Archive for July, 2015

无意识对于意识的影响 139

July 27, 2015

无意识对于意识的影响 139
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格
II
PHENOMENA RESULTING FROM THE ASSIMILATION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
吸收无意识造成的现象
The process of assimilating the unconscious leads to son very remarkable phenomena. It produces in some patients :: unmistakable and often unpleasant increase of self-confiden. and conceit: they are full of themselves, they know every thin they imagine themselves to be fully informed of everything CO] cerning their unconscious, and are persuaded that they unde stand perfectly everything that comes out of it. At eve] interview with the doctor they get more and more above then selves. Others on the contrary feel themselves more and mOl crushed under the contents of the unconscious, they lose the self-confidence and abandon themselves with dull resignation 1 all the extraordinary things that the unconscious produces.
吸收无意识的过程导致某些非常引人注意的现象。它在某些病人身上,产生无可置疑而是经常是令人不愉快的增加自信心与自负。他们志得意满,他们知道一切,他们想像自己充分被告知每件东西,关于他们的无意识。他们并且相信,他们完美地理解每一样从无意识出来的东西。在每次的面谈里,医生变得越来越意气风发。相反地,还有些医生感觉他们自己越来越被压垮,在无意识的内容之下。他们丧失了他们的自信心,并且心甘情愿地顺服于无意识产生的各式各样的悖论的事情。
The former, overflowing with feelings of their own importance, assume a responsibility for the unconscious that goes much too far, beyond all reasonable bounds; the others finally give up all sense of responsibility, overcome by a sense of the powerlessness of the ego against the fate working through the unconscious.

前者充满了他们自己的重要性的意气风发,担负起无意识的一个责任,这个无意识瀰漫得太远,超越理性的边界。后者则是最后放弃所有的责任感,对于自我的无能为力充满无奈,无力对抗通过无意识运作的命运。

If we analyse these two modes of reaction more deeply, ” find that the optimistic self-confidence of the first conceals a profound sense of impotence, for which their conscious optimisl acts as an unsuccessful compensation; while the pessimistic re ignation of the others masks a defiant will to power, far surpassing in cocksureness the conscious optimism of the first type.

假如我们更加深入地分析这两种反应的模式,我们发现,前者的乐观主义的自信心,隐藏一个深层的无力感。他们的意识到乐观主义的行动,充当一种没有成功的补偿。而后者的悲观主义的顺服,遮蔽着一条挑衅的权力意志,择善固执地远远超过第一种的意识的乐观主义。

223 With these two modes of reaction I have sketched only two
crude extremes. A finer shading would have been truer to reality. As I have said elsewhere, every analysand starts by unconsciously misusing his newly won knowledge in the interests ( his abnormal, neurotic attitude, unless he is sufficiently free from his symptoms in the early stages to be able to dispense wit further treatment altogether.

用这两种的反应模式,我仅是描绘出两个简陋的极端。更加 精细地描绘才会忠实于现实情况。如同我在别的地方曾经说过,每位被分析者开始时,都会无意识地误用他新获得的知识。有利于他的不正常的神经症的态度。除非他充分地被解放,从他处于早期的阶段的症状。这样,他才能够完全免除不用更进一步的治疗。

A very important contributory factor is that in the early stages everything is still understood on the objective level, i.e., without distinction between imago and object, so that everything is referred directly to the object. Hence the man for whom “other people” are the objects of prime im¬portance will conclude from any self-knowledge he may have imbibed at this stage of the analysis: “Aha! so that is what other people are like!” He will therefore feel it his duty, according to his nature, tolerant or otherwise, to enlighten the world.

一个更加重要的促成的因素是,在早期的阶段,每样东西都依旧被理解,在客观的层面。譬如,没有区别意像与客体,这样每样东西都直接地被提到客体。因此,对于“别人”都是非常重要的客体的这个人,他将获得结论,从任何自我的知识,他可能曾经吸收在精神分析的这个阶段。「阿哈,别人都是像那个样子!」他因此会感觉启蒙这个世界是他的责任,依照他的天性,无论是包容与否。

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But the other man, who feels himself to be more the object of his fellows than their subject, will be weighed down by this self-knowledge and become correspondingly depressed. (I am naturally leaving out of account those numerous and more superficial natures who experience these problems only by the way.) In both cases the relation to the object is reinforced-in the first case in an active, in the second case in a reactive sense. The collective element is markedly accentuated. The one extends the sphere of his action, the other the sphere of his suffering.

但是另外一个人,他觉得他自己是他的同胞的客体,而非是他们的主体。他将会被这个自性的知识所压倒,并且因此而变得沮丧。(当然,我并没有考虑到那些无数的,更加腐浅的天性。他们仅是以这个方式经营这些难题)。在两种情况当中,跟客体的关系在第一种情况会被强化,以活跃的方式。在第二种情况,则是以反应的意义。集体的因素很明显被强调。这一个因素延伸他的行动的范围,另一个因素则是延伸他的痛苦的范围。

224 Adler has employed the term “godlikeness” to characterize
certain basic features of neurotic power psychology. If I likewise borrow the same term from Faust) I use it here more in the sense of that well-known passage where Mephisto writes “Eritis sicut Deus, scientes bonum et malum” in the student’s album, and makes the following aside:

阿德勒曾经使用“像神一般”这个术语,来表现神经症的权力心理学的某些的基本的特色的特征。假如我同样从“浮士德”借用相同的术语。我会在此用它,作为那的著名的段落的意义。在那里,梅菲斯特在学生的纪念册上写到,并且发表底下的旁白:
Just follow the old advice And my cousin the snake.
There’ll come a time when yourgodlikeness
Will make you quiver and quake.!

你们只要遵照这个古老的劝告
我的堂兄,蛇的劝告
这是时机将会来临
当你们神性一般将会让你们蜕变起来。
The godlikeness evidently refers to knowledge, the knowledge of good and evil. The analysis and conscious realization of un¬conscious contents engender a certain superior tolerance, thanks to which even relatively indigestible portions of one’s uncon¬scious characterology can be accepted. This tolerance may look very wise and superior, but often it is no more than a grand gesture that brings all sorts of consequences in its train. Two spheres have been brought together which before were kept anxiously apart. After considerable resistances have been over¬come, the union of opposites is successfully achieved, at least to all appearances. The deeper understanding thus gained, t] juxtaposition of what was before separated, and hence the a parent overcoming of the moral conflict, give rise to a feeling superiority that may well be expressed by the term “godli1 ness.”

这个“神性一般”明显提到知识,善与恶的知识。无意识的内容的精神分析与意识的体会,产生某个优秀的包容。由于这个优秀的包容,即使是我们的无意识的特性中,比较无法消化的部分,也能够被接纳。这个包容可能看起来具有智慧而优秀。但是,经常它仅是一个堂皇的姿态,随着它,带来各色各样的结果。两个领域曾经被汇集一块,在先前,它们是被焦虑地分开。经过相当的抗拒被克服之后,对立力量的统合成功地被完成,至少在表面上。更加深入的理解因此被获得,先前被分离的东西的并列,因此道德冲突的表面的克服。他们很有理由被表达,用“神性一般”这个术语。

1 Faust, Part I, 3rd scene in Faust’s study. 140

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But this same juxtaposition of good and evil can have very different effect on a different kind of temperament. Not everyone will feel himself a superman, holding in his hands t] scales of good and evil. It may also seem as though he were helpless object caught between hammer and anvil; not in t] least a Hercules at the parting of the ways, but rather a rudd( less ship buffeted between Scylla and Charybdis.

善与恶的这个相同的并列,会具有非常不同的影响,对于不同种类的性情。并非每个人都会感觉他自己是一位超人,在他的手里,握有善与恶的天枰。看起来似乎是,他是无助的客体,被套陷在铁锤与砧板之间。根本就不像是大力士赫丘力斯,处于分岔道上。相反地,他像是一艘无舵的船,碰撞于西拉与查利底斯之间。
For without knowing it, he is caught up in perhaps the greatest and me ancient of human conflicts, experiencing the throes of eternal principles in collision. Well might he feel himself like a Promtheus chained to the Caucasus, or as one crucified. This wou be a “godlikeness” in suffering. Godlikeness is certainly not a scientific concept, although it aptly characterizes the psychologic state in question.

因为他并不知道它,他被套陷在可能是人类最大,最古老的冲突里,经验到冲突的永恒的原则的巨大的痛苦。他很有理由感觉他自己像是普罗米修斯,被锁链在高加索上上,获作为一位被钉上十字架的人。那将是处于痛苦中的“神性一般”。“神性一般”确实并不是一种科学的观念。虽然它很容易表现受到质疑的心理的状态的特征。

Nor do I imagine that every reader will immediately grasp the peculiar state of mind implied by “godlik ness.” The term belongs too exclusively to the sphere of belli lettres .. So I should probably be better advised to give a more circumspect description of this state. The insight and und( standing, then, gained by the analysand usually reveal much him that was before unconscious. He naturally applies tu knowledge to his environment; in consequence he sees, or thinks he sees, many things that before were invisible. Since his kno”\-l edge was helpful to him, he readily assumes that it would 1 useful also to others. In this way he is liable to become arrogan it may be well meant, but it is nonetheless annoying to oth people. He feels as though he possesses a key that opens man perhaps even all, doors. Psychoanalysis itself has this same blar unconsciousness of its limitations, as can clearly be seen from tl way it meddles with works of art.

我也不想像,每位读者将会立即理解,“神性一般”所暗示的心灵的这个特殊的状态。这个术语太过专门地属于“优雅文字“。所以,我可能被善意建议,要给予一个更加明确有力的描述,对于这个状态。这位被分析者获得的理解与洞见,通常对他显示许多无意识之前的东西。他当然会运用这个知识到他的环境里。结合,他会看见,或认为他看见,许多在以前是不可见的东西。因为他的知识对他帮助很大,他很快地认为,那对于别人也是有帮助的。以这种方式,他很容易变得骄傲。这种骄傲是善意的,但是对于别人,这种骄傲仍然令人懊恼。他感觉好像他拥有一把钥匙,打开许多有帮助,甚至全部的门。精神分析自身拥有这个相同性质的无意识,具有它的限度的无意识。如同我们清楚看见,从无意识干扰到艺术的作品的方式。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
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Identification 251

July 27, 2015

Identification 251
认同
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

What does this figure become? It takes on another and quite
different aspect. Here is what it becomes.

这个图形变成什么呢?它形成另外一个图形,相当不同的层面。在此就是它变成的东西。

It becomes purely and simply the most simplified form of the
folding back in front and behind of the surface figure 4, namely
that what you have seen figure 4 organising according to a shape
which comes to intersect itself edge by edge according to four
segments, the segment a coming onto the segment a1: this is a
segment which would carry the number 1 with respect to another
which would carry the number 3 with respect to the continuity of
the cut drawn in this way; then a number 2 with segment number 4.
Here, the final figure, you have only two segments. They must be
conceived of as being coupled to one another by a complete inversion of one with respect to the other. It is very difficult to visualise.

这变成是纯粹而单纯的最简化的形式,在图形4的表面的前面与后面的折叠回去。换句话说,你们曾经看见的东西,图形4依照这个形状组织。这个形状逐渐交叉它自己,边缘跟边缘。依照四个部分,a的部分进入到a’的部分:这是一个将会带数字1号的部分关于另外一个数字,这另外一个数字将会带着数字3.关于这个切割的连续性。用这个方式被画的切割。因此,一个数字2带有数字4的这个部分。在此,这个最后的图形,你们仅拥有两个部分。它们必须被构想,作为是互相配对,用一个图形的完整的内转,关于另外一个图形。那是很困难构想的。

But the fact that what is on one side in one
direction must be connected to what on the other side is in the
opposite direction shows us here the pure structure, even though
it is not visualisable, of the Möbius strip.

但是,在某个方向属于一边的东西,必须被连接,跟另外一边属于相反的方向的东西。它跟我们显示在此的这个纯粹的结构,即使它是无法被构想,莫比斯环带。

The difference
between what is produced when you carry out this simple cut on
the projective plane and the projective plane itself, is that you
lose one of the elements of its structure: you only make a pure
and simple Möbius strip out of it, except that you see nowhere
appearing what is essential in the structure of the Möbius strip:
an edge.

在被产生的东西,当你们执行这个简单的切割,在投射的层面,与投射的层面的自身之间的差异是,你们丧失它的结构的其中的一个因素:你们仅是用它形成一个纯粹而单纯的莫比斯环带;除了,你们根本就没有看见,在莫比斯环带的结构,有一个基本的东西,一个边缘出现。

Now this edge is quite essential in the Möbius strip.
In effect in the theory of surfaces – I cannot develop it in an
entirely satisfying fashion – in order to determine properties
such as the type, the number of connections, the characteristic,
everything that is of interest in this topology, you ought to
take into account that the Möbius strip has an edge and has only
one, that it is constructed on a hole.

