Archive for April, 2015

Identification 124

April 21, 2015

Identification 124
认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Seminar 17: Wednesday 11 April 1962
11.4.62 XVII 203

It can happen that this other is incarnated for the young girl at
a moment of her existence in some ne’er-do-well. This has
nothing to do with the question that I raised the last time and
with the introduction of the desire of the other as such in order
to say that it is anxiety, more exactly that anxiety is the
sensation of this desire.

恰巧的是,这个他者被具体化身,对于这位年轻女孩,在她的存在于某种不懂事的时刻。这跟我上次提出的问题,根本没有关系,跟大他者的欲望自身的介绍,没有丝毫关系。为了要说,这就是焦虑,更加确实地说,焦虑就是这个欲望的感觉。

Today I am going to come back therefore to my path for this year
and that all the more rigorously because I had to make a
digression the last time. And that is why, more rigorously than
ever, we are going to do topology, and it is necessary to do it
because you cannot but do it at every instant, I mean, whether
you are logicians or not, whether you know the meaning of the
word topology or not. You make use for example of the
conjunction or.

因此,今天我要回到我今年的途径。而且,更加严谨地,因为我上次不得不离题谈论。那就是为什么,比起以前更加严谨地,我们将要从事拓扑图型。有必要这样做,因为你们不得不随时做它,我的意思是,无论你是逻辑专家与否。无论你们知道字词的拓扑图形与否。譬如,你们利用“或者“这个连接词。

Now, it is rather remarkable but undoubtedly
true that the usage of this conjunction was not properly
articulated, properly specified, properly highlighted in the
field of technical logic, of the logic of logicians until recent
times, much too recent for its effects in short to have really
reached you; and that is why it is enough to read the smallest
current analytic text for example to see that at every instant
thinking stumbles once it is a question, not only of the term
identification, but even of the simple practice of identifying
anything whatsoever in the field of our experience.

现在,相当引人注意,但是无可置疑地真实。这个连接词的用途,并没有恰当地被表达,恰当地被指明,恰当地被强调,在专业逻辑的领域,在逻辑专家的逻辑的领域,直到最近的时刻。总之,就它的影响而言,太过晚到,以致于没有确实到达你们。那就是为什么我们只要稍微阅读,譬如,目前的精神分析的文本,我们就能看出,思想随时会遭遇挫折,一旦这个问题不但牵涉到认同的术语,而且牵涉到在我们精神分析的领域,认同任何东西的单纯的实践。

It is necessary to begin again from schemas unshaken in spite of
everything, let us admit, in your thinking, unshaken for two
reasons: first of all because they emerge from what I would call
a certain peculiar incapacity properly speaking for intuitive
thinking or more simply for intuition, which means at the very
foundations an experience marked by the organisation of what is
called the sense of vision.

无论如何,有必要再次从没有被动摇的这些基模开始。容我们承认,在你们的思维里,这些基模没有被动摇,有两个理由:首先,因为它们出现,从我所谓的某个特殊的没有能力,恰当地说,没有从事直觉思维的能力,或仅是从事直觉的能力。在基础的地方,这意味着被这个组织标示的经验,被所谓的幻象的感觉的组织。

You will very easily grasp this
intuitive impotence, if I have the good fortune that after this
little conversation you set yourself to pose simple problems of
representation about what I am going to show you can happen at
(3) the surface of a torus. You will see the difficulty you will
have not to become confused. Nevertheless a torus is quite
simple: a ring. You will become confused, but then I become
confused like you: I needed practice in order to find my bearings
a little in it and even to grasp what that was suggesting and
what that allowed to ground practically.

你们将会非常容易地理解这个直觉的没有能力。假如我拥有这个幸运,经过这次微不足道的谈话后,你们指定自己提出呈现的各种简单的难题,关于我将要跟你们显示出,能够发生在圆环面的表面的东西。你们将会看见你们将会遭遇的这个困难,为了不要被混淆。可是,一个圆环面相当简单:一个环圈。你们将会变得混淆。但是我当时像你们一样变得混淆:我需要练习,为了稍微找到我在它里面的关联。甚至为了理解那个圆圈暗示什么,那个环圈让什么能够实际地作为基础。

The other term is linked to what is called education, namely that
everything is done to encourage this sort of intuitive impotence,
to establish it, to give it an absolute character, that of course
with the best of intentions. This is what happened for example
when in 1741 Mr Euler, a very great name in the history of
mathematics, introduced his famous circles which, whether you
know it or not, did a lot in short to encourage the teaching of
classical logic in a certain direction which far from opening it
out could only tend unfortunately to render more evident the idea
that simple schoolboys might have of it.

另外一个术语跟所谓的教育息息相关。换句话说,每样事情被做,为了鼓励这种直觉的没有能力,为了建立它,为了给它绝对的特性,当然,意图非常良善。譬如,这就是1741年发生的事情,当尤勒先生,在数学的历史上,是一位伟大的名字。他介绍他的著名的圆圈。无论你们知道与否,总之,这些圆圈非常有帮助,用来鼓励古典逻辑的教学,朝著某个方向。这个方向根本没有打开它,仅是不幸地倾向于让这个观念更加明显,单纯的小学生可能具有的观念。

This happened because Euler had got it into his head, God knows
why, to teach a princess, the princess of Anhalt Dessau.

这件事情发生,因为尤勒突然临机一动。天晓得为什么,要教导一位公主,安哈特 德绍乌公主。

Throughout a whole period people were very preoccupied with
princesses, people are still preoccupied with them and that is
unfortunate. You know that Descartes had his own one, the famous
Christina.

整个时期从头到尾,人们非常关注于公主们,人们依旧关注她们。那是不幸。你们知道,笛卡尔拥有他自己的公主,那位著名的克丽提那。

This is a historical tale of a different kind, he
died of it. It is not altogether subjective, there is a kind of
very particular stench which emerges from everything that
surrounds the entity princess or Prinzessin.

这是不同种类的历史的故事,笛卡尔因为这个故事而死亡。这个故事并不完全是主观性,有某种的特殊的丑闻,从环绕这1实质的公主,或公主身份传播出来。

Throughout a
period of about three centuries, we have something which is
dominated by letters addressed to princesses, the memoirs of
princesses, and this holds a certain place in the culture. It is
a kind of substitute for this flaw [or dame] whose function, so
difficult to understand, so difficult to approach, I tried to
explain to you in the structure of courtly sublimation whose real
import I am not at all sure after all of having made you really
understand.

大约有三百年的时期,我们拥有某件东西,受到写给公主们的信件所影响,公主的回忆录。在文化里,这拥有某个地位。那是一种对于瑕疵的替代品。这个瑕疵的功能,如此难于理解,如此难以接近,我尝试跟你们解释,用骑士之爱的升华的结构。毕竟,骑士之爱的升华的真实的意义,我根本不确定曾经让你们确实理解。

I was really only able to give you kinds of
projections of it in the way that one tries to depict four
dimensional figures that cannot be had in another space.
I learned with pleasure that something about it reached ears
which are close to me, and that people are beginning to interest
themselves, not here but elsewhere, in what courtly love might
be. It is already a result.

我确实仅是能够给你们某些的投射,关于骑士之爱的升华。我们尝试描述四个维度的人物。他们在另外的空间,将无法被拥有。我很快乐地学习到,关于它的某件东西到达跟我亲近的人们的耳朵。人们开始感到興趣,不是在这里,而是在别的地方,对于骑士之爱可能是什么,那已经是一种结果。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

From an other to the Other 8

April 21, 2015

From an other to the Other 8
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Seminar 2: Wednesday 20 November 1968

The last time, which was a premiere, I made reference to Marx in a relation that, in a
first moment, I presented as homologous, with all that this term involves by way of
reservations.

上次,刚开始时,我提到马克思,在最初的时刻,我呈现马克思作为同质性。具有这个术语牵涉到的一切,作为保留。

I introduced alongside, let us say, surplus value what is called, in the
original tongue — not that this notion of course was being named for the first time but
discovered in its essential function — Mehrwert. I wrote it because God knows what
would happen if I only pronounced it, in front of what I have here as an audience, and
especially psychoanalysts when they are recruited from among those that are
described as being by nature or heredity, double agents. Soon people will be telling
me that it is the sour mother {mere verte), that I am rediscovering familiar paths. It is
with this., with my “it speaks”, people reintegrate the supposedly obstinate desire of
the subject to find himself again nice and warm in the maternal womb.

我同时介绍,不妨说说“剩余价值”,在原初的语言里,所谓的“剩余价值”。当然,倒不是这个观念首次被命名,而是在它的基本的功能里发现—Mehrwert(剩余价值), 我书写它,因为天晓得会发生什么事情,假如我仅是念出它的声音,在我目前拥有的听众的面前,特别是精神分析家的听众。当他们被征召,从被描述性质上或遗传上,被描述为双重代理者的那些精神分析家。有些人们将会告诉我,就是这个乖捩的母亲,我正在重新发现熟悉的途径。就是使用这个,使用“它在言说”,人们重新合并这个被认为是主体的固执的欲望,结果发现他自己再次安详地躺在母亲的子宫里。

So then to this
surplus value, I hooked on, I superimposed, I plastered on the other side the notion o f
surplus enjoying. It is said like that in the original tongue. It was said the last time
for the first time, namely, in French. To restore it to the tongue from which the
inspiration for it came to me, I would call it, provided no German scholar in this
assembly does not oppose it Merhlust.

因此,针对这个剩余价值,我坚持著,我监控著,我将“剩余享乐”的观念,塗抹在另一方面。据说,在原初的语言,就是像这样。据说,上次,第一次,用法语表达。将它恢复到对于它的启发来到我这里的语言,我将称它,只要在这个演讲厅里,没有德语的学者,提出反对它“剩余价值”。

Naturally, I did not bring forward this operation without making a discreet reference,
in the way I sometimes do, an allusive one, a discreet allusive reference to the one,
why not, whose researches and thinking led me to it, namely, Althusser. Naturally, as
in the hours that followed, this created some stir in the cafes where people
gather, and how flattered I am at it, even delighted, to chew the fat over what has been
said here.

当然,当我提出这个运作时,我必然会谨慎地提到,用我有时採用的方式,提到一个间接暗示的指称,一个谨慎的间接暗示的指称这个运作。有何不可呢?这个运作的研究与思想引导我到它那里,也就是,阿图塞。当然,如同在以后的几个小时,这个间接暗示引起一些骚动,在咖啡馆。人们聚集在那里。对于这件事,我多么受宠若惊,甚至高兴品尝在这里曾经说过的东西。

In truth, what can be said on this occasion, and what I do not deny since it
was on this plane that I introduced my remarks the last time, namely, this factor, the
poubellicant or poubellicatoir factor, whatever you want to call it, of structuralism. I
had precisely made an allusion to the fact that according to the last echoes I had
Althusser was not very comfortable in it. I simply recalled that, whatever he may
avow or renounce in structuralism, it seems indeed to whoever reads it that his
discourse makes a structuralist of Marx and very precisely because he underlines his
seriousness.

实际上,在这个场合,所能够被说的东西。我并没有否认,因为上次,就是在这个层次,我介绍我的谈论。也就是说,这个因素,这个“公开”的因素,无论你们怎么称呼它,结构主义的公开的因素。我曾经确实地间接提到这个事实:依照我拥有的最后的迴响,阿图塞在那里并不是很自在。我仅是提醒,无论他在结构主义宣称什么或放弃什么,对于任何阅读结构主义的人们,他的辞说将马克思当著是结构主义者。那确实是因为他强调他的严肃性。

It is to this that I would like to come back since moreover, what I am indicating, is
that one would be wrong to see in some mood or other that what is essential here is to
(20) rally behind a flag. Namely, that as I already underlined on other occasions, what
I am stating at least for myself when we are dealing with structure, I already said, is to
be taken in the sense of what is most real, the real itself.

我想要回到这点。而且,因为我正在指示的东西,就是,我们将是错误的,假如我们用某种的心情看见,在此的基本的东西,就是摇旗呐喊。换句话说,我已经在其他的场合强调我正在陈述的东西,至少我独立陈述的东西。当我们正在处理结构。我已经说过,它应该被看待,用最真实的东西,实在界的自身来看待。

And when I said at the time
when here, on the board, I drew, indeed manipulated some of these schemas with
which there is illustrated what is called topology, I already underlined that in this
case, it was in no way a kind of metaphor. Either one thing or the other. Either what
we are talking about has no kind of existence, or, if the subject has one, I mean as we
are articulating it, well then it is exactly constructed like that, namely, it is constructed
like these things that I wrote on the board, on the paper I use.

当我说,当我在此,在黑板上画出某些确实被操控的基模。用这个基模,所谓的拓扑图型被说明。我已经强调,在这个情况,它根本就不是某种隐喻。要就是某件事情,要不就是另一件事情。要就是,我们正在谈论的东西根本就不存在,要不就是,假如主体拥有某种存在,我指的是当我们表达它时,呵呵,它确实就是像那样被建构。也就是说,它被建构,像我书写在黑板上的这些东西,在我使用的纸上。

On condition of course
that you know that this little image which is all that one can put down, in effect, to
represent it, on a page, that this little image obviously is only there to image for you
pertain connections that cannot be imagined but on the other hand can perfectly well
be written. The structure is therefore real. It is determined by convergence towards
an impossibility, in general. But that is how it is and it is because of this that it is real.
So then there should almost be no need to talk about structure. If here I am speaking
about it, if I speak about structure, if I speak about it again today, it is because I am
forced to do so.

当然,只要你们知道这个小小的意象,它就是我们能够表达的东西。实际上,我们能够代表它的东西,在纸页上。这个小意象显而易见在那里,仅是表达意象,因为你们具有某些无法被想像的关联。但是另一方面,它能够非常清楚地被书写。这个结构因此是真实的。它受到汇集到决定,朝向一个一般说来说不可能界。但是那是结构的样子。因为这样,它是实在界。所以,应该几乎没有这个必要来谈论关于结构。假如在此,我正在谈论它,假如我谈论结构,假如我今天再次谈论结构,那是因为我被迫这样做。

Because of the chit-chat in the cafes! But I ought not to need to talk
about it because I say it. What I say sets up the structure because it aims, as I said the
last time, it aims at the cause of the discourse itself. Implicitly, and like each and
every one who teaches, by wanting to fulfill this function, I defy in principle that I can
be refitted by a discourse that justifies discourse differently to the way I have just said
it. I am repeating it for those who are deaf. Namely, what it aims at is the cause of
discourse itself.

