Archive for February, 2015

Identification 88

February 16, 2015

Identification 88
认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

14.3.62 XIII 157

In other words that if ever the subject, and this is his goal
since the time of Parmenides, arrives at the identification, at
the affirmation that noein kai einai, to think and to be, are the
same thing, to auto, at that moment he will find himself
(13) irremediably divided between his desire and his ideal.

换句话说,假如这个主体到达这个认同,这就是自从巴门尼底斯以来的他的目标,在这个肯定: 我思与我在是相同的一件事,拥有自主权,在他发现他自己处于无法弥补的分离,处于他的欲望与他的理想。

This, as I might say, is designed to demonstrate what I could
call the objective structure of the torus in question. But why
should I be refused this usage of the word objective since it is
classic in the domain of ideas and is still used up to Descartes?

我不妨说,这是被设计要证明我所谓受到质疑的圆环面的客观的结构。但是为什么我竟然被拒绝使用“客观性”这个字词。因为它在理念的领域是古典的字词,一直到笛卡尔都依旧被使用。

At the point therefore that we are at and in order not to come
back to it any more, what is involved of the real is perfectly
touchable, and that is all that is in question. What led us to
the construction of the torus at the point that we are at, is the
necessity to define each one of the circuits as an irreducibly
different one.

因此在我们所处于的这个时刻,为了不要再次回到它,实在界所牵涉的东西,完全可碰触到。那就是受到质疑的东西。在我们所处的这个时刻,我们被引导建构这个圆环面的理由是,有必要定义每一个循环,作为是绝对差异的循环。

For this to be real, namely for this symbolic
truth, since it presupposes computation, counting, to be
grounded, be introduced into the world, it is necessary and
sufficient that the something called the unary trait should have
appeared in the real. It will be understood that before this 1,
which is what gives all its reality to the ideal – the ideal is
the only real that is in the symbolic and it is enough – it will
be understood that at the origins of thinking, as people say, at
the time of Plato and in the case of Plato not to go back any
further, this gave rise to adoration, prostration: the 1 was the
good, the beautiful, the true, the supreme being.

为了让这个成为真实,也就是,让这个象征界的真理成为真实。因为它预先假定电脑计算,计算作为基础,被介绍进入这个世界。这是必要而且充足的。某件被称为独异性的东西本来应该出现在实在界。我们将会理解,在这个“1”之前,它就是给予它的现实交给这个理想—这个理想是处于象征界里的唯一的实在界。这就足够。我们将会理解,在思维的起源,如人们所说,在柏拉图的时代,在柏拉图的状况,不要再回溯更远,这产生崇拜,顺服:这个“1”就是善,美,真,这个崇高的生命。

The reversal that we are encouraged to face up to on this
occasion consists in grasping that however legitimate this
adoration may be from the point of view of an affective elation,
it nevertheless remains that this 1 is nothing other than the
reality of a rather stupid little stroke. That is all.

在这个场合,我们被鼓励要直接面对的这个逆转,在于理解:从情感的提升的观点,无论这个崇拜多么合理,问题仍然是:这个“1)实实在在就是一个相对笨拙的小笔画的现实。那就是全部。

The first hunter, as I told you, who made a notch on an antelope’s
(14) rib in order to remember simply that he had hunted ten,
twelve or thirteen times, did not know how to count, you should
note, and it is even for that reason that it was necessary to put
these traits, in order that the ten, twelve or thirteen all the
times should not be confused as they deserved nevertheless to be
one with another.

如同我告诉过你们,第一位猎人,在羚羊的肋骨上画一个刻记,为了仅是记住:他曾经打猎十隻,二十隻,或三十隻,他并不知道如何计算,你们应该注意到。甚至因为那个理由,有必要将这些特征,按照这十隻,二十隻,三十隻的秩序,这样它们才不会被混淆,依照它们仍然应该值得彼此被区分。

Therefore, at the level of the privation that is involved, in so
far as the subject is at first objectively this privation in the
thing, this privation which he does not know is that of the
uncounted circuit, it is from this that we begin again in order
to understand what is happening.

因此,在被牵涉到这个剥夺,因为主体起初客观地处于在这个物的这个剥夺。他不知道的这个剥夺是没有被计算的循环的被剥夺。我们再次从这里开始,为了理解正在发生什么事。

We have other elements of
information so that from there he comes to constitute himself as
desire and knows the relationship there is between this
constitution and this origin in so far as it may allow us to
begin to articulate some symbolic relationship more adequate than
those promoted up to now concerning what his structure of desire
is for the subject.

我们拥有其他因素的资讯,从那里,他逐渐形成他自己,作为欲望,并且知道这个关系,存在于这个身体与这个起源之间的关系。因为它让我们能够开始表达某个象征的关系,更加充足,比起迄今那些被提升的关系,关于对于主体而言,他的欲望的结构是什么。

This does not for all that oblige us to make
assumptions about what will be maintained about the notion of the
function of the subject when we have put him into the situation
of desire; this is what we are obliged indeed to go through with
him according to a method which is only in short the one of
experience; this is the subtitle of Hegel’s phenomenology
Wissenschaft der Erfahrung: science of experience. We are
following an analogous path with different data which are the
ones which present themselves to us.

尽管那样,这并没有让我们有这个义务从事假设,关于主体的功能的观念将会被维持的东西。当我们将他放置在欲望的这个定位。这就是为什么我们确实被迫要跟他经历的东西。依照一个方法。总之,这个方法仅是其中一个经验。这就是黑格尔的精神现象学的次标题:经验的科学。我们遵循一个类似的途径,具有不同的资料。这些资料是呈现它们自己给予我们的那些资料。

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Identification 87

February 15, 2015

Identification 87
认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

14.3.62 XIII 156

Let us take things up again where we left them the last time,
namely at the level of privation. I hope that I made myself
understood about this subject in so far as I symbolised it by
this (-1), the necessarily not counted circuit, counted as minus
in the best hypothesis, namely when it has made the circuit of
the circuit, the circuit of the torus.