现在,这个边缘相当基本。在莫比斯环带。实际上,在表面的理论—我无法发展它,用完全令人满意的形式—为了决的这些属性,譬如,种类,连接的数目,特性,每一样对于拓扑图型有趣的东西,你们应该考虑到,莫比斯环带拥有一个边缘,并且仅有一个边缘,莫比斯环带被建构在空洞之上。

It is not for the
pleasure of the paradox that I say that surfaces are
organisations of the hole. Here therefore, if it is a question
(9) of a Möbius strip this signifies that, even though there is
no way of representing it anywhere, it is necessary that the
hole should remain. For it to be a Möbius strip you will put a
hole here then, however small it may be. However punctual it may
be, it will fulfill topologically exactly the same functions as
that of the complete edge in this something that you can draw
when you draw a Möbius strip, namely more or less something like
the following:

我说,表面是空洞的组织,并不是寻求悖论的快乐。因此,假如这是一个莫比斯环带的问题,这意涵著,即使没有办法在任何地方代表它,这个空洞应该是必然始终在那里。为了让它成为莫比斯环带,你们己将因此在这里放置一个空洞,无论这个空洞是如何小。无论这个空洞是如何准时,它将在拓扑图形方法填满确实是相同的功能。跟完整的边缘的功能一样,在这个你们能够画出的某件东西,当你们画出一个莫比斯环带。换句话说,像是以下的某件东西。

As I pointed out to you a Möbius
strip is as simple as that. A
Möbius strip has only one edge.
If you follow its edge you have
gone right around everything that
is edge on this strip and in fact
it is only a hole, a thing which
may appear as purely circular; by
underlining the two sides, by
inverting one with respect to the
other coupling one, it will remain
that it will be necessary in order
for there to be question of a Möbius
strip that we should preserve in as reduced
a form as possible
the existence of a hole.

如同我跟你们指出,一个莫比斯环带就像那个那么简单。一个莫比斯环带仅有一个边缘。假如你们跟随它的边缘,你们已经直接环绕每一样在这个环带上边缘的东西。事实上,它仅是一个空洞,一件可能看起来纯粹是循环的东西。凭借强调这些两边,凭借倒转一边,关于另外一边配对另外一边。问题始终是,它将是必要的,为了莫比斯环带的问题存在。我们应该保存一个空洞的存在,用尽可能化简单形式。

This indeed
effectively is what
indicates to us the irreducible character
of the function of this
point.

这确实有效地就是跟我们指示的东西,指示这个点的功能的这个无法被化简单特性。

And if we try to articulate it,
to show its function we
are led, by designating it as origin-point of the organisation of
the surface on the projective plane, to rediscover in it
properties which are not completely those of the edge of the
Mobius surface, but which are all the same something which is so
much a hole that if one tries to suppress it by this operation of
section by the cut passing through this point, it is in any case
a hole that one makes appear in the most incontestable fashion.

假如我们尝试表达它,为了显示它的功能,我们被引导,凭借指明它,作为在投射的层面,这个表面的组织的起源点。为了在它身上重现发现这些属性,并不完全是莫比斯环带的边缘的属性。而是它们仍然是作为一个空洞的某件东。假如我们尝试压制它,凭借通过这个点的切割区隔的运作。无论如何,它是一个空洞,我们让这个空洞出现,以最无法被测试的方式。

What does that mean again? In order that this surface should
function with its complete properties, and particularly that of
being unilateral like the Mobius strip, namely that an infinitely
(10) flat subject walking about on it, starting from some point
or other, outside the surface, to return by an extremely short
path and without having to pass through any edge to the reverse
point of the surface from which he has started, in order that
this can be produced, it is necessary that in the construction of
the apparatus that we have called the projective plane there
should be somewhere, however reduced you may suppose it to be,
this sort of bottom which is represented here, this backside of
the apparatus, there must remain a little piece however small it
may be of the part which is not structured by interlacing
otherwise the surface becomes something else and specifically no
longer presents this property of functioning as unilateral.

而且,那是什么意思呢?为了让这个表面应该发挥功能,用它的完整的属性。特别是作为单边的属性,就像这个莫比斯环带。换句话说,一个无限扁平的主体,在莫比斯环带上面走动,从某个点开始,外在于这个表面,凭借一个极端短的途径回转,并且没有必要穿过任何边缘,到他从那里开始的表面的倒转的点。为了这个能够被产生,当我们在建构这个工具,我们称之为投射的层面的工具,在某个地方应该存在着这种底端,无论你们认为它如何被化简,在这里被代表的这种底端,工具的这个背面,必然存在这一小块,无论它是多么的小。这一小块的部分并不由交织所架构。否则这个表面会变成某件其他东西。明确地说,它不再呈现发挥功能的这个属性,作为是单边。

Another way of highlighting the function of this point: the
cross-cap cannot be drawn purely and simply as something which
could be divided in two by a line where the two surfaces are
supposed to intersect. It is necessary that there should remain
here something which beyond the point surrounds it, something
like a circumference, however reduced it may be, a surface that
allows there to be put into communication the two upper lobes, as
one might say, of the surface structured in this way. It is this
that shows us the paradoxical and organising function of the
point.

另外一个方式强调这个点的功能,这个双叉帽无法被画,单纯而仅是作为某件能够被区分为二的东西,凭借一个线条。在那里,两个表面被认为互相交会。在此必然应该存在著某件东西。这个东西环绕它,超越这个点。某件像是圆周的东西,无论它如何被化简。这一个表面让这两个上面的瓣页能够被沟通。我们不妨说,以这种方式被架构的表面的两个上面的瓣页。就是这个跟我们显示这个点的这个悖论与组织的功能。

But what this allows us to articulate now, is that this point is
made by the coupling of two edges of a cut, a cut which cannot
itself be retraversed in any way, be divided, a cut which you see
here in the way that I have imaged it for you, as deduced from
the structure of the surface and which is such that one can say
that if we were to define arbitrarily something as inside and as
outside – by putting for example in blue on the drawing what is
inside and in red what is outside – at one of the edges of this
point the other would present itself in this way since it is made
from a cut, however minimal you may suppose it to be, of the
surface which has been superimposed on the other. In this
privileged cut what will be confronted without being connected
will be an outside with an inside, an inside with an outside.

但是现在这让我们能够表达的东西是,这个点由一个切割的两个边缘的配对所形成。这一个切割本身无法用任何方式被重新旅越过,被区分。这一个切割,你们在此看见,用我跟你们想像它的方式。作为从这个表面的结构推理出来。它是这个样子,以致于我们能够说,假如我们想要任意定义这个东西,作为是内部,与作为是外部。譬如,凭借用蓝色加在内部的这个图形,用红色加重外部的这个图形,作为是这个点的两个边缘的其中一个。另外一个点将会呈现它自己,用这个方式。因为它被形成,用这个表面的一个切割。无论你们认为它是多么微小。这一个表面已经被赋加在另一个表面。用这个具有特权的切割,将会被面对而没有被连接的东西,将会是具有内部的一个外部,具有外部的一个内部。

Such are the properties that I present to you – one could express
this in a more learned, more formalist, more dialectical way – in
(11) a form which appears to me not alone sufficient, but
necessary in order to be able subsequently to image the function
that I intend to give it for our use.

这些都是我呈现给予你们的属性。我们能够表达这个,用更加具有学问,更加形式主义,更加辩证法的方式。用一个形式,不单是我觉得是足够的,而且是必要的。为了要能够随后想像这个功能,我打算给予它,作为我们的用途的功能。

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Synchronicity 421

July 25, 2015

Synchronicity 421
共时性
Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

I. Exposition
说明
818 The discoveries of modern physics have, as we know, brought
about a significant change in our scientific picture of the world, in that they have shattered the absolute validity of natural law and made it relative. Natural laws are statistical truths, which means that they are completely valid only when we are dealing with macrophysical quantities. In the realm of very small quantities prediction becomes uncertain, if not impossible, be¬cause very small quantities no longer behave in accordance with the known natural laws.

我们知道,现代物理学的发现导致重大的改变,在们对于世界的科学的画面。因为这些发现已经粉碎自然法则的绝对正确性,并且让它成为相对。自然法则就是统计的真理。这意味着,仅有当我们正在处理巨大的物理的数量时,它们才完全正确。在非常小的数量的领域,预测变得不确定,虽然并非不可能。因为非常微小的数量不再行为,依照已知的自然的法则。

819 The philosophical principle that underlies our conception
of natural law is causality. But if the connection between cause and effect turns out to be only statistically valid and only rela¬tively true, then the causal principle is only of relative use for explaining

natural processes and therefore presupposes the ex¬istence of one or more other factors which would be necessary for an explanation. This is as much as to say that the connection of events may in certain circumstances be other than causal, and requires another principle of explanation.!

作为我们的自然法则的观念的基础的哲学的原理,就是因果律。但是假如原因与结果之间的连接,结果仅是统计方面令人满意,仅是相对地真实,那么因果律的原则,仅是属于相对的用途,作为解释自然的过程,因此预先假设一个或更多的其他因素的存在。这些因素将是必要的,作为一种解释。这好像是说,事件的连接在某些的情况,可能并非因果关系,并且要求另外的解释的原理。

820 We shall naturally look round in vain in the macrophysical
world for acausal events, for the simple reason that we cannot imagine events that are connected non-causally and are capable of a non-causal explanation. But that does not mean that such events do not exist. Their existence-or at least their possibility -follows logically from the premise of statistical truth.

我们将自然地环首四顾,徒劳地在巨大的世界,寻找非因果律的事件。理由很简单,我们无法想像跟非因果律连接一块的事件,也无法从事非-因果律的解释。但是,这并不意味着,这些事件并不存在。它们的存在,或至少它们的可能性,逻辑地从统计的真理的假设推论出来。
1 [Other than, or supplementary to, the laws of chance.-EDlToRS.] 421

822
THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
821 The experimental method of inquiry aims at establishing
regular events which can be repeated. Consequently, unique or rare events are ruled out of account. Moreover, the experiment imposes limiting conditions on nature, for its aim is to force her to give answers to questions devised by man. Every answer of nature is therefore more or less influenced by the kind of questions asked, and the result is always a hybrid product.

试验性的研究方法目标是要建立规律的能够被重复的事件。结果,独特性或罕见的事件被排除不考虑。而且,试验在自然上面,赋加限制的条件。因为它的目标是要强迫自然给予问题的答案,被人设计的这些问题。自然的每个答案因此相当受到影响,受到被询问的那种问题的影响。结果总是混杂的产物。

The so-called “scientific view of the world” based on this can hardly be anything more than a psychologically biased partial view which misses out all those by no means unimportant aspects that cannot be grasped statistically. But, to grasp these unique or rare events at all, we seem to be dependent on equally “unique” and individual descriptions. This would result in a chaotic col¬lection of curiosities, rather like those old natural history cabi¬nets where one finds, cheek by jowl with fossils and anatomical monsters in bottles, the horn of a unicorn, a mandragora mani¬kin, and a dried mermaid.

这是所谓的“科学的世界观“,以这个作为基础。这个世界观实实在不是别的,它就是具有心理的偏见的部分的观点。这个部分的观点错过所有的那些绝非是不重要的层面的观点,因为它们无法用统计来理解。但是,为了理解这些独特或罕见的事件,我们似乎都依靠同样”独特“与个人的描述。这将会造成各种好奇心的混乱的聚集。相当像是那些古老的自然历史的橱柜。在那里,我们找到,连著下巴的脸颊的化石,瓶内的解剖的怪物,独角兽的角,侏儒的矮人,乾扁的美人鱼。

The descriptive sciences, and above all biology in the widest sense, are familiar with these “unique” specimens, and in their case only one example of an or~anism, no matter how unbelievable it may be, is needed to establish its existence. At any rate numerous observers will be able to con-vince themselves, on the evidence of their own eyes, that such a creature does in fact exist.

这些描述性的科学,尤其是广义的生物学,对于这些“独特”的样本都耳熟能详。 在这些科学的情况,只要有一个有机体的例子,无论是它是多么难以置信,就有需要证实它的存在。无论如何,无数的观察者总是能够说服他们自己,根据他们亲眼看见作为证据,这样的动物确实是存在。

But where we are dealing with ephemeral events which leave no demonstrable traces behind them except fragmentary memories in people’s minds, then a single witness no longer suffices, nor would several witnesses be enough to make a unique event appear absolutely credible. One has only to think of the notorious unreliability of eye-witness accounts. In these circumstances we are faced with the necessity of finding out whether the apparently unique event is really unique in our recorded experience, or whether the same or similar events are not to be found elsewhere. Here the consensus omnium plays a very important role psychologically, though empirically it is somewhat doubtful, for only in exceptional cases does the consensus omnium prove to be of value in estab¬lishing facts.

