Collected 7 态度与类型的难题

The initiative of the extravert likewise held good for the other. Thus the attitude of the one includes the other, and this is always in some degree true if a person happens to be in the attitude natu-ral to him, for this attitude has some degree of collective adapta-tion. The same is true of the introvert’s attitude, although this always starts from the subject. It simply goes from subject to object, while the extravert’s attitude goes from object to subject.
Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔荣格
IV
第四章
THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
态度-类型的难题

But the moment when, in the case of the introvert, the ob-ject overpowers and attracts the subject, his attitude loses its so¬cial character. He forgets the presence of his friend, he no longer includes him, he becomes absorbed into the object and does not see how very bored his friend is. In the same way the extravert loses all consideration for the other as soon as his expectations are disappointed and he withdraws into subjectivity and moodi¬ness.

但是这个时刻,在内倾型的个案,这个客体压倒并且吸引主体。他的态度丧失它的社会的特性。他忘记他的朋友的存在,他不再包含他,他变得专注于这个客体,并且看不出,他的朋友多么无聊。同样地,外倾型的人丧失所有的对于别人的考虑。当他的期待感到失望。它撤退进入主体性与情绪化当中。

We can therefore formulate the occurrence as follows: in the introvert the influence of the object produces an inferior extra¬version, while in the extravert an inferior introversion takes the place of his social attitude. And so we come back to the proposi-tion from which we started: “The value of the one is the nega-tion of value for the other.”

我们因此能够阐述这个事件如下:在内倾型的人,客体的影响产生低劣的外倾型。而在外倾型的人,低劣的内倾型取代他的社会的态度。所以,我们回到这个命题。我们从那里开始的命题。前者的价值是后者的价值的否定。

Positive as well as negative occurrences can constellate the inferior counter-function. When this happens, sensitiveness ap-pears. Sensitiveness is a sure sign of the presenc~ of inferiority. This provides the psychological basis for discord and misunder¬standing, not only as between two people, but also in ourselves. The essence of the inferior functionll is autonomy: it is inde-pendent, it attacks, it fascinates and so spins us about that we are no longer masters of ourselves and can no longer rightly distin-guish between ourselves and others.

正面以及负面的发生事件都会汇集低劣的反向-功能。当发生这样的事情时,敏感性会出现。敏感性是低劣的存在的一个确定的迹象。这供应心理的基础,给杂乱与误解。不但作为两个人们之间,而且在我们自己之间。低劣的功能是自主权。自主权是独立,它攻击,它著迷人,它如此让我们旋转,以致于我们不再掌控我们自己。我们不再正确地区别我们自己跟别人。

And yet it is necessary for the development of character that we should allow the other side, the inferior function, to find expression. We cannot in the long run allow one part of our personality to be cared for symbiotically by another; for the mo-ment when we might have need of the other function may come

可是, 这是必要的,对于人格的发展,我们应该容许另外一面,较低劣的功能,找到表达。追根究底,我们无法容下我们的人格的一部分象征方面被另外一部分照顾。因为当我们本来就可能需要另外一个功能的来临。

58

87
88

THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
In extraversion and introversion it is clearly a matter of two antithetical, natural attitudes or trends, which Goethe once re¬ferred to as diastole and systole. They ought, in their harmoni¬ous alternation, to give life a rhythm, but it seems to require a high degree of art to achieve such a rhythm. Either one must do it quite unconsciously, so that the natural law is not disturbed by any conscious act, or one must be conscious in a much higher sense, to be capable of willing and carrying out the antithetical movements.

在外倾型与内倾型之间,这显而易见是两个对立的自然的态度或倾向的问题。歌德有一次提到一个心室扩张与心室收缩。在它们的和谐的轮替里,它们应该给予生命一个韵律。我们要就是完全无意识地这样做,这样,自然法则才不会被任何的意识的行动扰乱。要不就是,我们必须处于相当程度的意识,我们才能够愿意并且执行这个对立的运动。

Since we cannot develop backwards into animal un-consciousness, there remains only the more strenuous way for-wards into higher consciousness. Certainly that consciousness, which would enable us to live the great Yea and Nay of our own free will and purpose, is an altogether superhuman ideal. Still, it is a goal. Perhaps our present mentality only allows us con-sciously to will the Yea and to bear with the Nay. When that is the case, much is already achieved.

因为我们无法退行发展进入动物的无意识,仅剩馀的就是更加努力地向前发展,进入更高的意识。的确,那个意识将会让我们能够生活于这个伟大的“是”或“否”,出于我们自己的自由的意志与目的。这是一个完全超乎人类的理想。可是,它是一个目标。或许,我们目前的精神仅让我们能够意识地意愿这个“是”,然后忍受这个“否”。当情况是那样时,很多已经被完成。

The problem of opposites, as an inherent principle of hu-man nature, forms a further stage in our process of realization. As a rule it is one of the problems of maturity. The practical treatment of a patient will hardly ever begin “”with this problem, especially not in the case of young people.

