Ethics 19

Ethics 19
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Pleasure and reality
快乐与现实
THE MORAL AGENCY ACTUALIZES THE REAL
道德代理者实践实在界
INERTIA AND RECTIFICATION
堕性与矫正
REALITY IS PRECARIOUS
现实不稳定
OPPOSITION AND INTERSECTION OF THE PRINCIPLES
两种原种的对立与交会

Honey is what I am trying to bring you, the honey of my reflections on
something that, my goodness, I have been doing for a number of years and
which is beginning to add up, but which, as time goes by, ends up not being
that much out of proportion with the time you devote to it yourselves.

蜂蜜是我正在尝试带给你们的东西,我的沉思的蜂蜜,我的天,针对我好几年来一直从事的事情,这件事情现在才逐渐累积。但是,随着时间过去,这件事情的结果,相当不成比例,跟你自己专注于它的时间。

If the communication effect here sometimes presents difficulties, reflect on
the experience of honey. Honey is either very hard or very fluid. If it’s hard,
it is difficult to cut, since there are no natural breaks. If it’s very liquid, it is
suddenly all over the place – I assume that you are all familiar with the
experience of eating honey in bed at breakfast time.

假如沟通的效果在此有时呈现困难,反思蜂蜜的经验。蜂蜜要就是非常粘固,要不就是非流质。假如蜂蜜非常粘固,那就很困难切割,因为没有自然的裂口。假如蜂蜜非流质,它会突然的流遍各地。我认为,你们对于在早餐时床上吃蜂蜜的经验已经司空见惯。

Hence the problem of pots. The honey pot is reminiscent of the mustard
pot that I have already dealt with. The two have exactly the same meaning
now that we no longer imagine that the hexagons in which we tend to store
our harvest have a natural relationship to the structure of the world. Consequently,
the question we are raising is in the end always the same, i.e., what
is the significance of the word?

因此,这个壶的难题。蜂蜜壶让人想起我已经处理过的芥末壶。这两种壶现在确实拥有相同的意义,我们不再想像我们倾向于用力贮藏农作物的六边形,跟世界的结构具有自然的关系。结果,我们正在提出的这个问题,最后总是相同。譬如,这个字词的意义是什么?

This year we are more specifically concerned with realizing how the ethical
question of our practice is intimately related to one that we have been in a
position to glimpse for some time, namely, that the deep dissatisfaction we
find in every psychology – including the one we have founded thanks to
psychoanalysis – derives from the fact that it is nothing more than a mask,
and sometimes even an alibi, of the effort to focus on the problem of our own
action – something that is the essence and very foundation of all ethical
reflection. In other words, we need to know if we have managed to do anything
more than take a small step outside ethics and if, like the other psychologies,
our own is simply another development of ethical reflection, of the
search for a guide or a way, that in the last analysis may be formulated as
follows: “Given our condition as men, what must we do in order to act in the
right way?”

今年,我们更加明确地关注到要体会出,我们的实践的问题如何密切地关联,跟我们有段时间来一直能够瞥见的东西。换句话说,我们在每个心理学发现的这种深度不满,包括我们已经根据精神分析创办的这个心理学。这种深度的不满来自这个事实:它仅是个面具,有时甚至是一个藉口,我们努力要专注于我们自己的行动的难题的藉口。这个东西是所有伦理学的反思的本质与基础。换句话说,我们需要知道我们是否成功地做出任何事情,而不仅在伦理学的外面跨出一小步。就像所有的其他心理学,我们自己的心理学仅是伦理反思的另外一个发展,但是被阐述如下:「假如考虑到我们作为人的情况,为了要以正确的方式来行动,我们必须怎么做?

This reminder seems to me difficult to disagree with, when every day of
our lives our action suggests to us that we are not far removed from that. Of
course, things present themselves differently to us. Our way of introducing
this action, of presenting and justifying it, is different. Its beginning is characterized by features of demand, appeal and urgency, whose specialized
meaning places us closer to earth as far as the idea of the articulation of an
ethics is concerned. But that does not change the fact that we may in the end,
or at any point whatsoever, discover such an articulation once again in its
completeness – the kind of articulation that has always given both meaning
and arguments to those who have reflected on morals and have tried to elaborate
their different ethics.

