Ethics 40

Ethics 40
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

III
Rereading the Entwurf
第三章 重新阅读“规划”

AN ETHICS NOT A PSYCHOLOGY
伦理学,而非心理学
HOW REALITY IS CONSTITUTED
现实如何被构造
A TOPOLOGY OF SUBJECTIVITY
主体的拓扑学

You perhaps skipped a little quickly over the reference to the φ system and
the ψ system. If the one is related to exogenous stimulations, it isn’t enough
to say that the other is related to endogenous stimulations. An important part
of the φ system is, in fact, constituted of raw Q quantities from the outside
which are transformed into quantities that are by no means comparable to
those that characterize the φ system, among which the latter system organizes
whatever reaches it from the outside, and does so in a way that is clearly
expressed by Freud as apparendy being similar to Fechner’s theory – it is a
matter of the transformation of what is pure and simple quantity into “complication.”
Freud uses the same Latin term, complicationes.

你们或许跳过这个φ系统与ψ的系统的指称,稍微快速一点。假如前者跟内部的刺激息息相关,光是这样说是不足够的,后者跟外部的刺激息息相关。这个φ系统的重要的部分,实际上,由从外部而来的原料的Q数量所组成。这些数量被转换成为决非是可以比较的数量,跟作为这个φ 系统的特征的那些数量。其中,后者的系统组织任何从外部到达它的东西。并且这样做,用弗洛依德清楚表达的方式。它显而易见地类似于费奇尼的理论—问题是要转化纯粹而单纯数量的东西,成为“併发症”。弗洛依德使用相同的拉丁的术语,“併发症”。

Thus we have the following scheme. On the one hand is the φ system. On
the other is the φ system, which is a highly complex network capable of
shrinkage and of Aufbau, that is to say of extension. At this point of the
theory, there occurs between the two a crossing over, which is indicated in
Freud’s little diagram. Once a certain limit is passed, that which arrives as
quantity is completely transformed as far as its structure is concerned. This
notion of structure, of Aufbau, is represented by Freud as essential.

因此,我们拥有以下的计划。一方面是这个φ 系统。另一方面是这个φ系统。这个系统是一个相当复杂的会退缩的网络,属于Aufbow的网络,换句话说,延伸到网络。在理论的这个时刻,在这两个系统之间,发生一个跨越。这个跨越被指示,在弗洛依德的小图形里。一旦某个限制被通过,到达作为数量的东西完全被转化,就它的结构而言。结构的这个观念,Aufbou的这个观念,弗洛依德将它代表,作为基本。

He distinguishes
in the φ apparatus between its Aufbau, to retain quantity, and its
function, which is to discharge it, the Funktion der Abfuhr. The function isn’t
simply to circulate and discharge; it appears at this level as split.
One must realize that this apparatus is presented to us as isolated in a living
being.

在这个φ 系统里,他区别它的延伸,为了保留数量与它的功能。那就是要发泄它,“发泄的功能”。这个功能不仅流通而且发泄。它出现在作为分裂的这个层面。我们必须体会到,这个工具被呈现给予我们,作为是孤立出来,在活生生的人身上。

It is the nervous system that is being studied and the totality of the
organism. The latter is an extremely important point whose significance is to
my mind obvious. It affirms and sustains itself in a very different way from
the hypotheses that Freud evokes nicely when he says that if one has a taste
for them, one should only take them seriously once their arbitrary nature has
been attenuated – the Willkurlichkeit der Constructio ad hoc. It seems obvious
to me that this apparatus is a topology of subjectivity, of subjectivity insofar
as it arises and is constructed on the surface of an organism.

正在被研究的神经系统与有机体的完整性。后者是极端重要的点,依我之见,它的意义非常重要。它肯定并未维持它自己,用不同的方式,不同于弗洛依德巧妙召唤的假设,当他说,即使我们喜欢它,仅有当它们的任意的特性已经被强调时,我们才应该认真看待它们。我觉得显而易见地,这个工具是主体性的拓扑图型,因为它出现,并且被建构,在有机体的表面。

There is also in the Φ system an important portion that Freud distinguishes
from the part called the nucleus, namely, the Spinalneuronen, which are open
to endogenous stimulation, a stimulation on the side where there is no apparatus
transforming the quantities.

在这个Φ的系统,。也有一个重要的部分,弗洛依德区别跟所谓的脑神经细胞的部分的不同。这个脊柱脑神经细胞开放给外部的刺激,在这边的刺激,在那里,没有工具转化这些数量。

One finds there a wealth of material that, given your wholly legitimate
purpose to simplify, you failed to mention. By way of linking up with what I
will have to say next time, I will do so.

我们在那里发现有许多的材料。假如考虑到你们的整个的合理的目的,想要简化,你们没有提到。作为跟我下次将必须说的东西相连接。我将这样做。

There is, for example, the notion of Schlusselneuronen, which have a certain
function in relation to that part of the φ system which is turned toward endogeny
and which receives its quantities. The Schlusselneuronen are a particular
form of discharge that occurs within the φ system. Yet paradoxically that
discharge has as its function to increase the pressure. He also calls these
Schlusselneuronen, motorische Neuronen and I don’t think it is a mistake. They
provoke stimulations that occur within the φ system, a series of movements
which increase the tension still further and which as a result are at the origin
of current neuroses. And this is a problem which has been particularly
neglected, but that is for us of great interest.

