 The doctor has himself become the object of the uncon¬scious libido. If the patient altogether refuses to recognize the fact of the transference,13 or if the doctor fails to understand it,
or interprets it falsely, vigorous resistances supervene, direct( towards making the relation with the doctor completely impc sible. Then the patient goes away and looks for another doctc or for someone who understands; or, if he gives up the searc he gets stuck in his problem.


12 Freud introduced the concept of transference as a designation for the projec¬tion of unconscious contents.
13 Contrary to certain views I am not of the opllllOn that the “transference to the doctor” is a regular phenomenon indispensable to the success of the treat¬ment. Transference is projection, and projection is either there or not there. But it is not necessary. In no sense can it be “made,” for by definition it springs from unconscious motivations. The doctor may be a suitable object for the projection, or he may not. There is absolutely no saying that he will in all circumstances correspond to the natural gradient of the patient’s libido; for it is quite on the cards that the libido is envisaging a much more important object for its projec¬tions. The absence of projections to the doctor may in fact considerably facilitate the treatment, because the real personal values can then come more clearly to the forefront.


95 If, however, the transference to the doctor takes place, and is
accepted, a natural form is found which supplants the earlier one and at the same time provides the energy with an outlet relatively free from conflict. Hence if the libido is allowed to run its natural course, it will find its own way to the destined object. Where this does not happen, it is always a question of wilful defiance of the laws of nature, or of some disturbing influence.


96 In the transference all kinds of infantile fantasies are pro
jected. They must be cauterized, i.e., resolved by reductive an< ysis, and this is generally known as "resolving the transference Thereby the energy is again released from an unserviceabe form, and again we are faced with the problem of its disposabiliity. Once more we shall put our trust in nature, hoping that even before it is sought, an object will have been chosen which will provide a favourable gradient.



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