Ethics 5

Ethics 5
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Outline of the seminar
研讨纲要
THE ATTRACTION OF TRANSGRESSION
逾越的吸引力

FROM ARISTOTLE TO FREUD
从亚里斯多德到弗洛依德
THE REAL
实在界
THE THREE IDEALS
三个理想

2
We are faced with the question of what analysis allows us to formulate concerning
the origin of morality.

我们正在面临这个问题:关于道德的起源,精神分析让我们能够说明什么?

Is its contribution limited to the elaboration of a mythology that is more
credible and more secular than that which claims to be revealed? I have in
mind the reconstructed mythology of Totem and Taboo, which starts out from
the experience of the original murder of the father, from the circumstances
that give rise to it and its consequences. From this point of view, it is the
transformation of the energy of desire which makes possible the idea of the
genesis of its repression. As a result, the transgression is not in this instance
just something which is imposed on us in a formal way; it is instead something
worthy of our praise, felix culpa, since it is at the origin of a higher
complexity, something to which the realm of civilization owes its development.

精神分析的贡献仅是被限制于建构神话?比起宣称被启示的神话更加可信,更加世俗化?我在心里曾经重新建构“图腾与禁忌”的神话。这个神话开始于原初的弑父的经验,开始于产生弑父的环境。从那个观点,欲望的精力的转化让欲望的压抑的起源的观念成为可能。在这个例子里,
逾越并不是以正式的方式赋加在我身上的东西。代替的,逾越是某件值得我们赞美的东西。因为它处于较高的复杂性的起源,焉知非福的东西,文明的领域将它的发展归功于的东西。

In short, is everything limited to the genesis of the superego whose description
is formulated, perfected, deepened, and made more complex as Freud’s
work progresses? We will see that this genesis of the superego is not simply
a psychogenesis and a sociogenesis. Indeed, it is impossible to articulate it by
limiting oneself merely to the register of collective needs. Something is imposed
there whose jurisdiction is to be distinguished from pure and simple social
necessity – it is properly speaking something whose unique scope I am trying
to make you appreciate here in terms of the relation to the signifier and to
the law of discourse.

总之,随着弗洛依德的研究的进展,每样东西都被限制于超我的创世纪。超我的描述被说明,被改善,被深化,然后被弄得更加复杂吗?我们将会看见,超微的这个创世纪并不仅是心理病因学与社会起源学。代替的,我们表达它时,不可能仅是限制于我们自己,于集体需要的铭记。某件东西被赋加在那里,它的统辖应该被区别出来,跟纯粹与单纯的社会的需要的不同。贴切地说,某件东西的独特的范围,我正在尝试让你们在此赏识,用跟能指的关系的术语,跟辞说的法则的关系的术语。

We must maintain the autonomy of this term if we want
to be able to locate our experience precisely or simply correctly.
Here no doubt the distinction between culture and society contains something
that might appear new or even divergent in comparison with what is
found in a certain kind of teaching of the analytical experience. I hope, in
fact, to point out to you the references to such a distinction and the scope
they occupy in Freud himself, a distinction whose authority I am far from
alone in promoting or emphasizing the need for.

我们必须维持这个术语的自主权,假如我们想要能够定位我们的经验,确实或仅是正确地。在此,无可置疑地,文化与社会的这个区别,包含某件可能显得新奇,甚至的多样化的东西。跟某种的精神分析经验的教学里被发现的东西比较起来。实际上,我希望跟你们指出这些指称,对于它们在弗洛依德本身所佔据点地位与范围。这个地位的权威,我并是仅有的一人,提倡或强调这个地位具有权威的需要。

And in order to draw your attention immediately to the work in which we
will take up the problem, I refer you to Civilization and Its Discontents, published
in 1922 and written by Freud after the working out of his second topic,
that is to say after he had placed in the foreground the highly problematic
notion of the death instinct. You will find expressed there in striking phrases
the idea that what, in brief, happens in the progress of civilization, those
discontents that are to be explored, is situated, as far as man is concerned,
far above him – the man involved here being the one who finds himself at
that turning point in history where Freud himself and his work are situated.

为了当下吸引你们注意这个工作,我们将会探讨这个难题的工作。我推荐你们阅读“文明及其不满”,它出版于1922年,弗洛依德所写,就在解决他的第二个议题之后。换句话说,就在他将死亡本能的这个问题重重的观念,放置在前景之后。你们将会发现这个观念用引人注意的词语表达。总之,文明的进展过程发生的事情,应该被探讨的那些不满–就人而言,应该被定位在他之上,-在此被牵涉的这个人就是发现他自己处于历史的转捩点的这个人。在那里,弗洛依德自己及其研究被定位。

We will come back to the significance of Freud’s formula and I will draw
your attention to its significance in the text. But I believe it to be important
enough for me to point it out to you right away, and already sufficiently
illuminated in my teaching, where I show the originality of the Freudian
conversion in the relation of man to the logos.