我觉得这个提醒很困难让人不同意。当我们生活的每一天,我们的行动跟我们建议,我们距离那个提醒并不遥远。当然,事情以不同的方式呈现它们自己给我们。我们介绍这个行动的方式,呈现它,并且为它自圆其说,我们的方式是不同的。它的开始的特征是要求,诉求与迫切的各种特色。它们的专业的意义让我们更加靠近现实,就伦理学的表达的观念而言。但是,那并没有改变这个事实:我们最后或在任何其他时刻,我们可能再次发现这样的表达,处于它的完整性。这种表达总是给予意义与争论,给那些反思道德的那些人们,他们曾经尝试建构他们不同的伦理学。
1
Last time I sketched an outline of what I wish to cover this year. It extends
from the recognition of the omnipresence of the moral imperative, of its infiltration
into all our experience, to the other pole, that is to say, the pleasure
in a second degree we may paradoxically find there, namely, moral masochism.
In passing, I pointed out the unexpected and original approach I intend to
develop with reference to those fundamental categories of the symbolic, the
imaginary, and the real, that I use to orient you in your experience. My
thesis, as I already indicated – and don’t be surprised if it first appears confused,
since it is the development of my argument that will give it weight –
my thesis is that the moral law, the moral command, the presence of the
moral agency in our activity, insofar as it is structured by the symbolic, is
that through which the real is actualized – the real as such, the weight of the
real.

上次,我描绘我希望今年希望涵盖的内容的钢要。这个钢要从道德的命令的无所不在的体认延伸出去,从道德命令的渗透进入我们的一切经验,一直到另外一个极端。换句话说,我们可能悖论地在那里找到的处于第二程度的快乐。顺便地,我指出这个意料之外与原创性的方法,我打算发展的方法,关于那些象征界,想像界,与实在界的基本的范畴。我用它们来让你们在你们的经验里找到定向。我的议题—如同我已经指示的。请你们不要大吃一惊,假如它起初看起来乱七八糟。因为我的主题的发展将会给予它具有重要性。我的议题是:道德的法则,道德的命令,在我们的行动里,道德代理者的存在,因为它作为象征的结构,就是实在界被实践的东西,实在界的自身,实在界的重要性。

A thesis that may appear to be both a trivial truth and a paradox. My thesis
involves the idea that the moral law affirms itself in opposition to pleasure,
and we can sense that to speak of the real in connection with the moral law
seems to put into question the value of what we normally include in the
notion of the ideal. Thus for the moment I will not attempt to polish further
the blade of my argument, since what will likely constitute the thrust of my
purpose has precisely to do with the meaning to be given to the term real –
within that system of categories that I profess as a function of our practice as
analysts.

这个主题表面看起来既是琐碎的真理,又是悖论。我的主题牵涉到这个观念:道德的法则肯定它自己,跟快乐对立。我们能够理解,谈论关于道德法则的实在界,似乎是质疑我们正常地包括在理想的观念的东西的价值。因此,目前我将不企图更加深入地修饰我的主题的锋锐。因为很可能形成我的目的地冲力的东西,跟应该被给予“实在界”这个术语的意义,确实有关联。在范畴的那个系统里,我宣称它们作为我们精神分析家的实践的功能。

That meaning isn’t immediately accessible, although those among you who
have wondered about the final significance I might give the term will nevertheless
have already noticed that its meaning must have some relationship to
that movement which traverses the whole of Freud’s thought. It is a movement
which makes him start with a first opposition between reality principle
and pleasure principle in order, after a series of vacillations, oscillations and
imperceptible changes in his references, to conclude at the end of the theoretic
formulations by positing something beyond the pleasure principle that
might well leave us wondering how it relates to the first opposition. Beyond
the pleasure principle we encounter that opaque surface which to some has
seemed so obscure that it is the antimony of all thought – not just biological
but scientific in general – the surface that is known as the death instinct.