作为是人类天性的与生俱来的原则,对立力量的难题形成更进一步的舞台,在我们实践的过程。通常,这是成熟的其中一个难题。病人的实际的治疗几乎还没有从这个难题开始。特别在年轻人们的个案,并没有。

TThe neuroses of the young generally come from a collision between the forces of re¬ality and an inadequate, infantile attitude, which from the causal point of view is characterized by an abnormal dependence on the real or imaginary parents, and from the teleological point of view by unrealizable fictions, plans, and aspirations. Here the reductive methods of Freud and Adler are entirely in place. But there are many neuroses which either appear only at maturity or else deteriorate to such a degree that the patients become inca-pable of work. Naturally one can point out in these cases that an unusual dependence on the parents existed even in youth, and that all kinds of infantile illusions were present; but all that did not prevent them from taking up a profession, from practising it successfully, from keeping up a marriage of sorts until that mo-ment in riper years when the previous attitude suddenly failed. In such cases it is of little help to make them conscious of their childhood fantasies, dependence on the parents, ete., although this is a necessary part of the procedure and often has a not un-favourable result.

年轻人们的个案通常来自这个冲突,处于现实的各种力量与不足够,婴孩般态度之间的冲突。从因果律的观点,这个态度的特征是不正常地依靠实在界或想像界的父母亲。从目的论的观点,其特征是无法被实践的幻想,计划,与渴望。在此,弗洛依德与阿德勒的化简的方法完全可以运用。但是有许多的神经症,他们要将是仅处于成熟状态,要不就是恶化到这个程度,病人变得无法工作。当然,我们能够指出,这些个案里,不寻常地依靠父母亲,甚至存在于在年轻时。各种各样的婴孩的幻觉出现,但是所有这一切并没有阻止他们不去从事专业,不去成功地执行这个专业,不去维持某种的婚姻,直到在更加成熟的这个时刻,当先前的态度突然失败。在这些情况,这是没有多大帮助,要让他们意识到他们的童年的幻想,依靠他们的父母,等等。虽然这是程序的必要的部分,并且经常拥有一个并非不利的结果。

59

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
But the real therapy only begins when the pa¬tient sees that it is no longer father and mother who are standing in his way, but himself-i.e., an unconscious part of his personal¬ity which carries on the role of father and mother. Even this realization, helpful as it is, is still negative; it simply says, “I realize that it is not father and mother who are against me, but I myself.” But who is it/in him that is against him? What is this mysterious part of his personality that hides under the father¬and mother-imagos, making him believe for years that the cause of his trouble must somehow have got into him from outside? This part is the counterpart of his conscious attitude, and it will leave him no peace and will continue to plague him until it has been accepted. For young people a liberation from the past may be enough: a beckoning future lies ahead, rich in possibilities. It is sufficient to break a few bonds; the life-urge will do the rest. But we are faced with another task in the case of people who have left a large part of their life behind them, for whom the future no longer beckons with marvellous possibilities, and nothing is to be expected but the endless round of familiar du¬ties and the doubtful pleasures of old age.

但是仅有当病人看见,阻碍他们的人并非是父亲或母亲,而是他们自己,真实的治疗才开始。他的人格的无意识的部分扮演父亲与母亲的角色。这个体会虽然是有帮助,它甚至依旧是负面的。它仅是说:「我体会到,反对我的人,并不是父亲与母亲,而是我自己。」但是在他身上是谁反对他?他的人格的的对立的这个神秘的部分,隐藏在父亲与母亲的意像之下,让他长年以来相信:他的困扰的原因一定是用某种方法从外面进入他?)这个部分是他的意识的态度的对立部分,它让他无法平静,并且将继续困扰他,直到它已经被接受。对于年轻人们,从过去解放出来可能就足够:一个召唤的未来在前头展望,充满各种的可能性。它足够打破一些约束。生命的渴望将会从事其余的工作。但是我们面临另外一个工作,在那些人们的个案。他们已经留下一大部分的他们的生命在背后。对于他们,前途不再召唤他们,用神奇的各种可能性。没有一样东西能够被期望,除了就是无穷尽的熟悉的责任的循环,与老年的可疑的欢乐。

89 If ever we succeed in liberating young people from the past,
we see that they always transfer the imagos of their parents to more suitable substitute figures. For instance, the feeling that clung to the mother now passes to the wife, and the father’s au¬thority passes to respected teachers and superiors or to institu¬tions. Although this is not a fundamental solution, it is yet a practical road which the normal man treads unconsciously and therefore with no notable inhibitions and resistances.

假如我成功地让年轻人们从过去解放出来,我们看见,他们总是转移他们的父母的意像,转移到更加合适的替换的人物。譬如,紧紧依附母亲的感觉,现在传依到妻子。转移父亲的权威到令人尊敬的老师与长辈,或转移到体制。虽然这并不是一个基本的解决,这是一个实际的途径,正常人们无意识地践踏着,因此没有显著的压抑与抗拒

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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