但是,在我们正在处理的蜉蝣的事件的情况,这些事件没有在背后留下可证明的痕迹,除了将是碎片的记忆,在人们的心灵里。那么单一的见证者将不再足够,好几位见证者也不再足够,让一个独特的事件显得绝对可以相信。我们只要想到某些的亲眼见证的描述的那个恶名昭彰的难以令人相信。在这些情况,我们面对这个必要性:找出这个表面独特性的事件,在我们的记录的经验里,是否确实是独特。在此,这个“共识”就在心理上扮演一个非常重要的角色。虽然在经验论而言,那是相当可疑的。因为仅有在例外的个案,这个“共识”才证明具有价值,来证明事实。

The empiricist will not leave it out of account, but will do better not to rely on it. Absolutely unique and ephem-
422

SYNCHRONICITY; AN ACAUSAL CONNECTING PRINCIPLE
eral events whose existence we have no means of either denying or proving can never be the object of empirical science; rare events might very well be, provided that there was a sufficient number of reliable individual observations.

这些经验论者并没有认为它并不重要,但是他们最后都不依靠它。绝对独特而短暂的事件,它们的存在,我们没有办法否认或是证实,它们永远无法成为经验科学的对象。罕见的事件很有可能存在,只要有充分数量的可靠的个人的观察。

The so-called pos¬sibility of such events is of no importance whatever, for the criterion of what is possible in any age is derived from that age’s rationalistic assumptions. There are no “absolute” natural laws to whose authority one can appeal in support of one’s preju¬dices. The most that can fairly be demanded is that the number of individual observations shall be as high as possible. If this number, statistically considered, falls within the limits of chance expectation, then it has been statistically proved that it was a question of chance; but no explanation has thereby been furnished. There has merely been an exception to the rule. When, for instance, the number of symptoms indicating a com¬plex falls below the probable number of disturbances to be expected during the association experiment, this is no justifica¬tion for assuming that no complex exists. But that did not pre¬vent the reaction disturbances from being regarded earlier as pure chance.2

这些事件的这个所谓的可能性并不重要。因为在任何时代,可能的事情的标准,是从那个时代的理性的假设得来。并不存在着“绝对的”自然的法则,我们能够诉诸于它的权威,来支持我们的偏见。充其量能够被要求的东西是,个人的观察的数目应该尽可能多一点。假如这个数目,从统计学来考虑,掉落在机率期望的限制之内,那么它在统计上就被证明,那是一个机率的问题。但是没有任何解释曾经被完成。仅是存在着规则中的例外。譬如,但症状的数目指示著,一个情结掉落在可能的疾病的数目之下,在联想的试验的期间,应该被预期的疾病的数字。那么,就没有正当理由假定,没有情结存在。但是,那并没有阻止反应的疾病不早先被认为是纯粹的机率。

Although, in biology especially, we move in a sphere where causal explanations often seem very unsatisfactory-indeed, well-nigh impossible-we shall not concern ourselves here with the problems of biology, but rather with the question whether there may not be some general field where acausal events not only are possible but are found to be actual facts.

虽然,特别是生物学,我们的活动范围,是在因果律的解释看起来很不令人满意的这个范围,确实是非常不可能的解释的范围。我们在此将关注的事情,并不是生物学的难题。相反地,我们关注的是有没有一般性的领域存在。在那里,非-因果律的事件不但是可能,而是被发现是实际上的现实。

823 Now, there is in our experience an immeasurably wide field
whose extent forms, as it were, the counterbalance to the domain of causality. This is the world of chance, where a chance event seems causally unconnected with the coinciding fact.

现在,在我们的经验里,有一个无法测量的宽广的领域。这个领域的程度形成跟因果律的领域对立的所谓的“反平衡”。这就是机率的世界。在那里,机率的事件跟巧合的事实,似乎在因果上并不相连。

So we shall have to examine the nature and the whole idea of chance a. little more closely. Chance, we say, must obviously be suscep¬tIble of some causal explanation and is only called “chance” or “coincidence” because its causality has not yet been discovered. Since we have an inveterate conviction of the absolute validity of .causal law, we regard this explanation of chance as being quite adequate.

所以,我们将必须稍微更加仔细地检查这个特性与机率的整个的1观念。我们说,机率必然显而易见地容易受到某个因果律的解释的伤害。仅仅被称为是“偶然”或是“巧合”。因为它的因果律还没有被发现。因为我们对于因果律的法则的绝对的正确性,有着惯性的信仰。我们认为机率的解释,作为是相当不足够。

But if the causal principle is only relatively valid, then it follows that even though in the vast majority of
2 [Cf. Jung. Studies in Word Association.-EDIToRS.]
423

THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE
cases an apparently chance series can be causally explained, there must still remain a number of cases which do not show any causal connection.

但是假如这个因果的原则仅是相对的正确,那么,跟随而来的是,即使在大多数的案例,一个外表上是机率的系列,能够用因果律来解释。仍然存在着许的的案例,它们并没有显示任何因果的关联。
We are therefore faced with the task of sifting chance events and separating the acausal ones from those that can be causally explained. It stands to reason that the num¬ber of causally explicable events will far exceed those suspected of acausality, for which reason a superficial or prejudiced ob¬server may easily overlook the relatively rare acausal phe-nomena. As soon as we come to deal with the problem of chance the need for a statistical evaluation of the events in question forces itself upon us.

我们因此面临着这件工作:筛选机率事件,并且分开非因果律的事件,跟因果律能够解释的事件的不同。合乎情理的是,因果律能够解释的事件,将会远超果那些被怀疑是属于非因果律的事件。
因为那个理由,一个表面或具有偏见的观察者可能很容易忽略这些相对罕见的非因果律的现象。当我们一开始处理机率的这个难题,我们需要从事统计学的评估,对于被强迫发生到我们身上的受质疑的事件。
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荣格:无意识对于意识的影响 135

July 25, 2015

荣格:无意识对于意识的影响 135

PART ONE
第一部分
THE EFFECTS OF THE UNCONSCIOUS UPON CONSCIOUSNESS
无意识对于意识的影响
I
THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
个人与集体无意识

These primordial ideas, of which I have given a great man: examples in my Symbols of Transformation) oblige one to make in regard to unconscious material, a distinction of quite a differ ent character from that between “preconscious” and “uncon scious” or “subconscious” and “unconscious.” The justificatior for these distinctions need not be discussed here. They hav( their specific value and are worth elaborating further as point: of view. The fundamental distinction which experience ha: forced upon me claims to be no more than that. It should b( evident from the foregoing that we have to distinguish in th( unconscious a layer which we may call the personal unconscious The materials contained in this layer are of a personal nature ir so far as they have the character partly of acquisitions derivec 2 For a fuller elaboration of this theme see Symbols of Transformation, index s.V. “wind.”
135

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
from the individual’s life and partly of psychological factors which could just as well be conscious. It can readily be under¬stood that incompatible psychological elements are liable to re¬pression and therefore become unconscious. But on the other hand this implies the possibility of making and keeping the re¬pressed contents conscious once they have been recognized. We recognize them as personal contents because their effects, or their partial manifestation, or their source can be discovered in our personal past.

在“转化的象征”,我曾经给予许多的例子,关于这些原始的观念。它们强迫我们从事这个区别,关于无意识的材料,区别“潜意识”与“无意识”的不同的特性。作为这种区别的正当理由,不需要在此讨论。它们有它们的明确的价值,值得更加深入建构,作为观点。精神分析经验强制在我身上的基本地区别,宣称仅仅是那样。根据前述,应该显而易见的是,我们必须在无意识里区别一层我们所谓的“个人无意识”。在这个层面被包含的材料,属于个人的特性,因为它们拥有这个特性,部分是从个人的生活里获得的特性,部分则是属于心理的因素。这些心理因素同样可能是意识层面。我们很容易理解,无法相容的心理的因素很容易被压抑,因此成为无意识。但是,另一方面,这个暗示着形成并且让被压抑的内容成为意识的可能性,一旦它们已经被体认出来。我们体认它们,作为个人的内容,因为它们的影响,或它们部分的展示,或它们的来源,在我们个人的过去能够被发现。

They are the integral components of the personal¬ity, they belong to its inventory, and their loss to consciousness produces an inferiority in one respect or another-an inferiority, moreover, that has the psychological character not so much of an organic lesion or an inborn defect as of a lack which gives rise to a feeling of moral resentment. The sense of moral inferiority always indicates that the missing element is something which, to judge by this feeling about it, really ought not be missing, or which could be made conscious if only one took sufficient trou¬ble. The moral inferiority does not come from a collision with the generally accepted and, in a sense, arbitrary moral law, but from the conflict with one’s own self which, for reasons of psy¬chic equilibrium, demands that the deficit be redressed.

它们是人格的完整的成分,它们属于人格的目录,它们的丧失于意识,会产生自卑感,而且是某种层面的自卑感。这种自卑感具有心理的特性,不是有机体的病变的特性,或天生的缺点。而是属于一种欠缺,产生道德的怨恨的感觉的欠缺。道德自卑感总是指示,这个失落的元素是某件确实不应该失落的东西,从对于它的感觉来判断。仅有当我们充分费心时,它才会成为意识。道德的自卑感并不是来自跟通常被接受的冲突,与某个意义上,是道德法则。而是来自跟一个人的自性的冲突。因为心灵的平衡的理由,一个人的自性要求,缺点被补偿。

When¬ever a sense of moral inferiority appears, it indicates not only a need to assimilate an unconscious component, but also the pos¬sibility of such assimilation. In the last resort it is a man’s moral qualities .which force him, either through direct recognition of the need or indirectly through a painful neurosis, to assimi¬late his unconscious self and to keep himself fully conscious. Whoever progresses along this road of self-realization must in-evitably bring into consciousness the contents of the personal unconscious, thus enlarging the scope of his personality. I should add at once that this enlargement has to do primarily with one’s moral consciousness, one’s knowledge of oneself, for the unconscious contents that are released and brought into con¬sciousness by analysis are usually unpleasant-which is precisely why these wishes, memories, tendencies, plans, ete. were re¬pressed. These are the contents that are brought to light in much the same way by a thorough confession, though to a much more limited extent. The rest comes out as a rule in dream anal¬ysis. It is often very interesting to watch how the dreams fetch up the essential points, bit by bit and with the nicest choice.

当道德自卑感出现,它指示著不但是需要吸收无意识的成分,而且这种吸收的可能性。作为最后手段,那是一个人的道德特质,强迫他要就是通过直接的体认这个需要,要不就是间接地通过令人痛苦的神经症,吸收他的无意识的自性,并且保持他自己充分的意识。凡是沿着实践自性的途中前进的人,必然会无可避免地将个人无意识的内容带进意识层面。因此扩大他的人格的范围。我立即补充一下,这种扩大必须主要跟一个人的道德意识的内容息息相关,跟一个人对于自己的知识息息相关。因为被精神分析释放出来并且被带进意识的无意识的内容,通常是不愉快。这确实是为神秘这些愿望,记忆,倾向,计划,等等,被压抑。这些都是被启明的内容,如同凭借彻底的告白,虽然程度上更加有限。其余的部分通常在梦的解析里出来。这是非常有趣的,观看这些梦如何彻底接收这些基本的要点,一点点地,并且精致地选择。
136

THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
The total material that is added to consciousness causes a
considerable widening of the horizon, a deepened self-knowledg which, more than anything else, one would think, is calculated t humanize a man and make him modest. But even self-know edge, assumed by all wise men to be the best and most effie< cious, has different effects on different characters. We make ver remarkable discoveries in this respect in practical analysis, but shall deal with this question in the next chapter.

被增加到意识的整个的材料引起视阔相当地扩宽,自性的知识更加地深入。超过任何其他事情,我们将会认为,这种深入的自性的知识被计算让人更加具有人性,并且让人谦虚。但是,自性的知识,被所有智慧的人们认为是最佳,最有效果,具有不同的影响,对于不同的人物。我们有着引人注意的发现,在这方面,在实践精神分析。但是我会在下一章处理这个问题。

219 As my example of the archaic idea of God shows, the
unconscious seems to contain other things besides personal acquisi tions and belongings. My patient was quite unconscious of th derivation of "spirit" from "wind," or of the parallelism bettween the two. This content was not the product of her thinking, nor had she ever been taught it. The critical passage in the New Testament was inaccessible to her-TO 7rllEVJ1.a 7rllEl 07rOV t~€AE -since she knew no Greek.