让我们再次从事探讨,在上次我们离开它们的地方。也就是,在“剥夺”的层次。我希望我让自己被人理解,关于这个主题。因为我象征它,凭借这个负一(-1)。这个必然没有被计算进入的迴圈,在即使是最佳的假设里,没有被计算进入的(-1)。换句话说,当它形成这个循环的循环,圆环面的这个循环。

The fact that I
immediately gave an indication which refers the function of this
-1 to the logical foundation of any possibility of a universal
affirmation, namely the possibility of founding the exception –
and it is this moreover that the rule requires: the exception
does not prove the rule, as it is so nicely put, it requires it;
it is its true principle – in short, that in drawing my little
dial for you, namely in showing you that the only veritable
guarantee of the universal affirmation is the exclusion of a
negative trait: “there is no man who is not mortal”, I may have
given rise to a confusion which I intend to rectify now in order
that you may know the terrain of principle on
which I am making you advance. I gave you this
reference, but it is clear that it must not be
taken as a deduction of the whole process starting
(12) from the symbolic.

我立即给予指示,这个指示将这个负一(-1),提到普遍性的肯定的任何可能性的逻辑的基础。换句话说,作为例外的基础的可能性—而且,这是可能性,常规要求:例外并没有证明常规存在。如同这个词语如此巧妙地表达。它要求它. 它是它的真实的原则—总之,当我跟你们绘画我的小小的圆形四分图。换句话说,当我跟你们显示,普遍性的肯定的这个唯一可验证的保证,就是排除负面的特征:「没有不是有限生命的人」。我可能已经产生一个结论。现在,我打算要矫正这个结论,为了你们可以知道这个原理的平台,我正在引导你们前往的原理。我给予你们这个指称,但是显而易见,它一定不要被认为是整个过程的推论,从这个象征开始。

The empty part where there is nothing in my dial, must still be
considered at this level as detached. The (-1) that the subject
is at this level in himself is in no way subjectivated, in no way
is there yet a question either of knowing, or of not knowing.

在我的圆形四分图里,空无存在的空洞的部分,在这个层次,依旧必须被认为是隔离的。在这个层次,主体所在地这个负一(-1),根本就没有被形成主体。根本就没有一个知道或不知道的问题。

For something of this order to happen, it is necessary that a
whole cycle should be completed of which privation is therefore
only the first step. The privation involved is real privation
for which with the support of intuition which you will concede I
have a right to, all I am doing here is following the very traces
of tradition, and the purest one; Kant is granted the essential
of his procedure and I am seeking a better foundation for this
schematism in order to try to make it tangible, intuitive for you
– I forged the mainspring of this real privation.

为了这个秩序的某件东西发生,必然地,整个的循环应该被完成,因此,整个循环的被剥夺仅是最初的一步。牵涉到的被剥夺是实在界的被剥夺。对于这个实在界的被剥夺,用你们将会同意我具有权利的直觉的支持,我在这里所做的一切,是遵循传统的这些痕迹,而且是最纯粹的痕迹。康德被给予他的程序的这个根本。我正在寻求一个更佳的基础来用这个基模,为了尝试让它具体表现,对于你们而言是直觉。我塑造这个实在界被剥夺的主要动力。

It is
therefore only after a long detour that there can come to the
subject this knowledge of his original rejection. But meanwhile,
I tell you this right away, enough things have happened in order
that when it comes to light, the subject knows not alone that
this knowledge rejects him, but that this knowledge is itself to
be rejected in so far as it will prove to be always either
beyond, or on this side of what must be reached for the
realisation of desire.

因此,仅有在漫长的迂回之后,主体原初拒绝的这个知识,才能够回到主体。但是同时地,我告诉你们这个正确的途径。充分的事情曾经发生,为了当它启蒙时,主体不单是知道,这个知识拒绝他,而且知道,这个知识自身应该被拒绝。因为它证明要就总是超验的东西,要不就是必须被到达的东西的这边,为了实现欲望。

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Identification 85

February 13, 2015

Identification 85
认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

14.3.62 Zill 155

These remarks having been posed, what defines the neurotic?
The neurotic devotes himself to a curious retransformation of
that whose effect he is undergoing. The neurotic, in fine, is an
innocent: he wants to know. In order to know he goes off in the
most natural direction, and it is naturally at the same time by
this that he is deceived.

这些话已经被提出之后,是什么定义神经症者?神经症者致力于耐人寻味重新转化,他正在经历的转化的影响。总之,神经症者是位无辜者。他想要知道。为了知道他出发朝着最自然的方向。当然,他同时也被这个方向欺骗。

The neurotic wants to retranfonn the
signifier into what it is the sign of. The neurotic does not
know, and with good reason, that it is qua subject that he has
fomented the following: the advent of the signifier in so far as
the signifier is the principal effacing of the thing, that it is
he, the subject who by effacing all the traits of the thing,
makes the signifier.

神经症者想要重新转化能指,成为它是什么形成的讯息。神经症者并不知道,而且理由充分。作为主体,他激发以下的状况:能指的来临,因为能指是物象的主要抹除,他,作为主体,凭借抹除所有的物象的特征,主体形成能指。

The neurotic wants to efface this effacing,
he wants to bring it about that this has not happened. This is
the most profound meaning of the summary, exemplary behavior of
the obsessional. What he always comes back to, without ever of
course being able to abolish its effect – because everyone of his
efforts to abolish it only reinforces it – is to bring it about
that this advent of the function of the signifier has not been
produced, that one can rediscover the real that was there at the
origin, namely what all this is the sign of.

