ON PSYCHIC ENERGY 9

ON PSYCHIC ENERGY 9
论心灵能源
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格
3. GENERAL REMARKS ON THE ENERGIC POINT OF VIEW IN PSYCHOLOGY
心理学的能源观点的通论
c. Introduction
导论

(i) THE SUBJECTIVE SYSTEM OF VALUES
The applicability of the energic standpoint to psychology rests, then, exclusively on the question whether a quantitative estimate of psychic energy is possible or not. This question can be met with an unconditional affirmative, since our psyche actually possesses an extraordinarily well-developed evaluating system, namely the system of psychological values. Values are quantitative estimates of energy. Here it should be remarked that in our collective moral and aesthetic values we have at our disposal not merely an objective system of value but an objec¬tive system of measurement. This system of measurement is not, however, directly available for our purpose, since it is a general scale of values which takes account only indirectly of subjective, that is to say individual, psychological conditions.

1. 价值的主观系统
能源的观点的运用到心理学,因此专注于依靠这个问题:数量的评估心理能源是否可能?这个问题能够被回答,用一个无条件的肯定。因为我们的心灵实际上拥有一个额外的充分被发展的评估系统。也就是说,心理价值的系统。价值是能源的数量的评估。在此,应该注意到的是,在我们的集团道德与美学的价值里,我们不但拥有一个客观的价值系统可以使用,而且拥有一个客观的测量的系统。可是,这个测量的系统并不是直接地具有价值,对于我们的目的。因为这是一个通用的价值的衡量,仅是间接地考虑到主观的心理的情况。也就是说,个人的情况。

What we must first of all consider, therefore, is the subjective value system) the subjective estimates of the single individual. We can, as a matter of fact, estimate the subjective values of our psychic contents up to a certain point, even though it is at times extraordinarily difficult to measure them with objective ac¬curacy against the generally established values. However, this comparison is superfluous for our purpose, as already said. We can weigh our subjective evaluations against one another and determine their relative strength. Their measurement is never¬theless relative to the value of other contents and therefore not absolute and objective, but it is sufficient for our purpose inas¬much as different intensities of value in relation to similar qualities can be recognized with certainty, while equal values under the same conditions plainly maintain themselves in equilibrium.

因此,我们首先必须考虑到的东西是,主观性的价值系统,单独个人的主观性的价值系统。事实上,我们能够评估我们的心灵的内容的主观性的价值,到达某个程度。即使有时会有特殊的困难,来衡量它们,用客观的正确性,对抗通俗被建立的价值。可是,这个比较是多余的,对于我们的目的,如同以上所说。我们能够衡量我们的主观的评估,互相对抗。然后决定它们的相对的力量。对于它们的衡量,仍然跟其他内容的价值成为相对,因此,并不是绝对与客观。但是,对于我们的目的而言,它是足够的,因为价值的不同的张力,相关于类似的品质,能够确定地被体认出来。在相同的情况之下的相等的价值,在平衡中维持他们自己。

The difficulty begins only when we have to compare the value intensities of different qualities, say the value of a scien¬tific idea compared with a feeling impression. Here the subjec¬tive estimate becomes uncertain and therefore unreliable. In the same way, the subjective estimate is restricted to the contents
9

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
of consciousness; hence it is useless with respect to unconscious influences, where we are concerned with valuations that go beyond the boundaries of consciousness.

仅有当我们必须比较不同的品质的价值的张力时,这个困难才会开始。譬如说,科学的观念的价值,跟一个感觉的印象比较起来。在此,主观的评估变成不确定,因此不可靠。同样地,主观性的评估,被限制于内容。

