Ethics 68

Ethics 68
The Ethics of Psychoanalysis
精神分析伦理学
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Das Ding (II)
物象

THE INTERSAID OF VERNEINUNG
“否认”的内部命令
MOTHER AS DAS DING
母亲作为物象

However negative the ten commandments may seem, I will not linger long
over their character as prohibitions – we are always being told that morality
doesn’t only have a negative side, it also has a positive side – but I will note,
as I have before in this place, that they are perhaps only the commandments
of speech. By that I mean they clarify that without which no speech is possible
– notice that I did not say discourse.

无论十戒看起来是多么负面,我将不再详述它们作为禁忌的特性。我们总是被告上,道德并不仅具有负面的影响。道德也具有正面的影响。但是,我将注意到,如同我以前在这个位置注意到,它们或许并不是言说的十戒。我的意思是,它们澄清那个正面,假如没有那个正面影响,没有言说是可能。请你们注意,我并不是说没有辞说是可能。

I just gave you an indication there, since I could hardly go any further,
and I pick up the trail again here. This is what I want to point out. In the ten
commandments, which constitute almost everything that, against all odds, is
accepted as commandments by the whole of the civilized community – civilized
or not, or almost civilized, but since we only know the other, uncivilized
part by means of a number of cryptograms, let us limit ourselves to the
so-called civilized portions – in the ten commandments, it is nowhere specified
that one must not sleep with one’s mother. I do not think that the command
“to honor” her should be considered as the least suggestive of this,
either negatively or positively – in spite of what in the Provencal tales of
Marius and Olive is known as “performing honorable service.”4

我在那里仅是给予你们一个指示,因为我几乎无法再深入前进。我再次在这里接续这个追踪。这就是我想要指出的东西。在十戒里,它们形成几乎是一切东西,面对各种不利,这一切东西被接受,作为是整个的文明社会的十戒,无论文明与非,或几乎就是文明的社会。但是因为我们仅是知道另外一个,不文明的部分,凭借许多的密码。让我们限制自己到所谓的文明的部分。在十戒里,并没有明确指明,我们一定不能跟母亲睡觉。我并不认为,“遵敬”母亲应该被认为是稍微具有这个暗示,不论是负面或正面。尽管在马力思与奥力维的通俗故事里,众所周知的“执行荣誉的服务”的东西。

Couldn’t we next time try to interpret the ten commandments as something
very close to that which effectively goes on in repression in the unconscious?
The ten commandments may be interpreted as intended to prevent
the subject from engaging in any form of incest on one condition, and on one
condition only, namely, that we recognize that the prohibition of incest is
nothing other than the condition sine qua non of speech.

下一次,我们难道不能解释这个十戒,作为是某件非常靠近在无意识的压抑里有效地进行的东西?这个十戒可以被解释,作为被设计来阻止在某个情况,主体不能参与任何的乱伦的形式。而且仅是在某个情况。换句话说,我们体认出,乱伦的禁忌实实在在就是作为言说的情况。

This brings us back to questioning the meaning of the ten commandments
insofar as they are tied in the deepest of ways to that which regulates the
distance between the subject and das Ding – insofar as that distance is precisely
the condition of speech, insofar as the ten commandments are the condition
of the existence of speech as such.

这引导我们回到十戒的这个意义。因为它们跟这些深层的方式息息相关,规范这个距离的方式,在主体与物象之间的距离。因为那个距离确实就是言说的这个情况。因为十戒就是言说的存在自身的情况。

I am simply on the point of broaching this topic, but I beg you right away
not to stop at the idea that the ten commandments are, so to speak, the
condition of all social life. For from another point of view, how can one not
in truth see, when one merely recites them, that they are in a way the chapter
and verse of our transactions at every moment of our lives? They display the
range of what are properly speaking our human actions. In other words, we
spend our time breaking the ten commandments, and that is why society is
possible.

我仅是即将提出这个话题。但是我立即请求你们不要对这个观念浅尝辄止。也就是,十戒就是所有的社会的生活的情况。因为从另外一个观点,我们如何能够实际上没有看见,当我们仅是引述它们。以某种方式,他们就是我们的生活的每个时刻的运作的章节与诗篇?它们展示这个范围,恰当而言,属于我们人类的行动的范围。换句话说,我们花费我们的时间违背这个十戒。那就是为什么社会是可能的。

I do not for all that have to push the paradox to its extreme, like Bernard
de Mandeville in The Fable of the Bees, when he demonstrates that private
vices constitute public wealth. It is not a question of that, but of seeing what
kind of preconscious immanence the ten commandments correspond to. I
will take up the question there next time – not, however, without making a
detour through that fundamental reference I evoked when I spoke to you for
the first time of what might be called the real.