如同我以上帝的过时的观念的例子显示,无意识似乎包含其他事情,除了个人的习得与拥有。我的病人对于“精神”来自于“风”,或两者之间的并列,一无所知。这个内容并不是她的思维的产物。她也不曾被这样教导。她并没有接近新约的重要的段落,7rllEVJ1.a 7rllEl 07rOV t~€AE。 因为她并不懂希腊文。

If we must take it as a wholly personal acquisition, it might be a case of so-called cryptomnesia, the unconscious recollection of a thought which the dreamer had once read somewhere. I have nothing against such a possibility in this particular case; but I have seen a sufficient number of other cases-many of them are to be found in the book men tioned above-where cryptomnesia can be excluded with certainty.

假如我们接受它,作为是完全是个人的习得,那可能是所谓的“潜抑记忆”,无意识的回忆思想。作梦者曾经在某个地方阅读过的思想的无意识潜抑。对于这个特殊个案的这样的可能性,我并没任何反对。但是我曾经看见过许许多多的其他个案,以上被提到的“潜抑记忆”在书里的许多个案被发现。在那里,“潜抑记忆”确定地能够被排除。

Even if it were a case of cryptomnesia, which seems to me very improbable, we should still have to explain what the pre disposition was that caused just this image to be retained an< later, as Semon puts it, "ecphorated" (f.X:CPOPElll, Latin efJerre) 'te produce'). In any case, cryptomnesia or no cryptomnesia, WI are dealing with a genuine and thoroughly primitive god-imagl that grew up in the unconscious of a civilized person and produced a living effect-an effect which might well give the psychologist of religion food for reflection.

即使那是我觉得是非常不可能的“潜抑记忆”的个案,我们依然必须解释,引起这个意象被保留,然后被“产生“的那个先前存在的性情是什么。无论如何,无论它是”潜抑记忆“或不是”潜抑记忆“,我们正在处理一个真正而彻底的原始的神的意象。这个神的意象成长于一位文明人的无意识里,并且产生活生生的效果。这一种效果很有理由给予宗教心理学作为沉思的材料。

There is nothing about this image that could be called personal: it is a wholly collective image, the ethnic origin of which has long been known to us Here is an historical image of world-wide distribution that ha: come into existence again through a natural psychic function This is not so very surprising, since my patient was born into tht
3 CL Flournoy, Des Indes a la planete Mars: Etude sur un cas de somnambulism, avec glossolalie (trans. by D. B. Vermilye as From India to the Planet Mars) and Jung, "Psychology and Pathology of So-called Occult Phenomena," pars 138ff.
137

221
222
THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
world with a human brain which presumably still functions to¬day much as it did of old. We are dealing with a reactivated archetype, as I have elsewhere called these primordial images.4 These ancient images are restored to life by the primitive, ana¬logical mode of thinking peculiar to dreams. It is not a question of inherited ideas, but of inherited thought-patterns.5

关于这个意象,没有一样能够被称为是个人的:这是一个完全集体的意象。关于这个集体意象的种族的起源,长久以来,我们已经知道。在此是一个分佈全世界的历史的意象。它再次存在,通过自然的心灵的功能。这并没有那么令人吃惊。因为我的病人出生进入这个世界,具有人类的头脑。这个人类的头脑被认为依旧发挥功能,今天如同以往一样。我们正在处理一个被重新触动起来的“原型“。如同我在别处所谓的”原始的意象“。这些古代的意象被恢复生命力,凭借梦里特有的原始,类比的思维模式。这并不是被继承的观念的问题,而是被继承的思想的模式。

220 In view of these facts we must assume that the unconscious
contains not only personal, but also impersonal collective com¬ponents in the form of inherited categoriesG or archetypes. I have therefore advanced the hypothesis that at its deeper levels the unconscious possesses collective contents in a relatively ac¬tive state. That is why I speak of a collective unconscious.

因为这些事实,我们必须假定,无意识包含不但是个人,而且是非个人的集体成分,用被继承的范畴或原型的形式。我因此提出这个假设:在它更加深入的层面,无意识拥有集体的内容,处于相当活跃的状态。那就是为什么我谈了集体无意识。

4 ct Psychological T)'pes, DeL 26.
5 Consequently, the accusation of "fanciful mysticism" levelled at my ideas is
lacking in foundation.
6 Hubert and Mauss, Melanges d'histoire des j'eligions, p. xxix.

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Identification 250

July 25, 2015

Identification 250
认同
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康
13.6.62 XXIV 4

This will immediately allow us to go further, on the function of
this point.

这将立即让我们能够更进一步深入,针对这点的功能。

A very close discussion on the plane of the formalism of these
topological constructions would only go on forever and would
perhaps weary you. If the line that I trace here in the form of
a sort of interlacing of fibres, is something whose function you
already know in the cross-cap, what I want to point out to you is
that the point which terminates it, of course, is a mathematical
point, an abstract point.

假如我们仔细讨论这些拓扑图形的建构的形式主义的层面,我们仅是永远继续,或许会让你们感到疲累。假如我在此追踪的这条线条,用一种交织的组织的形式,那是某件你们在交叉帽已经知道的功能。我想要跟你们指出的东西是,终止它的这个点,当然是一个数学的点,抽象的点。

We cannot give it any dimension.
Nevertheless we cannot think about it except as a cut to which we
must give paradoxical properties, first of all from the fact that
we can conceive it as punctiform. On the other hand it is
irreducible. In other words, to be even able to conceive of the
surface we cannot consider it as filled. It is a hole-point, as
one might say.

我们无法给它任何维度。可是,我们无法思维它,除了作为一个切割,我们必须给它悖论的属性。首先,根据这个事实:我们能够构想它,作为点状。在另一方面,它是无法被化简的。换句话说,甚至为了能够构想这个表面,我们无法认为它是充实的。这是一个空洞-点,我们不妨说。

What is more, if we consider it as
a hole-point, namely made up of the
coupling of two edges, it would be
in a way indivisible in the
direction that traverses it and one
could in effect illustrate it by
this type of single cut that one
can make on the cross-cap; there
are those which are made normally
to explain the functioning of the
surface in technical books which
are consecrated to it – if there is
a cut which passes through this
point, how ought we to conceive of
it?

而且,假如我们认为它,作为一个空洞-点,换句话说,这个空洞-点由两个边缘的配对组成。它在某方面是不可区分的,朝着旅越过它的这个方向。我们实际上说明它,凭借这种单一的切割。我们在双叉帽形成的这个单一的切割。有那些切割正常地被形成,为了解释表面的这个功能,在专注研究它的技术的书籍。假如有一个切割,通过这个点,我们应该如何构想它?

Is it in a way homologous and
uniquely homologous to what happens
when you make one of the lines
above pass, traversing the
structural line of false
penetration, namely in a way if
something exists that we can call a
hole-point so that the cut, even
when it approaches it to the degree of being merged with this
point, makes a circuit around this hole?

在某方面,这难道不是同质性,独特地同质性,跟所发生的事情,当你们让上方的其中一条线通过,旅越过虚假的贯穿到结构的线。换句话说,在某方面,假如某件东西存在,我们称为空洞-点的存在,这样,这个切割,甚至当它接近它,甚至被融合,跟这个点,它环绕这个空洞形成一个循环吗?

This in effect is what
(7) we must conceive because when we trace such a cut, here is
what we end up with: take if you
wish, figure .., transform it
into figure 3 and consider what is
involved between the two ears
which remain there at the level of
A, and of B which would be behind.

这实际上就是我们必须构想的东西,因为我们追踪如此一个切割。在此就是我们用来作为结束的东西。你们不妨拿起这个图形,转换它成为图形3, 然后考虑所被牵涉的东西,在这两个耳朵之间。这两个耳朵始终在那里,处于A与B的层面,它们将会背后。

It is something which can again be
put aside indefinitely to the point
that the whole apparatus takes on
this aspect, figure 5, these two
parts of the figure representing
the anterior and posterior folds
that I drew on figure 4. Here at
the centre, this surface which I
drew in figure 4 appears here also
in figure 5. It is here in effect,
behind.

这是某件东西能够不确定地被放置一旁。甚至整个的工具会形成这个层面,图形5,图形的 这两个部分代表前面与后面的折叠,我绘画在图形4的折叠。在此,处在中央,这个表面,我用图形4绘画的表面,在此也出现在图形5。它实际上在这里,在背后。

13.6.62 XXIV 5

It remains that at this point something must be
maintained which is in a way the initial stage of the mental fabrication of the
surface, namely with respect to this cut which is the one around
which it is really constructed. Because it would be appropriate
to conceive of this surface that you want to show, as a certain
way of organising a hole, this hole whose edges are figured here.

问题是,在这个点,某件东西必须被维持。在某方面,这个东西是表面的精神的建构的最初的阶段。换句话说,关于这个切割,环绕这个切割,它确实被建构。因为那将是适当的,构想这个表面,你们想要显示的这个表面,作为某种组织空洞的方式。这个空洞的边缘在这里被画出图形。

The initial stage is the point from which it is appropriate to
start so that there can be made in a fashion which effectively
constructs the surface in question, the edge-to-edge connections
which are drawn here, namely that this edge here, after of course
all the necessary modifications at its descent through the other
surface, and this edge here comes to connect itself with the one
that we have brought into this part of figure 4: a with a’.

这个最初的阶段就是这个点,从这个点开始是合宜的。这样,在此被绘画的这个边缘-对-边缘的联接能够被形成。用有效地建构这个受到质疑的表面的方式。换句话说,在此的这个边缘,当然,在所有的必要的修正之后,穿过另外一个表面的降下。在此的这个边缘逐渐将它自己跟这个边缘连接,我们将这个边缘带入图形4的这个部分:a 与a’。

The other edge, on the contrary, must come to be connected, according
to the general direction of the green arrow, with this edge
there: d with d’ is a connection which is only conceivable
starting from the initial stage of something which signifies
itself as the overlapping, as punctual as you would wish it to
be, of this surface by itself at a point, namely of something
which is here at a small point where it is split and where it has
overlapped itself.

相反地,另外一个表面必须逐级被连接,依照绿色箭头的一般的方向。用那里的这个边缘:d与d’ 是一个连接,它仅能从某件东西的最初的阶段开始被构想。这个东西意指它自己,作为这个重叠,作为是你们希望它成为的这个标点,表面本身的这个最初阶段,作为一个点。换句话说,作为某件东西的最初阶段。这个东西在此,在一个小点,在那里,它被分裂,在那里,它重叠它自己。

It is around this that the process of
construction takes place. If you do not have that, if you
consider that the cut B that you have made here traverses the
hole-point not by going around it as the other cuts with a
circuit, but on the contrary by coming to cut it here in the way
in which, in a torus, we can consider that a cut is produced
(8) thus:

环绕这个点,建构的这个过程发生。假如你们没有拥有那个,假如你们认为,你们在此形成的这个切割B,旅越这个空洞的点,并不是凭借环绕它,如同其他具有循环的切割。而是相反地,凭借在此切割它,在圆环面里,我们能够认为,一个切割这样被产生:

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荣格:无意识对于意识的影响 134

July 24, 2015

荣格:无意识对于意识的影响

PART ONE
第一部分
THE EFFECTS OF THE UNCONSCIOUS UPON CONSCIOUSNESS
无意识对于意识的影响
I
THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
个人与集体无意识

214 I naturally asked myself what was the source of this obstinaq
and what was its purpose? That it must have some purposive meaning I was convinced, for there is no truly living thing that does not have a final meaning, that can. in other words be explained as a mere left-over from antecedent facts. But the energy of the transference is so strong that it gives one the impression 01 a vital instinct. That being so, what is the purpose of such fanta sies? A careful examination and analysis of the dreams, especially of the one just quoted, revealed a very marked tendency¬in contrast to conscious criticism, which always seeks to reduct things to human proportions-to endow the person of the doctOl with superhuman attributes. He had to be gigantic, primordial, huger than the father, like the wind that sweeps over the earth¬was he then to be made into a god? Or, I said to myself, was it rather the case that the unconscious was trying to create a god out of the person of the doctor, as it were to free a vision of God from the veils of the personal, so that the transference to the person of the doctor was no more than a misunderstanding on the part of the conscious mind, a stupid trick played by “sound common sense”? Was the urge of the unconscious perhaps only apparently reaching out towards the person, but in a deeper sense towards a god? Could the longing for a god be a passion welling up from our darkest, instinctual nature, a passion un¬swayed by any outside influences, deeper and stronger perhaps than the love for a human person? Or was it perhaps the highest and truest meaning of that inappropriate love we call “transfer¬ence,” a little bit of real Gottesminne) that has been lost to con¬sciousness ever since the fifteenth century?