神经症者想要抹除这个抹除,他想要促成这个抹除,让这件事情没有发生。这是妄想症者的总结的典范行为的最深刻的意义。他总是回到的地方,当然,他并不能够废除它的影响—因为每个人努力要废除它时,仅是增强它。他总是回到的地方,就是要促成它,这样,这个能指的功能的来临还没有被产生,我们能够重新发现实在界,这个实在界起源时在那里,也就是说,那是所有这一切的讯息。

This, I leave here
indicated, initiated in order to come back to it in a more
generalised and at the same time a more diversified fashion,
(10) namely according to the three kinds of neurosis: phobia,
hysteria and obsession, after I have completed the circuit to
which this preamble is destined to bring me back to in my
discourse.

我离开这里,这被指示,被启发,为了以更加广泛的方式回到它那里。同时,又是更加多样化的方式。换句话说,依照这三种神经症:恐惧症,歇斯底里症,与妄想症。在我已经完成这个循环后,在我的辞说,这个最初的导引注定带我回到这个循环。

This detour therefore is well designed to situate, and at the
same time to justify, the double aims of our research, in so far
as it is what we are pursuing this year on the terrain of
identification.

这个迂回因此清楚地被设计要定位,同时要自圆其说,对于我们研究的双重目标。因为那是我们今年追寻的东西,在认同的平台。

However extremely metapsychological our research may appear to
some by not pursuing it exactly on the edge that we are pursuing
it, in so far as analysis can only be conceived of in this most
escathological of aims, if I can express myself in this way, of
an erotic, but impossible also without maintaining at least at a
certain level the consciousness of the meaning of these aims in
order to carry out appropriately in practice what you have to do,
namely of course not to preach an erotic, but to deal with this
fact that, even in the case of the most normal people and with a
full and entire application of good will, of norms,

在某些人们眼里,我们的研究看起来是极端的形上心理学。因为我们没有确实地址我们追寻它的优势追寻到它。因为精神分析仅能够被构想,用这个最末世论的目标。假如我能够以神经症的这个方式表达我自己。但是,这也是不可能的,假如我没有维持这些目标的意义的意识,至少在某个层次,为了在实践当中恰当地表现你所必需做的事情。也就是说,当然,我并不是宣扬神经症,而是要处理这个事实。即使是在最正常的人们的情况,充分而且完整地应用善意,名分的善意。

well, it does
not work (that not alone, as M de la Rochefoucauld said, there
are good marriages but no delicious ones, we can add that things
have deteriorated a little more since then because there are no
longer even good ones, I mean from the point of view of desire)
it would be all the same a little unbelievable that such remarks
could not be put in the foreground in a gathering of analysts.

呵呵,它确实行不通(如同罗奇弗科德所说,不单是有好的婚姻,但是没有精致的婚姻。我们补充说:自然那时以来,事情已经稍微更加恶化。因为现在甚至连好的婚姻都没有。我的意思是,从欲望的观点)。这仍然是有点匪夷所思,在精神分析的聚会,这些谈论还不能够摆上枱面。

(11) This does not make you for all that the propagandists of a
new erotic. What situates you, what you have to do in each
particular case: you have to do exactly what everyone has to do
for himself and for which he has more or less need of your help,
namely, while we wait for the cosmonaut of an erotic future,
small scale solutions.

尽管这样,这并没有让你们成为新的神经症的宣传者。你们被定位的位置,在每个特殊的情况,你们必须做的事情是,你们必须确实做每个人必须替他自己做的事,他有相当的需要你的帮助。换句话说,当我们等待神经症的未来的太空人,这些小规模的解决。

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Identification 84

February 13, 2015

Identification 84
认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

14.3.62 XIII 154

This signifier, that he himself is by his position, namely as a
living neurosis, is if you refer to my definition of the
signifier – it is moreover inversely what justifies it, the fact
is that it is applicable – that through which this cryptogram
that a neurosis is, what makes the neurotic as such a signifier
and nothing more – because the subject that he serves precisely
is elsewhere – this is what we call his unconscious. And this is
why he is qua neurosis a signifier, according to the definition
that I give you of it, it is because he represents a hidden
(7) subject, but .for what? For nothing other than for another
signifier.

这个能指,凭借他的立场,也就是,凭借作为神经症者,假如你提到能指的意义—而且,相反地,让能指自圆其说的东西,事实是,这个能指可以运用—通过这个能指,神经症者是一个密码。让神经症者自身成为能指,就是能指而已—因为他服侍的主体确实是在别的地方。这是我们所谓的无意识。这就是为什么他是作为神经症者的能指。依照我给予你们有关它的定义。那是因为他代表一个隐藏的主体,但是代表什么的主体?代表的实实在在就是另外一个能指。

That what justifies the neurotic as such, the neurotic in so far
as analysis – I am slipping in this term borrowed from the
discourse of my friend Lagache yesterday – “valorises” him, is
the extent to which his neurosis manages to contribute to the
advent of this discourse required by a finally constituted
erotic. He, of course, knows nothing about it and is not looking
for it.

让神经症者自身自圆其说的东西,就精神分析而言是神经症—昨天,我从我的朋友,拉加奇的辞说借用这个术语,我说出来—因为精神“推崇”他。他的神经症者甚至成功地促成这个辞说的来到,作为最后的天生体质的情色者所要求的辞说。当然,他对这个辞说一无所知,而且并没有正在寻找它。

And we moreover, we do not have to search for it except
in so far as you are here, namely that I am clarifying for you
the signification of psychoanalysis in relation to this required
advent of an erotic, by which you should understand that through
which it is thinkable that the human being might make in this
domain also – and why not – the same breakthrough and which
moreover culminates in this bizarre moment of the cosmonaut in
his carapace. Which allows you to think that I am not even
trying to glimpse what a future erotic might give rise to.