这个意义并没有当下就能够被接近。虽然你们中间有些人们想要知道,关于我可能给予这个术语的最后的意义,可是,他们将会已经注意到,它的意义必然会有些关系,跟那个运动,瀰漫弗洛依德的思想的全部。这一个运动让他开始时,用一个最初的对立,现实原则与快乐原则之间的对立,为了要在理论的阐释的结束时作为结论,经过一系列的摇摆,在他的指称里的摇摆与不知不觉的改变。他提出某件超越快乐原则的东西。这个东西很有理由让我们想要知道,它如何跟起初的对立有关联。在超越快乐原则时,我们遭遇到模糊的表面,对于某些人们,这个表面似乎是如此模糊,以致它是一切思想的对立—不仅是生物学的思想,而且是一般的科学的思想—这个表面就是众所周知的死亡冲动。

What is the death instinct? What is this law beyond all law, that can only
be posited as a final structure, as a vanishing point of any reality that might
be attained? In the coupling of pleasure principle and reality principle, the
reality principle might seem to be a prolongation or an application of the
pleasure principle.

死亡本能是什么?超越所有的法则的这个法则是什么?那个法则仅能够被提出,作为是最后的结构,作为是任何可能被获得的现实的消失的点?在快乐原则与现实原则的配对里,现实原则似乎是快乐原则的延长或运用。

But, on the other hand, this dependent and limited position
seems to cause something to emerge, something which controls in the
broadest of senses the whole of our relationship to the world. It is this unveiling,
this rediscovery, that Beyond the Pleasure Principle is about. And in this
process, this progress, we see before our eyes the problematic character of
that which Freud posits under the term reality.

但是在另一方面,这个依赖而且受到限制的立场好像引起某件东西出现。广义来说,这个东西控制我们跟世界的整个的关系。就是这个揭开遮蔽,这个重新发现,“超越快乐原则”所关注的。在这个过程,这个进展,我们在我们眼前看见这个棘手的特性,弗洛依德用“现实”这个术语提出的东西的特性。

Is it a question of daily reality, of immediate, social reality? Of conformity
to established categories or accepted practices? Of the reality discovered by
science or of the one which is yet to be discovered? Is it psychic reality?
It is on the road to the investigation of this reality that we find ourselves as
analysts, and it leads us a long way from something that can be expressed
under the category of wholeness. It leads us into a special area, that of psychic
reality, which presents itself to us with the problematic character of a previously
unequaled order.

这难道就是日常的现实,当下,社会的现实的问题?这难道就是符合于已经建立的范畴,或已经被接纳的行为的问题?这难道就是科学所发现的现实的问题?或是有待发现的科学的问题?这难道是心灵的现实?我们发现我们自己作为精神分析家,就在这个现实正在被研究的途中。它引导我们远离能够被表达的东西,在完整性的范畴之下。它引导我们进入特别的领域。心灵现实的领域。这个心灵现实呈现给与我们,具有先前无与伦比的秩序的棘手的特性。

I will, therefore, begin by attempting to explore the function that the term
reality played in the thought of the inventor of psychoanalysis and, at the
same time, in our own thought, the thought of those of us who have followed
in his path. On the other hand, I will straight away point out to those who
might be inclined to forget it, or who might think that I am following in this
direction only by referring to the moral imperative in our experience – I will
point out that moral action poses problems for us precisely to the extent that
if analysis prepares us for it, it also in the end leaves us standing at the door.

我因此将开始,凭借探讨“现实”的这个术语的功能,在精神分析的发明者的思想里。同时,这我们自己的思想里,我们那些人们的思想里,我们追随弗洛依德的途径。在另一方面,我将立即指出,对于那些倾向于忘记它的人们。或可能认为我正在朝着这个方向,仅是凭借提到道德的命令,在我们的精神分析的经验里。我将指出,道德的行动对于我们确实形成难题,甚至,假如精神分析替我们准备它,最后,它也让我们望门却步。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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