我当然询问我自己,这种固执的来源是什么?它的目的是什么?我相信,那一定是具有目的的意义。因为凡是真实生命的东西,必然都会有一个最后的意义。换句话说,这个意义能够被解释,作为仅是从先前的事实剩余下来的东西。但是移情的能源是如此的强烈,以致于它给予我们作为生命本能的这个印象。情况既然是那样,这些幻想的目的是什么呢?假如我们仔细检查并且分析梦,特别是刚刚被引述的这个梦,我们发现一个明显的倾向,跟意识的批评作为对照。意识的批评总是设法将事情化简成为人类的比例,为了将医生这个人秉赋予超人的属性。医生必须是巨大,原始,比父亲更为巨大,就像横扫大地的风。医生因此必须被迫成为神吗?或者,我对自己说,难道会是这种情况,,无意识正在尝试将医生这一个人,创造成为一个神。好像是要将神的幻景,从个人的面纱解脱出来。这样,移情到医生这个人,就仅是意识心灵的一种误解,一个由“健全的普通常识”扮演的愚蠢的诡计?无意识的这个渴望或许仅是显而易见地延伸朝向这个人,但是以更加深刻的意义朝向神?对于神的渴望可能会是这种的激情,从我们的最黑暗的本能的天性膨胀出来? 这一种激情没有受到任何外在的影响所动摇,比起对于个人的爱,或许还更加深刻,更加强烈? 对神的渴望或许是最崇高,最真实的意义,对我们所谓的“移情”的不恰当的爱。稍微有点是真实的“对神的爱”,自从十五世纪以来,就已经丧失在意识里。

215 No one will doubt the reality of a passionate longing for a
human person; but that a fragment ogious psychology, an 133

No one will doubt the reality of a passionate longing for a human person; but that a fragment of religious psychology,. an historical anachronism, indeed something of a medieval curios¬ity-we are reminded of Mechtild of Magdeburg-should come to light as an immediate living reality in the middle of the con¬sultingnroom, and be expressed in the prosaic figure of the doc¬tor, seems almost too fantastic to be taken seriously

没有人会怀疑激情地渴望一个人的现实。但是宗教心理学的一个碎片,历史的时代错置,确实是某件中世纪耐人寻味的东西—我们回想起马得伯格的梅其提—竟然带来启明,作为是当下的生活的现实,在谘商室里,并且竟然被表达,在医生的这个平凡的人物。这似乎是太过于奇幻,无法认真地被看待。

.

216
217

THE RELATIA genuinely scientific attitude must be unprejudiced. The sole criterion for the validity of an hypothesis is whether or not it possesses an heuristic-i.e., explanatory-value. The question now is, can we regard the possibilities set forth above as a valid hypothesis? There is no a priori reason why it should not be just as possible that the unconscious tendencies have a goal beyond the human person, as that the unconscious can “do nothing but wish.” Experience alone can decide which is the more suitable hypothesis. This new hypothesis was not entirely plausible to my very critical patient. The earlier view that I was the father-lover, and as such presented an ideal solution of the conflict, was incom¬parably more attractive to her way of feeling. Nevertheless her intellect was sufficiently keen to appreciate the theoretical possi¬bility of the new hypothesis.

一个真诚的科学的态度必须是没有偏见的。一个假设是否成立的标准,在于它是否拥有常规,譬如,解释的价值。现在的问题是,我们能够将以上被表达的各种可能,认为是一个成立的假设?并没有先验的理由,为什么这不是同样的可能?无意识的倾向应该拥有一个目标,超越人类的目标?这样,无意识就“仅仅就是愿望“就好。光是凭借经验,我们就能决定,哪一个假设是更加合适的假设。对于我那位挑剔的病人,这个新的假设并不完全是合理的。我是父亲兼情人的这个早期的观点,它的本身呈现一个理想的解决这个冲突。无与伦比地更加具有吸引力,对于她的感觉的方式。可是,她的知性充分地渴望要赏识这个新的假设的理论的可能性。

Meanwhile the dreams continued to disintegrate the person of the doctor and swell him to ever vaster proportions. Concurrently with this there now occurred something which at first I alone perceived, and with the utmost astonishment, namely a kind of subterranean undermining of the transference. Her relations with a certain friend deepened perceptibly, notwithstanding the fact that consciously she still clung to the transference. So that when the time came for leav¬ing me, it was no catastrophe, but a perfectly reasonable parting. I had the privilege of being the only witness during the process of severance. I saw how the transpersonal control-point devel¬oped-I cannot call it anything else-a guiding function and step by step gathered to itself all the former personal over-valuations; how, with this afHux of energy, it gained influence over the re¬sisting conscious mind without the patient’s consciously noticing what was happening. From this I realized that the dreams were not just fantasies, but self-representations of unconscious devel¬opments which allowed the psyche of the patient gradually to grow out of the pointless personal tie’

可是,所做的梦却继续瓦解医生这个人,并且将他膨胀到更加广大的比例。跟这个情况的同时,有某件事情现在发生,起初仅有我感知,大吃一惊地,也就是,一种暗流的逐渐损坏移情。她跟某一位朋友的关系,可感知地变得更加深刻。尽管这个事实:在意识方面,她仍然坚持这个移情。所以,当离开我的时间来到时,那并不是灾难。而是一个非常合理的分开。我拥有这个特权,作为唯一的证人,在分离的过程。我看见,移情的控制点如何发展—我无法称它是别的东西—一个引导的功能,逐步地聚集到它自身,将所有以前的个人的高估的东西。随着能源的流出,它如何地获得影响,对于那个抗拒的意识的心灵。但是病人并没有意识地注意到,当时正在发生的事情。从这里,我体会到,这些梦不仅是幻见,而是无意识的发展的自我-再现。它让病人的心灵逐渐地成长,脱离那个无意义的个人的关
系。

系。

T

This change took place, as I showed, through the uncon-scious development of a transpersonal control-point; a virtual goal, as it were, that expressed itself symbolically in a form which can only be described as a vision of God. The dream swelled the human person of the doctor to superhuman propOl tions, making him a gigantic primordial father who is at th same time the wind, and in whose protecting arms the dreame rests like an infant. If we try to make the patient’s conscious, anI traditionally Christian, idea of God responsible for the divin, image in the dreams, we would still have to lay stress on th distortion. In religious matters the patient had a critical and ag nos tic attitude, and her idea of a possible deity had long sino passed into the realm of the inconceivable, i.e., had dwindle( into a complete abstraction. In contrast to this, the god-image 0 the dreams corresponded to the archaic conception of a nature daemon, something like Wo tan. 8~os TO 7rVfV/.LfL, ‘God is spirit, is here translated back into its original form where 7rv~vfJ.a mean ‘wind’: God is the wind, stronger and mightier than man, an in visible breath-spirit. As in Hebrew ruah) so in Arabic ruh mean breath and spirit.2 Out of the purely personal form the dream develop an archaic god-image that is infinitely far from the con scious idea of God. It might be objected that this is simply ar infantile image, a childhood memory. I would have no quarre with this assumption if we were dealing with an old man sittini on a golden throne in heaven. But there is no trace of any senti mentality of that kind; instead, we have a primordial idea tha can correspond only to an archaic mentality.

如同我显示的,这个改变发生,通过无意识的发展移情的控制点,一个所谓的虚拟的目标,这个目标象征地表达它自己,用一个仅能被描述作为上帝的幻象的形式。这个梦将医生这个人膨胀到超人的比例,让他成为是巨大的原始的父亲。这位父亲同时也是风。在他的保护的手臂里,作梦者像婴孩般依偎著。假如我们尝试让病人的意识,传统上是基督教的上帝的观念,来负责梦里的神性的意象。我们依旧必须强调这个扭曲。在宗教的事物上,病人拥有一个批评而怀疑主义的态度。她对于可能的神性的态度,长久以来就通过进入这个无法被构想的东西的领域,已经萎缩成为完全的抽象。跟这个对照起来,梦里的神的意象对应于过时的自然-恶魔的观念,某件像是“精神”的东西。“上帝即精神”,在此被翻译回成为它原初的形式。在那里,“精神”意思是风。上帝是风,比起人更加强壮,更加伟大,一个看不见的呼吸与精神。如同在希伯来文的ruah,在阿拉伯的ruh,意思是呼吸与精神。从这个纯粹是个人的形式,梦发展一个过时的上帝-意象。这个上帝-意象绝非是上帝的意识的观念。有人可能反对说,这仅是一种婴孩般的意象,童年的回忆。我将不会跟这种想法争论,假如我们正在处理一位老人,正坐在天使的黄金般皇位的老人。但是这并没有丝毫烂情的意味。代替的,我们拥有一个原初的观念。这个观念仅能够对应一个过时的精神状态.。
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Identification 249

July 24, 2015

Identification 249
认同
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

13.6.62 XXIV 2

What results from it? The fact is that you have a hollow, a
pocket into which you can introduce something. If you pass your
hand though it, it passes behind this ear which is in continuity
from the front with the surface: what you encounter behind is a
(3) surface which correponds to the bottom of the basket but
separated from what remains on the right, namely this surface
which comes forward here, and which folds itself back to figure
2. In following a path like that one you have an unbroken arrow,
then one in dots because it passes behind the ear which
corresponds to A. It comes out here because it is the part of
the cut which is behind. It is the part that I can designate
here by B.

从它那里获得的结果是什么?事实上,你们拥有一个空洞,一个空位,你们能够介绍某件东西。假如你们用你们的手通过它,它通过这个耳朵背后。这个耳朵跟具有表面的前面具有连续性:你们在背后遭遇的东西,是一个表面,对应于这个篮子的底端,但是区分开来,跟右边剩余的东西。换句话说,前来这里的这个表面。它折叠它自己回到图形2。当你们跟随像那样的一个途径,你们拥有一个没有中断的箭头,然后是虚线的箭头,因为它通过这个耳朵的背后。对应于A的这个耳朵的背后。它在此出来,因为它是属于背后的这个切割的部分。它是我能够用B指明的部分。

The ear which is outlined here by the limits of this
dotted line in figure 2 could be on the
other side. This possibility of two
ears, is what you will discover when you
have realised the double cut and when
you isolate in the cross-cap something
which is fabricated here. What you see
in this central piece of figure 4
isolated in this way, is in short a
plane such that you now efface the rest
of the object, so that you will no
longer have to put in the dots here nor
even the traversal: there remains only
the central piece.

在此,在图形B,这条虚线的限制所描绘轮廓的耳朵,能够在另外一边。两个耳朵的这个可能性,是你们将会发现的东西,当你们已经体会到这个双重的切割,当你们在这个双叉帽孤立出某件东,在此被建构的东西。你们在图形4的这个中央的这一块,以这种方式被孤立出来。总之,它是这样一个层面,以致于你们现在抹除其余的这个客体。这样,你们将不再需要放进在此的这些虚线,也不再需要从事旅越。剩余的仅是这个中央的这一块。

What do you have then? You can easily imagine for yourselves
with a sort of plane which by going out of true comes, at a
moment, to recut itself by means of a line which then passes
behind. You have therefore, here also, two ears, a lamella in
front, a lamella behind. And the plane traverses itself
according to a line strictly limited by a point. It could be
that this point was placed just at the extremity of the posterior
ear, this would be, for the plane, a way of recutting itself
which would be just as interesting from certain points of view
since it is what I realised in figure 5 to show you earlier the
proper way to consider the structure of this point.

那么,你们拥有什么?你们能够很容易地替你们自己想像,用某种的层面。这种层面,凭借脱离真实,在某个时刻,它会重新切割它自己,凭借一条因此从背后通过的线。你们因此有两个耳朵,在此,也有两个耳朵。一个是前面的薄膜,另一个是背后的薄膜。这个层面旅越过它自己,依照被一个点严格限制的一条线。那可能是,这个点就被放置在后面的耳朵的极端,对于这个层面,这将是重新切割它自己的方法。从某个观点来看,这将是同样有趣。因为那时我在图形5体会到的东西,为了早先跟你们显示这个适当的方式,用来考虑这个点的结构。

I am aware personally that you have already become disturbed
about the function of this point because one day you posed me the
question in private of why I and the other authors always
represent it in this form, indicating at the centre a sort of
little hole. It is quite certain that this little hole gives
rise to reflections. And it is precisely on it that we are going
to insist, because it gives the quite particular structure of
this point which is not a point like the others. This is what I
(4) am going to be led to explain now.