而且,我们并没有必要寻找它,除了因为你们在这里,也就是,我正在跟你们澄清精神分析的意义,跟一位情色者的被要求的来临相关。凭借这点,你们应该理解,凭借情色者的来临,这是可以想像得到,在这个领域,这个人可能从事相同的突破—有何不可呢–而且,在太空人处于他的太空舱里的这个古怪的时刻,达到高潮。这让你们能够认为,我甚至尝试瞥见,未来的情色者可能会产生什么。

What is certain, is that the only people who have dreamt about it
in a suitable way, namely the poets, have always ended up with
rather strange constructions.

确定的事情是,只要那些以适当方式梦想情色来临的人们,也就是诗人们,他们的结局总是带着相当奇异的建构。

And if, whatever préfiguration of
it may be found in something on which I spent a lot of time, the
outlines of it which may be given precisely in certain
paradoxical points of the Christian tradition, courtly love for
example, this was in order to underline for you the quite bizarre
singularities – let the people who were my listeners remember –
of certain sonnets by Arnaut Daniel for example which open up to
(8) us very curious perspectives on what the relationships
between the lover and his lady effectively represented.

无论关于情色有怎样的预先构想可能被找到,在我曾经花费许多时间的东西,有关这个东西的轮廓,确实就在基督教的传统的某些悖论的时刻,可能被给予。譬如,骑士之爱。这是为了跟你们强调这个相当古怪的独异性。请我的朋友记住—譬如,阿诺 丹尼尔的某些十四行诗,为我们展开这些非常耐人寻味的观点,对于有效地被代表的情人与他的女士之间的关系。

This is
not at all unworthy of comparison with what I am trying to
situate as an extreme point about aspects of the cosmonaut. Of
course, the attempt may appear to have a certain amount of
mystification about, and besides it came to a sudden end.

这根本就不值得作为比较,跟我正在定位的东西,作为一个极端的点,关于太空人的各个层面。当然,这个企图可能似乎有某些数量的神秘化。除外,它突然结束。

But it is altogether illuminating in order to situate for us, for
example, what must be understood by sublimation. I recalled last
evening that sublimation, in Freud’s discourse, is inseparable
from a contradiction, namely that jouissance, the aim of
jouissance, subsists and is in a certain sense realised in every
activity of sublimation, that there is no repression, that there
is no effacing, that there is not even a compromise with
jouissance, that there is a paradox, that there is a detour, that
it is by ways which in appearance are contrary to jouissance that
jouissance is obtained.

但是这完全具有启发作用,为了跟我们定位,譬如,凭借升华必须被理解的东西。我昨天晚上提醒到,那个升华,在弗洛依德的辞说,跟一个悖论无法分开,也就是,跟那个欢爽无法分开,欢爽的目标。它存在,而且在某个意义上,被实现在升华的每个行动里。
没有压抑,没有抹除,甚至没有妥协欢爽。有一个悖论,有一个迂回,凭借它们在外表上,跟欢爽相反,欢爽被获得。

This is not properly speaking thinkable except precisely in so
far as in jouissance the medium that intervenes, the medium
through which access is given to its essence which can only be –
as I showed you – the thing, that this medium also can be nothing
but a signifier. Hence this strange aspect that the lady in
courtly love takes on for our eyes. We cannot come to believe in
it because we can no longer identify to this degree a living
subject with a signifier, a person called Beatrice with wisdom
and with what was for Dante the whole, the totality of knowledge.
(9) It is not at all excluded by the nature of things that
effectively Dante could have slept with Beatrice. This changes
absolutely nothing in the problem. People believe they know it
is not so, it is not fundamental in the relationship.

恰当地说,这是匪夷所思的,除了确实是在欢爽里,介入的这个媒体,通过媒体,被给予进入欢爽的本质—如同我跟你们显示—欢爽的本质就是这个物象,这个媒体仅是一个能指。因此,这个奇异的层面,在骑士之爱里的女士在我们的眼中形成的奇异的层面。我们无法变得信仰它,因为我们不再能够将一个活生生的主体认同为一个能指,到这个程度。在但丁的“神曲”,有一位名叫碧蕊思的人,具有智慧,而且具有但丁的完整的
知识。但丁本来大可以跟碧蕊思上床睡觉,这在情事的状况是无法排除的。在跟难题根本没有什么改变。人们相信,他们知道情况并不是这样。这在关系上并不是基本的。

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Identification 84

February 12, 2015

Identification 84
认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

14.3.62 Zill 153

What evidence do we have for that? Quite simply the existence of
what we note, in so far as we busy ourselves with desire, I mean
that there exists in societies, whether they are well organised
or not, whether one makes in them in a greater or lesser
abundance the constructions necessary for the environment of
individuals, we note the existence of neurosis; and it is not in
the places where the most satisfactory conditions of life are
guaranteed, nor where tradition is most guaranteed that neurosis
is more rare. Far from it.

我们必须拥有什么证据证明它?我们仅有我们注意的东西的存在。因为我们满于欲望,我的意思是,在社会里存在着,无论它们是否清楚组织,或在它们身上大量或小量形成这些建构,对于个人的环境必要的建构。我们注意到神经症的存在。它并不是处于生活的最令人满意的情况被保证的地方,而是处于神经症更加罕见的传统最被保证的地方。根本就不是那样。

What does neurosis mean? What is for us the authority, as I
might say, of neurosis? It is not quite simply linked to its
pure and simple existence. The position of those who in this
case attribute its effects to a sort of displacement of human
weakness is too facile, I mean that what proves effectively to be
weak, in social organisation as such, is visited on the neurotic
whom one describes as maladjusted. What a proof!

神经症意味着什么?对于我们,我不妨说,神经症的权威是什么?神经症不单仅是跟它的纯粹而简单的存在息息相关。在这个情况,将神经症的影响归属于某种的人类弱点的替换的那些人们的立场,是太过浮面。我指的是,在社会组织的本身,有效地证明是弱点的东西,在神经症身上被发现。我们描述他们为适应不良。那证明什么!