因为在咖啡馆的那些闲话!但是我不应该因为是我说到它,我有必要去谈论它。我所说的东西建立起这个结构,因为它的目标,如同我上次说过的,它的目标是辞说自身的原因。含蓄地说,就像每一位从事教学的人们,凭借想要实践这个功能。我在原则上挑衅,我会被某个辞说重新调整,这个辞说用不同方式让辞说自圆其说,调整成为我刚刚说出它的方式。我正在重复它,给那些充耳不闻的人们。换句话是,它所目标的对象就是辞说本身的原因。

That someone should justify discourse in a different way as an
expression of or as a relationship to a content for which a form is invented, that s up
to him! But I remark then that it is unthinkable, with this position, that you should
inscribe yourself under any heading whatsoever in the practice of psychoanalysis. I
mean even not as charlatanism. You should understand that the question is whether
the psychoanalysis I am indicating here exists. It is precisely this that is at stake.

某个人应该以不同的方式替辞说自圆其说,作为是一种表达,或作为跟内容的关系,因为形式就是为了这个内容而杜撰。那就是他应该做的事!但是,我当时谈了,那是匪夷所思的,以这个立场。你们竟然铭记你们自己,在精神分析的实践的任何标题之下。我指的甚至并不是作为江湖郎中。你们应该理解,这个问题是,我正指示的精神分析在此是否存在。精神分析确实就是这个岌岌可危的东西。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Identification 123

April 21, 2015

Identification 123
认同
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

4.4.62 200 10

Except for this do not be surprised that with such means anxiety
only appears from time to time, that it is not there all the
time, that it is even much more and much better set aside in the
hysteric than in the obsessional, the complacency of the Other
all the same being much greater than that of a dead person whom
it is always difficult all the same to maintain present as one
might say.

除了这个,请你们不要惊奇,用这样的方法,焦虑仅是偶尔出现。焦虑并没有始终在那里,焦虑被保存在歇斯底里症者,比起被保存在妄想症者,更为良善。大他者的志得意满仍然更加强烈,比起死去的人的志得意满。我们不妨说,要维持死去的人在现场,仍然总是很困难。

This is why the obsessional from time to time, every
time there cannot be repeated to satiety the whole arrangement
which allows him to manage the desire of the Other, sees
re-emerging of course in a more or less overwhelming fashion the
affect of anxiety.

这就是为什么妄想症者有时,每当无法重复,为了满足整个的安排。这个安排让他能够处理大他者的欲望,看见焦虑的情感重新出现,当然,以相当压倒性的方式。

From this simply by returning backwards, you
can understand that the phobic business marks a first step in
this attempt which is properly speaking the neurotic mode of
resolving the problem of the desire of the Other, a first step, I
am saying, of the way in which this can be resolved. It is a
step as everyone knows, for its part, which is of course far from
arriving at this relative solution of the anxiety relationship.

从这里,仅是凭借倒退回转,你们能够理解,恐惧的事情标示最初的一步,在这个企图。 恰当地说,这个企图就是神经症者解决大他者的欲望的模式。我正在说的是,这个方式的最初的一步,这个难题能够被解救。这是众所周知的一步,就它本身而言。当然,这一步根本就没有获得焦虑的关系的这个相对的解决。

(19) Quite the contrary, it is only in an altogether precarious
fashion that this anxiety is mastered, as you know, through the
mediation of this object whose ambiguity between the small o
function and the small function is already sufficiently
underlined for us. The common factor which the small
constitutes in every small o of desire is here in a way extracted
and revealed. It is on this that I will put the accent the next
time by beginning again from phobia, in order to specify what
exactly this function of the phallus consists in.

相反地,仅是在用完全不稳定的方式,这个焦虑被掌控。你们知道,通过这个客体的媒介。这个客体的暧昧处于小客体的功能与小他者的功能之间。对于我们,它已经充分地被强调。这个小形成的共同因素,在欲望的小客体里,在此以某种方式被抽出,被揭示。针对这点,我下次将强调,凭借再次从恐惧开始。为了指明阳具的这个功能确实是在哪里。

Today in general what do you see? It is that when all is said
and done the solution that we perceive to the problem of the
relationship of the subject to desire at its radical foundation,
is proposed as follows: because it is a question of demand and it
is a question of defining desire, well then let us say roughly:
the subject demands the phallus and the phallus desires.

今天,一般说来,你们看见什么?当一切都说都做了,我们感知是主体跟欲望的关系的解决,在它最强烈的基础,被建议出来,内容如下:因为这是要求界的问题,这是定义欲望的问题,呵呵,让我们粗略地说:主体要求阳具,阳具要求于欲望。

It is as stupid as that. It is from that at least that one must begin
as a radical formula to see effectively what is to be made of it
in experience. This model is modulated around this relationship
of the subject to the phallus in so far as, as you see, it is
essentially of an identificatory nature and that if there is
something which effectively can provoke this arousal of anxiety
linked to the fear of a loss, it is the phallus. Why not desire?
There is no fear of aphanisis, there is the fear of losing the
phallus because only the phallus can give its proper field to
desire.

两者同样愚蠢。至少从那里,我们必须开始,作为一个强烈的公式,为了有效地看见,在精神分析经验,应该如何解释它。这个模式被建立,环绕主体跟阳具的关系。如你们所见,这基本上是属于可被辨认的特性。假如有某件东西有效地能够供应这个焦虑的唤起,跟丧失的恐惧息息相关的焦虑。那就是阳具的丧失。为什么不欲望呢?并没有主体丧失的恐惧。有的是丧失阳具的恐惧。因为仅有阳具能够给予它的适当的场域给欲望。

4.4.62 201 11

But now let no one speak to us either about defence against
anxiety. One does not defend oneself against anxiety, any more
(20) than there is a fear of aphanisis. Anxiety is at the
source of defences, but one does not defend oneself against
anxiety. Of course, if I tell you that I am going to consecrate
a whole year to this subject of anxiety, this means that I am not
claiming today to have dealt with every aspect of it, that it
does not pose a problem. If anxiety – it is always at this level
that my little apologue has defined for you in an almost
caricatural way that anxiety is situated – if anxiety can become
a sign, it is of course because transformed into a sign, it is
perhaps not quite the same thing as it was where I tried to pose
it for you at first at its essential point.

但是现在,也没有人跟我们言说,关于对抗焦虑的防御。我们并没有防御我们自己,对抗焦虑。正如没有主体丧失的焦虑。焦虑处于防御的来源。但是我们并没有防御我们自己对抗焦虑。当然,假如我告诉你们,我将要奉献一整年的时间探讨焦虑的这个主题。这意味着,我今天并没有宣称,已经处理过它的每个层面。焦虑并没有形成一个难题。假如焦虑—总是在这个层次,我的小小的寓言已经跟你们定义,用几乎是嘲讽的方式,定义焦虑被定位在哪里。焦虑能够成为一个讯息。这当然是因为它被转化成为一个讯息。或许这跟它以前的情况,并不完全相同。以前,我曾经尝试提出焦虑的问题,最初是在它的基本的要点。

There is also a simulacrum of anxiety. At this level, of course,
one can be tempted to minimise its import, in so far as it is
really tangible that if the subject sends himself signs of
anxiety it is obviously in order that things should be more
cheerful. But it is all the same not from there that we can
begin in order to define the function of anxiety; and then
finally to say, as I have simply claimed to do today, massive
things, let us open ourselves to this thought that if Freud told
us that anxiety is a signal which happens at the level of the
ego, it is all the same necessary to know that it is a signal for
whom? Not for the ego, because it is at the level of the ego
that it is produced.

也存在着焦虑的虚拟空间。在这个层次,当然,我们能忍不住会淡化它的涵义。因为这确实是具体存在,假如主体送给他自己焦虑的讯息,那显而易见是为了让事情更加令人愉快。但是这仍然并不是从那里,我们能够开始,为了定义焦虑的这个功能。然后最后能够说,如同我今天仅是宣称要做的事情,巨大的事情。让我们开放我们自己接受这个思想:假如弗洛依德告诉我们,焦虑是发生在自我的讯号,我们仍然有必要知道,这是给予谁的讯号。并不是给予自我,因为它就是在自我的层次被产生。

And I greatly regretted also, that at our
last meeting no one dreamt of making this simple remark.
I had proposed that I would continue today about the phallus.
Well I shall not be speaking to you about it or indeed I will
only speak to you about it in the shape of this inverted eight
which is not all that reassuring.

我也非常遗憾,在我们最后的会面,没有人梦想要发表这样简单的谈论。我曾经建议,我今天将继续谈论关于阳具。呵呵,我将不跟你们谈论关于阳具,否则我确实仅是会跟你们谈论它,用在倒转的“8“的形状。这个倒转的”8“并没有那么令人安心。

It is not a new signifier that is involved. You are going to see
that it is still the same as the one that I have been speaking
about in short from the beginning of this year; only the reason
why I bring it forward as being essential, is to bring about a
renewal with the topological base that is involved: namely what
is meant by the introduction this year of the torus.

牵涉到的并不是新的能指。你们将会看见,这依旧是相同的能指,跟我一直谈论的这个能指。总之,从今年的开始。你们将会看出这个理由,我提出它作为是基本的能指的理由,就是要导致一种更新,用被牵涉到的这个拓扑图形的基础。换句话说,今年介绍圆环面的用意。

It is not so much of course that what I said about anxiety was
all that well understood. Someone who is very nice and who reads
– because it is someone from a milieu where people work, I must
admit that I am choosing this example because it is rather
encouraging – remarked to me in a very timely way that what I
said about anxiety as desire of the Other overlapped with what is
found in Kierkegaard.

当然,这倒不是因为我所说关于焦虑的东西,是那么清楚地被理解。某个人非常好心,他阅读。因为就是这个从人们工作的环境里的某个人,我必须承认,我正在选择这个例子,因为这是相当令人鼓舞的。他以恰好时机的方式跟我谈论,我所谈论关于焦虑的东西,作为大他者的欲望,跟齐克果那里被发现的东西,不谋而合。

At a first reading – because it is quite
true – you can well imagine that I remembered that Kierkegaard,
in order to speak about anxiety, evoked the young girl at the
moment when for the first time she realises that she is desired.

在第一次阅读时—因为这是相当真实的—你们能够清楚地想像,我记得,齐克果,为了谈论关于焦虑—引用这位年轻的女孩,当第一次她体会到她被欲望的时刻。

Only if Kierkegaard said it, the difference with what I am saying
is, as I might say to use a Kierkegaardian term, that I am
(2) repeating it. If there is someone who has pointed out that
it is never without reason that one says “I say and I repeat”, it
is precisely Kierkegaard.

只有当齐克果说到焦虑,跟我所说的东西的差异是,我不妨说,使用齐克果的术语,我正在重复它。假如有某个人曾经指出,那并非没有理由,我们说:「我言说,而且我重复」。那确实就是齐克果。

If one feels the need to underline
that one is repeating it after having said it, it is because
probably it is not at all the same thing to repeat it as to say
it; it is absolutely certain that, if what I said the last time
has a meaning, it is precisely because the case raised by
Kierkegaard is something quite particular and as such obscures
rather than clarifies the true meaning of the formula that
anxiety is the desire of the Other – with a big 0.

假如我们感觉这个必要强调:我们正在重复它,在已经说过它之后。那是因为可能是,重复它,根本就不是相同的事情,跟说它。 绝对确定的是,假如我上次所说的东西具有意义,那确实是因为齐克果提出的案例,是某件相同特殊的东西。作为如此特殊的东西,它模糊掉,而不是澄清公式的真实的意义:焦了就是大他者的欲望,具有大写字母O的大他者的欲望。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Seminar 12 (02)

April 20, 2015

Seminar 12 (02)
Crucial Problems
重大的难题

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

I take this historical example because it is in the history, in the work, on the
present-day path of linguistics. I am a little embarrassed because it is not in
French, but in fact this ambiguity forms part of our position, as you are going to
see. For those who do not know English, I would ask you to make the effort of
picturing to yourselves that the reverse order of the words furiously sleep ideas
green colourless is not grammatical.

我取这个历史的例子,因为它出现在历史里,在著作里,在目前的语言学的途径里。我有点尴尬,因为它并不是法文。但是事实上,这个歧义性形成我们的部分的立场。如同你们将会看出。对于那些并不懂英文的人,我想要要求你们尽这个努力,跟你们自己描绘,“furiously sleep ideas
green colourless “ 的倒转的秩序,并不合文法。

“Y restez cieux aux êtes qui Père Notre” {there remain heavens art in who Father
Our} this is what this corresponds to, the reversed sentence of the rather well
known sentence of Jacques Prévert: “Notre Père qui êtes aux cieux restez-y” {Our Father who art in heaven, remain there}.

「始终存在着天堂是在父亲我们的」。这就是这个句子对应的句子,雅克 普瑞博的著名昭彰的倒转的句子。「在天堂的我们的父亲,始终在那里。」

It is clear that being grammatical here does not depend, at least entirely, on what
may appear in these few inflected words, namely, the s of ideas which acts as a
comfort for the absence of s at the end of sleep, namely a certain formal harmony
recognisable by the English speaker and also the ly ending which indicates to us
that it is an adverb.

显而易见地,在此的合乎文法依靠著,至少完全依靠可能出现的东西,在那些少数的变化的文字。也就是观念的这个s,它充电一种安慰,对于这个s的缺席,在“sleep”的结尾。换句话说,某个正式的合谐,讲英语的人辨认得出来。“ly”的作为结尾跟我们指示著,它是副词。

Because these characteristics remain in the second sentence; it
is nevertheless, for an English person, of a completely different degree as regards
the experience of the word, from the first. It is ungrammatical. It will not offer,
we might say, any more sense than the ironic, even blasphemous prayer of Prévert
(6) – but believe me, in time, it will be baptised: “What respect in this, remain
there” – than this sentence once it has been reversed.

因为这些特征始终是在第二个句子,可是,对对于讲英语的人,它仍然属于完全不同的程度,关于这个字词的经验。它是不合文法的。我们不妨说,它将不会提供任何意义,除了就是普瑞博的这个反讽,甚至亵渎的祈祷—但是,请相信我,时候到时,它将会成为正式:「在这点尊敬的东西,始终在那里」。一旦它被倒转起来,就是这个句子。

This indicates that you should underline in passing, in what I have just articulated,
the word sense. We will see the use we can put it to today. We will see what I am
introducing here by this means.

