Collected 7 态度与类型的难题8

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔荣格
IV
第四章
THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
态度-类型的难题

90 The problem for the adult is very different. He has put this
part of the road behind him with or without difficulty. He has cut loose from his parents, long since dead perhaps, and has sought and found the mother in the wife, or, in the case of a woman, the father in the husband. He has duly honoured his fathers and their institutions, has himself become a father, and, with all this in the past, has possibly come to realize that what
6(;’

THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
originally meant advancement and satisfaction has now become a boring mistake, part of the illusion of youth, upon which h looks back with mingled regret and envy, because nothing no> awaits him but old age and the end of all illusions. Here there are no more fathers and mothers; all the illusions he projected upon the world and upon things gradually come home to him jaded and way-worn. The energy streaming back from these manifold relationships falls into the unconscious and activate all the things he had neglected to develop.

对于成年人,这个难题非常不同。他将这个途径的部分留置身后,困难或不困难地。他跟他的父母隔离开来,他们或许死去很久。他尝试在妻子身上找到母亲。或者在女人的情况,在丈夫当中找到父亲。他恰如其分地尊崇他的祖先及其体制。他自己成为一位父亲。由于过去的一切经历,他可能逐渐体会到,原先意味着进步与满足的的东西,现在已经成为一个无聊的错误,青春痘幻觉的部分。他回顾青春的幻觉,悔恨与妒忌交加。因为没有任何东西等待他,除了老年,与所有的幻觉的结束。在此,不再有父亲与母亲。只是他投射在世界上的所有的幻觉,他投射在事物的所有的幻觉,逐渐让他醒悟,冷漠而疲累地。从这些多重的关系汹涌回来的能源,掉入无意识,并且触动所有他曾经忽略去发展的东西。

91 In a young man, the instinctual forces tied up in the neurosi
give him, when released, buoyancy and hope and the chance tl extend the scope of his life. To the man in the second half of life, the development of the function of opposites lying dormant in the unconscious means a renewal; but this development no longer proceeds via the dissolution of infantile ties, the destruction of infantile illusions and the transference of old imagos te new figures: it proceeds via the problem of opposites.

在年轻人身上,跟神经症息息相关的本能的力量,一旦被释放,给予欢喜与希望与机会,它们延伸到他生命的范围。对于这个人,生命的第二部分对立力量的功能的发展,潜藏在无意识里,那意味着更新。但是这个发展不再前进,凭借婴孩关系的瓦解,婴孩幻觉的毁灭与古老意象的移情到新的人物。它继续前进,经由对立力量的难题。

92 The principle of opposition is, of course, fundamental eve I
in adolescence, and a psychological theory of the adolescen psyche is bound to recognize this fact. Hence the Freudian ani Adlerian viewpoints contradict each other only when they clain to be generally applicable theories. But so long as they are con tent to be technical, auxiliary concepts, they do not contradict or exclude one another. A psychological theory, if it is to h more than a technical makeshift, must base itself on the prin ciple of opposition; for without this it could only re-establish; neurotically unbalanced psyche. There is no balance, no systen of self-regulation, without opposition. The psyche is just such: self-regulating system.

当然,对立力量的原则是基本的,即使是青少年身上。有关青少年的心灵的心理学的理论,一定会体认筹这个事实。因此,弗洛依德与阿德勒的观点,仅有在他们宣称是一般通用的理论里,才会互相牴触。但是只要他们满足于充当技术性的辅助的观念。它们并没有互相牴触与排除。心理学的理论,假如它想要成为不仅是技术性的权宜之计,它必须以对立力量的原则作为基础。凡是规范自己的平衡与系统,都会有对立力量。心灵就是这样一个规范自己的系统。
2
93 If at this point we take up the thread we let fall earlier, WI
shall now see clearly why it is that the values which the individual lacks are to be found in the neurosis itself. At this point, too we can return to the case of the young woman and apply the insight we have gained. Let us suppose that this patient is “analysed,” i.e., she has, through the treatment, come to understand the nature of the unconscious thoughts lurking behind the symptoms, and has thus regained possession of the unconscious energy which constituted the strength of those symptoms. The question then arises:What to do with the so-called disposable energy?

假如在这个时刻,我们从事这个脉络,我们早先掉落的脉络。我们想和清楚地看出,为什么个人欠缺的那些价值,能够在神经症里被找到。在这个时刻,我们也回到年轻女人的情况,并且运用我们已经获得的这个洞察力。让我们假设,这位病人是位“被分析者”。譬如,她经由这个治疗,她已经逐渐理解到,无意识的思想的特性,潜藏在症状里面。因此获得拥有这个无意识的能源,它们组成那些症状的力量。问题因此产生:要如何处理这个所谓的可废除的能源?

61

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
question then arises: w

In accordance with the psychological type of the pa¬tient, it would be rational to transfer this energy to an object-to philanthropic work, for example, or some useful activity. With exceptionally energetic natures that are not afraid of wearing themselves to the bone, if need be, or with people who delight in the toil and moil of such activities, this way is possible, but mostly it is impossible.

