Ethics 26

Ethics 26
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Pleasure and reality
快乐与现实
THE MORAL AGENCY ACTUALIZES THE REAL
道德代理者实践实在界
INERTIA AND RECTIFICATION
堕性与矫正
REALITY IS PRECARIOUS
现实不稳定
OPPOSITION AND INTERSECTION OF THE PRINCIPLES
两种原种的对立与交会

2
Freud in the course of his so-called auto-analysis writes in a short letter, it is
number 73: “Meine Analyse geht wetter, my analysis continues. It is my principal
interest, meine Hauptinteresse. Everything remains obscure, even the
problems involved, but there is a feeling of comfort. It is as if,” he writes,
“one had only to reach into a larder and take what one wanted. The unpleasant
thing,” he says, “are the Stimmungen,” in the most general sense we can
give to that word, which has a special resonance in German, namely, moods
or feelings, which by their very nature cover, hide – what precisely? the
Wirklichkeit, reality.

在他所谓的自动-精神分析里,弗洛依德以一封短信写到,那是编号第73封信:「我的精神分析继续。那是我的主要的興趣。每样事情始终模糊,即使被牵涉的难题,但是有一种舒适的感觉。他写到,那好像是「我们只有伸手进入厨柜,拿出我们想要的东西。」他说,「不愉快的事情是
Stimmungen」。我们能够给予这个字最通俗的意义。在德文,这个字具有特别的迴响,也就是心情或感觉。由于它们的特性,它们涵盖,或隐藏—确实是什么东西?现实。

It is in terms of Wirklichkeit that Freud questions what presents itself to
him as a Stimmung. The Stimmung is that which reveals to him what he has
to look for in his auto-analysis, what he is questioning, the moment when he
has the feeling of having, as in a dark room, in a larder or Vorratskammer,
everything he needs, and that it is waiting there for him, in store for him.

用Wirklichkeit t这个术语,弗洛依德询问是什么东西呈现它自己给他,作为心情。这个心情就是跟他显示他必须寻找的东西,在他的自动-精神分析里。他所询问的东西,当他拥有他所需要的每样东西的感觉,如同在黑暗的房间,在厨柜里或Vorratskammer里。那个东西正在那里等待他,等候他。

But he isn’t led toward it by his Stimmungen. Such is the meaning of his
sentence – the most unpleasant experience, das Unangenehmste, is the Stimmungen.
Freud’s experience begins with the search for the reality that is
somewhere inside himself. And it is this that constitutes the originality of his
point of departure. Moreover, he adds in the same vein that “even sexual
excitement is for someone like me unusable in this approach. Even there I
do not trust myself to see where are the final realities.” And he adds, “I
maintain my good humor in this whole business.” Before achieving results,
we must be patient a little longer.

但是他没有被引导朝向它,被他的心情。他的句子的意义是如此明显—即使是最不令人愉快的经验,也是心情。弗洛依德的精神分析经验就从寻求现实开始,这个现实就在他的内部的某个地方。就在这个地方形成他的出发点的原初性。而且,他以相同心情补充:“即使是性”的興奋,对于像我这样的某个人,在这个方法是不温定的。即使在那里,我并没有信任我自己,为了看见最后的现实在哪里。他补充说,「我主张我的好心情,在这整个的事情里。」在获得结果之前,我们必须耐心稍微久一点。

I bring to your attention in passing a recent little book by Erich Fromm
that I won’t say I recommend to you, since it is a strangely discordant, almost
insidious work, that is close to being defamatory. It is called Sigmund Freud’s
Mission and it makes insinuating points that are not without interest and that
concern the special traits of Freud’s personality, invariably seen from an
obviously belittling point of view. In particular, he selects from the text Freud’s
sentences on sexual excitation in order to have us draw the conclusion that
by the age of forty Freud was already impotent.

我顺便提醒你们注意最近一本小书,弗洛姆所写的一本小书。我不说我跟你们推荐,因为那是一本非常不协调,陷阱重重的书。近似亵渎。书名是“弗洛依德的使命”。它发表嘲讽的观点,这些观点颇耐人寻味,并且关系到弗洛依德的人格的特征。一成不变地从显然是轻蔑的观点。特别是,他从文本选择弗洛依德的句子,探讨性的興奋,为了让我们获得这个结论:在四十岁之前,弗洛依德已经性无能。

We are now in a position to analyze Freud’s 1895 manuscript concerning
his fundamental conception of the structure of the psyche, a manuscript that
chance has placed in our hands. He had thought of calling it Psychology for
the Use of Neurologists. Since he never published it, the draft remained attached
to a packet of letters to Fliess, and it is available to us thanks to the acquisition
of these collections.

我们现在处于这个立场,要分析弗洛依德在1895年的原稿,关于他的基本的观念,对于心灵的结构。这一个原稿凑巧我们拿到。他曾经想到要称它为“心理学对于脑神经学家的使用”。因为他从来没有出版它,这个草稿始终跟给予弗利斯的信件的包裹连系一块。由于这些文集的获得,我们才得到它。

It is, therefore, not only proper but necessary that we begin at that point
our analysis of the meaning in Freud’s thought of the “.hematics of the reality
principle in opposition to the pleasure principle. Is there or is there not something
distinctive relative to the development of his thought there, and at the
same time to the directions taken by our own experience? It is here that we
may find that hidden backbone which, I believe, is required on this occasion.