(6) It seems to me that the right, the authority which flows from
what we have to learn about the neurotic, is the structure that
he reveals to us and what at bottom it reveals to us, from the
moment that we understand that his desire is indeed the same as
our own, and with good reason. What comes little by little to
be revealed to our study, what gives the neurotic his dignity, is
that he wants to know. And in a way it is he who introduces
psychoanalysis. The inventor of psychoanalysis is not Freud, but
Anna 0 as everyone knows, and of course behind her many others:
all of us.

我觉得,这个权利,这个权威,从我们必须学习关于神经症流露出来。神经症显示的结构是,他跟我们显示。并且,最根究底,它跟我们显示的东西,确实跟我们自己的神经症相同。而且理由充分。逐渐被显示给予我们研究的东西,给予神经症他的尊严的东西是:他想要知道。以某种的方式,就是神经症介绍精神分析。精神分析的发明者并不是弗洛伊德,而是众所周知的安娜奥。当然,在她背后,还有许多其他神经症者,包括我们所有的人们。

What does the neurotic want to know? Here I am slowing down my
delivery so that you can hear properly, because every word has
its importance. He wants to know what real there is in that of
which he is the passion, namely what real there is in the effect
of the signifier, this of course supposing that we have got far
enough to know that what is called desire in the human being is
unthinkable except in this relationship to the signifier and the
effects that are inscribed in it.

神经症者想要知道什么?在此,我逐渐缓慢我的表达,这样你们才能够听得清楚。因为每个字都具有它的重要性。神经症者想要知道有怎样的实在界?在他属于生命激情的实在界?换句话说,在能指的影响里,有怎样的实在界?当然,这假定,我们已经足够进步,能够知道,在人类身上的所谓欲望是匪夷所思。除了跟这个能指的关系,以及被铭记在能指的各种影响。

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Identification 83

February 10, 2015

Identification 83
认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

14.3.62 XIII 152

Simply, since the meditation on the Mystical Body is not within
everyone’s reach, a gap remains open which means that practically
the Christian finds himself reduced to something which is not all
that normal or fundamental, of really no longer having any other
access to jouissance as such except by making love. This is what
I call his troublesome dealings with Venus. Because of course,
with the way he is situated in this order, things arrange
themselves after all on the whole rather badly.

只是,因为沉思这个神秘的身体,并非每个人都能力所及。有个空隙始终展开。这意味着,几乎基督徒都发现他自己被化简成为并不那么正常或基本的东西,确实不再跟欢爽有任何其他的接触,除了性交做爱。这是我所谓的基督徒跟维纳斯的交往麻烦棘手。因为当然,以基督徒被定位在这个秩序的方式,事情安排它们自己,毕竟大体上都很糟糕。

What I am saying is very tangible, for example when one goes
outside the boundaries of Christianity, once one goes into areas
dominated by Christian acculturation, I mean not areas which have
been converted to Christianity, but which have undergone the
effects of Christian society. I shall long remember a long
conversation pursued one night in 1947 with someone who was my
guide during a trip to Egypt. He was what is called an Arab. He
was, of course, through his functions and also because of the
area he lived in, an excellent example of someone who falls into
our category.

我正在说的内容非常具体。譬如,当我们离开基督教的边界,一旦我们进入基督徒膜拜氛围支配的地区。我指的是还没有被改变信仰基督教的地区,但是曾经经历过基督教社会的影响到地区。我将长久记住一个漫长的对谈,在1947年的一个晚上进行的对谈,跟我的响导,在旅行到埃及的途中。他是所谓的阿拉伯人。当然,经由他的功能,也因为他居住的那个地区,他是很好的例子,作为掉入我们的范畴的某个人。

This sort of effect of the promotion of the erotic
question was very clear in his discourse. He was certainly
prepared by all sorts of very antique resonances of his own
(4) sphere to put in the foreground the question of the
justification of the existence of his jouissance; but the fashion
in which he incarnated this jouissance in the woman had all the
impasse characteristics of everything that one can imagine the
most open to view in our own society – the requirement in
particular of a renewal of an infinite succession – what is in
its nature the essentially non-satisfying character of the
object, this was indeed what constituted the essential, not alone
of his discourse, but of his practical life. A personage, one
would have said in another vocabulary essentially torn away from
the norms of his tradition.

在他的辞说里,情色的问题的提升的效果是非常明显的。他确实准备各色各样属于他自己领域的古代的传闻,要将他的欢爽的存在合理化的问题,放置到枱面上。但是他具体表现这个欢爽在女人身上的方式,形成具有僵局的特色,在我们自己的社会里,即使是我们能够想像的最开放的事情。特别是对于无限连续更新的要求—在它的特性,属于客体基本上是无法满足的特性。这确实是组成基本的东西,不仅是他的辞说,而是他的实际的生活。他是这样的人物,我们本来会另外一种词汇说,基本上跟他的传统的规范脱离开来。

When it is a question of the erotic, what should we think of
these norms? In other words, are we charged for example with
justifying the practical subsistence of marriage as an
institution throughout even our most revolutionary
transformations?

当问题谈的情色时,我们应该如何看待这些规范?换句话说,譬如,我们对于婚姻的实际存在,作为一种体制,在我们即使是最具革命性的转化的过程,我们准备替它自圆其说吗?

I believe that there is no need for all the effort of a
Westermarck to justify through all sorts of arguments, from
nature and from tradition, the institution of marriage, because
simply it justifies itself because of its persistence which we
have seen before our eyes, and in form very clearly marked by
lower middle class traits, throughout a society which at the
beginning believed it could go further in the putting in question
of fundamental relationships, I mean in Communist society. It
seems very certain that the necessity of marriage was not even
touched by the effects of this revolution.

