Ethics 1

Ethics 1
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Outline of the seminar
研讨纲要
THE ATTRACTION OF TRANSGRESSION
逾越的吸引力

FROM ARISTOTLE TO FREUD
从亚里斯多德到弗洛依德
THE REAL
实在界
THE THREE IDEALS
三个理想

I announced that the title of my seminar this year was The Ethics of Psychoanalysis.
I do not think that this is a subject whose choice is in any way
surprising in itself, although it does leave open for some of you the question
of what I might have in mind.

我宣布,我今年研讨班的标题是“精神分析伦理学”。我并不认为,这一个题目的选择本身有任何值得惊奇的地方。虽然这个题目确实让你们有些人展开我心目中构想的这个问题。

It was certainly not without some hesitation and even trepidation that I
decided to tackle it. I, in fact, decided to do so because the subject follows
directly from my seminar of last year, if it is true that we can consider that
work as completely finished.

我决定克服这个问题,确实并非没有一些犹豫,甚至是但书。实际上,我决定这样做,是因为这个主题直接从去年的研讨班延续而来。假如我们确实能够将那个工作认为是完全结束。

In any case, we must move forward. Given all that is implied by the phrase,
the ethics of psychoanalysis will allow me, far more than anything else, to
test the categories that I believe enable me, through my teaching, to give you
the most suitable instruments for understanding what is new both in Freud’s
work and in the experience of psychoanalysis that derives from it.

无论如何,我们必须前进。假如考虑到,这个词语所暗示的东西,精神分析伦理学将会让我们能够,远超过其他东西,让我们能够测试那些目录,我相信那些目录让我们能够凭借教学,给予你们最合适的工具,作为理解新奇出胜地地方,在弗洛依德的研究与从这个研究获得的精神分析的经验。

New in relation to what? In relation to something that is both very general
and very specific. Very general to the extent that the experience of psychoanalysis
is highly significant for a certain moment in the history of man,
namely, the one we are living in, although this does not imply we are able –
far from it – to specify what the collective work we are engaged in means.
Very specific, on the other hand, like our daily work, namely, in the way in
which we have to respond in experience to what I have taught you to articulate
as a demand, a patient’s demand, to which our response gives an exact
meaning. And in our response itself we must maintain the strictest discipline,
so as not to let its deeply unconscious meaning be adulterated by that demand.

在什么地方新奇出胜?在某件既是一般性又是非常明确的东西。非常一般性的程度是,精神分析的经验非常重要,对于人的历史的某些时刻。换句话说,我们正在生活其中的这个时刻。虽然这并不暗示着,我们能够—根本就不能够—指明我们正在参与的这个集体的研究意味着什么。另一方面,非常明确地,就像我们的日常的工作,也就是说,在精神分析经验里,我们必须回应我曾经教导你们的东西,为了表达作为要求,病人的要求。我们对于病人的要求的回应,给予一个确实的意外。在我们的回应本身,我们必须维持那个最严格的纪律,为了不要让它的深层无意识的意外受到那样要求的掺杂。

In speaking of the ethics of psychoanalysis, I chose a word which to my
mind was no accident. I might have said “morality” instead. If I say “ethics,”
you will soon see why. It is not because I take pleasure in using a term that
is less common.

当我们谈论精神分析伦理学时,我选择我并觉得是偶然的一个字词。代替地,我本来可以使用“道德”一词。假如我说“伦理学”,你们不久将会明白为什么。那不仅是因为我很乐意使用一个比较不那么普遍的术语。
1
Let us begin by noting this – something that, in a word, makes the subject
eminently accessible and even tempting. It is my belief that no one who is
involved with psychoanalysis has not been drawn to treat the subject of its
ethics. I am not the one who created the expression. Moreover, it is impossible
not to acknowledge that we are submerged in what are strictly speaking
moral problems.

让我们开始时,注意到这个—总之,某件东西让主体明显地可以接近,甚至具有诱惑力。我相信,参与精神分析的人们,没有人不被吸引来处理它自己的伦理的主体。我并不是创造这个表达的人。而且,这是我们不可能不承认:我们被潜藏在严格所说的道德的难题的东西里。

Our experience has led us to explore further than has been attempted before
the universe of transgression. That is the expression which, with an extra
adjective, my colleague Hesnard uses. He refers to the morbid universe of
transgression. And it is doubtless from this morbid point of view that we
approach it at its highest point.

我们的精神分析经验引导我们更加深入地探索逾越的宇宙,比起以前所曾经尝试的。那就是我的同事黑纳德所使用的词语,具有特殊的形容词。他提到逾越的病态的宇宙。无可置疑地,从这个病榻的观点,我们接近它,处于它最高的点。

In truth, that point of view is impossible to dissociate from the universe of
transgression as such. And the link between transgression and morbidity has
not failed in our time to mark with its seal all thought about morals. It is
even strange sometimes – something I have drawn your attention to before
in my asides – to see in religious circles a certain vertigo seize those who are
engaged in thinking about moral questions when they come face to face with
what our experience has to offer. It is remarkable to see how they, as it were,
give in to the temptation of an excessive and even comic optimism, and start
to think that a decline of morbidity might lead transgression to vanish.
In fact, what we are dealing with is nothing less than the attraction of
transgression.