我个人知道,你们已经感到困扰,关于这个点的功能。因为有一天,你们私下跟我提出这个问题:为什么我与其他作者总是用这个形式代表它?在中央指示一种的小空洞?相当确定的是,这个小空洞产生许多的反思。我们将要坚持的确实就是这个小空洞。因为它给予这个点的相当特殊的结构。这并不是像其他的点的点。这是我将于被引导现在解释的东西。

13.6.62 XXIV 3

Its rather oblique, distorted shape is amusing, because the
analogy between the helix, the antelix and even the lobule, and
the shape of this cut projective plane is striking, if one
considers that one can rediscover this shape which fundamentally
is drawn towards the shape of the Möbius strip.

它的相当歪斜,扭曲的形状很耐人寻味。因为这个双螺旋,这个前螺旋,甚至这个耳瓣,这个切割投射层面的形状是引人注意的,假如我们认为,我们能够重新发现这个形状,基本上它被绘画,朝向莫比斯环带的形状。

It is found much more simplified in what I once called the arum
or again the donkey’s ear. This is done only to draw your
attention to the obvious fact that nature seems in a certain way
drawn by its structures, and in particularly significant organs,
those of the orifices of the body which are in a way left to one
side, distinct from the analytic dialectic. To these orifices of
the body, when they show this sort of resemblance, could be
linked a sort of consideration about the attachment of this point
to Naturwissenschaft, which ought indeed to relate to it, to be
reflected in it if it has effectively some value.

它被发现是更加单纯,在我有一度称为是单子叶植物,或是驴子的耳朵。我这样做,仅是要吸引你们注意这个明显的事实:自然似乎用某种方式被它的结构所绘画,用特别重要的器官。身体的各个洞口的那些器官。对于身体的这些洞口,当它们显示这种的类似,某种的考虑具有关联,关于这个点被连接到Naturwissenschaft(自然科学)。自然科学确实应该跟它有关,应该被反映在它里面,假如它有效地拥有价值。

The striking analogy between many of
these drawings that I have made with the
figures that you find on every page of
books on embryology also deserves to
retain our attention.

这个引人注意的类比,在我曾经做过的许多这些绘图之间,用你们发现的这些图形,在探讨胚胎学的书本的每一页。它也应该值得保留我们的注意。

When you consider
what happens, scarcely has the stage of
the germinative plaque been gone through
in serpents’ or fishes’ eggs – in so far
as it is what is closest, according to
an examination which is not absolutely
complete in the present state of
science, to the development of the human
egg – you find something striking, it is
the appearance on this germinative
plaque, at a given moment, of what is
called the primitive line which also
terminates at a point, Hensen’s node,
which is a quite significant and really
problematic point in its formation in so
far as it is linked by a sort of
correlation to the formation of the
neural tube.

当你们考虑到所发生的事情,生长的块体的这个阶段很少被经历过,在蛇或鱼的卵。因为它是最靠近的东西,依照这个检视,并不绝对完整的检视,在科学的目前的状态。依照人类的精卵的发展。你们发现某件引人注意的东西,那就是在这个生长的块体的这个外表。在特定的时刻,在所谓的原始的脉络的东西,它也在一个点终止,汉森的原节点。在它形成时,那是非常重要,而且棘手的点。因为它凭借某种的互相关联,跟脑神经管束息息相关。

It comes in a way to meet
it by a refolding process of the
ectoderm: it is, as you cannot fail to
know, something which gives a good idea
of the formation of a torus, since at a
certain stage this neural tube remains
open like a trumpet on two sides.

它用某种方式前来跟它相会,凭借外胚层的重新折叠的过程:因为你们一定知道,那是某件东西,让我们清楚理解圆环面的形成。因为在某个时刻,这个脑神经管束始终开放,就像在两边的喇叭。

On the contrary the formation of the cordal
canal which is produced at the level of
this Hensen’s node, with a way of
propagating itself laterally, gives the
idea that there is produced here a
process of interlacing, whose
morphological aspect cannot fail to
recall the structure of the projective
plane, especially if one thinks that the
process which is realised of this point
called the Hensen node, is in a way a
regressive process, according as
development advances, it is in a line,
in a posterior withdrawal of Hensen’s
node that there is completed this
function of the primitive line,

相反地,科达管道的形成被产生,在这个汉森的原节点,凭借从侧边繁殖它自己。让我们想到,在此,有一个互相交织的过程被产生。这个互相交织的形态的层面,必然会让人想起投射层面的结构。特别是假如我们想到,所谓的汉森的原节点的这个点所被体会到过程。它在某方面是退行的过程,随着发展的前进。它处于一条脉络的线,处于汉森原节点的后面的撤退,原始的脉络的线的这个功能就在那里被完成。

and that here there is produced this opening
towards the front, towards the
endoblast, of this canal which in
sauropsidians presents itself as
homologous, without being altogether
identifiable to the neuro-enteric canal
that is found in the batrachia, namely
what puts the terminal part of the digestive tube and the
terminal part of the neural tube into communication, in short
this point which is so highly significant because it joins the
cloacal orifice, which is so important in analytic theory, to
something which is found in front of the lowest part of the
caudal formation to be what specifies the vertebrated and the
prevertebrated more strongly than any other characteristic,
namely the existence of the cord of which this primitive line and
Hensen’s node are the point of departure.

在此,这个开口被产生,朝向前面的开口被产生,朝向最内层的细胞,这个管道的最内层细胞。在禽类动物,它呈现它自己,作为同质性,而没有完全被认同是脑神经管道。在两栖动物,这个脑神经管道被发现。换句话说,将消化管束的终端部分,与脑神经管束的终端部分互相沟通。总之,如此重要的这个点,因为它连接消化洞口。在精神分析理论,这个消化洞口非常重要,跟某件东西连接一块。这东西被发现,在科达管形成的最下面的部分的前面。比起任何的其他特征,这是最为明显指明脊柱动物与前-脊柱动物的东西。换句话说,它的这个脊柱的存在,这个原始的脉络的线与汉森的原节点,就是出发的点。

There is here
certainly a whole series of directions of research which, I
believe, would deserve to retain our attention. In any case, if
I have not in any way insisted on it, it is because it is
certainly not in this direction that I want to engage myself. If
I am speaking about it for the moment, it is both to awaken in
you a little more interest about these structures which are so
captivating in themselves and also to authenticate a remark which
(6) was made to me about the fact that embryology would have its
word to say here, at least by way of illustration.

在此 确实有一整个的系列的研究的方向。我相信,将会值得吸引我们的注意力。无论如何,假如我没有用任何方式坚持它。那是因为我想要从事的东西,确实并不朝这个方向。假如我目前正在谈论它,那是要在你们身上唤醒稍微更多的興趣,关于本身就非常迷人的这些结构。而且,为了让对我发表的一个谈论成为真诚,关于这个事实:在此,胚胎学拥有它的话语要说,至少作为说明。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

无意识对于意识的影响 130

July 23, 2015

无意识对于意识的影响 130

The Psychology of the Unconscious
无意识心理学

Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格

I
The Personal and the Collective Unconscious
个人与集体无意识

This somewhat lengthy discussion seemed to me essential if my example was to be understood, for my patient had arrived at the state of transference and had already reached the upper limit where the standstill begins to make itself disagreeable. The question now arose: what next? I had of course become the com¬plete saviour, and the thought of having to give me up was not only exceedingly distasteful to the patient, but positively terrify¬ing. In such a situation “sound common sense” generally comes out with a whole repertory of admonitions: “you simply must,” “you really ought,” “you just cannot,” etc. So far as sound com¬mon sense is, happily, not too rare and not entirely without effect (pessimists, I know, exist), a rational motive can, in the exuberant feeling of buoyancy you get from the transference, release so much enthusiasm that a painful sacrifice can be risked with a mighty effort of will. If successful-and these things some¬times are-the sacrifice bears blessed fruit, and the erstwhile pa¬tient leaps at one bound into the state of being practically cured. The doctor is generally so delighted that he fails to tackle the theoretical difficulties connected with this little miracle.

这个相对冗长的讨论,我觉得是必要的,假如我的个例想要被理解。因为我的病人到达移情的状态,并且已经到达上面的极限。在那里,这个停滞开始让它自己成为令人不愉快。这个问题现在出现:下一步怎么办?我当然已经成为是完整的救赎者。必须放弃我们的这个想法,不但是极端令病人感到讨厌,而且恐怖异常。在这样的情景,”健全的普通常识“通常会出现,随著一整套的预警目录:”你就是必须要“,”你确实是应该“,”你就是不能够“,等等。因为全的普通常识,幸运地,并没有过分罕见,并没有完全没有效果,(我知道,悲观主义者确实存在),你从移情里获得的欢欣鼓舞的洋溢的感觉里,一个理性的动机就能够释放出如此多的热诚,以致于一个令人痛苦的牺牲有时是带着巨大的意志的努力。假如这些努力成功了–这些事情有时会成功—牺牲是具有幸福的成果。先前的病人一击之下就突然进入几乎是疗瘉的状态。医生通常是如此的高興,以致他没有克服跟这个小奇迹息息相关的理论上的困难。

208 If the leap does not succeed-and it did not succeed with my
patient-one is then faced with the problem of resolving the 130

2°9
210
211

THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
transference. Here “psychoanalytic” theory shrouds itself in thick darkness. Apparently we are to fall back on some nebulou trust in fate: somehow or other the matter will settle itself. “The transference stops automatically when the patient runs out 0 money,” as a slightly cynical colleague once remarked to me. OJ the ineluctable demands of life make it impossible for the patient to linger on in the transference-demands which compel the involuntary sacrifice, sometimes with a more or less cornplete relapse as a result. (One may look in vain for accounts 01 such cases in the books that sing the praises of psychoanalysis!:

假日这个突然进入疗瘉的状态没有成功—我的这位病人并没有获得成功—我们因此就面临要处理移情的这个难题。在此,“精神分析“的理论则是笼罩在一片漆黑之中。显而易见地,我们将必须依靠某个朦胧的信任命运。以某种的方式,事情将会自行解决。「移情会自动地停止,当病人用完了金钱。」如同我的一位稍微犬儒讽世的同事有一次跟我说。另外,生命的这些无法避免的要求,让病人不可能继续留恋在移情当中。生命的这些要求强迫不由自主的牺牲,有时结果会导致完全的复发。(我们寻找对于这些个案的描述,在赞赏精神分析的书籍里,但是并无所得!

To be sure, there are hopeless cases where nothing helps; bUI there are also cases that do not get stuck and do not inevitabl~ leave the transference situation with bitter hearts and son heads. I told myself, at this juncture with my patient, that then must be a clear and respectable way out of the impasse. My pa• tient had long since run out of money-if indeed she ever pos sessed any-but I was curious to know what means nature would devise for a satisfactory way out of the transference deadlock. Since I never imagined that I was blessed with that “sound com mon sense” which always knows exactly what to do in ever) quandary, and since my patient knew as little as I, I suggested tc her that we could at least keep an eye open for any movement~ coming from a sphere of the psyche uncontaminated by our su¬perior wisdom and our conscious plannings. That meant first and foremost her dreams.

确实是有一些没有希望的个案,但是帮助不大。但是也有一些个案,并没有停滞,并没有无可避免地让移情的情况,充满伤心与头痛。我告诉我自己,在我跟我的病人的期间,一定会有一个清楚而可尊敬的方式,避开僵局。我的病人很久以来已经用完金钱—假如她确实曾拥有金钱—但是,我很好奇地想要知道,大自然将会设计怎样的工具,来获得令人满意的方式,避开移情的僵局。因为我从来没有想像,我拥有“健全的普通常识“的幸福,这个健全的普通常识会知道在每次的进退维谷里如何自处。因为我的病人跟我一样并无所知,我对她建议,我们至少应该张开眼睛,观看来自没有被污染的心灵的氛围的任何行动,没有被我们优秀的智慧与我们意识的计划污染的心灵。那首要就是意味着她的梦。

Dreams contain images and thought-associations which we do not create with conscious intent. They arise spontaneously without our assistance and are representatives of a psychic activ¬ity withdrawn from our arbitrary will. Therefore the dream is, properly speaking, a highly objective, natural product of the psyche, from which we might expect indications, or at least hints, about certain basic trends in the psychic process. Now, since the psychic process, like any other life-process, is not just a causal sequence, but is also a process with a teleological orienta¬tion, we might expect dreams to give us certain indicia about the objective causality as well as about the objective tendencies, precisely because dreams are nothing less than self-representa¬tions of the psychic life-process.

