Collected 7 态度与类型的难题 3

Collected 7
Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Carl Jung
卡尔荣格
IV
第四章
THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
态度-类型的难题

3 Cf. my essay “On Psychic Energy.”

47

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
72 We may allow that this view has a certain justification in so
far as man is at all capable of marking out a definite line along which his life has to go. But we know that there is no human foresight or wisdom that can prescribe direction to our life, ex¬cept for small stretches of the way. This is of course true only of the “ordinary” type of life, not of the “heroic” type. The latter kind also exists, though it is much rarer.

我们可能容许这个观点具有某种的理由,因为人能够标示一个明确的脉络。沿着这个脉络,他的生命必需前进。但是,我们知道,并没有什么人的远见或智慧能够指定方向给我们的生活。除了这个方式的微小的延伸。当然,这仅是就“普通种类的生活”而言,才是真实的,而不是“英雄式”的种类。后者也存在,虽然时期较晚。

Here we are certainly not entitled to say that no marked direction can be given to life, or only for short distances. The heroic style of life is absolute-that is, it is oriented by fateful decisions, and the decision to go in a certain direction holds, sometimes, to the bitter end. Ad¬mittedly the doctor has to do, in the main, only with human beings, seldom with voluntary heroes, and then they are mostly of a type whose surface heroism is an infantile defiance of a fate greater than they, or else a pomposity meant to cover up some touchy inferiority. In this overpoweringly humdrum existence, alas, there is little out of the ordinary that is healthy, and not much room for conspicuous heroism.

在此,我们确实并没有资格说,没有明显的方向能够被给予生活。或仅是给予短的距离。英雄式的生活方式是绝对的,换句话说,英雄式的生活方式被命运的决定所定向。要朝着某个方向前去的决定,有时紧捉住痛苦的结果。大体上,虽然医生仅是必须处理人类,很少处理自愿的英雄。因此,他们大部分是属于那一种英雄式生活方式。他的表妹的英雄主义是婴孩般挑衅,比起他们更强大的命运。要不然,被用来掩盖某些敏锐的自卑的堂皇行为,在这个过份沉闷的生存,没有留下多少空间给显著的英雄主义。

Not that heroic demands are never put to us: on the contrary-and this is just what is so irritating and irksome-the banal everyday makes banal de-mands upon our patience, our devotion, perseverance, self¬sacrifice; and for us to fulfil these demands (as we must) humbly and without courting applause through heroic gestures, a hero¬ism is needed that cannot be seen from the outside.

倒不是因为英雄的要求从来没有跟我们提出。相反地,这恰恰是如此令人愤怒与懊恼的东西。日常生活的陈腐对于我们的耐心,忠诚,毅力,自我牺牲,提出陈腐的要求。为了谦卑地让我们实践这些要求,(如同我们必须),而不是通过英雄式的姿态获取赞美,英雄主义是被需要的,它并不是从外在来观看。

It does not glitter, is not belauded, and it always seeks concealment in ev-eryday attire. These are the demands which, if not fulfilled, are the cause of neurosis. In order to evade them, many a man has dared the great decision of his life and carried it through, even if in the common human estimation it was a great error. Before a fate such as this one can only bow one’s head. But, as I say, such cases are rare; the others are in the vast majority. For them the direction of their life is not a simple, straight line; fate confronts them like an intricate labyrinth, all too rich in possibilities, and yet of these many possibilities only one is their own right way.

这种英雄主义并不闪闪发光,它并不是被赞赏,它总是寻求隐藏,在日常生活的态度里。这些要求假如没有被满足,它们会是神经症的原因。为了逃避它们,许多人们曾经大胆做他的生命的伟大决定,并且贯彻到底。即使在共同的人类的评估里,它是重大的错误。在命运之前,像这样的英雄式行为可能仅是让自己头脑疯掉。但是,如同我所说,这些情况很少见。其余的生活方式则是大多数。对于他们,他们的生活的方向并不是一个简单,直线的生活。他们面临这个命运,就像是复杂的迷宫。往往充满各种可能性。可是,这许多的可能性,仅有一个可能是他们自己的直接到方式。

Who would presume-even though armed with the completest knowledge of his own character-to designate in advance that single possibility? Much indeed can be attained by the will, but, in view of the fate of certain markedly strong-willed personali¬ties, it is a fundamental error to try to subject our own fate at all costs to our will. Our will is a function regulated by reflection; hence it is dependent on the quality of that reflection.

有谁将会大胆地事先指明那个单一的可能性?即使他装备著完整的知识,对于他自己的性格。的确,很多东西能够被获得,凭借这个意志。但是从某个明显强烈意志的人物的命运的观点,这基本上是错误的,假如他尝试将我们自己的命运不计任何代价隶属于我们的意志。我们的意志是一个受到反思规范的功能,因此,它依靠那个反思的品质。,

48

THE PROBLEM OF THE ATTITUDE-TYPE
This, if it really is reflection, is supposed to be rational, i.e., in accord with reason. But has it ever been shown, or will it ever be, that life and fate are in accord with reason, that they too are rational? We have on the contrary good grounds for supposing that they are irrational, or rather that in the last resort they are grounded beyond human reason.
假如我们的意志确实就是反思,这被认为是理性,也就是说,符合理性。但是生命与命运符合理想,生命与命运是理性,曾经这样显示,或将会这样显示吗?相反地,我们拥有充分的理由假设,生命与命运是非理性,或者说,追根究底,生命与命运的基础上超越人类的理性。
The irrationality of events is shown in what we call chance, which we are obviously compelled to deny because we cannot in principle think of any process that is not causal and necessary, whence it follows that it cannot happen by chance.4 In practice, however, chance reigns everywhere, and so obtrusively that we might as well put our causal philosophy in our pocket.

