Analytical Psychology

Analytical Psychology
分析心理学
Karl Jung
卡尔 荣格
III
THE OTHER POINT OF VIEW:
THE WILL TO POWER

另外一个观点:
权力意志

35 So far we have considered the problem of this new psychology essentially from the Freudian point of view. Undoubtedly it has shown us a very real truth to which our pride, our civilized con¬sciousness, may say no, though something else in us says yes. Many people find this fact extremely irritating; it arouses their hostility or even their fear, and consequently they are unwilling to recognize the conflict.

迄今,我们考虑过新的心理学的这个难题,基本上从弗洛依德的观点。无可置疑地,它跟我们显示一个非常真实的真理。对于这个真理,我们的尊严,我们的文明的意识可能会否认,虽然我们身上的某件其他东西会承认。许多人们发现这个事实极端令人愤怒。它引起他们的敌意或甚至他们的恐惧。结果,他们不愿意承认这个冲突。

And indeed it is a frightening thought that man also has a shadow-side to him, consisting not just of little weaknesses and foibles, but of a positively demonic dyna¬mism. The individual seldom knows anything of this; to him, as an individual, it is incredible that he should ever in any circum¬stances go beyond himself. But let these harmless creatures form a mass, and there emerges a raging monster; and each individual is only one tiny cell in the monster’s body, so that for better or worse he must accompany it on its bloody rampages and even assist it to the utmost. Having a dark suspicion of these grim possibilities, man turns a blind eye to the shadow-side of human nature.

的确,这是一个令人害怕的想法,人也拥有属于他的阴影面向,主要的组成不仅是小小弱点或缺点。而是属于强烈的恶魔的动力结构。个人很少会知道任何有关这件事。作为一位个人,匪夷所思地,他竟然会有情况超越自己的控制。但是假如让这些无害的动物成群结队,就会出现暴虐的怪物。每个个人在怪物的身体里,仅是一个小小的细胞。无论好坏,他必须伴随它,依靠它的流血的暴力行为。甚至帮助它充分发挥。因为人对于这些冷酷的可能性拥有黑暗的怀疑,他对于人类天性的阴影的一面视而不见。

Blindly he strives against the salutary dogma of original sin, which is yet so prodigiously true. Yes, he even hesitates to admit the conflict of which he is so painfully aware. It can read¬ily be understood that a school of psychology-even if it be biased and exaggerated in this or that respect-which insists on the seamy side, is unwelcome, not to say frightening, because it forces us to gaze into the bottomless abyss of this problem.

盲目地,他奋斗对抗原罪的这个令人敬畏的教条。可是这个教条又是千真万确地真实。是对,他甚至犹豫地承认,原罪教条的冲突,他如此痛苦地知道。我们就迅速地理解到,一个心理学的学派,即使它在某个方面具有偏见与夸张,它坚持这个污秽的一面。这种心理学派是不受欢迎,估且不说令人害怕。因为它强迫我们正视这个难题的无底的深渊。

A dim premonition tells us that we cannot be whole without this negative side, that we have a body which, like all bodies, casts a shadow, and that if we deny this body we cease to be three¬dimensional and become flat and without substance. Yet this body is a beast with a beast’s soul, an organism that gives un¬questioning obedience to instinct. To unite oneself with this

THE OTHER POINT OF VIEW: THE WILL TO POWER
shadow is to say yes to instinct, to that formidable dynamism lurking in the background. From this the ascetic morality of Christianity wishes to free us, but at the risk of disorganizing man’s animal nature at the deepest level.

一个模糊的预警告诉我们,假如没有这个负面的面向,我们无法成为整体。我们拥有一个身体,就向所有的身体一样,我们的身体投射一个阴影。假如我们否认这个身体,我们就不再是三个维度,而变成平坦,没有物质。可是,这个身体是一个野兽,具有野兽的灵魂,一个有机体,给予毫无质疑的服从本能。为了统合自己,跟这个阴影,那就是要承认这个本能,承认那个巨大的动力结构潜伏在背景。从这个地方,基督教的禁欲的道德希望解放我们,但是冒的危险是:瓦解在最深层们的人的动物的天性。