这指示著,你们应该顺便强调,在我刚刚表达的东西,字词的意义。今天我们将会看见我们使用它。我们将会看见,凭借这个方法,我正在这里介绍的东西。

In fact Chomsky’s undertaking is subjected, understandably, to the discussion of
other linguists. It is noted, and quite rightly, that there is some abuse, or in any
case that the discussion can begin around this connotation of meaningless, of sans
signification.

事实上,杭士基的从事可理解地隶遭受到其他的语言学家的讨论。我们很有理由注意到,有某种的滥用,或无论如何,这个讨论能够开始,环绕“没有意义,有意义”的外延指称。

Undoubtedly meaning is completely extinguished where there is no grammar, but
where there is grammar, I mean a grammatical construction, sensed, presumed by
the subject, the subject who is being questioned, who here is called on as judge, at
the place, at the locus of the Other, to reintroduce the term inscribed in my
presentation last year as a reference, where there is a grammatical construction,
can one say, that there is no meaning ? And it is easy, basing myself always on
documents, to refer you to a particular article by Jakobson in the translation
Nicolas Ruwet has made of it, for you to find in a particular article in the grammar
part, in these articles entitled Essai de linguistique générale, on page 205, the
discussion of this example.

无可置疑,在没有文法的地方,意义是完全被消灭。但是在有文法的地方,我指的是文法的建构的地方,被主体感受到,假设的文法的建构,正在受到质疑的主体,在此被召唤充当裁判的主体,在这个位置,在大他者的位置,要重新介绍这个术语,被铭记在我去年讲述的术语,作为一个指称。在那里,有一个文法的建构,我们能够说,没有意义吗?我很容易总是以文件作为基础,跟你们提到杰克逊的一篇特殊的文章。尼古拉 鲁维特曾经翻译它,为了让你们在特殊的文章里,在文法的部分,在这些文章,标题是:Essai de linguistique générale,,在第205页,找到这个例子的讨论。

(7) It would be easy for me to put forward all sorts of attestations in English
usage, in Marvell, for example, “Green thoughts in a green shade”, which he
immediately translates in parenthesis or rather that the translator translates “une
verte pensée dans une ombre verte”, or indeed particular Russian expressions
completely analogous to the supposed contradiction inscribed here in the sentence.

我将会很容易提出各种的英文的用法的见证。譬如,在马维尔,「绿色思想在绿色色度里」。他立即用括弧将这个句子翻译,或是翻译者翻译为:“une
verte pensée dans une ombre verte”。 的确,特殊的俄语的表达完全类似于在这个句子被铭记在此地被认为的悖论。

There is no need to go any further. It is enough to remark that to say a round
square, in English, another example taken by the same author, is not at all a
contradiction in reality, given that a square is very often used to designate a place
and that a place ronde can then very easily be called a round square.

我没有必要再深入探讨。我们这样谈论就足够:在英语,说出「圆形的四方广场」。再取相同作者的另外一个例子,它在现实里根本不是悖论。假如考虑到,一个“四方形广场”经常被使用来指明一个“地方”。而“圆形的地方”就很容易被称为是“圆形的四方广场”。

What nevertheless are we going to engage with? You see in the equivalents, and
to say the word, if I try to show that this sentence can have a meaning, I will
certainly be entering on more subtle paths. It is from grammar itself that I will
begin. I will observe that whether this phrase is grammatical or not is, for
example, because what apparently emerges in this sentence as an adjective,
namely colourless green, comes before the substantive, and that here we find
ourselves, in English as in French, confronted with a certain number of effects
which remain to be described.

可是,我们将要从事什么?你们看见,在这些相等语,说出这个字词,假如我尝试显示,这个句子能够拥有一个意义。我将确实进入更加微妙的途径。根据文法的本身,我将开始,我将观察,譬如,无论这个词语是否合乎文法。因为在这个句子明显出现的东西,作为一个形容词,也就是“没有颜色的绿色”,出现在名词的前面。在此,我们发现我们自己,在英语如同在法语,面临着某些的影响,始终有待描述的影响。

Provisionally, I continue to call them effects of
sense, namely that in (8) relationship of the adjective to the substantive, the
adjective, in Greek we call it epithete, usage in English, in French and in every
tongue, shows us that even though this usage varies with tongues, this question of
the place is important to qualify the effect of sense created by the joining of the
adjective to the substantive.

暂时,我继续称它们为意义的影响。也就是说,在形容词与名词的关系。在希腊语,形容词,我们称它为“epithet”在英语,法语与每个语言的用法,它跟我们显示:即使这个用法随着各种语言变化。这个位置的问题很重于,为了要给予意义的影响具有品质,将形容词跟名称联接一块创造的影响。

In French, for example, an adjective which, as I
might say, is identified to the substance is placed before the substantive, une belle
femme is different to une femme belle. Epicatathetic usage, one could say, that of
the adjective which comes before, is to be distinguished from the epanathetic,
from the one which comes after, and that the reference of the woman to beauty in
the case of the epanathetic, that is from the adjective which comes after, is
something distinguished, while a belle femme is already, that it is within her
substance that she is found to be beautiful, and that there is still a third phase to be
distinguished, the epamphitetic usage, or that of ambiance, which will indicate
that this woman appeared beautiful in particular circumstances, that in other words
it is not the same thing to say: “furious Hermione – Hermione furious – furious,
Hermione” etc, and so on.

譬如,在法语,我不妨说,被辨认为物质的形容词,被放在名词的前面,une belle
femme 不同于 une femme belle。“形容词前置”的用法,我们不妨说,形容在前的用法,应该被区别出来,跟“形容词后置”。将女人跟美丽扯在一块,在“形容词后置”的情况,也就是形容词放后面,是某件被区别的东西。而当「美丽佳人“已经是,在她的物质里,她被发现是美丽。依旧还有第三部分能够被区别出来。”特殊的用法“,特殊情况的用法。它将指示,这位女人在特殊的情况里显得美丽。换句话说,”暴怒佳丽,佳丽暴怒,暴怒,佳丽」,等等,意义并不一样。

In English, the real epamphitetic is where it is permitted to put the adjective after
the noun. Epanathetic, like epicatathetic, is always placed in front, but the
epicatathetic is always closer to the substantive.

在英文,真实界的特殊用法,就是容许将形容词放置在名称的后面。形容词的后置,就像形容词的前置,总是放置在前面。但是前置用法,总是更加靠近名
称。
(9) One says: Un / de belle apparence / et pourvu d’une belle barbe, vieil homme”
(An old man of handsome appearance with a beautiful beard). It is because the
vieil is closer to homme rather than the fact that he has a beautiful beard and a
radiant appearance.

我们总是说:帅俊外表的老年,具有美丽的胡须。这是因为“老”更加靠近“男人”,而不是这个事实:他具有美丽的胡须与帅俊的外表。

Henceforth we are, simply along grammatical paths, in a position to distinguish
two planes and as a consequence not to have them meeting in the contradiction,
green colourless.

因此,光是沿着文法的途径,我们就有这个立场,要区别两个层次。结果,我们有这个立场,不要让它们会合成为悖论:绿色—没有颜色。

In addition some memories of Sheridan that I had noted for you,
of a dialogue between Lady Teazle and her husband Sir Peter – naturally it is the
notes that one takes that one never finds at the right time – sufficiently teaches us
that for example, if Lady Teazle protests at the fact of being tortured about these
elegant expenses, about these dépenses élégantes, this is in order to point out to us that the relationship of the adjective to the substantive in spoken usage, when it is
a matter precisely of the epicatathete is perhaps not to be taken in English the way
it is in French and that you cannot translate elegant expenses by depenses
elegantes by strictly inverting the relationship and by saying des élégances
coûteuses.

除外,我曾经跟你们提醒,希立丹的某些记忆,在提兹尔与她的丈夫之间的对话的记忆。当然,我们所取得这个注意,我们从来无法在适当时刻找到。它充分地教导我们。譬如,假如提兹尔女士抗议被折磨的这个事实,关于“高雅的费用”,关于“费用的高雅”。这是为了跟我们指出:在口语语言,形容词跟名词的关系。它的问题确实是形容词的前置,在英文,或许不应该这样被看待,如同它在法文里。你们无法翻越“高雅的费用”用“费用的高雅”。凭借严格地倒转这个关系,凭借是“这个费用非常高雅”。

Even in Tennyson I also found for you a certain glimmering
strangeness which comes from the speaker, emerging from his dream, obviously
must be translated by lueurs étranges and not by étrangetés lumineuses. So that
here, it is perhaps indeed this (10) idea of greenness, of ideal greenness that is
involved, as compared to what, colourless and more decayed, it is something like
the shades of ideas which slip away there, losing their colour and in a word,
bloodless.

即使在丁尼生,我也跟你们找到某个“微光的陌生”来自于这位言说者,从他的梦出现。显而易见,它必须被翻译为“lueurs étranges ”而不是翻译为“étrangetés lumineuses.”。所以在此,或许确实就是“绿色”的这个观念,理想的绿色的观念,被牵涉到。作为跟“没有颜色”而且更加褪色的东西比较,那是某件像是观念的各种色度,在那里溜走掉。丧失它们的颜色。总之,变成没有血色。

They are moving about there, not because they are sleeping, and I
would have no trouble, spare me the end of this stylistic exercise, in proving to
you that it is perfectly conceivable, that if we grant to sleep, dorment, something
of the metaphorical, there is a sleep accompanied by some fury. Besides is it not
what we experience every day and in a word, if indeed you excuse me from this
vain tail-end of discourse, I leave you with the task of fabricating it. I cannot find,
in questioning things in the sense of the link of grammar to meaning, I cannot find
in this sentence the evocation properly speaking of the unconscious where it is.

他们在那里到处移动。倒不是因为他们正在睡觉。我将毫无困难,请容我省掉这个风格的运用的结束。当我跟你们证明,它是完全可以构想的。假如我们给予“睡着”,”酣睡“,某件隐喻的东西,就有伴随某种愤怒的睡着。除外,这难道不就是我们日常经验的东西?总之,假如你们确实原谅我免除这个徒劳的辞说的结尾的事情。将将建构它的这项工作留给你们。我无法找到,当我质疑事情,用文法跟意义的连接。我无法在这个句子里,找到恰当而言是无意识的召唤的东西,在无意识的所在。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

From an other to the Other 7

April 19, 2015

From an other to the Other 7
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

13.11.68

–S—‘ —–^-3-9- 3S 2 SC 3o Q
s
This is what happens in the relation of a signifier to another signifier, namely, that it is
the subject that is represented there, which here will never know. Once any signifier
whatsoever in the chain can be put into relation with what is nevertheless only an
object, namely, what is fabricated in this relationship to surplus enjoying, in this
something that is able through the opening of the operation of the organism to take on
the figure of these vanishing entities that I have already given the list of, which go
from the breast to dejections and from the voice to the look, the fabrication of the
discourse of the renunciation of enjoyment. The mainspring of this fabrication is the
# ■following, it is that around them can be produced the surplus enjoying.

这就是所发生的事情,在能指跟另外一个能指点关系。也就是说,在那里被代表的这位主体,在此,另外一个能指永远不会知道。一旦有任何的能指在成为能指的锁链里被放进这个关系,跟仅是作为客体的东西的关系。换句话说,在跟“剩余享乐”的这个关系,所被建构的东西。在这个某件东西,这个东西能够通过有机体的运作的开放,担负起这个人物,这些正在消失的实体的人物。我已经给予这些正在消失的实体,列成一个名单。它们从乳房到粪便,从声音到凝视,欢爽的放弃的辞说的建构。这个建构的原动力就是如下。环绕着它们,剩余享乐能够被产生。

That assuredly if already in connection with Pascal’s wager I told you that if there were only one life to be wagered to win beyond death, it would be well worth our while labouring enough in this one to know how to behave in the other. In this labour and its exchange as a wager with something, when we know that it is worth the trouble, there is found the mainspring of the feet that at the very foundation of the idea
handled by Pascal it appears with the extraordinary blindness of someone who is
himself at the beginning of a period of unleashing of the function of the market and its
correlative the one that introduced scientific discourse.

假如关于巴斯卡的赌注,我已经确实告诉你们,假如仅有一个人的生命能够被用来下赌注,为了赢得超越死亡。那将确实值得我们在这一生劳苦费心,为了知道如何在来生如何行为。在这个劳苦费心及其交换,作为某件东西的赌注。当我们知道,这是值得这个费心努力。这些脚的原动力被找到,在巴斯卡处理的这个观念的基础,似乎,随着某个人的特殊的盲目,介绍科学辞说的这个人,他处于市场的功能及其相关因素的释放的时期的开始。

Let us not forget that he is
also the one who wanted, at the most extreme moments of his retreat and his
conversion, to inaugurate in Paris a Compagnie des Omnibus Parisienne. If this
Pascal, who does not know what he is saying when he speaks about a happy life, we
have the incarnation of it, what else is graspable under the term of happy if not
precisely this function incarnated in the surplus enjoying? And moreover we have no
need to wager on the beyond to know what it is worth.

让我们不要忘记,在最极端的时刻,巴斯卡也是想要在巴黎开启“马车作为公车服务”的这个人。假如这位巴斯卡,他并不知道他正在说什么,当他谈论到快乐的生活。我们拥有这个快乐的生活的具体表现。快乐的这个术语,还能够怎样地被理解?难道不确实就是在剩余享乐里被具体表现的这个功能?而且,我们没有需要下赌注于超验的死后,才能够知道它具有怎样的价值。
13.11.68
(17) Where the surplus enjoying is unveiled under a naked form has a name. It is
called perversion. And that is why a holy woman has a perverse son. There is no
need for the beyond to see what happens in the transmission from one to the other in
terms of the operation of an essential discourse.

在赤裸的形式之下,这个剩余欢爽被揭露的地方,拥有一个名字。它被称为是倒错。那就是为什么一位神圣的女人会有一个倒错的儿子。我们并不需要死后的超验,才能看出,究竟发生什么事情,在从前者转移到后者,用基本辞说的运作的术语。

JL ^ O (£ o o\
■ O
Here then is opened the figure, the schema of what allows it to be conceived how it is
around the phantasy, namely, of the relationship of the reiteration of the signifier that
represents the subject in relation to itself that there is played out what is involved in
the production of o. But inversely, by this fact, their relationship takes on consistency
and it is from this that there is produced here something that is no longer either
subject nor object, but that is called phantasy.