为了符合病人的心灵的类型,理性的做法是将这个能源转换到一个客体—譬如,转换到慈善的工作,或一些有用的活动。跟这些特殊的能源的天性,它们并不害怕让自己精疲力尽,假如有必要的话。或是,跟一些人们,他们很乐意于如此活动的劳苦疲累。这个途径是可能的,但是大部分,它是不可能。

For-do not forget-the libido, as this psychic energy is technically called, already possesses its object unconsciously, in the form of the young Italian or some equally real human substitute. In these circumstances a sublimation is as impossible as it is desirable, because the real object generally offers the energy a much better gradient than do the most ad¬mirable ethical activities. Unfortunately far too many of us talk about a man only as it would be desirable for him to be, never about the man as he really is. But the doctor has always to do with the real man, who remains obstinately himself until all sides of his reality are recognized. True education can only start from naked reality, not from a delusive ideal.

因为—请你们不要忘记—力比多,作为心灵的能源,是技术性的称谓,它已经无意识地拥有它的客体,以年轻义大利人的形状,或某个同样真实的人的替换。在这些情况里,升华是不可能的,也是被渴望的。因为真实的客体通常提供这个能源一个更佳的渐层,比起那些最令人赞赏的伦理的活动所提供的渐层。不幸地,我们太多的人们谈论到一个人,仅有当他被渴望成为永远不是他确实本质的那个人。但是,医生总是必须处理这个真实的人。这个真实的人始终固执地成为他自己,直到他的现实的各方面被体认出来。真实的教育仅能够从这个赤裸的教育开始,而不是从一个幻觉的理想开始。

94 It is unhappily the case that no man can direct the so-called
disposable energy at will. It follows its own gradient. Indeed, it had already found that gradient even before we set the energy free from the unserviceable form to which it was linked. For we discover that the patient’s fantasies, previously occupied with the young Italian, have now transferred themselves to the doc¬tor.12 The doctor has himself become the object of the uncon¬scious libido. If the patient altogether refuses to recognize the fact of the transference,13 or if the doctor fails to understand it,
or interprets it falsely, vigorous resistances supervene, direct( towards making the relation with the doctor completely impc sible. Then the patient goes away and looks for another doctc or for someone who understands; or, if he gives up the searc he gets stuck in his problem.

很不幸地,情况是,没有人任意地引导所谓的可废除的能源。这个能源遵循它自己的渐层。的确,这个能源已经找到那个渐层,即使我们让这个能源释放出来,从没有提供服务的形式,跟它息息相关的形式。因为,我们发现,病人的幻想,先前专注于年轻的义大利人,现在已经转移幻想自己到医生身上。医生他自己已经成为无意识的力比多的这个客体。假如病人完全拒绝体认移情的这个事实,或假如医生没有理解这个移情。或错误地解释它。强烈的抗拒就会介入,引导朝向让跟医生的关系变得不可能。因此,病人离开去寻找另外一位医生,或寻找某位理解的人,或假如他放弃这个寻找,他会卡陷在他的难题里。

12 Freud introduced the concept of transference as a designation for the projec¬tion of unconscious contents.
13 Contrary to certain views I am not of the opllllOn that the “transference to the doctor” is a regular phenomenon indispensable to the success of the treat¬ment. Transference is projection, and projection is either there or not there. But it is not necessary. In no sense can it be “made,” for by definition it springs from unconscious motivations. The doctor may be a suitable object for the projection, or he may not. There is absolutely no saying that he will in all circumstances correspond to the natural gradient of the patient’s libido; for it is quite on the cards that the libido is envisaging a much more important object for its projec¬tions. The absence of projections to the doctor may in fact considerably facilitate the treatment, because the real personal values can then come more clearly to the forefront.
62

TH

95 If, however, the transference to the doctor takes place, and is
accepted, a natural form is found which supplants the earlier one and at the same time provides the energy with an outlet relatively free from conflict. Hence if the libido is allowed to run its natural course, it will find its own way to the destined object. Where this does not happen, it is always a question of wilful defiance of the laws of nature, or of some disturbing influence.

可是,假如跟医生的移情确是发生,并且被接纳,一个自然的形式被找到。这个自然的形式替换早先的形式,同时供应能源一个发泄,比较免除冲突的发泄。因此,假如力比多被容许运行它的自然的途径,它将会找到它自己的途径,回到注定的客体。在这件事情没有发生的地方,它总是一个任性地挑衅自然法则的问题,或是挑衅某个令人困扰的影响的问题。

96 In the transference all kinds of infantile fantasies are pro
jected. They must be cauterized, i.e., resolved by reductive an< ysis, and this is generally known as "resolving the transference Thereby the energy is again released from an unserviceabe form, and again we are faced with the problem of its disposabiliity. Once more we shall put our trust in nature, hoping that even before it is sought, an object will have been chosen which will provide a favourable gradient.

在移情里,各色各样的婴孩的幻想被投射。这些幻想必须被瘫痪,譬如,用化简的精神分析予以解决。这通常是众所周知的“解决移情”。因此,能源再次被释放,从没有提供服务的形式。而且,我们面临能源可废除的这个难题。再一次,我们将我们的信任天性,希望在它被寻求之前,一个客体将会已经被选择。这个客体将会供应一个有利的渐层。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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