因此,这不但是合适而且需要,我们应该在那个时刻开始我们的分析这个意义,在弗洛依德的现实原则的主题的思想的意义,跟快乐原则对立。相对应于他的思想在那里的发展,是否存在着某件不同的东西?同时,又相对于在我们自己的精神分析经验採取的方向?就在这里,我们可能发现那个隐藏的支持,我相信,那个隐藏的支持在这个场合被要求。

The opposition between the pleasure principle and the reality principle was
rearticulated throughout Freud’s work – 1895, the Entwurf (Project for a
Scientific Psychogy); 1900, Chapter VII of the Traumdeutung, with the first
public rearticulation of the so-called primary and secondary processes, the
one governed by the pleasure principle and the other by the reality principle;
1914, return to the article from which I selected the dream that I discussed
at length last year, the dream of the dead father, “he didn’t know”; the article,
“Formulieringen iiber the Zwei Prinzipen des Psychischen Geschehens,”
that one might translate as “Of the Structure of the Psyche”; 1930, that Civilization
and Its Discontents which, I promised you, we will get to by way of
conclusion.

在快乐原则与现实原则的这个对立,重新被表达,在弗洛依德的所有的著作里。在1895年,“科学心理学的企划”,1900年,“梦的解析第七章”,第一次公开地重新表达所谓的原初与次级的过程。快乐原则统辖的这个过程,与现实原则统辖的过程,在1914年,请你们回到我从那里选择梦的那篇文章,我去年详细讨论的文章,死去的父亲的梦。“他并不知道”。这篇文章,
“Formulieringen iiber the Zwei Prinzipen des Psychischen Geschehens,” 我们可以翻译为“心灵的结构”。在1930年,“文明与其不满”,我答应你们,我们将探讨作为结论。

Others before Freud spoke of pleasure as a guiding function of ethics. Not
only does Aristotle set great store by it, but he finds it impossible not to place
it at the center of his ethical teaching. What is happiness if it doesn’t contain
the bloom of pleasure? A significant part of the discussion of the Nicomachaen
Ethics is designed to restore the true function of pleasure to its proper place;
strangely enough it is introduced in such a way that it is given a value that is
not merely passive. Pleasure in Aristotle is an acdvity that is compared to the
bloom given off by youthful activity – it is, if you like, a radiance. In addition,
it is also the sign of the blossoming of an action, in the literal sense of
ένέργεια, a word that expresses the true praxis as that which includes its own
end.

在弗洛依德之前,还有其他的人们谈论快乐,作为是伦理学的引导功能。亚里斯多德不但非常重是快乐,而且他还发现不可能不将快乐放在他的伦理学的教导的中心。幸福难道不就是包含快乐的春花怒放的东西吗?亚里斯多德的伦理学的讨论的重要的部分被设计,就是要恢复快乐的真实的功能,回到它应得的地位。耐人寻味地,快乐以这样的方式被介绍,以致它被给予一种价值,不仅是被动的价值。在亚里斯多德,快乐是一种活动,可比喻为青春的活动焕发出来的春花怒放。你们不妨说是辉煌灿烂。除外,快乐是一种行动的春花怒放的迹象。用ένέργεια实质的意义来说,这是一个表达真实的本体的字词,作为是包含它自己的目的的东西。

Pleasure has no doubt been given other modulations down through the
ages as sign, stigmatum, reward, or substance of the psychic life. But let us
consider the case of the man who quesdons us direcdy, of Freud.

无可置疑地,自古以来,快乐曾经被给予其他的调节,作为心灵的迹象,献身,酬劳,与物质。 但是让我们考虑这个人的情况,他直接询问我们关于弗洛依德。

What cannot fail to strike us right away is that his pleasure principle is an
inertia principle. Its function is to regulate by a kind of automatism everything
that comes together through a process that, in his first formulation,
Freud tends to present as dependent on a preformed apparatus that is stricdy
limited to the neuronic apparatus. The latter regulates the facilitations that it
retains after having suffered their effects. It is essentially a matter of everything
that results from a fundamental tendency to discharge in which a given
quantity is desdned to be expended. That is the point of view from which
the functioning of the pleasure principle is first articulated.

我们立即必然会感到印象深刻的事情是,他的快乐原则是一种惰性原则。快乐原则的功能是凭借一种自动心理机制,用来规范一切聚集一块的东西,通过一个过程,在他最初的形成时,弗洛依德倾向于呈现作为依靠一种被完成的心理机制。这个心理机制严格地被限制于神经症的心理机制。后者规范它包留的方便,在它已经遭受他们的情感的痛苦。基本的事情是,每一样从基本的倾向于发泄所造成的东西,在那里,某个特定的数量注定会被消耗掉。就是从这个观点,快乐原则的这个功能首先被表达。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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