我相信,并不需要韦斯特马克效应(一块长大的儿童不会有性的吸引力),来让各色各样的论点合理化。从自然,与从传统,婚姻的体制。因为它仅是让它自己合理化。因为在我们眼前,我们曾经看见婚姻体制的持续。在形态上,它显而易见被标示着中下阶层的特征,在一个社会里。起初,这个社会相信它能够更进一步发展,当置疑到基本的关系时。我指的是共产党的社会里的基本的关系。似乎非常确定的,婚姻的必要性甚至没有被这个革命的影响碰触到。

Is this properly speaking the domain into which we are led to bring some light?
(5) I absolutely do not believe it: the necessities of marriage
prove themselves to be, for us, a properly social trait of our
conditioning; they leave completely open the problem of the
dissatisfactions which result from it namely the permanent
conflict in which the human subject finds himself, just because
he is human, with the effects, the repercussions of this law (of
marriage).

恰当地说,这是我们被引导启蒙的领域吗?我绝对不相信它:对于我们,婚姻的必要性证明它们自己是合宜的社会的特征,受到我们的制约。它们让不满的这个难题完全摊开,因为婚姻造成的不满。换句话说,永恒的冲突。人类的主体发现他自己处于这个永恒的冲突里。仅是因为他是人类,具有婚姻的这个法则的这些影响,这些后果。

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Identification 82

February 9, 2015

Identification 82
谈认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

1962
14.3.62 XIII 151
Seminar 13: Wednesday 14 March 1962

In the dialogue with you that I am pursuing, there are
necessarily hiatuses, jumps, cases, occasions, to say nothing of
fatum. In other words, it is interrupted by different things;
for example last evening, at the scientific meeting of the
Society, we heard the interesting and important paper by Lagache
on sublimation.

在我跟你们追寻的对话里,必然会有错误,跳漏,个案,特殊状况,更不用说是注定情况。换句话说,这个对话会被不同的事情中断。譬如,昨天晚上,在科学的社团会议,我们听见拉加奇发表探讨升华的有趣与重要的文件。

This morning, I wanted to begin from it, but on
the other hand, on Sunday I had started from elsewhere, I mean
from a sort of remark on the character of what is being pursued
here as research. It is obviously a research conditioned by
what?

今天早上,我想要从它开始。但是另一方面,在星期日,我已经从别的地方开始。我是指从谈论在此正在被追寻作为研究的东西的特性开始。那显而易见是被制约的研究,被什么制约?

For the moment by a certain aim which I would call the
aim of an erotic. I consider this to be legitimate, not at all
because we are essentially destined by nature to carry it out
when we are on the road where it is required, I mean that we are
on this road a little in the way that, through the centuries,
those who meditated on the conditions of science were on the road
to what science effectively is successful at. Hence my reference
to the cosmonaut which has indeed its meaning, in so far as what
it was successful at was certainly not necessarily what it was
expecting up to a certain point, even though the phases of its
research may be abolished, refuted by its success.

目前,我将称这个目标是情色目标。我认为这个目标是合理的,倒不是因为我们天性本质上注定要实践情色,当我们正在情色被要求的途中。我指的是,我们稍微正在途中。经历几世纪来,那些沉思科学情况的人们,他们正在途中,到科学有效地成功到达的目标。因此,我提到太空人,它确实有它的意义。因为它成功到达的目标,确实未必是它到达某个时刻期望的东西。即使它的研究的各个部分可能被废除,被它的成功所反驳。

It is certain that there is among the peoples – I am using this
term in the most general sense, unless I am using it in a
(2) slightly narrower sense, that of the gentiles – which would
obviously leave open the curious question of gentiles defined
with respect to X (you know where this definition of gentiles
comes from) which would leave open the curious question of how it
happens that the gentiles represent, as I might say, a secondary
class in the sense that I meant it the last time of something
founded on a certain previous acceptance.

的确,在某些民族当中—我正在使用这个术语,用最通俗的意义,除非我正在使用它,以一个稍微狭窄的意义,非犹太人的意义。显而易见,它让非犹太人的定义受到耐人寻味的质疑,关于X(你们知道,非犹太人这个定义从何而来)。它会展开这个耐人寻味的问题:非犹太人如何代表一个次级的阶级,我不妨这样说。上次,我指的意思是,在某个先前的接纳作为基础的东西。

Despite everything
this would not be a bad thing; because in this perspective the
gentiles is Christianity, and everyone knows that Christianity as
such is in a well-known relationship with the difficulties of the
erotic, namely that the dealings of the Christian with Venus are
all the same something that it is rather difficult to overlook,
even though people pretend to take things, as I might say, in a
relaxed manner.

尽管这一切,这将不会是一件坏事情。因为从这个观点,非犹太人是基督徒。众所周知,基督教的本身,跟情色的诸多困难的关系,名声昭彰。换句话说,基督徒跟维纳斯的交往仍然是相当难以忽略的东西。即使人们假装以轻松的态度看待他们,我不妨这样说。

In fact, if the essence of Christianity is to be found in the
Pauline revelation, namely in a certain essential step taken in
relation to the father, if the relationship of love to the father
is its essential step, if it really represents the breaking
through of everything great that the Semitic tradition
inaugurated about this fundamental relationship to the father of
this original baraka, to which it is all the same difficult to
overlook that Freud1s thinking is attached more in a
contradictory, maledictory fashion – we cannot doubt it – because
if the reference to Oedipus may leave the question open, the fact
that he ended his discourse on Moses and the way he did it,
leaves no doubt that the foundation of Christian revelation is
indeed therefore in this grace relationship which Paul makes
(3) succeed to the law.