梦包含一些意象与思想的联想。我们并没有创造它们,用意识的意图。它们自动自发地出现,没有我们的帮助。它们是心灵活动的各种代表,从我们的任意的意志撤退下来的心灵的活动。因此,恰当地说,梦是心灵的高度客观性的自然的产物。从那里,我们可能期望会有些指示,或至少,会有些暗示。关于某些的基本的倾向,在心灵的过程。现在,因为心灵的过程,就像任何的其他的生命-过程,不仅是一个因果律的系列,而且是具有目的论的定向的过程。我们可能期望梦给于我们某个指示,关于这个客观的因果律,以及关于这些客观的倾向。确实是因为梦实实在在就是心灵的生命-过程的自我的再现表象。

On the basis of these reflections, then, we subjected the dreams to a careful examination. It would lead too far to quote 131

212
213

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS word for word all the dreams that now followed. Let it suffice to sketch their main character: the majority referred to the person of the doctor, that is to say, the actors were unmistakably the dreamer herself and her doctor. The latter, however, seldom ap¬peared in his natural shape, but was generally distorted in a re-markable way. Sometimes his figure was of supernatural size, sometimes he seemed to be extremely aged, then again he resem-bled her father, but was at the same time curiously woven into nature, as in the following dream: Her father (who in reality was of small stature) was standing with her on a hill that was covered with wheat-fields. She was quite tiny beside him) and he seemed to her like a giant. He lifted her up from the ground and held her in his arms like a little child. The wind swept over the wheat-fields) and as the wheat swayed in the wind) he rocked her in his arms.

因此,以这些反思作为基础,我们将梦隶属于仔些的审查。那将会导致现在跟随而来的所有的这些梦,我们无法逐字详引。让我们仅是这样描述它们的主要的特性:大部分的梦都跟医生的这个人物息息相关。换句话说,演员们无可置疑地是作梦者她自己与她的医生。可是,后者很少出现,在他自然的形状。而且通常都被扭曲,用引人注意的方式。有时,他的身形成为庞然大物,有时,他似乎极端年老。然后,他酷似他的父亲。但是,他同时又是耐人寻味地跟自然编织一块。如同在随后的梦里:「她的父亲(在现实里非常矮小)跟她一块站立在盖满麦田的小山上。跟父亲相形之下,她显得矮小,她觉得父亲像个巨人。他从地上举起她,并且拥抱她在怀里,像一位小孩。风横扫过麦田」。他用手臂轻摇她,就像麦浪摇晃。

From this dream and from others like it I could discern vari-
ous things. Above all I got the impression that her unconscious was holding unshakably to the idea of my being the father-lover, so that the fatal tie we were trying to undo appeared to be doubly strengthened. Moreover one could hardly avoid seeing that the unconscious placed a special emphasis on the supernat-ural, almost “divine” nature of the father-lover, thus accentuat-ing still further the over-valuation occasioned by the transfer¬ence. I therefore asked myself whether the patient had still not understood the wholly fantastic character of her transference, or whether perhaps the unconscious could never be reached by un¬derstanding at all, but must blindly and idiotically pursue some nonsensical chimera. Freud’s idea that the unconscious can “do nothing but wish,” Schopenhauer’s blind and aimless Will, t.he gnostic demiurge who in his vanit.y deems himself perfect. and then in the blindness of his limitation creates something la-mentably imperfect-all these pessimistic suspicions of an essen¬tially negative background to the world and the soul came threateningly near. And there would indeed be nothing to set against this except a well-meaning “you ought,” reinforced by a stroke of the axe that would cut down the whole phantasmagoria for good and all.

从这个梦,与从其他像这样一样的梦,我能够觉察出各种的事情。尤其重要地,我所获得的印象,她的无意识正在毫不动摇地坚持这个想法:我是父亲兼情人。我们正在尝试要化解的这个命运的关联,似乎双重地被强化。而且,我们几乎无法避免看见,无意识放置一个特别的强调,对于父亲兼情人的超自然,几乎具有“神性“的特质。因此,更加深入地强调因为移情所造成的过分高估。我因此询问自己,病人是否还没有理解到,她的移情具有完全是幻见的特质。或是,或许无意识是否永远不能够被到达,凭借理解。而是必须盲目而且白痴地追寻某个非理性的幻影。弗洛依德认为,无意识‘仅是能够愿望”,叔本华的盲目而无目的的意志,诺斯教派的半人-半神。在他的虚荣心里,他认为他自己是完美。因此他无视于他的极限,他创造某件令人悲叹道不完美的东西。所有的这些悲观的怀疑,威胁地靠近,它们具有必然是负面的背景,对于世界与灵魂。我们必然没有任何东西可以用来对抗这个,除了就是善意的“你应该”,由于受到斧头的砍杀所增强,斧头会一劳永逸地砍掉整个的幻影。

But, as I turned the dreams over and over in my mind, there
dawned on me another possibility. I said to myself: it cannot be denied that the dreams continue to speak in the same old meta-132

THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
phors with which our conversations have made the patient a well as myself sickeningly familiar. But the patient has an un doubted understanding of her transference fantasy. She know that I appear to her as a semi-divine father-lover, and she can, a least intellectually, distinguish this from my factual reality Therefore the dreams are obviously reiterating the consciou: standpoint minus the conscious criticism, which they completel; ignore. They reiterate the conscious contents, not in toto) bu insist on the fantastic standpoint as opposed to “sound commor sense.”

但是,当我在心里一再地翻转这些梦,我突然明白有另外一个可能。我对自己说:我无法否认,这些梦继续言说,用相同的古老的隐喻。我们的谈话已经让病人与我自己,病态地对这些隐喻耳熟能详。但是病人拥有无可置疑的理解她的移情的幻想。她知道,对于她,我看起来像是半具神性的父亲兼情人。至少在知性方面,她能够区别这个,不同于我的实际的现实。因此,这些梦显而易见地重复意识的观点,而减去意识的批评。它们完全忽略的意识的批评。它们重复意识的内容,不是完全地重复,而是坚持幻见的观点,作为跟“健全的普通常识”对立。

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Identification 248

July 23, 2015

Identification 248
认同
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

13.6.62 XXIV 1
Seminar 24: Wednesday 13 June 1962
Here
6.6.62 XXIII 311

在此有三个图形。图形1对应于这个简单的切割。因为这个投射的层面无法容忍超过一个切割而不被分离。在此的这个切割并不分离,它展开。这个展开用这个形式来显示是有趣的。因为它让你们可以拟想,可以具体表现这个点的功能。

Figure 2 will help you to understand the other one. It is a
matter of knowing what happens when the cut designated here has
opened out the surface. Of course, here it is a matter of a
description of the surface linked to what are called its
extrinsic relationships, namely the surface in so far as we are
trying to insert it into a three-dimensional space. But I told
you that this distinction between the intrinsic properties of the
surface and its extrinsic properties was not as radical as people
with an eye for formalism sometimes insist, because it is
precisely in connection with its being plunged into space, as it
is put, that certain intrinsic properties of the surface appear
with all their consequences. I am only pointing out the problem
to you.

图形2将会帮助你们理解另外一个切割。这个问题是要知道发生什么事,当在此被设计的切割已经展开这个表面。当然,在此,这是表面跟所谓的它的外在的关系息息相关的描述的事情。换句话说,这个表面。因为我们正在尝试插入它,一个三个维度的空间。但是我告诉你们,这个区别,处于表面的内在的属性与它的外在属性之间的区别,并不那么强烈,不像著眼于形式主义的人们有时坚持的那么强烈。因为确实就是关于它被投掷进入空间,依照它被表达,表面的某些的内在的属性出现,具有它们的结果。我仅是跟你们指出这个难题。

Hence what I am going to tell you in effect about the
projective plane, the privileged place that will be occupied in
it by the point, what we will call the point, which is here
depicted in this cross-cap, here the terminal point of the line,
the pseudo-penetration of the surface onto itself. You see the
function of this point in this open shape of the same object
described in figure 1.

因此,我正要告诉你们,实际上,关于这个投射的层面,这个特权的位置将会在它那里被这个点佔据。我们将所谓的这个点。这个点在这里,在这个双叉帽被描绘。在此是线的终结的点,表面的虚假的贯穿到它的自身。你们看见点的这个功能,在图形1被描绘的相同的客体的这个开放的形状。

If you open it along the cut, what you
are going to see appearing is a bottom which is below, that of
the half-sphere. Above, it is the plane of this anterior wall in
so far as it continues into a posterior wall, after having
penetrated the plane which for its part is, as one might say,
symmetrical in the composition of this object. Why do you see it
stripped bare in this way up to the top? Because once the cut
has been made, since these two planes which cross one another,
like this, at the level of the line of penetration, do not really
cross one another, it is not a real penetration that is involved,
but a penetration which is required by the projection into space
of the surface we are dealing with.

假如你们沿着这个切割展开它,你们将会看见出现的东西,就是底下的底端,那个一半球形的底端。在上面,它是这个前面的墙壁的层面,因为它继续进入后面的墙壁。当它已经贯穿这个层面。就它而言,这个层面是均称的,在这个客体的组成里。为什么你们看见它被剥夺殆尽,用这个方式,一直到顶端?因为一旦这个切割被形成,因为这两个层面互相交叉,就像这个,在贯穿到线条的层面,它们并没有真实地互相跨越。被牵涉到的并不是真实的贯穿,而是被要求的贯穿,被投射进入表面的空间,我们正在处理的表面。

We can, at our whim, once a
cut has dissolved the continuity of the surface, lift up one of
these planes across the other since moreover not only is it not
important to know at what level they traverse one another, what
points correspond in the traversing, but on the contrary it is
good not to take into account deliberately this coincidence of
levels of points in so far as the penetration may render them, at
certain moments of reasoning, superimposable. On the contrary,
it would be well to remark that they are not.

一旦一个切割已经瓦解表面的连续性,我们能够随我们高兴,举起这些层面的其中一个,跨越另外一个。因为,重要的不但是要知道在什么层次它们互相旅越过,什么的点在这个旅越里互相对应。而且相反地,我们最好不要刻意地考虑各个点的层次的巧合。因为贯穿可能让它们超级赋加,在某些的时刻推理的时刻。相反地,你们最好注意到,它们并没有超级赋加。

The anterior plane
of figure 1, which passes from the other side found itself
lowered towards the point that we now call from now on quite
simply the point, while above we see the following being
produced: a line which goes to the top of the object and which,
behind, passes to the other side. When we carry out a crossing
(traverse’e) on this figure, we obtain something which presents
itself as an open hollow towards the front.

图形1的前景,它从另外一边通过,它发现它自己被降低,朝向这个点,我们现在称为的这个点,从现在开始,仅是这个点。在上面,我们看见这个随之而来的东西被产生:一个线条前往客体的顶端。在背后,它通过到另外一边。当我们执行一个跨越,在这个图形,我们获得某件东西,这个东西呈现它自己,作为开放的空洞,朝向前面。

The trait in dots is
going to pass behind this sort of ear and finds an exit on the
other side, namely the cut between this edge here and that which,
from the other side, is symmetrical to this sort of basket, but
behind. It must be considered that behind there is a way out.

虚线的特征将要从这种的耳朵背后通过,并且找到出口,在另外一边。换句话说,在此的这个边缘与从另外一边,跟这种篮子均称的边缘之间的切割,但是在背后切割。我们必须考虑到,在背后,有一个出口。

Here is figure 3 which is an intermediate figure. Here you see
again the interlacing on the upper part of the anterior plane,
which becomes posterior and subsequently returns. And as I
already pointed out to you, you can lift that up indefinitely.

在此是图形3,这是一个中间的图形。在此,你们再次看见另外一个层面的上方的部分的互相交织。它变成是后面的部分,随后会回转。如同我已经跟你们指出的,你们能够不确定地举起它们。

This indeed is what is produced at the extreme level. It is the
same thing as this edge here that you find described in figure 1.
This part which I designate in figure 1 we are going to call A.

这确实是被产生的东西,在极端的层次。这是相同的东西,跟在此的这个边缘。你们发现在此的这个边缘被描述,在图形1。我用图形1指明的这个部分,我们将要称为是A。

This is what is maintained at this place in the figure. The
continuity of this edge is made with the one which, behind the
sort of oblique surface thus separated out, folds itself back
once you have begun to let the whole lot go. So that if one
stuck them together again this would rejoin itself like in figure
3. This is why I indicated it in blue on my drawing. The blue
is, in short, all that the cut itself perpetuates.