实际上,那个观点,跟逾越的宇宙自身,不可能形影分离。逾越与病态之间的关联,在我们的时代,必然会用它的封印标识所有关于道德的思想。有时,甚至耐人寻味的是,我以前曾经吸引你们注意的某件东西,在我的离题旁白里—在宗教的圈子里,看见某些的晕眩让那些人们著魔,那些参与思维道德问题的人们,当他们面对我们精神分析经验所提供的东西。值得注意的是,看见他们如何屈服于这个诱惑,过分放纵,甚至夸大滑稽的诱惑。然后开始思维,病态的衰亡可能会让逾越消失。实际上,我们正在处理的东西,实实在在就是逾越的吸引力。

And what is this transgression? It is certainly not the same as the one the
patient commits with the expectation of being punished or punishing himself.
When we speak of the need for punishment, we are certainly referring
to a transgression which is on the path of this need and which is sought out
to obtain this punishment. But that way we are only carried a litte further
toward some yet more obscure transgression which calls for punishment.

这个逾越是什么?它确实跟病人所犯的这个逾越并不相同,病人带着被惩罚或惩罚自己的这个逾越。当我们谈论惩罚的需要,我们确实提到正处于这个需要途中的逾越,这个逾越被寻求,为了获得这个惩罚。但是以那种方式,我们仅是稍微被带朝向某个更加模糊的逾越,要求惩罚的逾越。

Is it the transgression that Freud’s work points to from the beginning, the
murder of the father, the great myth that he places at the origin of the development
of civilization? Or is it that even more obscure and original transgression
for which he finds a name at the end of his work, in a word, the death
instinct, to the extent that man finds himself anchored deep within to its
formidable dialectic?

这难道不是弗洛伊德从一开始就指向的逾越吗?弑父,这个伟大的神话,弗洛依德将它放置在文明的发展的起源。或者,这难道不是,甚至更加模糊与原初的逾越,弗洛依德在他的研究结束时,找到一个名称,总之,死亡本能。甚至人类发现他自己深深地被锚定在里面,跟它的可怕的辩证法锚定一块?

It is between these two terms that one finds in Freud a body of thought, a
development whose precise significance it will be our task to determine. But
it is not, in truth, in the sphere either of practice or of theory that is to be
found all that which makes me emphasize the importance of the ethical
dimension in my experience and my teaching of Freud. In effect, as has been
quite properly pointed out, not everything in ethics is simply related to the
sense of obligation.

就在弑父与死亡本能这两个术语之间,我们在弗洛依德身上找到一个思想体系。我们的工作就是要决定这个思想体系的发展的确是意义。但是,实际上,在实践或理论的范围里,我们都无法找到让我能够强调伦理学的维度的重要性的东西,在我的精神分析经验与弗洛依德的教学里。如同相当贴切被指出的,并不是伦理学的一切东西都仅仅跟义务的意义有关联。

Moral experience as such, that is to say, the reference to sanctions, puts
man in a certain relation to his own action that concerns not only an articulated
law but also a direction, a trajectory, in a word, a good that he appeals
to, thereby engendering an ideal of conduct. All that, too, properly speaking
constitutes the dimension of ethics and is situated beyond the notion of a
command, beyond what offers itself with a sense of obligation. That is why I
believe it necessary to relate the dimension of our experience to the contribution
of those who have attempted in our time to advance moral thought –
I am, in fact, alluding to Fritz Rauh, whom we will be concerned with as one
of our reference points in this exercise.

换句话说,道德经验的自身,提到各种的认可,将人处于跟他自己的行动的关系。他自己的行动不但跟被表达到法则,而且跟方向,跟投射,息息相关。总之,跟他诉求的善息息相关。因此产生行为的理想。贴切而言,所有组成伦理学维度的东西,被定位在超越命令的观念之外的东西,超越用义务的意义提供自己的东西。那就是为什么我相信这是必要的,将我们的精神分析的经验的维度,跟那些人们的贡献联接一块。他们曾经尝试在我们的时代提出道德的思想。实际上,我正提到弗利兹 劳斯。我们将会关注他,作为是我们在这个运用的指称要点。

But I am certainly not one of those who gladly sets the sense of obligation
aside. If there is, in fact, something that psychoanalysis has drawn attention
to, it is, beyond the sense of obligation properly speaking, the importance, I
would even say the omnipresence, of a sense of guilt. Certain internal tendencies
of ethical thought attempt to evade what it must be said is this disagreeable
aspect of moral experience. If I am certainly not one of those who attempt
to soften, blunt, or attenuate the sense of guilt, it is because in my daily
experience I am too insistently brought back to it and reminded of it.

但是我确实并不那些人们的其中一位,他们很乐意将义务的意义放置一旁。实际上,假如有某件东西,精神分析曾经关注的东西,那就是,超越义务的意义,贴切地是,就是超越这个重要性,我甚至说,超越这个无所不在,超越罪恶感的意义。伦理学的思想的某些内部的倾向企图逃避它必须被说出的东西。这就是道德经验的令人不愉快的层面。假如我确实并不是那些人们的其中一位,他们企图将罪恶感软化,麻木,或减弱。那是因为在我的日常的精神分析经验里,我也持续不断地被带回到这个罪恶感,并且提醒它。

It nevertheless remains true that analysis is the experience which has restored
to favor in the strongest possible way the productive function of desire as
such. This is so evidently the case that one can, in short, say that the genesis
of the moral dimension in Freud’s theoretical elaboration is located nowhere
else than in desire itself. It is from the energy of desire that that agency is
detached which at the end of its development will take the form of the censor.
Thus something is enclosed in a circle that was imposed on us, deduced
from what is most characteristic in our experience.

这仍然是真实的,精神分析的经验曾经将欲望的生产的功能本身恢复受人欢迎,以尽可能强调的方式。这是如此显而易见的情况,总之,我们能够说,道德维度的创世纪,在弗洛依德的理论的建构里,被定位的地方,实实在在就是欲望。就是从欲望的这个能源,那个代理者被隔离开来。在它发展的结束,这个代理者会採用审查的形式。因此,某件东西被封闭在被赋加在我们身上的一个圆圈里,从我们的精神分析经验,最具特色的东西推论出来。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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