Synchronicity 438

Synchronicity 438
共时性
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

VII. Exposition
说明

There is yet another psychological analogy between my two
cases and the Rhine experiments, though it is not quite so obvious. These apparently quite different situations have as their common characteristic an element oE “impossibility.” The patient with the scarab found herself in an “impossible” situa¬tion because the treatment had got stuck and there seemed to be no way out of the impasse. In such situations, if they are serious enough, archetypal dreams are likely to occur which point out a possible line of advance one would never have thought of oneself. It is this kind of situation that constellates the archetype with the greatest regularity.

还有一个心理上的类比,处于我的两个个案于莱因的试验之间。虽然这个类比并不是那么显而易见。这些明显地相当不同的情境,拥有“不可能”的元素,作为他们的共同因素。拥有金龟子的病人发现她自己处于一个“不可能”的情境。因为治疗已经卡陷,似乎没有办法从这个僵局逃脱出来。在这些情境,假如它们足够严重,原型的梦很可能发生,会指出一个可能的前进的脉络,我们自己本来永远不会想到的前进的脉络。就是这种情境,汇集著拥有最大规律性的原型。

In certain cases the psychotherapist therefore sees himself obliged to discover the rationally unsoluble problem towards which the patient’s un¬conscious is steering. Once this is found, the deeper layers of the unconscious, the primordial images, are activated and the trans-formation of the personality can get under way.

在某些个案里,心理治疗师因此看见他自己被迫发现这个理性无法解决的难题。病人的无意识正朝向这个难题前进。一旦这个情况被发现,更深一层的无意识,原初的意象被触动起来,人格的转化就在进行当中。

41 [Statistical analysis is designed to separate out groupings (termed dispersions)
due to random activity from significant dispersions in which causes may be looked for. On Professor Jung’s hypothesis, however, dispersions due to chance can be subdivided into meaningful and meaningless. The meaningless dispersions due to chance are made meaningful by the activation of the psycho id archetype.-
EDITORS.)
42 Cf. par. 841; also “On the Nature of the psyche,” par. 404f.
44°

SYNCHRONICITY: AN ACAUSAL CONNECTING PRINCIPLE
848 In the second case there was the half-unconscious fear and
the threat of a lethal end with no possibility of an adequate recognition of the situation. In Rhine’s experiment it is the “impossibility” of the task that ultimately fixes the subject’s attention on the processes going on inside him, and thus gives the unconscious a chance to manifest itself.

在第二个情况,存在着半意识的恐惧与威胁,它具有致命的目的,不可能有充分的体认这个情境。在莱因的试验里,就是这件工作的“不可能。最后,这件工作将主体的注意力固定在他内心正在进行的过程。因此,这件工作给予无意识一个机会来维持它自己。

The questions set by the ESP experiment have an emotional effect right from the start, since they postulate something unknowable as being po¬tentially knowable and in that way take the possibility of a miracle seriously into account. This, regardless of the subject’s scepticism, immediately appeals to his unconscious readiness to witness a miracle, and to the hope, latent in all men, that such a thing may yet be possible.

由心电感应(ESP)试验所建立的问题,从一开头,就具有情感的影响。因为它们假设某件无法被知道的东西,作为潜在是可以被知道的。以那个方式,它考虑到奇迹的这个可能性。尽管主体的怀疑主义,奇迹的这个可能性当下就诉诸于他的无意识的准备见证一个奇迹,并且见证潜在于所有的人们的这个希望,以致于这样的事情还是有可能。

Primitive superstition lies just below the surface of even the most tough minded individuals, and it is precisely those who most fight against it who are the first to succumb to its suggestive effects. When therefore a serious experiment with all the authority of science behind it touches this readiness, it will inevitably give rise to an emotion which either accepts or rejects it with a good deal of affectivity. At all events an affective expectation is present in one form or another even though it may be denied.

原始的迷信就恰恰位在即使是最坚强理性的个人的这个表面底下。确实就是那些人们最强烈地对抗它。他们是最早屈服于它的暗示的影响。因此,当一个严肃的试验,在它背后具有科学的权威,碰触到这个准备,它一成不变地产商一个情感。这个情感要就是接受,要不就是拒绝它,用强烈的情感。无论如何,一个情感的期待以某种的方式呈现,即使它可能被否认。

849 Here I would like to call attention to a possible misunder-
standing which may be occasioned by the term “synchronicity.” I chose this term because the simultaneous occurrence of two meaningfully but not causally connected events seemed to me an essential criterion. I am therefore using the general concept of synchronicity in the special sense of a coincidence in time of two or more causally unrelated events which have the same or a similar meaning, in contrast to “synchronism,” which simply means the simultaneous occurrence of two events.