17 In view of the compensatory relationship known to exist be-
tween the conscious and the unconscious,16 however, it is of great importance to find a way of determining the value of un¬conscious products. If we want to carry through the energic approach to psychic events, we must bear in mind the exceed• ingly important fact that conscious values can apparently dis¬appear without showing themselves again in an equivalent conscious achievement. In this case we should theoretically expect their appearance in the unconscious. But since the un¬conscious is not directly accessible either in ourselves or in others, the evaluation can only be an indirect one, so we must have recourse to auxiliary methods in order to arrive at our estimates of value. In the case of subjective evaluation, feeling and insight come to our aid immediately, because these are func¬tions which have been developing over long periods of time and have become very finely differentiated. Even the child practises very early the differentiation of his scale of values; he weighs up whether he likes his father or mother better, who comes in the second and third place, who is most hated, ete. This con¬scious evaluation not only breaks down in regard to the mani• festations of the unconscious but is actually twisted into the most obvious false estimates, also described as “repressions” or the “displacement of affect.” Subjective evaluation is therefore completely out of the question in estimating unconscious value intensities. Consequently we need an objective point of depar¬ture that will make an indirect but objective estimate possible.

可是,因为这个补偿的关系,被知道存在于意识与无意识之间,非常重要的是要找到途经,决定无意识的产物的价值。假如我们想要执行能源的途径,到达心灵的事件。我们必须将这个过度重要的事实记在心里:意识的价值很明显会消失,而不再显现它们自己,在相等的意识的成就里。在这个情况,我们应该理论上期待它们的出现在无意识里。但是,因为无意识并无法直接可以接近,无论在我们自己,或者别人身上。这个评估仅能够是间接的评估。所以,我们必须诉诸于辅助的方法,为了获得我们对于价值的评估。在主观性的评估里,感觉与洞见立即前来帮助我们。因为这些都是长时期以来一直在发展的功能。并且已经成为精致地差异化。即使是小孩,他们很早就实践他对价值的衡量的差异化。他衡量他是否更加喜欢他的父亲或母亲?谁占据第二位,或第三位?谁是最被通恨?等等。这种意识的评估不但会瓦解,关于无意识的展示,而是实际上,会被扭曲成为最明显的虚假的评估。它们也被描述作为是“压抑”,或是“情感的替代”。主观性的评估因此完全不可能,当我们评估无意识的价值的张力。结果,我们需要一个客观的离开的点,这样,间接但是客观点评估才能够成为可能。

(ii) OBJECTIVE ESTIMATE OF QUANTITY
18 In my study of the phenomena of association 17 I have shown
that there are certain constellations of psychic elements grouped round feeling-toned 18 contents, which I. have called “corn• plexes.” The feeling-toned content, the complex, consists of a nuclear element and a large num bel’ of secondarily constellated associations, The nuclear element consists of two components: first, a factor determined by experience and causally related to the environment; second, a factor innate in the individual’s character and determined by his disposition.

当我研究联想的现象时,我曾经揭示,有某些的心灵元素的汇集聚集环绕以感觉为色调的内容。我曾经称这些内容为“情结”。这个感觉-色调的内容,这个情结,由核心的元素与许多的次级贷汇集到联想组成。这个核心的元素由两个成分组成:首先,一个因素由经验与环境息息相关的因果律;其次,一个本质上的因素,在个人的性格,并且受到他的性情所决定。

16 The one-sidedness of consciousness is compensated by a counterposition in the unconscious. It is chiefly the facts of psychopathology that show the compensatory attitude of the unconscious most clearly. Evidence for this may be found in the writings of Freud and Adler, also in my “Psychology of Dementia Praecox.” For a theoretical discussion see my “Instinct and the Unconscious,” pars. 263ft., infra. On the general significance of psychological compensation see Maeder, “Regula¬tion psychique et gucrison.”
17 (C£. Vo!. 2, Collected Works (lg18 edn.: Studies in Word Association).-EoITORS.l
10

ON PSYCHIC ENERGY

Ig The nuclear element is characterized by its feeling-tone, the
emphasis resulting from the intensity of affect. This emphasis, expressed in terms of energy, is a value quantity. In so far as the nuclear element is conscious, the quantit.y can be subjec¬tively estimated, at. least relatively. But if, as frequently hap¬pens, the nuclear element is unconscious,19 at any rate in its psychological significance, then a subjective estimate becomes impossible, and one must substitute the indirect method of evaluation. This is based, in principle, on the following fact; 18
[Cf. Psychiatric Studies, par. 168, n. 2a.-EolToRS.]

