Ethic 77

Ethic 77

The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学

Jacques Lacan
雅克、拉康

VI
第五章

THE CRITIQUE OF PRACTICAL REASON
实践理性的批判

PHILOSOPHY IN THE BOUDOIR
闺房哲学

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
十戒

THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS
致罗马人的使徒书

Let us be clear about this: when we reflect on the maxim that guides our
action, Kant is inviting us to consider it for an instant as the law of a nature
in which we are called upon to live.

让我们澄清这点:当我们反思引导我们的行动的公理,康德正在邀请我们将它认为是自然的法则,我们被召唤生活其中的自然的法则。

That is where one finds the apparatus
that would have us reject in horror some maxim or other that our instincts
would gladly lead us to. In this connection he gives us examples that are
worth taking note of in a concrete sense, for however obvious they may seem,
they perhaps suggest, at least to the analyst, a line of reflection.

这就是我们发现这个工具,这个工具本来会要我们因为恐惧而排斥某个公理。这样,我们的本能将会高興地引导我们到那个公理。关于这点,他给予我们例子,值得注意的例子,以具体的意义而言,因为无论这些例子是多么的明显,它们或许暗示着反思的脉络,至少对于精神分析家而言。

But note that
he affirms the laws of nature, not of society. It is only too clear that not only
do societies live very well by reference to laws that are far from promoting
their universal application, but even more remarkably, as I suggested last
time, these societies prosper as a result of the transgression of these maxims.

但是,请你们注意,他肯定自然的法则,而不是社会的法则。这是非常清楚的,不但社会凭借提到这些法则,。生活得颇为顺利。这些法则根本就没有提升它们的普世的应用,而且更加引人注意的,如同我上次建议,这些社会的繁荣,是由于这些公理的逾越的结果。

It is a matter then of a mental reference to a nature that is organized according
to the laws of an object constructed at the moment when we raise the question
of our rule of conduct.

事情因此就算要在精神方面提到自然,这个自然被组织,依照客体的法则。这个客体被建造,当我们提出我们的行为的规范的问题。

So as to produce the kind of shock or eye-opening effect that seems to me
necessary if we are to make progress, I simply want to draw your attention
to this: if The Critique of Practical Reason appeared in 1788, seven years after
the first edition of The Critique of Pure Reason, there is another work which
came out six years after The Critique of Practical Reason, a little after Thermidor
in 1795, and which is called Philosophy in the Boudoir.

为了产生某种的震撼或开眼界的效果,我觉得这是必要的,假如我们想要有所进展。我仅是想要吸引你们注意这个:假如“实践理性批判”出现在1788年,比“纯粹理性批判”的第一版晚了七年。还有另外一本著作出现,比“实践理性批判”晚六年。比起1795年的“社米德”,就是所称道“在博德尔的哲学”.

As, I suppose, you all know, Philosophy in the Boudoir is the work of a
certain Marquis de Sade, who is famous for more than one reason. His notoriety
was accompanied from the beginning by great misfortunes, and one
might add by the abuse of power concerning him – he did after all remain a
prisoner for twenty-five years, which is a long time for someone who, my
goodness, as far as we know, never committed a serious crime, and who in
certain of our modern ideologies has been promoted to a point where one can
also say that there is at the very least some confusion, if not excess.

我认为,众所周知,“在博德尔的哲学“是某位萨德的著作。萨德的著名不仅一个理由。他的恶名昭著从一开始就伴随极大的不幸。我们不妨补充说,凭借关于他的权力的烂用。二十五年来,他毕竟始终是一位囚犯。二十五年是一段长的时间,对于某位据我们所知,其实从来没有犯过严重的罪的人。在我们现代的意识形态里,他已经被提升到这个程度,我们也能够说,至少会有些混乱,虽然还不是很过分。

Although in the eyes of some the work of the Marquis de Sade seems to
promise a variety of entertainments, it is not strictly speaking much fun.
Moreover, the pans that seem to give the most pleasure can also be regarded
as the most boring. But one cannot claim that his work lacks coherence. And,
in a word, it is precisely the Kantian criteria he advances to justify his positions
that constitute what can be called a kind of anti-morality.

虽然在某些人们的眼中,萨德的著作似乎承诺各色各样的娱乐。严格来说,那并不十分有趣。而且,似乎给予最大快乐的双关语,也能够被认为是最枯燥无聊的。但是我们无法宣称,他的著作欠缺一贯性。总之,他确实提升康德的标准,为了替他的立场自圆其说。他的立场构成所谓的某种的违背-道德。

The paradox of this is argued with the greatest coherence in the work that
is entitled Philosophy in the Boudoir. A short passage is included in it that,
given the number of attentive ears here, is the only one that I expressly recommend
you read – “Frenchmen, one more effort to become republicans.”