在此,我想要提醒注意一个可能的误解,“共时性“这个术语可能引起的误解。我选择这个术语,因为两件具有意义,但是没有因果关联的事件同时发生,我觉得是一个基本的标准。我因此使用共时性的这个普遍的观念,让两件或更多的因果上不相连的事件,具有时间上特别的巧合的意义。这些事件具有类似的意义,对照于“共时主义”。共时主义仅是意味着两个事件同时发生。

850 Synchronicity therefore means the simultaneous occurrence
of a certain psychic state with one or more external events which appear as meaningful parallels to the momentary subjective state-and, in certain cases, vice versa. My two examples Illustrate this in different ways.

共时性因此意味着,某个心灵状态跟一个或更多的外在的事件的同时发生。这些事件出现,作为有意义的并列,跟暂时的主体的状态。在某些情况里。反过来说,也是一样。我的两个例子用不同的方式说明它。

In the case of the scarab the simultaneity is immediately obvious, but not in the second example. It is true that the flock of birds occasioned a vague fear, but that can be explained causally. The wife of my patient was certainly not conscious beforehand of any fear that could be compared with my own apprehensions, for the symptoms (pains in the throat) were not of a kind to make the layman suspect anything bad

在金龟子的情况,这个同时性是当下明显的,但是不像第二个例子。的确,鸟群的聚集造成模糊的恐惧。但是那能够用因果解释。我的病人的妻子事先确实没有意识到任何恐惧,能够跟我自己的焦虑比较。因为这个病征(喉咙的痛苦),并不是相同的种类,会让任何外行人怀疑到任何不好的东西。

441

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE

The unconscious, however, often knows more than the conscious, and it seems to me possible that the woman’s unconscious had already got wind of the danger. If, therefore, we rule out a conscious psychic content such as the idea of deadly danger, there is an obvious simultaneity be¬tween the flock of birds, in its traditional meaning, and the death of the husband. The psychic state, if we disregard the pos¬sible but still not demonstrable excitation of the unconscious, appears to be dependent on the external event.

可是,无意识经常知道,超过于意识。我觉得这是可能的,女人的无意识已经获知这个危险。因此,假如我们排除一个意识的心灵的内容,譬如,致命的危险的观念。有一个明显的同时性,处于这个鸟群,在它的传统的意义,与丈夫的死亡之间。这个心灵的状态似乎是依靠外在的事件,假如我们忽略无意识的这个可能,但是依旧无法被证明的興奋。

The woman’s psyche is nevertheless involved in so far as the birds settled on her house and were observed by her. For this reason it seems to me probable that her unconscious was in fact constellated. The flock of birds has, as such, a traditional man tic significance.43 This is also apparent in the woman’s own interpretation, and it therefore looks as if the birds represented an unconscious premonition of death. The physicians of the Romantic Age would probably have talked of “sympathy” or “magnetism.” But, as I have said, such phenomena cannot be explained caus¬ally unless one permits oneself the most fantastic ad hoc hypotheses.

可是,这位女人的心灵被牵涉到,因为鸟群栖息在她的房屋顶,并且被她观察到。因为这个理由,我觉得是可能的,她的无意识事实上被汇集。鸟群的自身具有传统的预言的意义。这在这位女人自己的解释也是显而易见。它因此看起来,好像鸟群代表一个无意识的死亡的预感。假如他是浪漫时代的医生,他本来会谈论到“同情心”或“魔力”。但是如我曾经说,这样的现象无法用因果律被解释,除非我们容许我们自己最大的幻想的假设。

851 The interpretation of the birds as an omen is, as we have
seen, based on two earlier coincidences of a similar kind. It did not yet exist at the time of the grandmother’s death. There the coincidence was represented only by the death and the gathering of the birds. Both then and at the mother’s death the coincidence was obvious, but in the third case it could only be verified when the dying man was brought into the house.

我们已经看见,鸟群作为预兆的解释,以类似种类的两个早期的巧合作为基础。它尚未存在于祖母死亡的时刻。那时,这个巧合被代表,仅是根据死亡与鸟群的聚集。在当时与在母亲的死亡,这个巧合是明显的。但是在第三个情况,仅有当垂死的人被带进房屋,它才可能被验证。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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