Collected 7 态度与类型的难题

The initiative of the extravert likewise held good for the other. Thus the attitude of the one includes the other, and this is always in some degree true if a person happens to be in the attitude natu-ral to him, for this attitude has some degree of collective adapta-tion. The same is true of the introvert’s attitude, although this always starts from the subject. It simply goes from subject to object, while the extravert’s attitude goes from object to subject.
Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung

But the moment when, in the case of the introvert, the ob-ject overpowers and attracts the subject, his attitude loses its so¬cial character. He forgets the presence of his friend, he no longer includes him, he becomes absorbed into the object and does not see how very bored his friend is. In the same way the extravert loses all consideration for the other as soon as his expectations are disappointed and he withdraws into subjectivity and moodi¬ness.


We can therefore formulate the occurrence as follows: in the introvert the influence of the object produces an inferior extra¬version, while in the extravert an inferior introversion takes the place of his social attitude. And so we come back to the proposi-tion from which we started: “The value of the one is the nega-tion of value for the other.”


Positive as well as negative occurrences can constellate the inferior counter-function. When this happens, sensitiveness ap-pears. Sensitiveness is a sure sign of the presenc~ of inferiority. This provides the psychological basis for discord and misunder¬standing, not only as between two people, but also in ourselves. The essence of the inferior functionll is autonomy: it is inde-pendent, it attacks, it fascinates and so spins us about that we are no longer masters of ourselves and can no longer rightly distin-guish between ourselves and others.


And yet it is necessary for the development of character that we should allow the other side, the inferior function, to find expression. We cannot in the long run allow one part of our personality to be cared for symbiotically by another; for the mo-ment when we might have need of the other function may come

可是, 这是必要的,对于人格的发展,我们应该容许另外一面,较低劣的功能,找到表达。追根究底,我们无法容下我们的人格的一部分象征方面被另外一部分照顾。因为当我们本来就可能需要另外一个功能的来临。



In extraversion and introversion it is clearly a matter of two antithetical, natural attitudes or trends, which Goethe once re¬ferred to as diastole and systole. They ought, in their harmoni¬ous alternation, to give life a rhythm, but it seems to require a high degree of art to achieve such a rhythm. Either one must do it quite unconsciously, so that the natural law is not disturbed by any conscious act, or one must be conscious in a much higher sense, to be capable of willing and carrying out the antithetical movements.


Since we cannot develop backwards into animal un-consciousness, there remains only the more strenuous way for-wards into higher consciousness. Certainly that consciousness, which would enable us to live the great Yea and Nay of our own free will and purpose, is an altogether superhuman ideal. Still, it is a goal. Perhaps our present mentality only allows us con-sciously to will the Yea and to bear with the Nay. When that is the case, much is already achieved.


The problem of opposites, as an inherent principle of hu-man nature, forms a further stage in our process of realization. As a rule it is one of the problems of maturity. The practical treatment of a patient will hardly ever begin “”with this problem, especially not in the case of young people.


TThe neuroses of the young generally come from a collision between the forces of re¬ality and an inadequate, infantile attitude, which from the causal point of view is characterized by an abnormal dependence on the real or imaginary parents, and from the teleological point of view by unrealizable fictions, plans, and aspirations. Here the reductive methods of Freud and Adler are entirely in place. But there are many neuroses which either appear only at maturity or else deteriorate to such a degree that the patients become inca-pable of work. Naturally one can point out in these cases that an unusual dependence on the parents existed even in youth, and that all kinds of infantile illusions were present; but all that did not prevent them from taking up a profession, from practising it successfully, from keeping up a marriage of sorts until that mo-ment in riper years when the previous attitude suddenly failed. In such cases it is of little help to make them conscious of their childhood fantasies, dependence on the parents, ete., although this is a necessary part of the procedure and often has a not un-favourable result.



But the real therapy only begins when the pa¬tient sees that it is no longer father and mother who are standing in his way, but himself-i.e., an unconscious part of his personal¬ity which carries on the role of father and mother. Even this realization, helpful as it is, is still negative; it simply says, “I realize that it is not father and mother who are against me, but I myself.” But who is it/in him that is against him? What is this mysterious part of his personality that hides under the father¬and mother-imagos, making him believe for years that the cause of his trouble must somehow have got into him from outside? This part is the counterpart of his conscious attitude, and it will leave him no peace and will continue to plague him until it has been accepted. For young people a liberation from the past may be enough: a beckoning future lies ahead, rich in possibilities. It is sufficient to break a few bonds; the life-urge will do the rest. But we are faced with another task in the case of people who have left a large part of their life behind them, for whom the future no longer beckons with marvellous possibilities, and nothing is to be expected but the endless round of familiar du¬ties and the doubtful pleasures of old age.


89 If ever we succeed in liberating young people from the past,
we see that they always transfer the imagos of their parents to more suitable substitute figures. For instance, the feeling that clung to the mother now passes to the wife, and the father’s au¬thority passes to respected teachers and superiors or to institu¬tions. Although this is not a fundamental solution, it is yet a practical road which the normal man treads unconsciously and therefore with no notable inhibitions and resistances.



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