Synchronicity 440

Synchronicity 440
共时性
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

X. Exposition
说明

At any rate
857 our conception of causality is incapable of explaining the facts.
In view of this complicated situation it may be worth while to recapitulate the argument discussed above, and this can best be done with the aid of our examples. In Rhine’s experiment I made the assumption that, owing to the tense expectation or emotional state of the subject, an already existing, correct, but unconscious image of the result enables his conscious mind to score a more than chance number of hits.

无论如何,我们的因果律的观念不能够解释这些事实。因为这个复杂的情况,总结一下这个以上被讨论的主张是值得的。我们可以凭借我们的例子的帮助这样做。在莱因的试验,我提出这个假设:由于主体的情感的状态的紧张的期待,一个已经存在,正确,但是无意识地使用这个结果,让意识的心灵能够获得不仅是偶然的巧合的数字。

The scarab dream is a conscious representation arising from an unconscious, already existing image of the situation that will Occur on the following day, i.e., the recounting of the dream and the appearance of the rose-chafer. The wife of the patient who died had an uncon¬scious knowledge of the impending death. The flock of birds evoked the corresponding memory-images and consequentlv her fear. Similarly, the almost simultaneous dream of the violent death of the friend arose from an already existing unconscious knowledge of it。

金龟子的梦是一个产生于无意识到意识的再现,第二天将会发生的这个情境的已经存在的意象,譬若,对于梦的描述与食玫瑰花的表象。病人的死去的妻子,拥有一个无意识的知识,对于即将来临的死亡。群鸟聚集召唤起对应的记忆的意象,结束引起她的恐惧。同样地,这个几乎是同时的梦见朋友的惨烈的死亡,起源于已经存在的无意识的知识。

858

In all these cases and others like them there seems to be an a priori) causally inexplicable knowledge of a situation which at the time is unknowable. Synchronicity therefore consists of two factors: a) An unconscious image comes into consciousness either directly (i.e., literally) or indirectly (symbolized or sug¬gested) in the form of a dream, idea, or premonition. b) An objective situation coincides with this content. The one is as PUzzling as the other. How does the unconscious image arise, and how the coincidence? I understand only too well why peo- pJe prefer to doubt the reality of these things. Here I will only pose the question. Later in this study I will try to answer it.

在所有这些个案与其他的梦的个案,似乎存在着对于情境,一个先验的因果关系的无法解释的知识。在当时,这个情境是无法被知道的。共时性因此由两个因素组成。一个无意识的意象进入意识,要就是直接地(譬如,实质地),要不就是间接地(被象征或被暗杀),用梦,观念,或预感的形式。另外一个因素是,一个客观的情境巧合于这个内容。前者跟后者一样令人困惑。这个无意识的意象如何产生呢?这个巧合如何产生呢?我非常清楚地理解,为什么人们宁可怀疑这些意象的这个现实。在此,我仅是提出这个问题。后来,在这个研究,我将尝试回答。

447

860
THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
859 As regards the role which affects play in the occurrence of
synchronistic events, I should perhaps mention that this is by no means a new idea but was already known to Avicenna and Albertus Magnus. On the subject of magic, Albertus Magnus writes:

关于情感扮演的角色,在共时性事件的发生,我或许应该提到,这绝非是一个新的观念,而是阿维西那与马格纳斯都已经知道的观念。针对魔术的这个主题,马格纳斯写到:

I discovered an instructive account [of magic] in Avicenna’s Liber sextus naturalium, which says that a certain power 46 to alter things indwells in the human soul and subordinates the other things to her, particularly when she is swept into a great excess of love or hate or the like.47 When therefore the soul of a man falls into a great excess of any passion, it can be proved by experiment that it [the excess] binds things [magically] and alters them in the way it wants,48 and for a long time I did not believe it, but after I had read the nig romantic books and others of the kind on signs and magic, I found that the emotionality 49 of the human soul is the chief cause of all these things, whether because, on account of her great emotion, she alters her bodily substance and the other things towards which she strives, or because, on account of her dignity, the other, lower things are subject to her, or because the appropriate hour or astro¬logical situation or another power coincides with so inordinate an emotion, and we [in consequence] believe that what this power does is then done by the soul.5° …

我发现一个具有启发的魔术的描述,在阿维西那的Liber sextus naturalium,。这本书说,某个改变事情的力量驻居在人的灵魂里,并且将其他的事情隶属于她,特别是当她被横扫进入过度的爱与恨,等等。当一个人的灵魂掉入任何激情的过度,它能够被试验证明,
这个过度的激情魔术般地约束事情,并且改变它们,用它想要的方式。长久以来,我并不相信它。但是当我已经阅读这些浪漫的书籍之后,我发现,人类灵魂的情感是所有这些事情的主要原因,无论因为她的强烈的情感,她改变她的身体的物质,与其他她奋斗追寻的东西,或是因为她的尊严,其他的较低的东西都隶属于她。或是因为适当的时刻,或星相的情境,或另外的力量巧合于如此过度的情感。我们因此相信,这个力量所做的东西,因此是由灵魂所做。