譬如,并没有Schlusselneuronen(关键神经细胞) 的这个观念,拥有某种的功能,相关于φ 的这个系统的那个部分,它被转向外部。它接收它的数量。这个关键神经细胞是发泄的特殊形式,发生在这个φ 系统。可是,矛盾地,那个发泄拥有增加压力,作为它的功能。他也称这些关键脑神经细胞为“动力脑神经细胞”。我并不认为这是一个错误。它们激发这个刺激,发生在这个φ系统的刺激。一系列的运动更加深入地增加这个紧张。结果,它们处于目前神经症的起源。这是一个特别会被忽略的难题,但是对于我们,这非常引人興趣。

We will not go into that now, however. The important point is that everything
that happens here offers the paradox of being in the same place as that
in which the principle of articulation by the Bahnung reigns, the same place,
too, in which the whole hallucinatory phenomenon of perception occurs, of
that false reality to which, in brief, the human organism is predestined. It is
again in this same place that the processes oriented and dominated by reality
are unconsciously formed, insofar at least as it is a question of the subject
finding the path to satisfaction. In this instance satisfaction should not be
confused with the pleasure principle – this is a topic that emerges, oddly
enough, at the end of the third part of the text. You could not, of course,
lead us right through such a rich text.

可是,我们现在将不会探讨它。重要的是,在此发生的每样东西,提供这个悖论,它处于相同的位置,跟这个Bahnung(方便性)的表达原则统辖的那个位置。这也是相同的位置,在那里,感知的整个的幻觉的现象发生。虚假的现实,总之,人类的有机体预先注定的虚假的现实。而且,就在相同的位置,被现实取向与支配的过程,无意识地被形成。因为至少当它的问题是主体的问题,主体找到满足的途径。在这个例子里,满足不应该跟快乐原则混为一谈。这是出现的议题。耐人寻味地,在文本的第三部分的结束时。当然,你们不能够引导我们直接穿越如此丰富的文本。

When Freud sketches out what the
normal functioning of the apparatus might represent, he speaks not of specific
reaction but of specific action as corresponding to satisfaction. There is
a big system behind that spezifische Aktion, for it can only correspond, in fact,
to the refound object. We find here the foundation of the principle of repetition
in Freud, and it is something we will have to come back to. That
specific action will always be missing something. It is not distinguishable
from what takes place when a motor reaction occurs, for it is, in effect, a
reaction, a pure act, the discharge of an action.

当弗洛依德描绘这个工具的正常的功能可能呈现的东西,他没有谈论到明确的反应,而是对应于满足的明确的反应。有一个大的系统,在那个“明确的反应”的背后。因为实际上,它仅能对应于这个重新被找到的客体。我们在此发现到弗洛依德所谓的重复原则的这个基础。那是某件东西,我们将必须回头探讨。那个明确的反应将总是失落某件东西。它无法被区别,跟所发生的事情,当动力反应发生。因为实际上,它是一种反应,一个纯粹的行动,行动的发泄。

There is a very long passage that I will have occasion to come back to and
to distill for you. There is no more vibrant commentary on the gap that is
inherent in human experience, on the distance that is manifested in man
between the articulation of a wish and what occurs when his desire sets out
on the path of its realization. Freud expresses there the reason why there is
always something that is far from finding satisfaction and which doesn’t include
the characteristics sought in a specific action. And he concludes with the
words – I seem to remember that they are the last words of his paper –
“monotonous quality.” Compared with anything the subject seeks out, that
which occurs in the domain of motor discharge always has a diminished character.
We cannot avoid giving that remark the approbation of the most profound
moral experience.

有一个非常长的段路,我将有机会回头探讨,并且过滤给予你们。在这个差距,不再有共鸣的评论,在人类的经验里本质存在的这个差距。在人身上被维持的这个距离,处于愿望的表达与发生的东西,当他出发探讨它的实现的途径。弗洛依德在那里表达这个理由,为什么总是会有某件东西,根本就无法找到满足。某件东西并没有包含着明确的行动里寻求的那些特性。他用这些话作为结论—我似乎记得,它们是他的论文的最后的结论—“单调的特质”。跟主体寻找到任何东西比较起来,发生在动力发泄的领域的东西,总是拥有一个被减少的特性。我们无法避免会给予那个谈论,最深刻的道德的经验的认可。

By way of concluding these thoughts today, I will draw your attention to
the analogy that exists between, on the one hand, that search for an archaic
– one might almost say a regressive – quality of indefinable pleasure which
animates unconscious instinct as a whole and, on the other, that which is
realized and satisfying in the fullest of senses, in the moral sense as such.
That is far more than an analogy; it reaches a level of profundity which has
perhaps never previously been articulated as such.

今天,作为这些思想的总结,我将吸引你们注意这个类比,一方面,存在于那个对于过时的特质的寻求—我们几乎说一个退行—无法定义的快乐的特质,它激发作为整体的无意识的本能。另一方面,被实现与令人满意的东西,用最充实的意义,用道德意义的本身。那不仅仅是类同而已。它到达深奥的层面,或许以前从来没有被如此表达的层面。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: