Ethics 3

Ethics 3
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Outline of the seminar
研讨纲要
THE ATTRACTION OF TRANSGRESSION
逾越的吸引力

FROM ARISTOTLE TO FREUD
从亚里斯多德到弗洛依德
THE REAL
实在界
THE THREE IDEALS
三个理想

A certain philosophy – it immediately preceded the one which is the nearest
relative to the Freuthan enterprise, the one which was transmitted to us
in the nineteenth century – a certain eighteenth-century philosophy assumed
as its task what might be called the naturalist liberation of desire. One might
characterize this thought, this particularly practical thought, as that of the
man of pleasure. Now the naturalist liberation of desire has failed. The more
the theory, the more the work of social criticism, the more the sieve of that
experience, which tended to limit obligation to certain precise functions in
the social order, have raised in us the hope of relativizing the imperative, the
contrary, or, in a word, conflictual character of moral experience, the more
we have, in fact, witnessed a growth in the incidence of genuine pathologies.

某个哲学,它是弗洛依德的企业的近亲。这个哲学在19世纪被传递给我们—某种18世纪的哲学担负起所谓的自然主义的解放,作为它的职责。我们可以将这种思想的特征,这种特殊实用的思想的特征,作为是快乐的人都特征。现在,自然主义对于欲望的解放已经失败。理论越多,社会批判的工作越多,那个经验的筛选就越多,倾向于限制义务,于某些明确的功能,在社会的秩序。它们在我们身上唤起这个希望,希望将这个指令成为相对,相反地,或换言之,让道德经验的冲突的特征成为相对,实际上,我们就越加见证到真诚的病理的意外的增长。

The naturalist liberation of desire has failed historically. We do not find ourselves
in the presence of a man less weighed down with laws and duties than
before the great critical experience of so-called libertine thought.

自然主义对于欲望的解放从历史而言是功败垂成。我们并没有发现我们自己处于这么一个人的面前,他比较不受法则与责任的重担,比起在所谓的解放的思想的壮烈的经验之前。

If we find ourselves led to consider even in retrospect the experience of
that man of pleasure – through reflection on what psychoanalysis has contributed
to the knowledge and the circumstances of perverse experience – we
will soon see that in truth everything in this moral theory was to destine it to
failure.

假如我们发现我们自己被引导去认为,甚至以回顾方式去认为快乐的那个人的经验—通过对于精神分析对于倒错经验的认识与环境的反思—我们不久将会看见,实际上,在这个道德理论的一切事情都将它预先注定失败。

In effect, although the experience of the man of pleasure presents itself
with an ideal of naturalist liberation, one has only to read the major authors
-I mean those who in expressing themselves on the subject have adopted the
boldest approaches to libertinage, and even to eroticism itself- to realize that
this experience contains a note of defiance, a kind of trial by ordeal in relation
to that which remains the terminal point of this argument, an undoubtedly
diminished but nevertheless fixed term. And that is nothing less than the
divine term.

实际上,虽然快乐的人的经验呈现它自己,带着自然主义的解放的理想,我们只要阅读主要的作者—我指的是那些当他们在表达他们自己,针对这个议题,他们採有最大胆的到达解放的途径,甚至到达性爱的本身—我们就会体会到,这个经验包含挑衅的意味,一种经历磨难的考验。跟这个磨难的考验息息相关的始终是这个争论的终端,一个无可置疑地被减少,但是仍然被固执的术语。那实实在在就是这个神性的术语。

As the creator of nature, God is summoned to account for the extreme
anomalies whose existence the Marquis de Sade, Mirabeau, and Diderot,
among others, have drawn our attention to. This challenge, this summoning,
this trial by ordeal ought not to allow any other way out than the one that
was, in effect, realized historically. He who submits himself to the ordeal
finds at the end its premises, namely, the Other to whom this ordeal is
addressed, in the last analysis its Judge. That is precisely what gives its special
tone to this literature, which presents us with the dimension of the erotic
in a way that has never been achieved since, never equaled. In the course of
our investigation, we definitely must submit to our judgment that which in
analysis has retained an affinity with, a relationship to, and a common root
with, such an experience.

作为自然的创造者,上帝被召唤来解释这些极端的异常行为。这些极端的异常行为,诸如萨德,马拉宝,与狄特罗等人们,他们吸引我们的注意。这个挑战,这个召唤,这个磨难的考验,不应该容许有任何其他的解决方式,除了就是这个方式,实际上,就是历史上被实践的方式。将他自己承受这种考验的这个人,最后发现它的各种前提。也就是说,针对他处理的大他者,追根究底,就是它的裁判者。那确实就是为什么要给予它的特别的强调,对于这些文学,呈现给与我们性爱的维度的这种文学,它们使用的方式,自此之后,就无法被获致,无与相伦比。在我们研究的过程,我们明确地必须将在精神分析里,保留关联性的东西,提交给予我们作判断。这样一种关系,一种共同的根源,跟这样一种经验。

Here we are touching on a perspective that has been little explored in analysis.
It seems that from the moment of those first soundings, from the sudden
flash of light that the Freuthan experience cast on the paradoxical origins of
desire, on the polymorphously perverse character of its infantile forms, a
general tendency has led psychoanalysts to reduce the paradoxical origins in
order to show their convergence in a harmonious conclusion. This movement
has on the whole characterized the progress of analytical thought to the point
where it is worth asking if this theoretical progress was not leading in the end
to an even more all-embracing moralism than any that has previously existed.

在此,我们碰触到一个观点,在精神分析罕见被探讨的观点。似乎,从那些最初的迴响的时刻开始,从光的突然闪现开始,弗洛依德的精神分析经验投射给欲望的这个悖论的起源,投射给欲望的婴儿的形态的各种各样的倒错的特征。一般性的倾向已经引导精神分析,将这些悖论的起源,化简,为了显示它们的汇集于和谐的结论。这个时刻大体上表现精神分析思想的进展的特色。甚至值得询问的是,这个理论的进展是否最后会导致更加全面性地拥抱道德主义,比起先前存在过的道德主义。

Psychoanalysis would seem to have as its sole goal the calming of guilt –
although we know well through our practical experience the difficulties and
obstacles, indeed the reactions, that such an approach entails. This approach
involves the taming of perverse jouissance, which is assumed to emerge from
the demonstration of its universality, on the one hand, and its function, on
the other.

精神分析似乎将会拥有罪恶感的平抚,作为是它唯一的目标。虽然我们清楚知道,经由我们的实践的精神分析经验,知道这些困难与阻碍,的确,知道这些反应,如此的方法所涵盖的反应。这个方法牵涉到对于倒错的欢爽的驯服。这个倒错的欢爽被认为一方面从它的普遍性的展示出现。另一方面,从它的功能出现。

No doubt the term “component,” used for designating the perverse drive,
is in this situation given its full weight. Last year we explored the expression
“component drive”; in a whole section of our remarks we were concerned
with the insights that analysis affords concerning the function of desire and
with the deep finality of that really remarkable diversity, which explains the
value of the catalogue of human instincts that analysis has allowed us to draw
up.

无可置疑,“成分”这个术语被使用来指明这个倒错的冲动,在这个情况,它被给予它的充分的重量。去年,我们探索“成分冲动”的表达.在我们谈论的整个的部分,我们关注的是这些洞见,精神分析提供的洞见,关于欲望的功能,以及深层的终极,会有那种确实值得注意到多样化。这种多样化解释人类的本能的目录的价值,精神分析让我们能够拟定的人类的本能的目录。

Perhaps the question will only be seen in sharp relief, when one compares
the position that our point of view of the term desire has led us to, with that
which is, for example, articulated in the work of Aristotle in connection with
ethics. I will give him an important place in my discussion, including particularly
that work which lays out Aristotelian ethics in its most elaborate form,
the Nicomachean Ethics. There are two points in Aristotle’s work in which he
shows how a whole register of desire is literally situated by him outside of the
field of morality.

或许,仅是从锐利的突显,这个问题才能被看见,当我们比较这个立场,我们对欲望的这个术语的观点曾经引导我们来到的立场。譬如,在亚里斯多德的著作里,被表达的东西,包括特别是那个著作,规划亚里斯多德伦理学的著作,处于它最精致的形式,“尼各马可伦理学”。在亚里斯多德的著作,有两点,他显示,欲望的铭记如何实质上被他定位在道德的领域的外面。

Where a certain category of desires is involved, there is, in effect, no ethical
problem for Aristotle. Yet these very desires are nothing less than those
notions that are situated in the forefront of our experience. A whole large
field of what constitutes for us the sphere of sexual desires is simply classed
by Aristotle in the realm of monstrous anomalies – he uses the term “bestiality”
with reference to them. What occurs at this level has nothing to do with
moral evaluation. The ethical questions that Aristotle raises are located altogether
elsewhere – I will give you an idea later of their thrust and essence.
That is a point of special importance.

就欲望的某个范畴而言,实际上,对于亚里斯多德,并没有伦理的难题。可是,这些欲望实实在在就是那些观念,被定位在我们精神分析经验的前景。对于我们,形成性的欲望的范围的整个大领域,被亚里斯多德仅是归类于怪诞的异常行为的领域。他使用这个术语“兽性”,提到它们。发生在这个层次的东西,跟道德的评估没有丝毫的关系。 亚里斯多德提出的伦理学的问题,完全被定位在其他地方。以后,我将让你们明白,它的冲动与本质的观念。那是特别重要的一点。

On the other hand, if one believes that the whole of Aristotle’s morality
has lost none of its relevance for moral theory, then one can measure from
that fact how subversive our experience is, since it serves to render his theory
surprising, primitive, paradoxical and, in truth, incomprehensible.
But all that is just a stop on our journey. What I really want to do this
morning is to give you an outline of this seminar.

另一方面,假如我们相信,整个的亚里斯多德的道德完全没有丧失它跟道德理论的相关性。那么,我们能够根据那个事实衡量,我们的精神分析经验的颠覆性有多强。因为它充当将他的理论让人惊奇,原始,悖论,实际上,是无法理解。但是所有那一切仅是我们旅途的一个停顿点。今天早上,我确实想要做的是给予你们这个研讨班的钢要。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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