尽管那样,我并没有必要将这个悖论推到极端,就像曼德维尔在“蜜蜂的寓言”。当他证明,私下的邪恶组成公共的财富。问题并不是那样,而是要看就是这个十戒对应于什么种类的前意识的内在性。我下次将探讨这个问题。可是,还是会有个迂迴,穿过那个被召唤的基本的指称,当我跟第一次你们谈论,关于所谓的实在界。

The real, I have told you, is that which is always in the same place. You
will see this in the history of science and thought. This detour is indispensable
if we are to reach the great revolutionary crisis of morality, namely, the
systematic questioning of principles there where they need to be questioned,
that is, at the level of the imperative. That is the culminating point for both
Kant and Sade with relation to the Thing; it is there that morality becomes,
on the one hand, a pure and simple application of the universal maxim and,
on the other, a pure and simple object.

我告诉过你们,实在界总是属于相同的地方的东西。你们将会看见这个实在界,在科学与思想的历史。这个迂迴是无可避免的,假如我们想要到达道德的那个伟大的革命的危机。换句话说,系统地质疑那里的原则。在那里,那些原则需要被质疑。换句话说,在命令的层面。那就是高潮的部分,对于康德与萨德,相关于这个物象。就在那里,道德一方面成为纯粹而单纯地应用普世的公理;另一方面,又成为纯粹而单纯的客体。

This point is essential if one is to understand the step taken by Freud. By
way of conclusion today I would just like to bring to your attention something
that a poet, who happens to be a friend of mine, once wrote: “The problem
of evil is only worth raising as long as one has not fixed on the idea of transcendence
by some good that is able to dictate to man what his duties are.
Till that moment the exalted representation of evil will continue to have the
greatest revolutionary value.”

这个点是基本的点,假如我们想要理解弗洛依德採取的步骤。作为今天的结论,我想要提醒你们注意某件东西,一位诗人恰好是我的一位朋友,他写到:「邪恶的难题仅是值得提出,只要我们还没有专注超验的观念,被某些的善。这个善能够跟人们指示他的责任是什么。直到那个时刻,邪恶的崇高的再现将会继续拥有最大量的革命的价值。

Well now, the step taken by Freud at the level of the pleasure principle is
to show us that there is no Sovereign Good – that the Sovereign Good, which
is das Ding, which is the mother, is also the object of incest, is a forbidden
good, and that there is no other good. Such is the foundation of the moral
law as turned on its head by Freud.

呵呵,弗洛依德採取的步骤,在快乐原则的层面,就是要跟我们显示,没有统辖的善。统辖的善,那就是das Ding,那就是母亲,也是乱伦的目标。统辖的善是一个被禁止的善。而且没有其他的善。被弗洛伊德翻转过来的道德法则的基础就是这样。

Now we have to consider where the positive moral law comes from that has
remained quite intact, and that we are literally capable of “banging our heads
against the wall for,” to borrow an expression made famous by a film, rather
than see it overturned.5

现在,我们必须考虑,始终保持相当完整的正面的道德的法则从何而来。我们实质上能够“因为这些法则而头撞墙壁”,借用一部影片所做的表达,而不是看见它被推翻。

What does this mean? It means, and this is where I am leading you, that
what you were looking for in the place of the object that cannot be found
again is the object that one always finds again in reality. In the place of the
object impossible to find again at the level of the pleasure principle, something
has happened that is nothing more than the following: something which
is always found again, but which presents itself in a form that is completely
sealed, blind and enigmatic, the world of modern physics.

那是什么意思?它意味着,这就是我正在引导你们去的地方。你们正在寻找的东西,在我们在现实界再次找到的客体。代替这个不可能再次找到的客体,在快乐原则的层面,某件东西已经发生。那实实在在就是如下:某件东西总是再次被找到,但是这个东西呈现它自己,用完全被封闭。,盲目而谜团的形式 现代物理的世界。

You will see that it is in relation to this that the crisis of morality was
played out at the end of the eighteenth century at the time of the French
revolution. And it is to this that Freud’s doctrine constitutes an answer. It
sheds a light on the subject that, I hope to be able to show you, has not yet
yielded up all its implications.
December 16, 1959

你们将会看见,就是跟这个的关系,道德的这个危机,总是被演出,在十八世纪末,在法国大革命的时代。弗洛依德的教条组成对于这个危机的回答。它启蒙这位主体,我希望能够跟你们显示,这位主体还没有呈现出它所有的暗示。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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