在“博德尔的哲学“里,这个违背-道德的悖论强烈一贯地被主张。在里面包含一个短的段落,假如考虑到在此有那么多么多人专注倾听,这是唯一的一段,我强烈地推荐你们阅读—“法国人,再次成为共和党人的努力”。

As a result of this appeal, which supposedly came from a number of cells
that were active at that time in revolutionary Paris, the Marquis de Sade
proposes that, given the ruin of those authorities on which (according to the
work’s premises) the creation of a true republic depends, we should adopt
the opposite of what was considered up to that point as the essential minimum
of a viable and coherent morality.

由于这个呼吁的结果,那个呼吁被认为来自许多的活跃的组织,在革命时期的巴黎的当时。萨德建议,假如考虑到那些权威(依照作品推测),一个真正的共和国的创建要依靠的权威。我们应该採用相反的东西,直到那时,被认为是至少是实用而一贯的道德。

And, in truth, he does quite a good job in defending that proposal. It is no
accident if we first find in Philosophy in the Boudoir the praise of calumny.
Calumny, he writes, can in no sense be injurious; if it imputes to our neighbor
worse things than one can justifiably impute to him, it nevertheless has
the merit that it puts us on guard against his activities. And the author proceeds
in like manner to justify point by point the reversal of the fundamental
imperatives of the moral law, extolling incest, adultery, theft, and everything
else you can think of. If you adopt the opposite of all the laws of the Decalogue,
you will end up with the coherent exposition of something which in
the last instance may be articulated as follows: “Let us take as the universal
maxim of our conduct the right to enjoy any other person whatsoever as the
instrument of our pleasure.”

事实上,他尽心尽力地辨护那个建议。这个并非是偶然,假如我们首先在“博德尔顿哲学”里发现到,对于诬告的赞赏。他书写到,诬告根本就无伤大雅。假如诬告跟我们的邻居灌输更加糟糕的东西,我们能够振振有理地灌输给他。诬告仍然具有这个优点, 它让我们警觉防卫他的行动。作者继续以同样的方式逐项地自圆其说,对于道德法则的基本命令倒转。他称赞乱伦,通奸,偷窃,以及每样你想得到的东西。假如你们採用所有的法则的相反,十日谈的所有的法则。你们结束会有事情的一贯陈述。以最后的一个例子,它可以被表达如下:「让我们接受这个权利,享受另外一个人的权利,作为是我们的行为的普世的公理,作为我们快乐的工具。」

Sade demonstrates with great consistency that, once universalized, this law,
although it gives libertines complete power over all women indifferently,
whether they like it or not, conversely also liberates those same women from
all the dudes that civilized society imposes on them in their conjugal, matrimonial
and other relations. This conception opens wide the flood gates that
in imagination he proposes as the horizon of our desire; everyone is invited
to pursue to the limit the demands of his lust, and to realize them.

萨德强烈一贯地证明,一旦成为普世标准,这个法则虽然给予花花公子以不同方式完全掌控所有的女人,无论他们喜欢与否。反过来说,这个法则也让那些相同的女人获得自由,免除文明社会赋加在她们身上的所有那些公子少爷,在她们的婚姻,家庭与其他关系里。这个观念大大打开洪水闸门。在想像里,他建议作为我们的欲望的水平线,每个人都被邀请将他的欲念的要求彻底追求,并且实现它们。

If the same opening is given to all, one will be able to see what a natural
society is like. Our repugnance may be legitimately related to that which
Kant himself claims to eliminate from the criteria of the moral law, namely,
to the realm of sentiment.

假如相同的机会给予大家,我们将会能够看见自然的社会像是什么样子。我们的厌恶可能跟康德自己宣称的东西合理地息息相关。为了减少,从道德法则的标准,到情感的领域。

If one eliminates from morality every element of sentiment, if one removes
or invalidates all guidance to be found in sentiments, then in the final analysis
the Sadian world is conceivable – even if it is its inversion, its caricature – as
one of the possible forms of the world governed by a radical ethics, by the
Kantian ethics as elaborated in 1788.

假如我们从道德减少情感的每个因素,假如我们移除或让所有在情感里能够被发现的引导成为无效,那么,追根究底,萨德的世界是可以构想的。即使萨德的世界是它的倒转,它的嘲讽—作为是其中一个可能的世界,被强烈的伦理学统辖的世界,被康德的伦理学,在1788年建构的伦理学。

Believe me, there is no lack of Kantian echoes in the attempts to articulate
moral systems that one finds in a vast literature that might be called libertine,
the literature of the man of pleasure, which is an equally caricatural form of
the problem that for a long time preoccupied the αnciéη regime, and from
Fenelon on, the education of girls. You can see that pushed to its comically
paradoxical limit in The Raised Curtain by Mirabeau.

请你们相信我。并不欠缺对于康德的迴响。由于企图要表达道德的系统,我们在各种各样所谓“风流文学”发现的道德系统,那些寻欢作乐的人们的文学。那是那个难题的同样具有嘲讽的形式,长久以来,这个难题专注于αnciéη regime,(古代政权),从风尼龙开始,就从事对女孩的教育。你们能够看见那个教育被推到它猾就的悖论的极限,在米拉保的“窗帘拉起”一书里。

Well now, we are coming to that on account of which, in its search for
justification, for a base and support, in the sense of reference to the reality
principle, ethics encounters its own stumbling block, its failure – I mean
there where an aporia opens up in that mental articulation we call ethics. In
the same way that Kantian ethics has no other consequence than that gymnastic
exercise whose formative function for anyone who thinks I have called
to your attention, so Sadian ethics has had no social consequences at all.