这个人物因此在此被展开。这是让它能够被构想到这个基模,构想如何环绕这个幻见,也就是,这个能指的一再重复的关系的幻见,代表主体跟它自己的关系的能指。在那里,这个小客体的产生所牵涉的东西,被扮演出来。但是相反地,凭借这个事实,它们的关系具有一致性。从这个一致性,某件东西在此被产生。这个东西不再是主体,也不再是客体,而是被称为是“幻见”。

Henceforth, the other signifiers can, by
linking up, articulating and at the same time here, freezing in the effect of meaning,
introduce this effect of metonymy which means that this subject, whatever he may be,
whether it is in the sentence, at the level of the child of “A child is being beaten, On
bat un enfant ”, at the level of the on, something equivalent solders this subject and
makes of him this solidary being that in the discourse we have the weakness to give
/ ‘ . the image of as an omnivalent image, as if there could be a subject of all signifiers.

因此,凭借在意义的影响,联接,表达,同时冻结,其它的能指能够介绍换喻的这个影响。换喻意味着,这位主体,无论他是什么,无论它是否在句子里,在“一位小孩正在被打”的小孩的层次,在这个“正在”的层次,某件相等的东西跟主体焊接起来,并且主体成为这个团结的生命。在辞说里,我们具有这个弱点,给予作为单一价值的意象的这个意象,好像可能有一位主体具有所有的能指。

If there is something that, through the analytic rule, can be sufficient relaxed in this
chain for there to be produced these revelatory effects, what sense, what accent should
we give to it so that it can have some import? The ideal no doubt is that this mythical
[critical?] “I speak” which will bring about in analytic experience the effect, the
image of the appearance of the truth.

假如有某件东西,凭借精神分析的规则,在成为能指的锁链鬆散时,能够足够让这些启示的影响被产生。那么,我们应该给予它怎样的意义,怎样的强调?这样,它才能够具有某种的意义?无可置疑地,这个理想是,这个神秘的“我言说”,在精神分析的经验里,将会导致这个影响,真理的出现的这个意象。

It is here precisely that it must be understood that this emitted truth is suspended
there, caught between two registers, those whose two limits I posed precisely in the
two terms that figure in the title of my seminar this year. Because this either, a
reference to the field where the discourse of the subject would take on its consistency,
namely, to the field of the Other that I defined as this locus where every discourse at
least posits itself in order to be able to offer itself to what is or not its refutation. That
it can demonstrate, and in the most simple form – you will excuse me for not having
the time to do it today – that the problem of whether or not there is a God who
guarantees as for Descartes the field of truth is completely uncalled for. It is enough
for us that it can be demonstrated that in the field of the Other there is no possibility
of a complete consistency of discourse and this I hope the next time to be able to
articulate for you precisely in function of the existence of the subject.

确实就是在此,我们理解到,这个被发出的真理被悬置在那里,被套陷于两个铭记之间。这两个铭记的两个极限,我确实地提出,用两个术语。这两个术语就列在今年的我的研讨班的标题:“从他者到大他者”。因为“他者或是大他者”提到这个领域1,主体的辞说将会具有它的一致性的地方。换句话说,会提到大他者的领域。我定义大他者的领域,作为这个轨迹。在那里,每个辞说至少提出它自己的假设,为了能够提供它自己给是否是它的反驳的东西。每个辞说能够证明,用最简单的方式—请你们原谅我,今天没有时间来这样做。是否有这样的上帝存在,上帝保证真理的领域,如同对于笛卡尔,这个难题完全不被要求。对于我们,这个难题能够被展示就足够了:在大他者的领域,辞说的完整的一致性并没有这个可能。我希望,下次,我将能够跟你们表达这个,用主体的存在的功能。

13.11.68

I already wrote it out once very rapidly on the board. It is a proof that is very easy to
find in the first chapter of what is called set theory. But again it would be necessary,
at least for part of the listeners here, to show why it is relevant to introduce into the
elucidation of the function of a discourse such as ours, we analysts, in some way
(18) extract it from a logic that it would be quite wrong to believe is a way of
excluding it into the neighbouring amphitheatre to call it mathematical logic.

有一次,我已经非常迅速地书写在黑板上。这是一个证据, 我们很容易在所谓的“集合理论”的第一章,找到它。但是,至少这将还是需要的,对于在这里的部分听众,跟他们显示为什么要介绍像我们的辞说的功能个诠释。我们精神分析家,以某种方式,从逻辑抽离出它。相信这样是错误的,逻辑是一种排除它进入它所谓的“数理逻辑”这个邻近的斗技场。

If nowhere in the Other there can be assured in any way the consistency of what is
called the truth., where then is it unless this function of the o corresponds to it.
Moreover, have I not already on some other occasion expressed what is involved in
the cry of the truth. “Me, the truth, I wrote, I speak, and I am pure articulation
expressed to your embarrassment”. What the truth can say is there to move us. But
what the one who is suffering says by being this truth, ought to know that its cry is
only a mute cry, a cry into the void, a cry that already at one time I illustrated by the
celebrated engraving of Munch, because at this level nothing else can correspond to it
in the Other than what gives it its consistency and in the naive faith that it is like me,
namely, that it is its true support, namely, its fabrication as o-object. Faced with it,
there is nothing but that, than the additional one (I’m enplus) among so many others,
that can in no way correspond to this cry of the truth except that it is Very precisely its
equivalent, non-enjoyment, misery, distress and solitude. It is the counterpart of this
o, of this surplus enjoying that gives its coherence to the subject qua ego.

假如在大他者那里,所谓真理的一致性根本就无法被找到,那么真理在哪里?除非这个O ,他者的这个功能对应于真理。而且,我不是已经在某个其他的场合,表达所被牵涉的东西,在真理的呼唤?「我,真理,我书写,我言说,我是纯粹的表达,令人你们尴尬地被表达。」真理所能够说的东西,在那里感动我们。但是遭受痛苦的这个人,凭借这个真理所说的东西,他应该知道,真理的呼唤仅是沉默的呼唤,进入空无的呼唤。有段时间我诠释的呼唤,凭借慕尼黑的著名的雕塑。因为在那个层次,没有其他东西能够对应于大他者的真理,除了就是给予真理一致性的东西。在像我一样的天真的信念。换句话说,真理就在它的真实的支持里,它作为他者-客体的建构里。当面临它时,仅仅就是这个“额外的一”,在许多其他的一当中。这个额外的一根本就无法对应于真理的这个呼唤,除了,真理确实就是它的相等的,非-享乐的悲惨,通卡与孤独。就是这个他者-O的对应之物,这个剩余享乐的对应物,给予它的一致性,给作为自我的主体。

There is nothing else, unless for today to want to leave you on something that makes
one smile a little. I take up again the words that, in Ecclesiastes, an old king who did
not see the contradiction between being the king of wisdom and having a harem, who
tells you, “All is vanity no doubt, enjoy the woman that you love, namely, make a ring
of this hollow, of this void at the centre of your being, there is no neighbour if not this
very hollow in you, it is the emptiness of yourself’.

没有其他的东西,除非今天我想要离开你们,在某件让你们会心一笑的东西。我再次探讨这些话语,在“传道书”,一位老国王没有看见作为智慧的国王与拥有妻妾厢房之间的矛盾。这位老国王告诉你们,「无可置疑,这一切都是虚荣,享受你喜爱的女人。换句话说,让这个空洞成为指环,让你的生命实存的中心的这个空无成为指环。你的邻居,难道不就是你身上的这个空洞,那就是你自己的空无。

But in this relationship
undoubtedly guaranteed only by the figure that allowed Freud no doubt to hold on
throughout this whole perilous path and to allow us to clarify the relationships which,
in this myth, would otherwise not be tolerable, the divine law that leaves in its entire
primitiveness this enjoyment between man and woman of which it must be said:
“Give her what you do not have, because what can unite you to her, is only
enjoyment”. It is on this point that in the style of a simple, total, religious riddle, of
one that is only approached in the Gabbala that I will discharge you today.

但是在这个关系,无可置疑,仅是凭借让弗洛依德无可置疑地能够紧捉住的人物,在这整个危险的途径里,让我们能够澄清这个关系。在这个神话里,这些关系本来不会受到容忍。这它的完整的原始性质里,神圣的法则留下这个欢爽,在男人与女人之间,它必须这样被说:「请你给她你所没有的东西,因为能够让你跟她连接一块的东西,就是享乐。」针对这点,用简单,完整,宗教的谜团的风格,在加巴拉神庙才能接近的谜团,我今天跟你们告一段落。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Identification 122

April 19, 2015

Identification 122
认同
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

4.4.62 199 9

Before leaving you must I indicate to you some of the little
points which will give you satisfaction because they show you
that we are in the right place by referring ourselves to
something which exists in our experience of the neurotic? What
for example does the hysteric or the obsessional neurotic do in
the register that we have been trying to construct, what do both
one and the other do with regard to the desire of the Other as
such?

在离开你们之前,我必须跟你们指示几个将让你们满足的要点,因为它们跟你们显示,我们正处于正确的地方,凭借提到某件存在于神经症者,在我们精神分析经验的东西吗?譬如,歇斯底里症或妄想症的神经症者铭记的东西,我们一直尝试要建构的,前者与后者彼此有什么关系,关于大他者的欲望的本身?

Before we fell into their snare by encouraging them to play out
the whole game on the plane of demand, by imagining to ourselves
– which moreover is not an absurd thing to imagine – that we will
manage at the limit to define the phallic field as the
intersection of two frustrations, what do they do spontaneously?

在我们掉入他们的陷阱之前,凭借鼓励他们演出整个的遊戏,在要求的层面,凭借我们自己的想像。而且,这样的想像并非是荒谬—我们将会在极限处成功地定义这个阳具的领域,作为是两个挫折的交会。他们自动自发地做些什么?

(17) For the hysteric it is quite simple; for the obsessional
also, but it is less obvious. The hysteric does not need to have
attended our seminar in order to know that man’s desire is the
desire of the Other and that as a consequence, the Other can
perfectly well, in this function of desire, supply for her the
hysteric. The hysteric lives her relationship to the object by
fomenting the desire of the Other with a big 0 for this object.
Consult Dora’s case. I think that I have already sufficiently
articulated this per longum et latum not to even need to
recall it here.

对于歇斯底里症者,这是相当简单的。对于妄想症者,也是,但是比较不那么明显。歇斯底里症者并不需要曾经参加我们的研讨班,为了知道,人的欲望就是大他者的欲望。结果,在欲望的这个功能,大他者能够非常完善地供应给她这位歇斯底里症者。歇斯底里者生活于跟客体的关系,凭借煽动具有大写字母O的大他者的欲望,给这个客体。请你们参照朵拉的个案。我认为,我已经充分地表达这个“per longum et latum”(长度与宽度),在此甚至不需要提醒它。

I appeal simply to the experience of each one of
you and to what are called the operations of subtle plotting that
you can see being developed in the whole behaviour of the
hysteric which consists in sustaining in her immediate
environment the love of one or other person for somebody else who
is her friend and the true final object of her desire, the
profound ambiguity always remaining of course of knowing whether
the situation ought not to be understood in the reverse
direction.

我仅是诉诸于你们每一位的经验,以及诉诸于所谓的微妙的计划的各种运作。你们能够看见这些微妙计划的运作正在被发展,,在歇斯底里症者的完整的行为。这完整的行为就在于她的当下的环境里,维持某个其他的人对于某个其他的人的爱。这个其他的人就是她的朋友,与她的欲望的真实的最后的客体。这个深刻的模糊暧昧当然始终知道,情况是否应该被理解,从相反的方向。

Why? This is what of course you will be able to see in the
continuation of our remarks as perfectly calculable from the
simple fact of the function of the phallus which here can always
pass from one to the other of the hysteric’s two partners.
But we will come to this in detail. And what does the
obsessional really do concerning, I am speaking directly, his
business with the desire of the Other?

为什么?这当然是你们将会能够看见的东西,在我们的谈论的继续,作为完美的可计算,根据阳具的功能的这个简单的事实。在此,阳具能够总是从歇斯底里症的两个伴侣一位传递到另一位。但是我们将会详细地谈论这一点。妄想症者确实做些什么,关于他跟大他者的欲望的事情?我正在直接地说。

It is more astute because
moreover this field of desire is constituted by the paternal
demand in so far as it is what preserves, what defines the field
of desire as such by prohibiting it. Well then, let him sort it
(18) out for himself therefore, the one who is charged with
sustaining desire with respect to the object in obsessional
neurosis: the dead person.

这是更加精明的。而且,欲望的这个领域,由父权的要求界所组成。因为它将是保存的东西,定义欲望的领域的本身,凭借禁止欲望。呵呵,让我们将欲望从他自己那里整理一下。因此,这位被赋予维持欲望的人,关于在妄想症的神经症者的这个客体,这个死去的人。

The subject has the phallus, he may
even exhibit it on occasion, but it is the dead person who is
asked to make use of it. It is not for nothing that I
highlighted the story in the Ratman, the nocturnal hour when
having contemplated his erection at length in the mirror he goes
to the entrance door to open it to his father’s ghost, to ask him
to recognise that everything is ready for this supreme
narcissistic act that this desire is for the obsessional.

主体拥有这个阳具,他甚至可能有时展示它。但是这位死去的人被要求要利用它。这并非白费力气,我在“鼠人“个案,强调这个故事。夜间到时刻,当他在镜像里详细地沉思他的阳具勃起,他走到入口处,展开阳具给他的父亲的鬼魂,要求父亲的鬼魂承认,每样东西都准备好,给这个崇高的自恋的行为,对于妄想症者,这个欲望就是这个崇高的自恋的行为。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Seminar 12 重要的难题

April 18, 2015

Seminar 12
Crucial Problems
重大的难题

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

2.12.1964 I 1
Seminar 1: Wednesday 2 December 1964
Colourless green ideas sleep furiously
furiously sleep ideas green colourless
Songe, songe, Céphise, à cette nuit cruelle
Qui fut pour tout un peuple une nuit éternelle
[Dream, dream, Cephise, of that cruel night,
Which was for a whole people an eternal night]
Colourless green ideas sleep furiously.

(梦,那个重要的夜晚的梦,色菲斯,
对于整个民族,这是一个永恒的夜晚)
没有颜色的绿色观念愤怒地睡着。

If I were not in front of a French-speaking audience, I could say right away: “that‟s
what talking is about”. But since it happens that I must presume that despite the
obvious necessity for bilingualism in our culture, there are some people here who
are in no way burdened by English, I will give a word-for-word translation of it.