事实上,假如基督教的本质能够在保罗的启示录里被找到,换句话说,以某种的基本的步骤,跟父亲的关系。假如跟父亲的爱的这个关系是它的基本的步骤。假如它确实代表突破每件伟大的事情,闪族的传统开启的每件伟大的事情,关于跟父亲的这个基本的关系,这位原初的种族冲突的父亲。仍然让人难以忽略的是,弗洛依德的思想以更加矛盾而受诅咒的方式相关联—我们无法怀疑它—因为假如提到伊狄浦斯,可能展开这个问题。他结束他的辞说这个事实,探讨摩西的辞说,以及他从事探讨的方式,让人无可置疑,基督徒获得启示的基础,因此确是在恩典的关系,保罗让恩典继承法律。

The difficulty is the following: it is that the Christian does
not maintain himself, and with good reason, at the height of this
revelation and that nevertheless he lives it in a society of such
a kind that one can say that even reduced to the most lay forms
its principles of law issue directly all the same from a
catechism which is not unrelated to this Pauline revelation.

这个困难如下:这位基督徒并没有维持他自己。理由很充分,在这个启示的高处,他仍然生活于类似的社会。我们不妨说,在这样的社会,当法律的原则化简成为最通俗的形式时,它们仍然直接从教义问答发出,这种教义问答跟保罗的启示息息相关。

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Identification 81

February 8, 2015

Identification 81
认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

17.1.62 VIII 1
Seminar 8: Wednesday 17 January 1962

This in order to show you the direction in which we will
subsequently advance. It is only a very small beginning, the
point on which I want to conclude so that you may really sense
that there is no artifice in this kind of skipped circuit that I
seem to be trying to get over to you by sleight of hand.
I want to show it to you before leaving you. I want to show it
to you in connection with a single circuit on the the full
circle. I could show it to you by making a drawing on the
board. I can trace a circle which is of such a kind that it is
ready to go around the whole torus. It is going to travel on the
outside of the central hole then come back from the other side.

这为了跟你们显示这个方向,我们随后将朝这个方向前进。这仅是一个小开始。针对这点,我想要作个结论,这样,你们才可能确实地理解,在这种跳跃的循环,并没有任何欺骗操作。我似乎正在凭借灵巧变化,传递给与你们的这种跳跃的循环。我想要跟你们显示它,在离开你们之前。我想要跟你们显示它,关于单一的循环,在这个完整的圆圈。我能够跟你们显示它,凭借在黑板上画一个图形。我们追踪属于相同种类的一个圆圈,以致它准备环绕这整个的圆环面。它将以在这个中央的空洞的外面旅行,然后从另外一边回来。

A better way to get you to sense it: you take the torus and a
pair of scissors, you cut it in terms of the full circles, here
it is unfolded like a black pudding open at both ends, you take
up the scissors again and you cut it length-ways, it can open
completely and be spread out, it is a surface which is equivalent
to that of the torus; for this it is enough that we should have
so defined it that each one of its opposite edges has an
equivalence implying continuity with a point of the opposite
edge.

这是一个比较好的方式让你们理解它。你们拿起这个圆环面与一把剪刀。你们用完整圆圈地术语剪裁它。在此,它被展开来,就像是布丁展开于两端。你们再次拿起剪刀,然后你们从头剪刀底。它会完全地展开。这是一个相等于是圆环面的表面的表面。为了达到这样,我们应该如此定义它,以致它的相对的边缘的其中一个,拥有一个暗示连续性的相等,跟对立边缘的一个点相等。

What I have drawn for you on the unfolded torus is projected as
follows: f K ————- .

在这个展开的圆环面,我跟你们绘画的东西,被投射如下:

Here is how something which is nothing other than a single loop
is going to be presented on the torus which has been properly cut
by these two cuts of the scissors: and this oblique trait defines
(26) what we can call a third type of circle, but which is
precisely the circle which interests us as regards this sort of
possible property that I am trying to articulate as structural of
the subject; even though it only made one circuit it nevertheless
well and truly made two, namely the circuit of the full circle of
the torus and at the same time the circuit of an empty circle,
and that as such this circuit which is missing in the count is
precisely what the subject includes in the necessities of his own
surface to be infinitely flat that subjectivity can only grasp by
a detour:

在此就是某件实实在在就是单一圈套的东西 ,将要被投射到圆环面上。这个圆环面,用剪刀两次剪开:这个倾斜的特征定义我们所谓的第三种圆圈。但是它确实是我们感到興趣的圆圈,关于这种可能的特性。我将要表达的这种可能的特性,作为是主体的结构。即使仅是形成一个圆圈,可是它实实在在形成两个圆圈。换句话说,这个圆环面对完整的圆圈的循环,同时,又是一个空洞的圆圈的循环。作为这样一种循环,在计算时被失落的这个圆圈,确实就是主体所包含的东西,在他自己的表面的各种必要性。为了无限地扁平,这样主体性仅有凭借迂回,才能够理解它。

the detour of the Other, this to show you how one can
imagine in a particularly exemplary fashion thanks to this
topological edifice to which, have no doubt about it, I accord a
little more weight than simply that of an artifice

大他者的迂回,这是为了跟你们显示,我们如何能够想像,以一个特别作为典范的方式,由于这个拓扑图形的建构。无可置疑,比起仅是巧妙的建构,我给予稍微更多的重视。

Likewise – and for the same reason – because it is the same thing that
replying to a question that was recently posed to me concerning
the root of minus one as I introduced it into the function of the
subject: “By articulating things in this manner”, I was asked,
“do you intend to make manifest something other than a pure and
simple symbolisation replaceable by anything else whatsoever or
something which belongs more radically to the very essence of the
subject?” “Yes,” I said.

同样地—因为相同的理由—因为这是相同的事情,当我回到最近有人跟我提出的问题,关于负一(-1)的根,当我介绍它进入主体的功能:「凭借这种方式表达事情」 ,我被问到,「你打算让某件并非是纯粹而单纯的象征显现出来,它被任何其他东西取代,或某件更加强烈属于主体的本质的任何东西取代?」「是的」,我回答。

“It is in this sense that you should
understand what I articulated before you and this is what I am
proposing to continue to develop with the shape of the torus”. –
I am saying: on the total surface -, if this is no longer
possible at the level of the central, fragmented, surface divided
by the signifier of the double ring (boucle), the fact is that
very precisely something of that is preserved at the level of the
point.

