Identification 206

Identification 206
认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

2.5.62 XVIII 236
The psychotic always finds himself forced to alienate either his
body as support of the ego or a body part as support of the
possibility of a Jouissance. If I do not use the term
identification here it is precisely because I do not think it is
applicable in the case of psychosis.

精神病者总是发现他自己被迫异化他的身体,作为自我的支持,要不然就是异化身体的部分,作为欢爽的可能性的支持。假如我在此没有使用“认同”这个术语,那确实是因为我并不认为它可被运用到精神病者的个案。
In my view identification
implies the possibility of a relation to the object where the
desire of the subject and the desire of the Other are in a
conflictual situation but exist as the two constitutive poles of
the relation (to the object). In psychosis the Other and his
desire have to be defined at the level of a phantasmatic relation
of the subject to his own body. I will not go into to this since
it will take us too far from the subject of our discussion which
is anxiety.

依我的观点,认同暗示着跟客体的关系的可能性。在客体那里,主体的欲望与大他者的欲望处于冲突的情境,但是存在作为跟客体的关系的两个形成的极端。在精神病者,大他者与他的欲望必须被定义,在主体跟他自己的身体的幻想魅影的层次。我将不探讨这个,因为它将带领我们远离我们探讨“焦虑”的主体。

Contrary to what may be believed it is of anxiety
that I have been speaking all along. As I said at the beginning
it is not possible to address the subject of anxiety without
taking into account the parameters of identification.

跟大家所认为的恰恰相反,我一直在谈论的东西就是“焦虑”。如同我在开始说的,要处理焦虑的主体,我们不可能不考虑到认同的参数。

What has been seen in all the cases discussed, whether normal
neurotic or perverse, identification can only happen in relation
to what the subject imagines rightly or wrongly to be the desire
of the Other. In the normal, neurotic or perverse subject it is
always a matter of identifying oneself in accordance with or in
opposition to what one thinks is the desire of the Other. As
long as this desire can be imagined, phantasized, the subject
will find there the necessary reference points in order to define
himself, either as the object of the desire of the Other or as an
object refusing to be the desire of the Other. In either case he
will be able to locate himself, to define himself.

在所有被讨论的个案里,已经被看出的东西,无论是正常的神经症者,或倒错症者,仅有在跟主体想像是大他者的欲望的东西有关联时,认同才会发生,无论那个东西正确与否。在正常状态,无论神经症或倒错症的主体,问题总是要认同自己,相符于或对立于我们认为是大他者欲望的东西。只要欲望能够被想像,被形成幻影,主体将会发现那里有必要的指称点,为了定义他自己,要就是,作为大他者的欲望的客体,要不就是作为拒绝成为大他者的欲望的客体。不论哪一种情况,他将能够定位他自己,定义他自己。

But from the moment when the desire becomes something mysterious,
undefinable, the subject discovers that it is precisely this
desire of the Other which constitutes him as subject; what he
will encounter faced with this void is his fundamental phantasy.

但是从欲望成为某件神秘的东西的这个时刻开始,主体发现,确实就是大他者的这个欲望,构成他作为主体。面临这个空无,他遭遇的东西就是他的基本的幻影。

To be the object of the desire of the Other is only bearable in
so far as we can name this desire, can shape it in terms of our
own desire. To become the object of a desire we can no longer
name, is to become oneself an object without a name having lost
all possible identity: to become an object whose insignia no
longer means anything since they have become undecipherable for
the Other.

成为大他者的欲望的客体,仅有当我们能够命名这个欲望,能够用我们自己的欲望的术语来塑造它的形状,成为大他者的欲望的客体,才能够被忍受。成为我们不再能够命名的欲望的客体,就是让自己成为没有名字的客体,丧失所有可能的认同:成为不再具有任何意义的标志的客体,因为它们变成无法被诠释,对于大他者。

This precise moment when the ego is reflected in a
mirror which gives back an image which has no identifiable
meaning – this is anxiety. In calling it oral, anal or phallic
we are simply trying to define which insignia the ego has donned
in order to be recognised.

这个确实的时刻,当自我被反映到镜像里。这个镜像给回一个无法被认同的意义的意象—那就是焦虑。当我们称它为口腔期,肛门期,阳具期,我们仅是尝试定义主体穿戴的是哪一个标志,为了要被体认。

If anxiety is the affect which most
easily provokes a reciprocal response it is because from this
moment we become for the Other the one whose insignia are equally
mysterious, equally inhuman. In anxiety it is not just the ego
which is dissolved, the other also dissolves as support of
identification.

假如焦虑是最容易激发互惠的回应的情感,那是因为从我们成为对于大他者而言是标志同样神秘的这个客体,同样非人类标志的这个客体。在焦虑,不仅是自我被瓦解,大他者也被瓦解作为是认同的支持。

Jouissance and anxiety are the two extreme
positions in which the ego can situate itself: in the first the
ego and the Other for an instant exchange insignia, recognise
each other as two signifiers whose shared Jouissance assures a
momentary identity of desire: in anxiety the ego and the Other
are dissolved, annulled in a situation where desire disappears
because it cannot be named.

欢爽与焦虑是两个极端立场。自我定义它自己在那里。在第一个极端的立场,自我与大他者有一瞬间互相交换标志,互相体认作为两个分享欢爽的能指。这个分享保证欲望的短暂的认同:自我与大他者被瓦解,在欲望消失的情境里被宣告无效,因为它无法被命名。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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