我们将回头谈论弗洛依德的公式的意义。我将吸引你们的注意力,到这个公式在文本里的意义。但是我相信这个公式对于我们充分重于,所以我跟你们立即指出。在我的教学里,它已经充分地被阐明。在那里,我揭示弗洛依德转变的原创力,在人跟理性的关系。

This Civilization and Its Discontents that I invite you to get to know or to
reread in the context of Freud’s work is not just a set of notes. It is not the
kind of thing one grants a practitioner or a scientist somewhat indulgently,
as his way of making an excursion into philosophical inquiry without our
giving it all the technical importance one would accord to such a thought
coming from someone who considers himself to belong to the category of
philosopher. Such a view of this work of Freud’s is widespread among psychoanalysts
and is definitely to be rejected. Civilization and Its Discontents is
an indispensable work, unsurpassed for an understanding of Freud’s thought
and the summation of his experience.

我邀请你们认识的这个“文明与其不满”,或重新阅读,在弗洛依德的研究的文本,并不仅是一套笔记。我们如此偏爱地给予精神分析执业者与科学家的,并不是这种东西。作为弗洛依德前进到哲学的研究的方式。我们没有给予它这种专业的重视,我们习惯给予如此的思想的专业的重视,这种的思想来自于认为他自己属于哲学的范畴的某个人。对于弗洛伊德的这个著作的这种看法非常普遍,在精神分析家当中。这种观点明确地应该被排斥。“文明与其不满”是一部不可或缺的著作,为了要理解弗洛依德的思想,与他的经验的融会贯通。

It illuminates, emphasizes, dissipates
the ambiguities of wholly distinct points of the analytical experience and of
what our view of man should be – given that it is with man, with an immemorial
human demand, that we have to deal on a daily basis in our experience.

“文明与其不满”启蒙,强调,并驱散那些模糊暧昧,精神分析经验的扬名立万产生的模糊暧昧,以及我们对于人的观点应该是如何产生的模糊暧昧。假如考虑到,它跟人息息相关,跟永恒的人的要求息息相关,我们必须要处理的,根据我们的精神分析经验的日常的基础。

As I have already said, moral experience is not limited to that acceptance
of necessity, to that form in which such experience presents itself in every
individual case. Moral experience is not simply linked to that slow recognition
of the function that was defined and made autonomous by Freud under
the term of superego, nor to that exploration of its paradoxes, to what I have
called the obscene and ferocious figure in which the moral agency appears
when we seek it at its root.

如同我已经说过,道德的经验并不是限制于那个必要性的接受,并不是限制于那个形式,如此的经验呈现它自己的形式,在每个个人的个案。道德的经验并不仅跟那个功能的缓慢的承认息息相关,被弗洛依德定义并具有自主权的功能,在超我的术语之下。道德的经验也不仅是跟探索它的悖论息息相关,跟我所谓的卑鄙与残暴的人物息息相关。在那里,道德的代理者出现,当我们在它的根源寻找它。

The moral experience involved in psychoanalysis is the one that is summed
up in the original imperative proposed in what might be called the Freudian
ascetic experience, namely, that Wo es war, soll Ich werden with which Freud
concludes the second part of his Vorlesungen (Introductory Lectures) on psychoanalysis.
The root of this is given in an experience that deserves the term
“moral experience,” and is found at the very beginning of the entry of the
patient into analysis.

在精神分析牵涉到道德的经验就是这个被总和的经验,在这个原初的命令,在所谓的弗洛伊德的禁欲的经验里被建议的原初的命令。换句话说,那是“他我所在,自我必将回归”。弗洛依德用这个原初的命令作为他的“论精神分析导论”的第二部分。这个的根源被给予,在应该获得“道德经验”的这个术语的经验里,在病人进入精神分析的开始被给予。

That “I” which is supposed to come to be where “it” was, and which
analysis has taught us to evaluate, is nothing more than that whose root we
already found in the “I” which asks itself what it wants. It is not only questioned,
but as it progresses in its experience, it asks itself that question and
asks it precisely in the place where strange, paradoxical, and cruel commands
are suggested to it by its morbid experience.

那个“我”被认为来的“它”的以前所在地地方。精神分析教导我们要评估的那个“我”,仅仅就是我们已经找到的那个根源,在这个“我”,询问它自己它想要什么的这个“我”。这个“我”不但被质疑,而且当它在它的经验里前进时,它询问它自己那个问题,并且明确地询问它,在这个地方,陌生,悖论,与残酷命令被建议给它的地方,被它的病态的经验。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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