假如我并不是在讲法语的观众的面前,我本来可以立刻说:「那是谈论所要谈论的东西」。但是因为恰巧我必须假定,尽管在我们的文化,通晓双语很明显是必要的,在此还是有很多人们根本就承受不起英文的负担。我将给予它逐字的翻译。

The first word means without colour, the second word green, the third word ideas
(in the plural), the fourth word means sleep (sommeil), can also mean to go to
sleep (dormir), provided you put to before it, and can mean sleep (dorment) in the
third person plural of the present indicative. You will see why this is the sense
(sens) that we will pause at.

第一个字的意思是颜色,第二个字是绿色,第三个字是观念(复数形),第四个字是睡觉。它也意味着,前去睡觉,只要你们在它前面多加个“to”,它就能够意味着睡觉的动词,处于第三人称复数,现在直述句。你们将会看出,为什么这是我们将停下来沉思的意义。

The nature of the indefinite article in English, which is not expressed, allows us
therefore to translate up to this word-for-word: “D‟incolores vertes idées dorment”
– to which there is added what is very obviously an adverb because of its ending –
“furieusement.”
I said: “that‟s what talking is about”. Is that really talking? How can we know? It
(2) is precisely in order to know that this signifying chain – I scarcely dare to say
sentence – was forged.

英文的不定冠词的特性,没有被表达,它因此让我们能够逐字地翻阅:「显而易见,有个副词的东西被增添到它那里。因为它的结尾–“furieusement.” 我说:「那就是谈论所有谈论的东西」。那确实就是谈论吗?你们如何知道?那确实是为了知道,这个成为能指的锁链被铸造,我勉强敢这样说。

It was forged by a linguist called Noam Chomsky. This example is quoted,
introduced in a little book called Syntactic structures published by Mouton in the
Hague. What is it about? About structuralism, you can take my word for it, about
syntactic structure, syntax.

它被一位名叫诺姆 章思基的语言学家所铸造。这个句子被引述,被介绍,在一本小书,书名是「句法结构」,由莫顿出版,在哈格出版社。书的内容是什么?关于结构主义。你们能够相信我的话,那是关于句法结构,句型。

This would immediately deserve a more precise commentary. I am only going to
indicate it.

这将立即应该获得更加明确的评论。我仅是将指示它。

Syntax, in a structuralist perspective, is to be situated at a precise level that we
will call formalisation on the one hand, and on the other hand, as regards the
syntagm – the syntagm is the signifying chain considered from the point of view of
what concerns the linking of its elements – Syntactic Structures consists in
formalising these linkages.

从结构主义的观点,句型应该被定位在明确的层次,一方面是我们所谓的“形名主义”;另一方面,关于句段—句段是这个成为能指的锁链,从它的元素的连接息息相关的观点来考虑—“句法结构”在于让这些连接成为正式。

Are all the linkages between these elements equivalent? In other words, can any
signifier whatsoever be immediately contiguous to any other signifier. It is
obvious that the reply will tend towards the negative, at least as regards what
concerns a certain usage of this signifying chain, its usage, let us say, in discourse.
This example is found at the beginning of the work in question. It introduces
something which is to be distinguished from the end of this work, namely, the
(3) constitution or the initiation, the outline of a reasoning about syntactic
structure, it introduces a notion which must be distinguished from it, that of
grammar.

在这些元素之间的一切连接都相等吗?换句话说,任何的能指能够立即传染到任何其他的能指吗?显而易见,这个回答将会倾向于否定,至少关于这个成为能指的锁链的某个用途相关而言。它在辞说里的用途,不妨这样说。这个例子被找到,在受到质疑的著作的开始。它介绍某件东西,应该跟这本著作的结尾区别出来。换句话说,形成结构,或开启进入。关于句型结构的推理的轮廓。它介绍一个必须跟它区别出来的观念,文法的观念。
He introduced his subject matter, Syntactic structures, by specifying it as having a
goal: how can we establish the formalisation, the algebraic signs, let us say, in
order to illustrate immediately for you what is involved, which will allow there to
be produced in the English language something grammatical, and to prevent there
being produced a chain which is not so.

他介绍他的主题的事情。“句型结构”凭借指明它作为拥有一个目标:我们如何能够建立这个形名主义,这些代数的符号。不妨说是为了立即跟你们说明所被牵涉的东西。在英文语言里,某件文法的东西能够被介绍,并且为了阻止并没有那么合文法的锁链被产生。

I cannot go on here to judge what the author of this enterprise achieves. What I
can indicate, is that, in the particular conditions that are offered to him by this
positive tongue that the English tongue is, I mean the tongue as it is spoken, it is
not a matter of extracting the logic of the English tongue, it is a matter in a way of
something which could be set up, in our day at least, in an electronic machine, so
that from it there could emerge only grammatically correct sentences, and, a
greater ambition, all the possible forms that his tongue offers to the Englishman, I
mean to the speaking subject.

我无法在这里继续判断这整个企图的作者所完成的东西。我所能指示的东西,就是在特殊的情况里。这些特殊的情况被提供给他,用这个积极的语言,那就是英文的语言的东西。我指的是,英文被说的语言。问题并不是要将英文语言的逻辑抽离出来。问题是某件东西能够被建立的方式,至少在我们的时代里,用电子的机器。这样,从电子机器那里,正确的句子才能够合乎文法地出现。更大大企图心是,他的语言提供给英国人的所有可能的形式,我指的是给予言说的主体。

This book is a very seductive one to read because it gives the idea that by pursuing
this kind of work a certain rigour emerges, the imposition of a certain real in the
(4) usage of the tongue, and a very ingenious, very seductive, very captivating
possibility which is demonstrated to us, of managing to mould oneself according
to formulae like those, for example, of the most complex connections of
auxiliaries, with certain forms which are proper to English, how to generate
without error the transformation from the active to the passive, connected to a
certain form which is that of the present in its actuality, which in order to say lire
distinguishes “I read”, from “I am reading” and which generates, in a quite
mechanical fashion “I have been reading”, for example, by a series of
transformations, not of the conjunction of these words but of their composition.
There is here something very seductive, but this is not at all what I shall engage
myself with.

这本书非常引人入胜,让人爱不释手。因为它给予这个观念:凭借逼迫这种著作,某些的严谨会出现,某些的实在界会赋加在语言的用法里。这是一个非常具有创意,非常引人入胜,非常令人著迷的可能性。它跟我们证明,成功地塑造它自己,依照像那些的公式。譬如,助动词的最复杂的联接,具有某些的形式。这些形式是英文本身具有的,如何没有错误地来产生转换,从主动转换成为被动,跟某些的形式联接一块。那就是现在式处于它的实践状态的形式。为了要说法文的“阅读”,这个形式区别“我阅读”跟“我正在阅读”。这个形式,以相当机械的方式,产生“我一直在阅读”,譬如,用一连串的转换,不是这些字词的连接的转换,而是它们的组成的连接的转换。在此,有件东西非常引人入胜,但是这根本就不是我将从事探讨的东西。

For what interests me is the reason why this example was forged. It was forged to
distinguish the grammatical from another term that the author introduces here of
the order of signification. In English that is called meaning.

我所感到興趣的东西,是为什么这个例子被铸造的理由。这个句子被铸造,为了区别文法跟作者在此介绍的另外一个术语,关于英文里,被称为意义的“意义”的秩序。

The author thinks that in constructing this sentence he has produced a sentence
which is without meaning, on the pretext that colourless contradicts green, that
ideas cannot sleep and that it appears rather problematic for one to sleep furiously.
What strikes him is that he can, on the contrary, obtain from a subject, a subject
that he questions, or that he pretends to question but undoubtedly who is his
(5) recourse, that this meaningless sentence is a grammatical sentence.

作者认为,当他建构这个句子时,他已经产生一个没有意义的句子,藉口是,没有颜色跟绿色牴触,观念不会睡著。我们愤怒地睡觉似乎也是相当费解。让他感到印象深刻的是,相反地,他能够从一个主体获得,他质疑的主体。或是他假装质疑,但是无可质疑地,那是他的诉求,这个没有意义的句子是合乎文法的句子。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

seminar 16 (中英对照)

April 17, 2015

seminar 16

From an other to the Other
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

The essence of psychoanalysis is a discourse without words.

精神分析的本质是没有文字的辞说.
(写在黑板上)。

We find ourselves here again this year for a seminar for which I chose the title From
an Other to the other (D ’un Autre a I ’autre) to indicate the major reference points
around which my discourse ought, properly speaking, to turn. That is why this
discourse is crucial at the moment of time that we are at. It is so in as much as it
defines what is involved in this discourse called the psychoanalytic discourse, whose
introduction, whose coming into play at this time brings so many consequences with
it.

今年,我们发现我们自己在此次探讨一个研讨班。我将它的标题取名为「从他者到大他者」,为了指示这个主要的指称点。恰当地说,环绕这个指称点,我的辞说应该转弯。那就是为什么这个辞说非常重于,在我们正处于的时刻。它是如此的重要,因为它定义在这个辞说所被牵涉的东西,它被称为是精神分析辞说。它的介绍,它在此刻的运作,随之带来许多的结果。

A label has been put on this process. It has been called structuralism, a word that
moreover was not necessary on the part of the publicist who suddenly, not so many
months ago, God knows, put it forward in order to encompass a certain number of
people whose labour had for a long time marked out some avenues of this discourse.

在这个过程,有一个标签被贴上。它被称为是结构主义。而且,结构主义这个字词并不必要的,就出版者而言。突然地,几个月之前,天晓得,这位出版者提出这个字词,为了涵盖某些的人们。他们的努力长久以来,标示着这个辞说的各种管道。

Thus it is the doing of what I have just called a publicist – everyone knows the play on
words that I have made about ilpoubellication,’‘ — that a certain number of us, thanks to the labour of this agency, find ourselves together in the same dustbin (poubelle).
One could have more disagreeable company! In truth, those that I find myself connected to being people for whose labour I have the greatest esteem, I could not in any case find myself uncomfortable in it, especially, since we know little bit about what is involved in dustbins in this period dominated by the genius of Samuel Beckett. For me personally, after having now lived almost 30 years, in three sections of fifteen, ten and five years, in three psychoanalytic societies, I know a little bit about what is involved in living with household refuse.

因此,这就是我刚刚所谓的出版者的做法—众所周知,对于文词的运作,我对于“出版物”所作的文词的运作。我们某些人们,由于这个代理者的努力,发现我们自己完全处于相同的垃圾箱里。我们本来会相处得更加令人不愉快。我发现我自己跟他们相关联的那些人们,他们的努力,我敬重有加。无论如何,我无法发现我自己跟他们相处时是不舒服。特别是,因为我们稍微知道关于在垃圾箱所被牵涉的东西。在这个时期,在萨谬尔 贝凯特这位天才扬名立万的时期。对于我个人而言,现在已经生活过几乎三十年,在十五年,十年,与五年的三个部分,在三个精神分析社团里。我稍微知道,关于生活在家庭的垃圾堆里所被牵涉的东西是什么。

As regards structuralism, in truth one can understand the unease that may be
produced among some people from the treatment that people pretend to inflict from
the outside on our common habitat, and also that people may want to get out of it to
stretch their legs a little. It remains, nevertheless, that ever since this impatience
seems to all appearances to be taking hold of some people, I notice that I do not find
myself all that uncomfortable in this basket, since moreover in my eyes it does not
(8) seem to me that this structuralism should be identified to anything other than what
I call very simply seriousness, and in no way certainly to anything that resembles in
any way what one could call a philosophy, if by this word there is designated a vision
of the world, or even some way of assuring on the right or the left the positions of a
thinking. Let it suffice, to refute the first case, if it is true that as a psychoanalyst I
cannot in any way claim to introduce in any fashion what is ridiculously called a
psychoanalytic anthropology – it would be enough to recall, at the very entry into this
domain of constitutive truths everything that psychoanalysis brings into this field,
namely, that there is no union of man and woman without castration:

关于结构主义,实际上,我们能够理解这种可能被产生的不安,在一些人们当中。从人们假装从外在赋予痛苦的治疗,对于我们共同的栖息地。而且,人们也想要摆脱它,为了稍微延伸他们的脚。可是,问题始终是,因为这种不耐烦表面似乎掌控一些人们,我注意到,我并没有发现自己在垃圾箱里,并没有那样的不舒服。而且,在我的眼睛里,我并不觉得,这个结构主义应该被认同实实在在就是我单纯所谓的“严肃性”。它也不应该被认同为任何我们所谓的“哲学”的东西。假如“哲学”这个字词被指明是世界的幻象。或甚至是某个方式,确定思维的方式的立场是右派或是左派。首先,让们反驳第一个情况。假如作为精神分析家,我根本就无法宣称要用我的方式介绍荒谬地所谓“精神分析人类学”。我们只要回想一下,就在进入结构性的真理的领域,精神分析带进这个领域的每样东西。也就是说,假如没有阉割,男人与女人不可能结合。

a) determining by way of phantasy, precisely, the reality of the partner for
whom it is impossible,

b) without castration operating, in this sort of hiding place that posits it as a
truth in the partner for whom it has been really spared, apart from some
accidental excesses.

一、 凭借幻见决定,确实地决定伴侣的现实,对于这位伴侣,那是不可能。
二、 假如没有阉割的运作,在这种的隐藏的地方,提出它作为在伴侣身上的一种真理。对于这位伴侣,它确实地曾经被饒过,除了某些意外的过度。

Let us strongly insist that, developing this formula from Genesis that God created
them – there is also created him – man and woman – make no mistake, God knows
why! – in the case of one the impossibility of the accomplishment of castration comes
to posit itself as determining her reality; in the other, the worst thing that is threatened
as being possible does not need to happen to be true, in the sense that this term offers
no recourse.

让我们强烈地坚持,从创世纪发展这种的公式,上帝创造他们的创世纪—“他”也在那里被创造—男人与女人—请误误会,天晓得为什么!–在“一”的这个情况,阉割的完成的不可能逐渐提出它自己,作为决定她的现实。在”另外一“的情况,受到威胁的最糟糕的情况,作为可能,并不需要刚好是真实。因为这个术语并没有提供帮助。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

精神分析的另一面 02

From an other to the Other
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

This simple reminder, it seems, implies that at least at the heart of the field that is
apparently ours, no harmony, however we may designate it, is in place, that assuredly
some purpose is required of us which is precisely that of a suitable discourse. In order
to sustain it, we will have in a way to ask ourselves the sort of question from which all
philosophy started. Faced with so much knowledge, which is not without its value
and efficacy, what is it that can distinguish this discourse, guaranteed of itself,
grounding itself on a criterion that thinking would take as its own measure, and would
make it deserve to be entitled episteme: science. We are brought, even if it is only at
first by this challenge that I have just outlined as that put by truth to the real, to a
greater prudence in this approach of harmonising thinking with itself.