Whoever would learn the secret of doing and undoing these things must know that everyone can influ¬ence everything magically if he falls into a great excess … and he must do it at that hour when the excess befalls him, and operate with the things which the soul prescribes. For the soul is then so desirous of the matter she would accomplish that of her own accord she seizes on the more significant and better astrological hour which also rules over the things suited to that matter. … Thus it is the soul who desires a thing more intensely, who makes things more effective and more like what comes forth …. Such is the manner of production with everything the soul intensely desires. Every¬thing she does with that aim in view possesses motive power and efficacy for what the soul desires. 51

任何人若是想要知道成究或拆解这些事情的秘密,他一定知道,每个人都能够魔术般地影响事情,假如他掉入过度的激情。他必须在那个时刻做它,当激情降临他身上,并且运作灵魂所指定的事情。因为,灵活因此渴望她将完成的事情。出于她自己的意愿,她捉住这个更加具有意义,更加美好的星相的时刻。这个时刻也统辖适合于那个物质的事情。因此,灵活更加强烈地欲望一个件东西,灵魂让这些东西更加具有效果,更加像是产生的东西。对于灵活强烈欲望的每件东西的产生的方式就是这样。每一样她带着那个目标所做的东西,拥有动机的力量与效率,对于灵魂欲望的东西。

This text shows clearly that synchronistic (“magical”) hap-
penings are regarded as being dependent on affects. Naturally Albertus Magnus, in accordance with the spirit of his age, ex¬plains this by postulating a magical faculty in the soul, without considering that the psychic process itself is just as much “ar¬ranged” as the coinciding image which anticipates the external physical process. This image originates in the unconscious and ¬therefore belongs to those “cogitatioI?es quae SUnt a nobis independentes,” which, in the opinion of Arnold Geulincx, are prompted by God and do not spring from our own thinking.52 Goethe thinks of synchronistic events in the same “magical” way. Thus he says, in his conversations with Eckermann: “We all have certain electric and magnetic powers within us and ourselves exercise an attractive and repelling force, according as we come into touch with something like or unlike.” 53

这个文本清楚显示,共时性(魔术般)的发生的事情,被认为是依靠情感。当然,马格纳思顺应他当代的精神,他解释这个,凭借提出灵魂具有一个魔术般的能力,而没有考虑到,心灵的过程本身跟巧合的意象,同样地被安排。巧合的意象预期外在的生理的过程。这个意象起源于无意识,因此属于那些”cogitatioI?es quae SUnt a nobis independentes,” 根据古力内克的意见,那些事件受到上帝的激励,并且并不起源于我们的思维。以相同的“魔术般”的方式,歌德看待共时性的事件。他因此说,在他跟艾克曼的谈论:「在我们内部,我们都具有某些的电子与磁性的力量。我们自己在运用一个迷人或排斥的力量。依照我们跟某个类似或违背的东西的接触。

861 After these general considerations let us return to the prob-
lem of the empirical basis of synchronicity. The main difficulty here is to procure empirical material from which we can draw reasonably certain conclusions, and unfortunately this difficulty is not an easy one to solve. The experiences in question are not ready to hand. We must therefore look in. the obscurest corners and summon up courage to shock the prejudices of our age if we want to broaden the basis of our understanding of nature. When Galileo discovered the moons of Jupiter with his tele¬scope he immediately came into head-on collision with the prejudices of his learned contemporaries. Nobody knew what a telescope was and what it could do, Never before had anyone talked of the moons of Jupiter. Naturally every age thinks that all ages before it were prejudiced, and today we think this more than ever and are just as wrong as all previous ages that thought so. How often have we not seen the truth condemned! It is sad but unfortunately true that man learns nothing from history. This melancholy fact will present us with the greatest difficulties as soon as we set about collecting empirical material that would throw a little light on this dark subject, for we shall be quite certain to find it where all the authorities have assured us that nothing is to be found.

经过这些一般的考虑之后,让我们回到共时性的经验的基础。在此的主要的困难是要获得经验的材料。从这些经验的材料,我们能够获得合理的确定的结论。不幸地,这个困难并不是容易解决的困难。受到质疑的这些经验,并没有现成可用获得。我们因此必须在最蒙昧的地方寻找,并且鼓起勇气惊吓一下我们时代的那些偏见。假如我们想要拓宽我们的理解自然的基础。当伽利略用他的望远镜发现木星的卫星时,他立即发生正面冲突,跟他的那些博学的当代人的偏见。没有人知道望远镜是什么以及望远镜能够做什么用。以前从来没有人谈论过木星的卫星。当然,每个时代都认为,所有在它之前的时代,都具有偏见。今天,我们比起以前更是如此认为,我们跟以前这样认为的时代同样都是错误。有多少次,我们没有看见被判定的真理!这是令人悲伤,但是不幸地,这是真实:人并没有从历史学的教训!这个忧郁的事实将会呈现给与我们最大的困难,当我们开始收集经验的材料。这些材料将会稍微启蒙这个黑暗的主题。因为我们将会相当确定找到它,就在所有的权威告诉我们,里面一无所得的地方。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
http://springhero.wordrpess.com

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