这就是在这个图形的这个地方被维持的东西。这个边缘的连续性被形成,用这个边缘,在因此而被分开的倾斜的这种表面的背后,它折叠回到它自己。一旦你们已经开始放弃这整堆的东西。所以假如我们将它们卡在一块,这将再次重新连接它自己,在图形3。 这就是为什么为用蓝色在我的图形上指示它。总之,篮色就是所有切割它自己的东西赖以永久的东西。

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荣格:无意识对意识的影响

July 22, 2015

PART ONE
第一部分
THE EFFECTS OF THE UNCONSCIOUS UPON CONSCIOUSNESS
无意识对于意识的影响
I
THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
个人与集体无意识
lW2 In Freud’s view, as most people know, the contents of tl
unconscious are reducible to infantile tendencies which are r pressed because of their incompatible character. Repression is process that begins in early childhood under the moral influen( of the environment and continues throughout life. By means ( analysis the repressions are removed and the repressed wish, made conscious.

我们大部分人们都知道,从弗洛依德的观点,无意识的内容可化简成为婴孩的被压抑的倾向,因为它们具有无法和谐的特性。压抑是从童年早期就开始的过程,在环境的道德的影响之下。并且继续到他的一生。凭借精神分析,这些被压抑的东西被移除。被压抑的欲望让意识知道。

2°3 According to this theory, the unconscious contains only
those parts of the personality which could just as well be COlnscious, and have been suppressed only through the process ( education. Although from one point of view the infantile tendencies of the unconscious are the most conspicuous, it wou] nonetheless be a mistake to define or evaluate; the unconsciOl entirely in these terms. The unconscious has still another side 1 it: it includes not only repressed contents, but all psychic material that lies below the threshold of consciousness. It is impossible to explain the subliminal nature of all this material on tu principle of repression, for in that case the removal of repressio ought to endow a person with a prodigious memory which woul thenceforth forget nothing.

依照这个理论,无意识包含仅是人格的同样可能成为意识的那些部分,并且通过教育的这个过程,曾经被压抑的部分。虽然从某个观点,无意识的这些婴孩倾向最为显著,这仍然是一种错误,假如我们定义或评估无意识,完全凭借这些术语。无意识仍然拥有它的另外一面。无意识不但包括被压抑的内容,而且包括所有的心灵的材料。这些材料隐藏在意识的门槛底下。我们不可能仅是凭借压抑的原则,来解释所有这些材料的升华的功能。因为假如是在那个情况,压抑的移除应该让一个人秉赋有巨大的记忆力。这个记忆力因此什么都不会忘记。

2°4 We therefore emphatically affirm that in addition to the rl
pressed material the unconscious contains all those psychic con ponents that have fallen below the threshold, as well as suI
127

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
on:liminal sense-perceptions. Moreover we know, from abundant experience as well as for theoretical reasons, that the unconscious also contains all the material that has not yet reached the thresh¬old of consciousness. These are the seeds of future conscious con¬tents. Equally we have reason to suppose that the unconscious is never quiescent in the sense of being inactive, but is ceaselessly engaged in grouping and regrouping its contents. This activity should be thought of as completely autonomous only in patho¬logical cases; normally it is co-ordinated with the conscious mind in a compensatory relationship.

我们因此强调地肯定,除了被压抑的材料外,无意识包含所有那些掉落到这个门槛底下的心灵的成分。以及升华的知性-感知。而且,我们知道,根据丰富的经验以及理论的理由,无意识也包括所有还没有到达意识的门槛的材料。这些都是未来的意识内容的种子。同样地,我们很有理由认为,无意识从来没有处于没有行动的意义的安静。相反地,无意识不断地从事聚集与重新聚集它的内容。仅有在病理的案例,这种活动才应该被认为是完全具有自主性。正常而言,无意识跟意识的心灵协调一致,处于互补的关系。

205 It is to be assumed that all these contents are of a personal
nature in so far as they are acquired during the individual’s life. Since this life is limited, the number of acquired contents in the unconscious must also be limited. This being so, it might be thought possible to empty the unconscious either by analysis or by making a complete inventory of the unconscious contents, on the ground that the unconscious cannot produce anything more than what is already known and assimilated into consciousness. We should also have to suppose, as already said, that if one could arrest the descent of conscious contents into the unconscious by doing away with repression, unconscious productivity would be paralysed. This is possible only to a very limited extent, as we know from experience. We urge our patients to hold fast to re¬pressed contents that have been re-associated with consciousness, and to assimilate them into their plan of life. But this proce¬dure, as we may daily convince ourselves, makes no impression on the unconscious, since it calmly goes on producing dreams and fantasies which, according to Freud’s original theory, must arise from personal repressions. If in such cases we pursue our observations systematically and without prejudice, we shall find material which, although similar in form to the previous per¬sonal contents, yet seems to contain allusions that go far beyond the personal sphere.

我们应该假设,所有这些内容属于个人的性质。因为它们在个人的生活里被获得。因为这种生活是有限度的,在无意识被获得的内容的数码一定也是有限度的。情况既然是这样,我们认为将无意识掏空是可能的,要就是凭借精神分析,要不就是将无意识的内容编成完整顿目录。理由是,无意识能够产生的东西,仅仅是已经被知道,与已经被吸收到意识的东西。我们也必须要提出假设,如同已经被说过。假如我们能够凭借废除压抑,阻止意识的内容不要下降到无意识,无意识的生产力将会被瘫痪。仅有到某个有限程度,这才有可能。根据我们从精神分析经验知道。我们建议我们的病人要紧握着那些被压抑的内容,已经跟意识重新连系一块的内容。并且将它们吸收到他们的生活的计划里。但是,这个过程,如同我们每天都在说服我们自己,并没有让无意识留下印象。因为无意识平静地继续产生梦与幻想。依照弗洛依德的原创的理论,梦与幻想都从个人的压抑的东西产生。假如是在那些情况,我们系统地而且不带偏见地追寻我们的观察,我们将会找到材料。这些材料虽然在形式上类同先前的个人的内容,这些材料似乎包含远远超越个人的范围的指称。

206 Casting about in my mind for an example to illustrate what
I have just said, I have a particularly vivid memory of a woman patient with a mild hysterical neurosis which, as we expressed it in those days [about 191OJ, had its principal cause in a “father¬complex.” By this we wanted to denote the fact that the pa¬tient’s peculiar relationship to her father stood in her way. She had been on very good terms with her father, who had since
128

THE PERSONAL AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
died. It was a relationship chiefly of feeling. In such cases it j usually the intellectual function that is developed, and this late becomes the bridge to the world.

当我在我的心灵四周张望,寻找一个例子来说明我刚刚说的内容。我有一个特别鲜明的记忆:一位女病人具有轻微的癔症的神经症。依照我们当时对神经症的表达,癔症的神经症拥有它的主要的病因,在“父亲情结”。用这个术语,我们指明这个事实:病人跟她的父亲的特殊的关系产生障碍。她跟父亲的关系相处很好。她的父亲当时已经过世。那主要是感觉的关系。在这些案例里,被发展出来的通常是知性的功能。这个知性的功能后来变成跟世界沟通的桥梁。
Accordingly our patient b( came a student of philosophy. Her energetic pursuit of know edge was motivated by her need to extricate herself from th emotional entanglement with her father. This operation ma succeed if her feelings can find an outlet on the new intellectua level, perhaps in the formation of an emotional tie with a suil able man, equivalent to the former tie. In this particular cas( however, the transition refused to take place, because the pa tient’s feelings remained suspended, oscillating between her fa ther and a man who was not altogether suitable. The progress 0 her life was thus held up, and that inner disunity so characteri~ tic of a neurosis promptly made its appearance.

因此,我们的病人成为是哲学系的学生。她对于知识的精力充沛的追寻,动机是她有这个需要,从跟她的父亲的情感的纠缠,替自己挣脱出来的需要。这个运作可能成功,假如她的感觉能够找到一个出口,在新的知识的层次,或许在跟一位合适的人都情感的关系的形成。这个关系相等于是先前的关系。可是,在这个特殊的个案,转移拒绝发生。因为病人的感觉始终被悬置,摇摆于她的父亲与并不完全合适的人之间。他的生命的这个过程,因此被阻挡,那个内部的不一致如此表现一位神经症者的特征,那个内部的不一致会出现。

The so-called normal person would probably be able to break the emotional bond in one or the other direction by a powerful act of will, 0 else-and this is perhaps the more usual thing-he would come through the difficulty unconsciously, on the smooth path of instinct, without ever being aware of the sort of conflict that la~ behind his headaches or other physical discomforts. But an~ weakness of instinct (which may have many causes) is enough t< hinder a smooth unconscious transition.
这位所谓正常的人很可能能够打破这个情感的默契,朝著某个方向,凭借意志的强烈的行动。否则—这或许是更加寻常的事情—他将会
无意识地经历这些困难,在本能的顺畅的途径上。而他并不知道这种的冲突,潜藏在他的头痛或其它的生理的不舒服的背后。但是,本能的任何的弱点(可能有许多原因),就足够阻碍顺畅的无意识的转移。
Then all progress is de layed by conflict, and the resulting stasis of life is equivalent to ; neurosis. In consequence of the standstill, psychic energy flow off in every conceivable direction, apparently quite uselessly For instance, there are excessive innervations of the sympatheti( system, which lead to nervous disorders of the stomach and in testines; or the vagus (and consequently the heart) is stimu lated; or fantasies and memories, uninteresting enough in them selves, become overvalued and prey on the conscious mine (mountains out of molehills).

因此,所有的进展都被冲突拖延。结果造成生命的停滞,相等于就是神经症者。由于停滞的结果,心灵的能源流露出来,朝每个可以构想的方向,显而易见地,那是相同徒劳。譬如,存在着同情的系统的过分的内化,会导致胃与内脏的神经的疾病。或是迷走神经(结果是心脏)被刺激起来。或是幻想与记忆,它们本身索然无味,却变成被过度重视,成为意识心灵的受害者(庸人自扰)。

In this state a new motive is. needed to put an end to the morbid suspension. Nature hersell paves the way for this, unconsciously and indirectly, through th( phenomenon of the transference (Freud). In the course 01 treatment the patient transfers the father-imago to the doctor thus making him, in a sense, the father, and in the sense that h( is not the father, also making him a substitute for the man sh( cannot reach.

在这种状态,一个新的动机被需要,为了结束这个病态的悬置。自然自己会无意识地而且间接地,替这个病态的悬置铺路。通过移情的现象(弗洛依德)。在治疗的期间,病人将父亲-意象转移到医生,因此在某方面,让医生成为父亲。但是医生并非父亲,也让他成为她无法到达的这个人的替代者。

The doctor therefore becomes both a father and (' kind of lover-in other words, an object of conflict. In him th( opposites are united, and for this reason he stands for a quasi
129

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EGO AND THE UNCONSCIOUS
ideal solution of the conflict. Without in the least wishing it, he draws upon himself an over-valuation that is almost incredible to the outsider, for to the patient he seems like a saviour or a god. This way of speaking is not altogether so laughable as it sounds. It is indeed a bit much to be a father and lover at once.

医生因此就成为是父亲兼某种的情人。换句话说,成为冲突的某个客体。在他身上,对立的东西被统合起来。因为这个理由,他代表一个类似-理想的解决这个冲突。假如他根本就没有这样的愿望,他替他自己获得一个过分的高估。对于外在者,这个过分的高估几乎是匪夷所思。因为对于病人,他似乎像一位救赎者,或是神。这种的谈话的方式并不完全如它听起来那么可笑。要同时成为父亲与情人确实是蛮费心力。

Nobody could possibly stand up to it in the long run, precisely because it is too much of a good thing. One would have to be a demigod at least to sustain such a role without a break, for all the time one would have to be the giver. To the patient in the state of transference, this provisional solution naturally seems ideal, but only at first; in the end she comes to a standstill that is just as bad as the neurotic conflict was. Fundamentally, nothing has yet happened that might lead to a real solution. The conflict has merely been transferred. Nevertheless a successful transfer¬ence can-at least temporarily-cause the whole neurosis to dis¬appear, and for this reason it has been very rightly recognized by Freud as a healing factor of first-rate importance, but, at the same time, as a provisional state only, for although it holds out the possibility of a cure, it is far from being the cure itself.

追根究底,没有人能够抵抗得住它,确实是因为那是太过于理想的东西。我们至少将必须成为半具神性的人物,才能够持续地维持这样一个角色。因为自始至终,我们将必须成为是施与者。对于处于移情状态的病人,这个暂时的解决自然看起来很理想。但是仅是起初很理想。最后,她将会停滞下来。那跟先前的神经症的冲突一样糟糕。基本上,没有一样东西曾经发生,可以导致真实的解决。这个冲突仅仅是被转移。可是,一个成功的移情至少暂时会引起整个神经症的消失。因为这个理由,弗洛依德非常恰当地体认它,作为是非常重要的治疗的因素。但是同时仅是作为暂时的状态,因为虽然它维持治疗的可能性,它根本就不是治疗的本身。
雄伯译
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