似乎这个简单的提醒暗示着,至少在这个领域的中心,那显而易见是我们的领域,没有和谐处在那里,无论我们如何指明它。确实地,我们被要求要有个目标,那确实是合适的辞说的目标。为了维持它,我们将必须用某种方式询问自己这种问题。所有的哲学都从这个问题开始。当我们面临如此多知识,它们并非没有价值与效率。是什么能够让这个辞说显著,让它自己受到保证,让它的基础有个标准,思想将可以用这个标准充当它自己的衡量。让它应该获得这个头衔“认识论“:科学。我们被迫要更加谨慎,在探讨让思想跟它自己和谐,即使起初凭借我刚刚描绘的挑战,作为真理对实在界提出的挑战。

A rule of thinking that has to guarantee itself from non-thinking as being that which
may be its cause, this is what we are confronted with in the notion of the unconscious.
It is only in the measure of the bevond-sense of remarks and not, as is imagined and
as the whole of phenomenology supposes, from sense, that I am as thinking. My
thinking cannot be regulated – whether one adds or not alas! — as I wish; it is
regulated. In my act, I am not trying to express it but to cause it. But it is not a matter
of the act. In the discourse, I do not have to obey its rule, but find its cause. It is in
(9) the inter-sense – and you can understand this in as obscene a way as you may
imagine — there is the being of thinking. What has passed through my thinking, is the
cause. It allows to pass purely and simply what has been, as being, and this from the
fact that always and ever, wherever it has passed, it has always passed producing
effects of thinking.

一套思想的规则必须从非思想保证它自己,作为是可能是它的原因的存在。这是我们面临的东西,在无意识的观念上。我作为思的存在,仅是凭借谈论的这种“超越意义“,而不是如同想像的,如同整个现象学所认为的,从意义开始。我的思想无法被规范—无论是我们增加与否!–如同我愿望的。我的思想被规范。在我的行动里,我并没有尝试要表达它,而是要引起它。但是这并不是行动的事情。在辞说里,我并没有必要服从它的规则,而是要找到它的原因。就是在这个”互动-意义“里—你们能够理解这个,用你们想像得到的最卑微的方式—思想具有生命实存-。经由我的思想通过的东西,就是原因。它容许确实而单纯地通过曾经存在过的东西,作为生命实存,根据这个事实:它总是通过,而且永远地通过,产生思想的影响,无论它曾经通过什么。

‘I t is raining, il p le u f is a thinking event each time it is pronounced, and the subject
of it is first of all this it (il), this hilum (hile), I would say, that it constitutes in a
certain number of meanings. And that is why this “it” finds itself comfortable in
everything that follows because by “it is raining” you can understand “it is raining
primary truths”, “there is some abuse, il y a de I’abus”; especially by confusing rain, a
meteor, with pluvia, aqua pluvia, rain and the water that one collects from it. The
meteor lends itself to metaphor and why? Because it is already made up of signifiers.
It is raining. The being of thought is the cause of thinking qua beyond sense. It was
always and ever the being of a thinking before.

「天正在下雨」是一个思想的事件,每次当它被宣佈。它的这个主体首先就是这个“它“,在这个”核心“。我不妨说,它以某些的意义组成的核心。那就是为什么这个”它“发现它自己舒服地处于一切跟随而来的东西。因为听到「天正在下雨」,你们能够理解「天正在落下一些原初的真理」,「有某些的烂用」,特别是凭借混淆下雨,殒星,跟下雨与我们从雨中收集的水。殒星有助于隐喻,为什么?因为它总是由能指组成。天正在下雨。思想的生命实存就是思想的原因,作为超越意义。它总是,并且永远是先前思想的生命实存。
Now nsing this structure rejects any promotion of infallibility. It is only helped
precisely from the gap or rather from the very process because there is a process of
gap, and it is the process helped by the structure of the practice, but it can only be
helped by it by following it, which does not mean in any way going beyond it, except
by allowing it to be grasped in the consequences that fix it to time, to the very point
that the reproduction of the process comes to a halt. This means that it is when it
stops that the result is seen. And this is what explains, let us say here with a discreet
touch in passing, that all art is defective. It is from collecting what, at the point where
its failure to be completed is hollowed out, it is from collecting this that it takes its
force. And that is why music and architecture are the supreme arts – 1 mean supreme
technically, as being at the height of the basal, producing the relation of the harmonic
number with time and space, precisely from the angle of their incompatibility.

现在,使用这个结构来排斥没有任何错误的提升。它获得帮助,仅是确实根据这个差距,或根据这个过程。因为有一个差距的过程。这是受到实践的结构所帮助的过程。但是仅能够受实践的结构帮助或跟随它而获得帮助。这丝毫并不意味着,超越实践的结构。除了凭借容许它被理解,在各种结果里。这些结果将它固定到时间,固定到这个点。在那里,这个过程的复制停顿下来。这意味着,当它停顿时,结果被看见。这就是用来解释的东西,在此我们不妨说,偶而谨慎一下:所有的技艺都是有缺点。从这个收集,在这个点,在那里,它没有能够被完成,被掏空出来。从收集这个,它获得它的力量。那就是为什么音乐与工艺都是崇高的艺术。我指的是技艺方面的崇高,作为基础的高处,产生这个和谐数字跟时间与空间的关系。确实是从它们的不和谐的角度。因为众所周知,和谐的数字现在仅是一个过滤器。因为它既没有掌握住这个或另外一个,它也没有掌握这个时间,或空间。

Because the harmonic number is now only, as is well known, a strainer, since it does
not hold on either to the one or to the other, neither to this time nor to this space.
This is what structuralism takes seriously. It takes seriously the feet of knowledge as
cause, as cause in thinking and, most usually, it has to be said, in a delusional
perspective. Do not be frightened, these are opening remarks, reminders of
certainties, not truths. And I would like, before introducing today the schemas from
which I intend to start, to mark that if something here and now ought already to be in
the palm of your hand, it is what I took the care to write earlier on the board about the
essence of the theory. The essence of psychoanalytic theory is the function of
discourse and very precisely because of something that may appear new to you, or at
least paradoxical, that I am saying that it is without words. It is a matter of the
essence of the theory because this is what is at stake.

这就是结构主义认真看待的东西。它认真看待知识作为原因的这个事实,作为思想里的原因。通常,它必须被说,用一个幻觉的观点。请你们不要害怕,这些都是开场白的活语。让人想起确定性,而不是真理。今天,在介绍这个基模,我打算要开始的基模,我想要标示。假如此时此地的某件东西已经在你们的手的掌握当中,那就是,我早先用心写着黑板上的东西,关于理论的本质。精神分析理论的本质就是辞说的功能。这确实是有某件东西,你们觉得新鲜,或至少你们觉得矛盾,我正在说:这件东西是没有文字的。这就是精神分析理论的本质的问题,因为这是岌岌可危的东西。

(10) What is the state of theory in the psychoanalytic field? About this, I hear strange
echoes being bruited around me. There is no lack of misunderstanding. On the pretext
that by positing a whole field of thought as manipulation, I seem to be putting in
question traditional principles. I mean — and this is expressed astonishingly because itis in places or in minds that are close to me — by something or other called
“theoretical impossibility”. Indeed, did I not find this at a turn in some lines that what
I one day announced in a context that clearly said what it meant, that there is no
universe o f discourse, so then why tire ourselves out, people seem to conclude. No
doubt it would be less important in my eyes to correct my statement, because it does
not lend itself to any ambiguity, and it is hard to see how the fact that one can state
precisely what has been stated, that there is no point of closure in a discourse, that
discourse is for all that, far from that, neither impossible, nor even simply devalued.
It is precisely by starting from there that you are responsible for this discourse, and
especially for managing it properly, taking into account what is meant by this
statement that there is no universe of discourse. There is certainly nothing therefore
in this respect to be corrected by me, except simply to come back to it to take the
following steps; of what consequences are induced from the discourse that has already
been put forward but also perhaps to return to what is meant by the fact that being
attached to the degree that an analyst may be to the conditions of this discourse, he
can at every moment be in a position to show its flaws.

在精神分析领了,理论的状态是什么?关于这点,我听到奇怪的迴响正在我的四周散播。误解是无所不在。藉口是,凭借提出整个的思想的领域作为操控,我似乎质疑到传统的原则。我指的是—这被惊奇地被表达,因为它存在于我附近的地方,我附近的人的心灵。凭借所谓的“理论的不可能性”。的确,我难道不是发现这个,就在某些脉络的转折。有一天我在文本里宣佈,它清楚地说出它的意思:「辞说的宇宙并不存在」。因此,为什么我们要孜孜不倦,人们似乎作结论。无可置疑,在我的眼中,即使我改正我的陈述,也无多大紧要。因为这并无助于澄清歧义性。我们很难看出,我们能够确实陈述所曾经被陈述过的话的这个事实,在辞说里,并没有封闭的点。尽管这样,辞说根本就不是那样。辞说既非不可能,也非仅是被贬低价值。确实就是凭借从那里开始,你们负责这个辞说。特别是凭借适当地处理它,考虑到这个陈述是什么意思:「辞说的宇宙并不存在」。因此,在这方面,确实是没有什么东西能够被我改正。除了就是回到它,为了採取以下的步骤。从已经被提出的这个辞说,能够推理怎样的结果,而且或许是回到这个事实的意思:一位精神分析家跟这个辞说可能连系到什么程度,他在每个时刻都可能处于显示这个辞说的缺点的立场。

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From an other to the Other 3
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

There was a time – allow me a little interlude before getting into this domain – when I
took the example of the pot, not without there being such a scandal that I left this pot,
as I might say, in the margin of my Ecrits. What was at stake was the feet that the pot
is, in a way, the tangible image that it is this meaning modelled by itself, thanks to
which, manifesting the appearance of a form and a content, it allows there to be
introduced into thinking the idea that it is the contents that is the meaning, as if
thinking showed here this need to imagine itself as having to contain something else,
for this is what the term “to contain” designates when it is highlighted with regard to
an inopportune act. The pot, and I called it mustard in order to remark that far from
necessarily containing any, it is precisely because it is empty that it takes on its value
as a mustard pot. Namely, that it is because the word “mustard” is written on it, but
mustard which means that there is much delay (moult lui tarde) for this pot before it
reaches its eternal life as a pot which begins at the moment when this pot will be
holed. Because it is under this appearance throughout the ages, that we find it in digs,
namely, by searching in tombs something that will bear witness to us about the state
of a civilisation. The pot is holed, it is said, as a homage to the dead person and so
that a living person cannot make use of it. Of course it is a reason. But there is
perhaps another one which is the following; it is that this hole is intended to produce,
so that this hole produces, illustrating the myth of the Danai. It is in this state that,
(11) this pot, when we have resurrected it from its burial place, occupies a place of
honour on the shelf of the collector and, in this moment of glory, for it just as much as
for God, it is in this glory that it reveals its nature. The structure of the pot — I am not
saying its material — appears there as what it is, namely, correlative to the function of
the tube and the drum. And, if we are going to search for preformations in nature, we
will see that for a horn or a shell, it is still there, after the life has been extracted from
it, that it shows what its essence is, namely, its capacity for producing sound.

有一段时间—请容许我稍微插话,才进入这个领域—当我以这个壶。曾经有这样的传言,我留下这个壶在我的“论文集”的边缘,不妨这样说。岌岌可危的东西是这个事实:这个壶在某方面是具体的意象,它就是模拟自己的意义。由于这个意义,当它展示形式与内容的外表时,它容许这个观念被介绍进入思想。那就是,内容就是意义,好像思想在这里显示这个需要,想像自己作为必须包含某件其他东西的需要。因为这是“包含”这个术语指明的东西,当它被强调,关于一个不合宜的行动。这个壶,我称它为芥末壶,为了谈论,这个壶根本不需要包含任何东西,那确实是因为它是空的,它具有它的价值。但是芥末壶意味着,对于这个壶,会有许多拖延时间,它才到达它作为壶的永恒的生命。在这个壶将会被掏空的时候,这个作为壶的永生的生命才开始。因为自古至今,这个壶就是在这样的表象之下,我们发现它,在挖掘当中。也就是说,凭借在坟墓里寻找某件东西。这个东西将会跟我们见证,关于文明的状态。据说,这个壶被掏空,作为对死者表示敬意。所以活着的人不能利用它。当然,这是一个理由。但是或许还有另外一个理由,以下的理由。那就是,这个空洞被用来产生,这个空洞产生,说明达奈作为死人行走的神话。就是在这种状态,这个壶,当我们重新复活它,从它的埋葬的地方。这个壶佔据一个光荣的位置,在收集者的架上。在这个光荣的时刻,对于它与对于上帝,都是光荣的时刻。因为在这个光荣里,它显示它的特性。壶的结构—我并不是说它的材料—出现在那里,作为它的本质。换句话说,它跟管子与鼓的功能互相对应。假如我们将要寻找特性的表现,我们将会看见,对于角或贝壳,它依旧在那里,在生命已经从它那里抽离出来之后。它显示它的本质是什么。也就是说,它作为产生声音的能力是什么。

Entire civilisations are no longer represented for us except by these little pots in the
form of a head or again of some animal, covered by signs that are impenetrable to us,
for lack of correlative documents. And here we sense that the meaning, the image is
altogether outside, that what is left to being inside is precisely what lies in the tomb in
which we find it, namely, precious materials, perfumes, gold, incense and myrrh as
they say. The pot explains the meaning of what is there by virtue of what? By virtue
of a use value, let us rather say of an exchange value, with another world and another
dignity, of a token value. That it should be in pots that we find the manuscripts of the
Dead Sea is something to make us sense that it is not the signified that is within, it is
very precisely the signifier. And it is with it that we have to deal when it is a matter of
what is at stake for us, namely, the relationship between discourse and the word in
analytic efficacy.