这个核心的元素以感觉-色调作为特征,因为情感的张力造成的强调。用能源的术语表达的强调,是一个价值系统。因为核心元素是意识,数量能够主观性地被评估。至少相对地被评估。但是,假如,如经常所发生的事情,核心的元素是无意识,无论如何,它具有心灵的意义,那么,主观性的评估就变成不可能。我们必须替换这个间接的评估的方法。原则上,这是以下面的事实作为基础:

19 That a complex or its essential nucleus can be unconscious is not a self• evident fact. A complex would not be a complex at all if it did not possess a cer¬tain, even a considerable, affective intensity. One would expect that this energic value would automatically force the complex into consciousness, that the power of attraction inherent within it would compel conscious attention. (Fields of power attract one another mutually~) That this, as experience shows, is fre¬quently not the case requires a special expl:tnation. The readiest and simplest explanation is given hy Freud’s theory of repression. This theory presupposes a counterposition in the conscious mind: the conscious attitude is, so to speak, hostile to the unconscious complex and does not allow it to reach consciousness. This theory certainly explains very many cascs, but in my experience there are some cases that cannot be so explained. Actually, the repression theory takes account only of those cases in which a content, in itself pcrfectly capable of becoming conscious, is either quite consciously repressed and made unconscious, or has right from the beginning never reached consciousness. It does not take into account those other cases in which a content of high energic intensity is formed out of unconscious material that is not in itself capable of becoming con¬scions, and so cannot be made conscious at all, or only with the greatest difficulty. In these cases the conscious attitude, far from being hostile to the unconscious content, would be most favourably disposed towards it, as in the case of creative products, which, as we know, almost always have their first beginnings in the unconscious. Just as a mother awaits her child witll longing and yet brings it into the world only with effort and pain, so a new, creative content, despite the will. ingness of the conscious mind, can remain for a long time in the unconscious without being “repressed;” Though it has a high energic value it still does not become conscious. Cases of this sort are not too difficult to explain. Because the content is new and therefore strange to consciousness, there are no existing
I 1

20
21
22

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
that the nuclear element automatically creates a complex to the degTee that it is affectively toned and possesses energic value, as I have shown in detail in the second and third chapters of my “Psychology of Dementia Praecox.”

核心元素主动地创造一个情结,甚至,它是情感作为色调,拥有能源的价值。如同我曾经详细显示,在“早发性痴呆症的心理学”第二与第三章节.

The nuclear element has a constellating power corresponding to its energic value. It pro¬duces a specific constellation of psychic contents, thus giving rise to the complex, which is a constellation of psychic contents dynamically conditioned by the energic value. The resultant constell;:.tion, however, is not just an irradiation of the psychic stimulus, but a selection of the stimulated psychic contents which is conditioned by the quality of the nuclear element. This selection cannot, of course, be explained in terms of energy, because the energic explanation is quantitative and not quali-tative. For a qualitative explanation we must have recourse to the causal view.20 The proposition upon which the objective estimate of psychological value intensities is based therefore runs as follows: the constellating power of the nuclear element corresponds to its value intensity) i.e.) to its energy.

核心元素拥有一个汇集的力量,对应于它的能源的价值。它产生一个明确的心灵内容的汇集。因此,产生情结。情结束心灵内容的汇集,动力方面受到能源价值的制约。可是,结果的汇集并不仅是心灵的刺激的焕发。而是被刺激的心灵的内容的选择。它受到核心元素的品质的制约。当然,这个选择无法被解释,用能源的术语。因为能源的解释是数量,而不是品质。对于品质的解释,我们必须诉诸于因果律的观点。客观性的评估心理的价值的张力,根据这个命题作为基础。这个命题运作如下:核心元素的汇集的力量,对应于它的价值的张力,譬如,对应于它的能源。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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