36 Has anyone made clear to himself what that means-a yea-
saying to instinct? That was what N ietzsche desired and taught, and he was in deadly earnest. With a rare passion he sacrificed himself, his whole life, to the idea of the Superman-to the idea of the man who through obedience to instinct transcends him¬self. And what was the course of that life? It was as N ietzsche himself prophesied in Zarathustra) in that foreboding vision of the fatal fall of the rope-dancer, the man who would not be “sur¬passed.” To the dying rope-dancer Zarathustra says: “Thy soul will sooner be dead than thy body!” and later the dwarf says to Zarathustra, “0 Zarathustra, stone of wisdom! High thou fling¬est thyself, but every stone that is flung must fall! Condemned to thyself and to thine own stoning: 0 Zarathustra, far indeed thou flingest the stone-but upon thyself will it fall.” And when he cried his “Ecce Homo” over himself, again it was too late, as once before when this saying was uttered, and the crucifixion of the soul began before the body was dead.

是否曾经有人跟他自己表达清楚,承认本能存在意味着什么?那就是尼采欲望与教导的东西。尼采真诚得彻底。带着罕见的激情,他牺性他自己,他的整个的一生,奉献给超人的这个观念,奉献给人的这个观念:凭借服从于本能,人超越他自己。那个生命的途径是什么?如同尼采自己预言,在“扎拉特拉图斯如是说”。在那个空中走绳舞者的致命的掉落的恶兆预警里,他是不想要被“超越”的这个人。对于这位垂死的空中走绳舞者,扎拉特拉图斯说:「你的灵魂将会比你的身体还有快死掉!」后来,这位侏儒对扎拉特拉图斯说,「奥,扎拉特拉图斯,这位智慧之石,你将自己投掷向高空,但是每块被投掷的石头,都必然会掉落!因为它注定要成为自己,注定成为它自己的投掷:奥,扎拉特拉图斯,你确实将石头投掷很远,但是,石头将会掉落到你自己身上!」当他对着他自己,喊出“瞧!这个人!”时,再一次,为时已晚。如同先前一样,这个话语被表达出来。灵活被钉上十字架,早先开始于身体死亡之前。

37 We must look very critically at the life of one who taught
such a yea-saying, in order to examine the effects of this teaching on the teacher’s own life. When we scrutinize his life with this aim in view we are bound to admit that Nietzsche lived beyond instinct, in the lofty heights of heroic sublimity-heights that he could maintain only with the help of the most meticulous diet, a carefully selected climate, and many aids to sleep-until the ten¬sion shattered his brain. He talked of yea-saying and lived the nay. His loathing for man, for the human animal that lived by instinct, was too great. Despite everything, he could not swallow the toad he so often dreamed of and which he feared had to be swallowed. The roaring of the Zarathustrian lion drove back into the cavern of the unconscious all the “higher” men who were clamouring to live. Hence his life does not convince us of hi.s teaching. For the “higher” man wants to be able to sleep wIthout chloral, to live in Naumburg and Basel despite “fogs and shadows.” He desires wife and offspring, standing and es¬teem among the herd, innumerable commonplace realities, and not least those of the Philistine. Nietzsche failed to live this in-
31

ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
stinct, the animal urge to life. For all his greatness and impor¬tance, Nietzsche’s was a pathological personality.

我们必须批判地观看这个人的一生,他教导对于生命的肯定,为了检查这个教导对于老师自己的生命的影响。当我们审查他的一生,以这个目标作为观点。我们必然要承认,尼采生活超越本能,在崇高的高处,具有英雄式的崇高的高处。这样,他才能够维持,仅是凭借饮食极度讲究的帮助,仔细挑选的气候,还有很多的睡眠的辅助。直到这样的紧张让他的脑神经崩溃。他谈论到肯定生命,但是生活却否定生命。他对于人的厌恶,对于人类作为动物依靠本能而生活的厌恶。这个厌恶太过强烈。尽管一切,他无法吞下这只蛤蟆,他经常梦见自己成为蛤蟆,他害怕这只蛤蟆必须被吞下。扎拉特拉图斯的狮子的漫遊,将所有的“较高”的人们都驱赶回到无意识的洞穴。这些“较高”的人们努力要生活。因此,他的生命并没有说服我们相信他的教导。因为这位“较高的人”想要能够睡觉,不靠安眠药,想要生活于纽伦堡与巴塞尔,尽管“迷雾与阴影”。他欲望妻子与后代,在俗众里独立与享有尊敬,那是无数的共同的现实。特别是那些市俗的那些人物。尼采没有办法过这样的本能的生活,对于生命的动物的渴望。尽管他的伟大与重要,尼采的人格是病态的。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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