对于我们,整个文明不再被代表,除了凭借这些小壶,有一个头的形状,或某个动物的形状。上面盖著我们无法理解的符号,因为欠缺相关的文件。在此,我们感觉到,这个意义,这个意象,完全是外在的。剩余下来作为内在的东西,确实就躺在坟墓里。我们在坟墓里找到它,也就是,找到这个珍贵的材料,香水,黄金,香料,与精油,如同人们所说。这个壶凭借什么来解释存在那里的本质的意义呢?凭借使用价值,。相反地,让我们谈论交换价值。跟另外一个世界,另外一个尊严,让我们谈论象征价值。这个价值应该在壶里,我们发现“死海之书”的原稿是某件东西,让我们理解到:处于内在本质的并不是所指,而确实是能指。我们必须处理的就是这个能指,因为对于我们而言,这时岌岌可危的事情。换句话说,辞说与文字之间的关系,作为精神分析的有效性。

Here, I ask you to allow me a short circuit at the moment of introducing what, I think,
7 . . . . is going to image for you the unity of the theoretical function in this approach rightly or wrongly called structuralist. I shall appeal to Marx whose remarks I have had a lot of trouble not introducing earlier, importuned as I have been for a long time about him, into a field in which he is nevertheless perfectly in his place. I am today going to introduce in connection with the o-object the place in which we have to situate his essential function. Because it is necessary, I will proceed by way of a homologous stave and I will first of all recall something that was, by labours that are still recent, precisely and up to the disavowal of the author designated as structuralist, was perfectly highlighted, and not too far from here, in a commentary on Marx. The
question is posed by the author whom I have just evoked of what the object of Capital
is. We are going to see what, in a parallel way, psychoanalytic investigation allows
there to be stated on this point.

在此,我要求你们容许我稍微迂回一下,我才开始介绍我认为将会让你们想像这个一致性,理论功能的一致性。用所谓的结构主义的方法,无论这个术语恰当与否。我将诉诸于马克思,早先我没有介绍他的谈论,因为遭遇的困难不少。虽然有段长时间,关于马克思,我被请求进入他仍然完美地在其位置的领域。今天,关于这个他者-客体,我将介绍这个位置。在那里,我们必须定位他基本的功能。因为这是必要的,我将凭借同质性的空间前进。我首先要提醒某件东西,凭借最近的努力,确实探讨被指明作为结构主义者的作者的不承认。这个东西完美地被强调,距离这里不太远,作为对于马克思的评论。我刚刚召唤的这位作者提出这个问题,关于资本论的目标是什么。我们将要看出,以一个并列的方式,精神分析的研究针对这一点,让什么被陈述。

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精神分析的另一面 04

From an other to the Other
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

Marx starts from the function of the market. His novelty is the place that he situates
labour in it. It is not the fact that labour is new that allows his discovery, it is the fact
that it is bought; that there is a labour market. This is what allows him to demonstrate
what is inaugurating in his discourse – what is called surplus value. As it happens this
approach suggests the revolutionary act that we know about, or rather that we know
(12) very badly, because it is not sure that taking power resolved what I will call the
subversion of the capitalist subject expected from this act. But for the moment it
matters little to us. It is not sure that the Marxists did not in fact undergo many
inauspicious consequences from it. The important thing is what Marx is designating
and what his approach means. Whether his commentators are structuralist or not, they
still seem indeed to have demonstrated that he for his part is structuralist. Because it
is properly by being at the point, for his part, as a being of thought, being at the point
that the dominance o f the labour market determines, that there is brought out as cause
of his thinking this function, an obscure one it has to be said – if this obscurity can be
recognised in the confusion of the commentary – which is that of surplus value. The
identity of discourse with its conditions is what I think is going to find some
clarification from what I am going to say about the analytic approach.

马克思从市场的功能开始。他的新奇是他定位劳工在市场里的位置。劳工是新的,而且承认是马克思的发现,这并非是事实。事实上,劳工是被买来到。有一个劳工市场。这就是让马克思能够证明在他的辞说开端的东西,所谓的剩余价值。偶然地,这个探讨暗示著我们知道或迫切知道的这个革命的行动。因为并不确定的是,掌握权力是否就解决我所谓的从这个行动预期的资本主义的主体的颠覆。但是目前,对于我们,这并无关紧要。并不确定的是,马克思主义者事实上并没有经历从这个行动而来的许多恶兆的结果。重要的事情是,马克思正在设计的东西,与他的探讨的意义。对于他的评论者无论是结构主义与否,他们仍然似乎已经证明,就马克思而言,他是结构主义者。因为恰当地处于这个点,就他而言,作为思想的生命主体,处于这个点,劳工市场的佔优势决定的时刻,这个功能被买来充当他的思想的原因。这是一个模糊的功能,我们必须说—假如这个模糊性能够被体认出来,在评论的混淆里—那就是所谓的剩余价值。辞说的认同它的情况,就是我认为将要找出某些的澄清,根据我将要说的关于精神方向的方法。

No newer than labour was in the production of merchandise, is the renunciation of
enjoyment (jouissance), whose relation to labour I do not have to define any further.
Since, from the beginning and quite contrary to what Hegel says, or seems to say, it is
/what constitutes the master who clearly intends to make of it the principle of his
power. What is new is that there is a discourse that articulates this renunciation and
which makes appear in it – for this is the essence of the analytic discourse – what I
would call the function of the surplus enjoying (plus de jouir). This function appears
because discourse occurs, because what it demonstrates in the renunciation of
enjoyment is an effect of discourse itself. To accentuate things, it must be supposed
that in the field of the Other, there is this market, if you wish, which adds up its
merits, its values, the organisation of choices, of preferences which implies an ordinal,
indeed cardinal structure. Discourse holds the means of enjoying in so far as it
implies the subject. There would be no reason of subject, in the sense that one can
say reasons of state, if there were not a correlative in the market of the Other, which is
that a surplus enjoying is established that is captured by some people.

在货物的产生,跟劳工一样耳熟能详的术语是欢爽的放弃。它更劳工的关系,我就不必更加深入定义了。因为,从一开始,跟黑格尔所说,或似乎这样说的恰恰相反,那是形成主人的东西。主人清楚地想要将它解释成为权力的原则。新奇之处在于,有一个辞说表达这种放弃,并且让它出现在这个放弃里。那就是我所谓的剩余欢爽的功能—因为这就是精神分析辞说的本质。这个功能出现,因为辞说发生。因为它所证明的东西,在欢爽的放弃,就是辞说本身的影响。为了强调事情,我们必须认为,在大他者的领域,我们不妨说,有这个市场增添它的由点,它的价值,各种选择的组织,偏好的组织,暗示着序数,确实是主要的结构。辞说拥有欢爽的工具,因为它暗示著主体。假如在大他者的市场,没有一个相对的因素,主体就没有存在的理由,就没有陈述的理由。那就是剩余的欢爽被证实,被某些人们所获得。

A discourse must be pushed very far to demonstrate how the surplus enjoying
depends on stating, is therefore produced by discourse, so that it appears as an effect.
But in feet this is not something very new to your ears if you have read me, because it
is the object of my writing on Kant with Sade in which the proof is given of the total
reduction of this surplus enjoying to the act of applying to the subject the term o of
the phantasy, through which the subject can be posited as cause of itself in desire.
I will develop this in the time to come by a return to this wager of Pascal that
illustrates so well the relation of the renunciation of enjoyment to this element of
wager in which life in its totality is itself reduced to an element of value. A strange
way of inaugurating the market of enjoyment, to inaugurate it, I am clearly saying, in
the field of discourse. But after all is this not a simple transition from what we have
(13) just now seen being inscribed in history in this function of goods devoted to the
dead? Moreover do we not have here what is now in question for us. We have to deal
with theory in as far as it has been lightened precisely by the introduction of this
function of the surplus enjoying. Around the surplus enjoying there is played out the
production of an essential object whose function it is how a matter of defining, it is
the o-object.

辞说必须被深入探讨,它才能证明剩余欢爽如何依赖陈述而存在,如何因此被辞说产生。这样,剩余的欢爽才能出现作为结果。但是,事实上,对于你们的耳朵,这并不是某件新奇的东西,假如你们曾经阅读过我的东西。因为那是我书写“康德与萨德”的目标。在那里,证据被给出,关于将这个剩余欢爽完整地化简成为这个行动,将幻见这个术语“0”,运用到主体身上。通过这个幻见,主体能够被提出,作为是它自己在欲望里的原因。

在将来,我将发展这个观点,凭借回答巴斯卡的这个赌注。巴斯卡的赌注如此清楚地说明欢爽的放弃跟赌注的这个元素的关系。在巴斯卡的赌注里,处于完整性的生命的自身被化简成为价值的元素。这是一个奇怪的方法来开启欢爽的市场。为里开启这个欢爽的市场,我正在清楚地说,在辞说的领域。但是毕竟,这难道不是一个单纯的转移?从我们刚才所看见的生命实存被铭记在历史里,奉献地转移给死者的货物的这个功能吗?而且,我们在此难道不拥有现在跟我们受到质疑的东西吗?我们必须处理理论,因为确实凭借介绍“剩余欢爽”的这个功能,理论才豁然开朗。环绕这个”剩余欢爽“,一个基本的客体的产生才被扮演出来。这个基本客体的功能,现在是定义的问题,它就是在0-客体。

The crudeness of the echoes received at the introduction of this term is and remains
for me the guarantee that it is indeed in effect of the order of efficacy that I bestow on
_ / . it. In other words, there is a well known, well marked and celebrated passage in
which Marx savoured, during the time he spent developing his theory, the opportunity
to see the survival of the living incarnation of its miscognition!

在介绍这个术语时,被接收到的这些迴响的简陋,对于我,就是这个保证,也始终是这个保证。它确实实际上是属于有效性的秩序,我赐予给它的有效性。换句话说,有一个著名,扬名立万的段段。在那里,马克思掌握这个机会,为了看出对于它的误认的活生生的具体表现的存活,在他花费时间来发现他的理论的期间。

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From an other to the Other 5
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

I stated: the signifier is what represents the subject fo r another signifier. This like
every correct definition, namely, is required. It is required that a definition should be
correct and that a teaching should be rigorous. It is quite intolerable, at the moment
when psychoanalysis is called on to give to something that you must not think I intend
to elide, to the crisis that traverses the relation of the student to the university, it is
unthinkable that one should respond by the statement that there are things that one
cannot in any way define in a knowledge. If psychoanalysis cannot state itself as a
knowledge and be taught as such, it has strictly nothing to do in a place where nothing
else is at stake. If the market of knowledge is very properly shaken by the fact that
science contributes to it this unit of value that allows there to be plumbed what is
involved in its exchange even in its most radical functions, it is certainly not in order
for something that can articulate something about it, namely, psychoanalysis should
present itself by throwing in the towel. All the terms that may be employed in this
connection, whether they are those of “non-conceptualisation” or any other evocation
of some impossibility or other, can only designate in any case the incapacity of those
who put them forward. It is not because the strategy with the truth in which the
essence of therapy may reside does not lie in any particular intervention described as
interpretation, a point where undoubtedly all source of particular functions, of lucky
operations in the order of the variable can find their opportunity but only have sense
by being situated at the precise point where theory gives them their weight.

我陈述:能指就是代表针对另外一个能指的主体。这像是每个正确的定义所被要求的东西。他们要求,定义应该正确,教学应该严谨。这是完全令人无法忍受的。当精神分析被要求给予某件东西,在这个时刻,你们一定不要以为我打算闪躲的东西,给予这个危机,旅越过学生跟大学的关系。这是匪夷所思的,我们竟然回应,以这样的陈述:在知识里,有些东西,我们无法以任何方式定义。假如精神分析无法陈述自己,作为一门知识,而且充当一门知识被教导。它就没有丝毫的关系,跟没有其他东西岌岌可危的地方。假如知识的市场合宜地受到这个事实的动摇:科学将价值的这个单位贡献给它。价值的这个单位让处于它最强大的功能状态,它的交换所牵涉的东西,能够被测量。这确实并不是为了某件关于它能够表达的某件东西。换句话说,精神分析应该能够呈现它自己,凭借宣告放弃。关于这一点,可能被运用的所有的术语,无论它们是“非-概念化”的术语,或任何其他召唤某个不可能的东西。所有这些术语无论如何仅能指明那些提出术语的人们的力有不逮。这倒不是因为对于真理的策略,并不在于任何被描述作为解释的特殊的介入。治疗的本质可能就驻居在真理的策略那里。在这一点,无可置疑的,所有的特殊的功能的来源,在变数的秩序上幸运运作的来源,这些来源都能找到它们的机会。但是仅有当它们被定位在这个准确的点,它们才具有意义。在这个准确的点,理论给予它们理论的重要性。

This is what is well and truly at stake here. It is in the discourse on the function of the
renunciation of enjoyment that there is introduced the term of o-object. The surplus
enjoying as a function of this renunciation under the effect of discourse, is what gives
its place to the o-object, like in a market, namely, because it defines some object of
human labour as merchandise. Just as each object carries in itself something of
(14) surplus value, in the same way surplus enjoying is what allows the isolation of
the o-object.

在此,这实实在在是岌岌可危的东西。就在探讨欢爽的放弃的功能的辞说,他者-客体这个术语被介绍。“剩余欢爽”作为这种放弃的功能,在辞说的影响之下,就是给出它的位置,给这个他者-客体的东西,就像是在市场上。换句话说,因为它定义人类劳工的某个客体,作为商品。正如每个客体在它的自身扱带某件“剩余价值”的东西。同样地,“剩余欢爽”就是让这个他者-客体能够孤立出来。

What are we doing in analysis, if not establishing, by the rule, a discourse of such a
kind that the subject suspends what on it? Precisely his function as subject. Namely,
that he is dispensed from sustaining his discourse with an “I say” because it is a
different thing to speak and to posit “I say what I have just stated”. The subject of the
statement says “I say”, says ‘1 posit”, as I do here in my teaching. I articulate this
word; it is not poetry; I am saying what is written here and I can even repeat it, which
is essential, in the form in which by repeating it, to vary it I add that I have written it.
Here then is the subject dispensed from sustaining what he states. Is it then in this
way that he is going to come to this purity of the word, this foil word of which I spoke
in a period of evangelisation, it has to be said, for the discourse called the Rome
discourse. To whom was it addressed if not to ears that were most closed to hearing
it. I will not qualify what made these ears provided with these opaque qualities. This
would be to make a judgement that could not be in any way other than offensive.
But notice that it is in speaking about The Freudian thing, that I happened to launch
myself into something that I myself called a prosopopoeia? It is a matter of the truth
stating: “For you then I am the enigma of her who vanishes as soon as she appears;
men who try so hard to hide me under the tawdry finery of your proprieties. But I am
prepared to believe that your embarrassment is sincere.” I note that the term
“embarrassment” was highlighted for its function elsewhere. “For even when you
take it upon yourselves to serve as my heralds, you place no greater value on wearing
my colours than your own, which are like what you are, phantoms that you are. Where
then will I pass into you? Where was I before I entered you? Perhaps one day I will
tell you.” It is discourse that is at stake here. “But so that you will find me where I
am, I will teach you by what sign you will recognise me. Men, listen, I am giving you
the secret. Me, the truth, I speak (Moi, la verite, je parle).”