呵呵,我们正要谈论那个,因为那个极限,当它寻求自圆其说时,作为基础与支持,提到这个现实原则,伦理学遭遇它自己的绊脚石,它的失败。我在那里指的是,在我们所谓的伦理学的精神表达,一个难题展开的东西。同样地,康德的伦理学并没有其他的结果,除了将是运动练习,对于任何认为我提醒他们专注的人们而言,那个运动的练习的形成的功能。所以萨德的伦理学根本就没有任何的社会的结果。

Understand that I don’t know if the French have really tried to become
republicans, but it is certain that just like all the other nations of the world,
including those who had their revolutions after them – bolder, more ambitious,
and more radical revolutions, too – they have left what I will call the
religious bases of the ten commandments completely intact, even pushing
them to a point where their puritan character is increasingly marked. We’ve
reached a situation where the leader of a great socialist state on a visit to other
contemporary cultures is scandalized to see dancers on the Pacific coast of
the noble country of America raising their legs a little too high.

请你们理解,我并不知道法国人是否确实尝试成为共和国人。但是确定的是,就像世界的所有的其他国家一样,包括那些背后有革命可能的那些国家。更加大胆,更加具有企图心,更加强烈的革命。他们都将我所谓的十戒的宗教的基础保存相当完整,甚至将它们推到某个程度,他们的清教徒的性格逐渐被标识出来。我们已经到达一个情况,在那里,伟大的社会国家队领导者访问其他当代的文化,传出丑闻,因为他们在美国这个高贵的国家的太平洋海岸,观赏跳舞女郎将她们的大腿举得太高。

We are thus faced here with a question, that is to say, the question of the
relationship to das Ding.

我们因此面对一个问题。也就是说,跟“物象”的关系的问题。

This relationship seems to me to be sufficiently emphasized in the third
chapter of The Critique of Practical Reason concerning the motives of practical
pure reason. In effect, Kant acknowledges after all the existence of one sentient
correlative of the moral law in its purity, and strangely enough, I ask
you to note, it is nothing other than pain itself. I will read you the passage
concerned, the second paragraph of the third part: “Consequently, we can
see a priori that the moral law as the determining principle of will, by reason
of the fact that it sets itself against our inclinations, must produce a feeling
that one could call pain. And this is the first and perhaps only case, where
we are allowed to determine, by means of a priori concepts, the relationship
between a knowledge, which comes from practical pure reason, and a feeling
of pleasure or pain.”

我觉得这个关系似乎充分地被强调,在“实践理性的批判”的第三章,关于实践的纯粹理性的动机。实际上,康德毕竟承认一个“情感”的存在,相对应处于它的纯净状态的道德法则。耐人寻味地,我要求你们注意,那个情感实实在在就是痛苦的本身。我将跟你们朗读这个相关的段落,第三部分的第二段:「结果,我们能够看出一个难题,道德法则,作为意志的决定的原则。凭借这个事实:道德法则竖立它自己对康我们的倾向,道德法则一定会产生我们所谓的痛苦的感觉。这就是第一个,或许是唯一的个案。在那里,我们被容许决定,凭借“难题”的观念,决定这个关系,知识与快乐或痛苦的感觉之间的关系,因为知识来自实践纯粹理性。

In brief, Kant is of the same opinion as Sade. For in order to reach das
Ding absolutely, to open the flood gates of desire, what does Sade show us on
the horizon? In essence, pain. The other’s pain as well as the pain of the
subject himself, for on occasions they are simply one and the same thing. To
the degree that it involves forcing an access to the Thing, the outer extremity
of pleasure is unbearable to us. It is this that explains the absurd or, to use a
popular expression, maniacal side of Sade that strikes us in his fictional constructions.
We are aware at every moment of the discomfort in living constructions,
the kind of discomfort that makes it so difficult for our neurotic
patients to confess certain of their fantasms.

总之,康德持跟萨德相同的意见。为了绝对到达“物象”,为了打开欲望的洪水闸门,萨德在地平线跟我们显示的是什么?本质上,就是痛苦。他者的痛苦以及主体的痛苦。因为有时,他者的痛苦与主体的痛苦是同一件回事。甚至它牵涉到强迫进入到“物象”。快乐的外在的极端,对于我们而言,是无法忍受的。就是这个无法忍受解释这个荒谬,或者用通俗的话来说,萨德的疯狂的一面,在他的幻想的建构里,让我们印象深刻。我们在活生生的建构里,在不舒适的时刻,我们知道,这种的不舒适会让我们的神经症者很困难告白他们的某些的幻想。

In fact, to a certain degree, at a certain level, fantasms cannot bear the
revelation of speech.

事实上,某个程度,在某个层面,幻想似乎无法忍受言说的启示。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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