Ethics 40

Ethics 40
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Rereading the Entwurf
第三章 重新阅读“规划”


You perhaps skipped a little quickly over the reference to the φ system and
the ψ system. If the one is related to exogenous stimulations, it isn’t enough
to say that the other is related to endogenous stimulations. An important part
of the φ system is, in fact, constituted of raw Q quantities from the outside
which are transformed into quantities that are by no means comparable to
those that characterize the φ system, among which the latter system organizes
whatever reaches it from the outside, and does so in a way that is clearly
expressed by Freud as apparendy being similar to Fechner’s theory – it is a
matter of the transformation of what is pure and simple quantity into “complication.”
Freud uses the same Latin term, complicationes.

你们或许跳过这个φ系统与ψ的系统的指称,稍微快速一点。假如前者跟内部的刺激息息相关,光是这样说是不足够的,后者跟外部的刺激息息相关。这个φ系统的重要的部分,实际上,由从外部而来的原料的Q数量所组成。这些数量被转换成为决非是可以比较的数量,跟作为这个φ 系统的特征的那些数量。其中,后者的系统组织任何从外部到达它的东西。并且这样做,用弗洛依德清楚表达的方式。它显而易见地类似于费奇尼的理论—问题是要转化纯粹而单纯数量的东西,成为“併发症”。弗洛依德使用相同的拉丁的术语,“併发症”。

Thus we have the following scheme. On the one hand is the φ system. On
the other is the φ system, which is a highly complex network capable of
shrinkage and of Aufbau, that is to say of extension. At this point of the
theory, there occurs between the two a crossing over, which is indicated in
Freud’s little diagram. Once a certain limit is passed, that which arrives as
quantity is completely transformed as far as its structure is concerned. This
notion of structure, of Aufbau, is represented by Freud as essential.

因此,我们拥有以下的计划。一方面是这个φ 系统。另一方面是这个φ系统。这个系统是一个相当复杂的会退缩的网络,属于Aufbow的网络,换句话说,延伸到网络。在理论的这个时刻,在这两个系统之间,发生一个跨越。这个跨越被指示,在弗洛依德的小图形里。一旦某个限制被通过,到达作为数量的东西完全被转化,就它的结构而言。结构的这个观念,Aufbou的这个观念,弗洛依德将它代表,作为基本。

He distinguishes
in the φ apparatus between its Aufbau, to retain quantity, and its
function, which is to discharge it, the Funktion der Abfuhr. The function isn’t
simply to circulate and discharge; it appears at this level as split.
One must realize that this apparatus is presented to us as isolated in a living

在这个φ 系统里,他区别它的延伸,为了保留数量与它的功能。那就是要发泄它,“发泄的功能”。这个功能不仅流通而且发泄。它出现在作为分裂的这个层面。我们必须体会到,这个工具被呈现给予我们,作为是孤立出来,在活生生的人身上。

It is the nervous system that is being studied and the totality of the
organism. The latter is an extremely important point whose significance is to
my mind obvious. It affirms and sustains itself in a very different way from
the hypotheses that Freud evokes nicely when he says that if one has a taste
for them, one should only take them seriously once their arbitrary nature has
been attenuated – the Willkurlichkeit der Constructio ad hoc. It seems obvious
to me that this apparatus is a topology of subjectivity, of subjectivity insofar
as it arises and is constructed on the surface of an organism.


There is also in the Φ system an important portion that Freud distinguishes
from the part called the nucleus, namely, the Spinalneuronen, which are open
to endogenous stimulation, a stimulation on the side where there is no apparatus
transforming the quantities.


One finds there a wealth of material that, given your wholly legitimate
purpose to simplify, you failed to mention. By way of linking up with what I
will have to say next time, I will do so.


There is, for example, the notion of Schlusselneuronen, which have a certain
function in relation to that part of the φ system which is turned toward endogeny
and which receives its quantities. The Schlusselneuronen are a particular
form of discharge that occurs within the φ system. Yet paradoxically that
discharge has as its function to increase the pressure. He also calls these
Schlusselneuronen, motorische Neuronen and I don’t think it is a mistake. They
provoke stimulations that occur within the φ system, a series of movements
which increase the tension still further and which as a result are at the origin
of current neuroses. And this is a problem which has been particularly
neglected, but that is for us of great interest.

譬如,并没有Schlusselneuronen(关键神经细胞) 的这个观念,拥有某种的功能,相关于φ 的这个系统的那个部分,它被转向外部。它接收它的数量。这个关键神经细胞是发泄的特殊形式,发生在这个φ 系统。可是,矛盾地,那个发泄拥有增加压力,作为它的功能。他也称这些关键脑神经细胞为“动力脑神经细胞”。我并不认为这是一个错误。它们激发这个刺激,发生在这个φ系统的刺激。一系列的运动更加深入地增加这个紧张。结果,它们处于目前神经症的起源。这是一个特别会被忽略的难题,但是对于我们,这非常引人興趣。

We will not go into that now, however. The important point is that everything
that happens here offers the paradox of being in the same place as that
in which the principle of articulation by the Bahnung reigns, the same place,
too, in which the whole hallucinatory phenomenon of perception occurs, of
that false reality to which, in brief, the human organism is predestined. It is
again in this same place that the processes oriented and dominated by reality
are unconsciously formed, insofar at least as it is a question of the subject
finding the path to satisfaction. In this instance satisfaction should not be
confused with the pleasure principle – this is a topic that emerges, oddly
enough, at the end of the third part of the text. You could not, of course,
lead us right through such a rich text.


When Freud sketches out what the
normal functioning of the apparatus might represent, he speaks not of specific
reaction but of specific action as corresponding to satisfaction. There is
a big system behind that spezifische Aktion, for it can only correspond, in fact,
to the refound object. We find here the foundation of the principle of repetition
in Freud, and it is something we will have to come back to. That
specific action will always be missing something. It is not distinguishable
from what takes place when a motor reaction occurs, for it is, in effect, a
reaction, a pure act, the discharge of an action.


There is a very long passage that I will have occasion to come back to and
to distill for you. There is no more vibrant commentary on the gap that is
inherent in human experience, on the distance that is manifested in man
between the articulation of a wish and what occurs when his desire sets out
on the path of its realization. Freud expresses there the reason why there is
always something that is far from finding satisfaction and which doesn’t include
the characteristics sought in a specific action. And he concludes with the
words – I seem to remember that they are the last words of his paper –
“monotonous quality.” Compared with anything the subject seeks out, that
which occurs in the domain of motor discharge always has a diminished character.
We cannot avoid giving that remark the approbation of the most profound
moral experience.


By way of concluding these thoughts today, I will draw your attention to
the analogy that exists between, on the one hand, that search for an archaic
– one might almost say a regressive – quality of indefinable pleasure which
animates unconscious instinct as a whole and, on the other, that which is
realized and satisfying in the fullest of senses, in the moral sense as such.
That is far more than an analogy; it reaches a level of profundity which has
perhaps never previously been articulated as such.



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