我们在精神分析正在从事的东西,难道不就是凭借规则,建立如此种类的辞说。这样,主体悬置什么在它之上?确实就是他作为主体的功能。换句话说,他被免除不用维持他的辞说,用一个“我说”。因为这跟我言说并且提出“我说出我刚刚陈述的东西”,是不一样的事情。陈述的主体说:“我说”,说”我提出“,如同我在我在此的教学里所为。我表达这个字词。这个字词并不是诗。我正在说出在此被书写的东西,我甚至能够重复它一遍。这是很重要的,凭借重复它的这个形式,为了让它有所变化,我补充说,我已经书写它。

在此,就是这个主体,被免除不用维持他所陈述的东西。难道不就是以这种方式,他将要获得这个字词的纯净性。我谈论到这个“实词“,在宣导福音的时期。我必须说,那是为了所谓的”罗马辞说“的这个辞说。演讲这个辞说的听众对象,难道不就是最靠近倾听它的那些耳朵吗?对于曾经让这些耳朵听到这些模糊的特质,我将不会让它更加具有特质。那将会从事一个判断,实实在在就是冒犯的判断。

但是,请你们注意,就是在言说关于“弗洛依德的物象“时,我恰好让我开始从事我自己所谓的”能指的他者“。这是真理正在陈述的事情:「因此对于你们,我是她的这个谜团。她一出现,马上就消失。人们努力尝试要隐藏我,在你们的个特性的俗丽的织锦里。但是我准备相信:你们的尴尬是真诚的。」我注意到,”尴尬“这个术语在别的地方被强调,因为它的功能。「因为即使当你们担负起这个责任,充当我的宣导福音者,你们挂著我的旗帜,如同挂著你们的旗帜。那就像是你们的本质,你们作为魅影的本质。那么,我将在哪里转变成为你们?在我进入你们之前,我在哪里?或许,有一天,我将会告诉你们。」这就是辞说在此岌岌可危的地方。「但是为了让你们找到我,在我所在的地方,我将教导你们
将凭借什么讯号认识出我。人们,请倾听,我正在给予你们这个秘密。我,真理,我言说。」

I did not write, “I say”. What speaks undoubtedly, if it came, as I also wrote
ironically, the analysis, of course, would be closed. But it is precisely what does not
happen, or what when it does happen deserves to be punctuated in a different way.
And for that reason we must take up again what is involved in this subject that is here
put in question by an artificial procedure, of whom it is demanded, in effect, not to be
the one who sustains everything that is advanced. It must not be believed
nevertheless that he is dissipated, for the psychoanalyst i / s very precisely there to /
represent him, I mean to maintain him throughout the time that he is not able, in
effect, to place himself as regards the cause of his discourse.

我并没有书写,“我说”。 无可置疑地言说的东西,假如它来临,如同我也反讽地书写,当然,这个精神分析将会被封闭。但是确实是所没有发生的事情,或当它发生时,应该用不同方式强调的东西。因为那个理由,我们必须再次探讨在这位主体所被牵涉的东西。这个东西在此被人为的程序质疑,这是针对主体要求。事实上,要求不要成为维持每样被提出的东西的这个人。可是,我们一定不要相信,主体被散开,因为精神分析家确实就是在那里,代表他。我指的是,始终维持他。实际上,关于他的辞说的原因,他不能够放自身验证的时刻。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Identification 121

April 17, 2015

Identification 121
认同
Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

4.4.62 198 8

You are going to see here that castration anxiety therefore has
two meanings and two levels; because if the phallus is this
element of mediation which gives its support to desire, well then
the woman is not the worst off in this affair because after all
for her it is quite simple: because she does not have it, she
only has to desire it; and indeed in the most successful cases,
it is in effect a situation to which she adapts very well. The
whole dialectic of the castration complex in so far as for her it
introduces the Oedipus complex, as Freud tells us, means nothing
other than that. Thanks to the very structure of human desire,
the path for her requires fewer detours – the normal path – than
for the man.

你们在此将会看见,阉割焦虑因此具有两个意义与两个层次。因为假如阳具就是中介的这个因素,给予它的支持欲望。那么,在这个情事里,女人并非是最糟糕。因为毕竟对于女人,这是相当简单:因为女人并没有拥有阳具,她仅是必须欲望它。的确,在即使是最成功的案例里,这实际上是一个情况,女人适应很好的情况。阉割情结的整个的辩证法,对于女人而言,它介绍伊狄浦斯情结。如同弗洛依德告诉我们,它意味着实实在在就是伊狄浦斯情结。由于人类欲望的结构,对于女人的途径要求较少的迂回—这条正常的途径—比起对于男人而言。

Because for the man, in order that his phallus may
serve as this foundation of the field of desire, is it going to
(15) be necessary for him to demand it in order to have it? It
is indeed something like that that is involved at the level of
the castration complex, a transitional passage from what in him
is the natural, become semi-alien, vacillating support of desire
through this habilitation by the law, by means of which this
piece, this pound of flesh is going to become the pledge, the
something through which he is going to designate himself at the
place where he has to manifest himself as desire within the
circle of demand.

因为对于男人,为了让他的阳具可以充当欲望的领域的基础,为了拥有阳具,他将会有这个必要要求它吗?这确实是某件东西,像是被牵涉到的东西,在阉割情结的层次。一个转换的过程,从在他身上的自然的东西,成为半个-外来者,对欲望的摇摆的支持,凭借法则的这个外套,凭借法则,这个东西,这一英磅肉块将有成为这个宣誓。通过这个东西,他将与指明他自己在这个位置,他必须证明他自己,作为在要求的圈子里的欲望。

This necessary preservation of the field of
demand which through the law humanises the mode of relationship
of desire to its object is what is involved at this point and
is what means that the danger for the subject is not, as is said
in all these deviations that we have been making for years to try
to contradict analysis, that the danger for the subject is not in
any abandonment on the part of the Other, but in his abandonment
as subject to the demand.

通过法则,要求的领域的必要的保存,让欲望跟它的客体之间的关系的模式,合乎人性。那就是这个时刻所被牵涉到的东西。而且,这是意味着,对于主体的危险,并不是如人们所说,在于所有的这些偏离,几年来我们一直从事的偏离,为了尝试反驳精神分析。对于主体的危险,并不是在于大他者这方面的任何的放弃,而是在于主体的放弃,作为屈从于要求界。

Because in as much as he lives, as he
closely develops the constitution of his relationship to the
phallus in the field of the demand, it is here that this demand
does not properly speaking have any term: because again even
though it is necessary, as you know, for this phallus to be
demanded in order to introduce, to establish this field of
desire, it is not properly speaking in the power of the Other to
make a gift of it on the plane of demand.

因为只要主体活着,当他仔细地发展在要求界的领域,他跟阳具的关系的建构。就是在这里,这个要求界恰当来说,并没有任何的术语:因为即使这是必要的,你们知道,为了让阳具被要求,为了要介绍,要建立欲望的这个领域。恰当来说,那并不是在大他者的权力里,为了在要求界的层次,将它当成是一个礼物。

It is in the measure
that therapeutics does not at all manage to resolve better than
it has done the ending of analysis, does not manage to make it
emerge from the proper circle of demand, that it comes up
against, that it finally ends up in this demanding form, in this
unsatisfiable, unendliche form that Freud in his final article,
“Analysis terminable and interminable”, designates as unresolved
(16) anxiety about castration in the case of the man, as
Penisneid in the woman.

因为治疗学根本就没有成功地解决,除了就是将精神分析作为结束,治疗学并没有成功的让欲望出现,从要求界的适当的圈子出现。欲望遭遇的要求界,欲望最后处于这个要求的形式,处于这个无法满足,无法终止的形式,弗洛依德在他最后的文章「终止与没有终止的精神分析」,指明作为是没有被解救的焦虑,关于阉割,在男人的情况,如同在女人的“阳具羡慕“。

But an exact positioning, a correct
positioning of the function of demand in analytic efficacy and
the fashion of directing it might perhaps allow us, if we were
not so backward about it, a backwardness already sufficiently
designated by the fact that obviously it is only in the rarest
cases that we come up against this term marked by Freud as the
end point of his own experience. Would to heavens we could
arrive at this point even if it is only an impasse! This would
at least prove how far we could go, while what is involved, is to
know effectively if going that far leads us to an impasse or
whether one can go further.

但是一个确实的定位,在精神分析的有效性,要求界的功能的正确的定位,引导它的这个方式或许让我们能够后退一下,假如我们还没有如此后退的话。这个后退被这个事实充分地指明。显而易见地,仅有在最罕见的情况,我们才遭遇被弗洛依德标示的这个术语,作为他自己的精神分析经验的结束时刻。但愿我们能够到达这个时刻,即使那仅是一个僵局!那将至少可以证明,我们能够进行多远。虽然所被牵涉的东西,就是要有效地知道,是否前进那么远会引导我们到达一个僵局,或是否我们能够前进得更加深远。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

From an other to the Other 3

April 16, 2015

From an other to the Other 3
从他者到大他者

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

我陈述:能指就是代表针对另外一个能指的主体。这像是每个正确的定义所被要求的东西。他们要求,定义应该正确,教学应该严谨。这是完全令人无法忍受的。当精神分析被要求给予某件东西,在这个时刻,你们一定不要以为我打算闪躲的东西,给予这个危机,旅越过学生跟大学的关系。这是匪夷所思的,我们竟然回应,以这样的陈述:在知识里,有些东西,我们无法以任何方式定义。假如精神分析无法陈述自己,作为一门知识,而且充当一门知识被教导。它就没有丝毫的关系,跟没有其他东西岌岌可危的地方。假如知识的市场合宜地受到这个事实的动摇:科学将价值的这个单位贡献给它。价值的这个单位让处于它最强大的功能状态,它的交换所牵涉的东西,能够被测量。这确实并不是为了某件关于它能够表达的某件东西。换句话说,精神分析应该能够呈现它自己,凭借宣告放弃。关于这一点,可能被运用的所有的术语,无论它们是“非-概念化”的术语,或任何其他召唤某个不可能的东西。所有这些术语无论如何仅能指明那些提出术语的人们的力有不逮。这倒不是因为对于真理的策略,并不在于任何被描述作为解释的特殊的介入。治疗的本质可能就驻居在真理的策略那里。在这一点,无可置疑的,所有的特殊的功能的来源,在变数的秩序上幸运运作的来源,这些来源都能找到它们的机会。但是仅有当它们被定位在这个准确的点,它们才具有意义。在这个准确的点,理论给予它们理论的重要性。

在此,这实实在在是岌岌可危的东西。就在探讨欢爽的放弃的功能的辞说,他者-客体这个术语被介绍。“剩余欢爽”作为这种放弃的功能,在辞说的影响之下,就是给出它的位置,给这个他者-客体的东西,就像是在市场上。换句话说,因为它定义人类劳工的某个客体,作为商品。正如每个客体在它的自身扱带某件“剩余价值”的东西。同样地,“剩余欢爽”就是让这个他者-客体能够孤立出来。

我们在精神分析正在从事的东西,难道不就是凭借规则,建立如此种类的辞说。这样,主体悬置什么在它之上?确实就是他作为主体的功能。换句话说,他被免除不用维持他的辞说,用一个“我说”。因为这跟我言说并且提出“我说出我刚刚陈述的东西”,是不一样的事情。陈述的主体说:“我说”,说”我提出“,如同我在我在此的教学里所为。我表达这个字词。这个字词并不是诗。我正在说出在此被书写的东西,我甚至能够重复它一遍。这是很重要的,凭借重复它的这个形式,为了让它有所变化,我补充说,我已经书写它。

在此,就是这个主体,被免除不用维持他所陈述的东西。难道不就是以这种方式,他将要获得这个字词的纯净性。我谈论到这个“实词“,在宣导福音的时期。我必须说,那是为了所谓的”罗马辞说“的这个辞说。演讲这个辞说的听众对象,难道不就是最靠近倾听它的那些耳朵吗?对于曾经让这些耳朵听到这些模糊的特质,我将不会让它更加具有特质。那将会从事一个判断,实实在在就是冒犯的判断。

但是,请你们注意,就是在言说关于“弗洛依德的物象“时,我恰好让我开始从事我自己所谓的”能指的他者“。这是真理正在陈述的事情:「因此对于你们,我是她的这个谜团。她一出现,马上就消失。人们努力尝试要隐藏我,在你们的个特性的俗丽的织锦里。但是我准备相信:你们的尴尬是真诚的。」我注意到,”尴尬“这个术语在别的地方被强调,因为它的功能。「因为即使当你们担负起这个责任,充当我的宣导福音者,你们挂著我的旗帜,如同挂著你们的旗帜。那就像是你们的本质,你们作为魅影的本质。那么,我将在哪里转变成为你们?在我进入你们之前,我在哪里?或许,有一天,我将会告诉你们。」这就是辞说在此岌岌可危的地方。「但是为了让你们找到我,在我所在的地方,我将教导你们
将凭借什么讯号认识出我。人们,请倾听,我正在给予你们这个秘密。我,真理,我言说。」

我并没有书写,“我说”。 无可置疑地言说的东西,假如它来临,如同我也反讽地书写,当然,这个精神分析将会被封闭。但是确实是所没有发生的事情,或当它发生时,应该用不同方式强调的东西。因为那个理由,我们必须再次探讨在这位主体所被牵涉的东西。这个东西在此被人为的程序质疑,这是针对主体要求。事实上,要求不要成为维持每样被提出的东西的这个人。可是,我们一定不要相信,主体被散开,因为精神分析家确实就是在那里,代表他。我指的是,始终维持他。实际上,关于他的辞说的原因,他不能够放自身验证的时刻。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com