事件的非理性被显示出来,在我们所谓的偶然性。我们显而易见地被迫否认这个偶然性,因为我们原则上无法想到任何并非因果律与必然性的过程。因此,我们推论,事件无法偶然地发生。可是,实际上,偶然性到处统辖,如此没有遮拦,以致我们很有理由将我们的因果律哲学束放口袋。

The plenitude of life is governed by law and yet not governed by law, rational and yet irrational. Hence reason and the will that,is grounded in reason are valid only up to a point. The further we go in the direction selected by reason, the surer we may be that we are excluding the irrational possibilities of life which have just as much right to be lived.

生活的丰富受到法则的统辖,可是又没有受到法则的统辖,既是理性,又是非理性。因此,理性与以理性为基础的意志是正确的,仅有到某个程度。我们越深朝着理性选择的方向前进,我们可能越是确定,我们正在排除生命的非理性的可能性。生命的非理性的可能性拥有同样的权利要生活。

It was indeed highly expedient for man to become somewhat more capable of directing his life. It may justly be maintained that the acquisi¬tion of reason is the greatest achievement of humanity; but that is not to say that things must or will always continue in that direction. The frightful catastrophe of the first World War drew a very thick line through the calculations of even the most opti¬mistic rationalizers of culture. In 1913, Wilhelm Ostwald wrote:

这确实是高度权宜之计,让人变得更加能够引导他自己的生命。同样道理,有人主张,理性的获得就是人类的最大的成就。但是那并不是说,事情必须或总是继续朝着那个方向。第一次世界大战的可怕的灾难非常不可能发生,经过即使是文化里最乐观的理性论者的估算。在1913年,维廉 奥斯陆写著:

4 Modern physics has put an _ end to this strict causality. Now there is only “statistical probability.” As far back as ‘9,6, I had pointed out the limitations of the causal view in psychology, for which I was heavily censured at the time. See my preface to the second edition of Collected Papers on Analytical Psychol¬ogy, in Freud and Psychoanalysis, pp. 293ff.
49

The whole world is agreed that the present state of armed peace is untenable and is gradually becoming impossible. It demands tremen¬dous sacrifices from each single nation, far exceeding the expendi¬ture for cultural purposes, yet without securing any positive values.

整个的世界都同意,目前的武装和平的状态是无法自圆其说的,并且逐渐变得不可能。它要求巨大的牺牲,从每一个单一的国家。远超过作为文化的目的的耗费,可是,又没有获得任何正面的价值。
If mankind could discover ways and means for doing away with these preparations for wars which never take place, together with the immobilization of a large part of the nation’s manhood, at the age of maximum strength and efficiency, for the furtherance of war¬like aims, and all the other innumerable evils which the present state of affairs creates, such an immense economy of energy would be effected that from this moment onwards we could look forward to a blossoming of culture hitherto undreamed of. For war, like per¬sonal combat, although the oldest of all possible means of settling contests of will, is on that very account the most inept, and entails the most grievous waste of energy. Hence the complete abolition of warfare, potential no less than actual, is the categorical imperative of efficiency and one of the supremely important cultural tasks of our day.5

假如人类能够找到方法与工具,来废除这些永远不会发生的战争的准备,,以及国家的男人的大部分的动员,在力量与效率极胜的时代。为了提升像战争一样的目的。目前的事情的状态所创造的所有的无数的其他的邪恶,如此巨大的能源的经济将会被形成,以致从那个时刻开始,我们能够期望一个迄今从未被梦想的文化的興盛繁荣。因为,战争,就像个人的争斗一样,虽然是最古老的工具,用来解决意志的争执,却是最拙劣,最令人痛恨的能源的浪费。因此,战争的完全的废除,具有潜在可能,也合乎实际,是效率的范畴的命令,并且是我们当代的任重道远的文化的工作。

73 The irrationality of fate, however, did not concur with the
rationality of well-meaning thinkers; it ordained not only the destruction of the accumulated arms and armies, but, far beyond that, a mad and monstrous devastation, a mass murder without parallel-from which humanity may possibly draw the conclu¬sion that only one side of fate can be mastered with rational intentions.

可是,命运的非理性,并没有同时发生,以符合善意的思想家的理想。它不但支使被累积的武器与军队的毁灭,而且,远超过那样,它支使一个疯狂而怪诞的摧毁,一个史无前例的集体的谋杀。从那里,人类可能获得这个结论:使用理性的意图,仅能掌控命运的一边。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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