「就是从这个意义,你们应该理解我在你们面前表达的东西。这是我正在跟你们建议,要继续发展的东西,用这个圆环面的形状」。我正在说:在这整个的表面—假如这不再是可能,在这个中央,碎片化的表面的层次,它被双重环圈的能指所区分。事实上,确实地,有关那个的某件东西被保留在这个点的层面。

(27) Except for the fact that precisely in order that this point
should function as this point, it has this privilege of being
precisely unsupersedable, unless, as one might say, by making the
whole structure of the surface vanish.

除了这个事实:确实是为了让这个点发挥功能,因为这个点,它具有确实无法被取代的这个特权,除非,我们不妨说,凭借让这个表面的整个的结构消失。

As you see, I was not able yet to give its full development to
what I have just said on this point. If you reflect on it, you
can, between now and the next time, find it yourselves.
It is getting late, and it is here indeed that I am forced to
leave you. I apologise for the aridity of what I was led to
produce before you today, because of the complexity itself, even
though it is not an extraordinarily punctual complexity, it must
be said.

你们看见,我还不能够给予它充分的发展,给我刚刚说的这一点。假如你们反思它,在现在与下次之间,你们自己能够发现它。现在时间已晚。确实就是在这里,我被迫离开你们。我抱歉,因为今天在你们面前,我被引导产生的东西是如此贫瘠,因为复杂性的本身,即使它并不是特别准时的复杂性,它必须被说是。

This is where I will take things up the next time.
I come back therefore to what I said at the beginning: the fact
that I have only been able to get to this point of my exposition
means that next Wednesday1s seminar – tell the people who have
received the next announcement – will take place in order not to
leave too much space, too much of an interval between these two
seminars, because this space could be harmful for the
continuation of our explanations.

这就是下次我将探讨的东西。我因此回到我开始所说的东西:我仅能够到达我的说明的这点的这个事实,意味着:下个星期三的研讨班,将会举行,为了不要区隔太久,在这两次的研讨班之间的间隔,不要太久。请你们告诉已经收到下次宣告的人们。因为对于我们的解释的延续,是有害的。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Identification 80

February 7, 2015

Identification 80
认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

1962
7.3.62 XII 147

It is very easy to show that you can draw seven hexagons on the
torus and not one more, each one having with all the others a
common frontier. This, I apologise for it, to give a little
consistency to my object. This torus is not a bubble, it is not
a puff of air; you see how one can speak about it, even though
entirely, as one says in classical philosophy, as a construction
of the spirit it has all the resistance of something real. Seven
domains? For most of you: it is not possible. As long as I have
not shown it to you you have a right to oppose this “not
(24) possible” to me; why not six, why not eight?

我很容易显示,你们能够在圆环面获得七个六边形,但是无法再多一个。每一个六边形跟其他的六边形都拥有一个共同点边界。对于这点,我很抱歉,这是为了给予我的客体有个稍微的一致性。这个圆环面并不是一个泡沫。它并不是一阵气流。你们看见,我们能够谈论它。即使完整地作为精神的结果,如同古典哲学所说,它具有一切的抗拒,对于实在界的东西。七个领域?对于你们大部分的人们,那是不可能的。只要我没有跟你们显示它,你们就有权利对我提出反对,反对这个“不可能”。为什么不是六个领域?为什么不是八个领域?

Now let us continue. This ring here is not the only thing that
interests us as irreducible; there are others that you can draw
on the surface of the torus of which the smallest is what we can
call the most internal of the circles, which we will call empty
circles.

现在让我们继续下去。在此的这个环圈并不是唯一让我们感到興趣的东西,作为是不可化简的东西。还有其他东西,你们能够在这个圆环面的表面获得。最小的这个圆环面就是我们能够所谓的所有圆圈的最内部的圆圈。我们将称它为空洞的圆圈。

They make a circuit around this hole. One can make a lot of
things of them. What is certain, is that it is apparently
essential; now that it is there you can deflate your torus like a
bladder and put it in your pocket, because it is not part of the
nature of this torus to be always completely round, completely
even; what is important is this holed structure. You can
reinflate it every time you need it, but it can like the little
giraffe in little Hans who made a knot of his neck….

它们环绕这个空洞形成一个循环。我们能够用它们形成许多东西。确定的是,它明显是有必要的。就在那里,你们能够将你们的圆环面扁平,就像一个空气袋,然后放进你们的口袋。因为总是完整地保持圆形,完整地均匀,并不是这个圆环面的特性。重要的是这个具有空洞的结构。你们能够重新替它充气,每当你们需要它时。但是它会喜欢小汉斯的小长颈鹿。小汉斯将他的脖子弄成一个环结、、、

There is something that I want to show you right away. If it is
true that the synthetic enunciating in so far as it is maintained
in one of these circuits, in the repetition of this one, does it
not seem to you that this is going to be easy to depict. I have
only to continue what I drew for you at first fully, then in
dots, this will give a bobbin:

有某件东西,我想要立即跟你们显示。假如综合的表述确实在这些圆圈的其中一个圆圈里被维持,在这个圆圈的重复里,你们难道不觉得,这将是很容易描述?我只要继续我起初充足地跟你们所绘画的东西,用这些小点,这就会形成一个纺织轮轴。

Here then are the series of circuits that they carry out in the
unary repetition of what returns and what characterises the
primary subject in his signifying, automatism of repetition
relationship. Why not push the bobbining to the end, until this
be studied as an analyst which exists in the writings of Mr
Jones.

因此在此就是这些圆圈的系列,它们执行的这些圆圈,在独异性的重复,表现原初主体的回转的东西,及表现原初主体的特征的东西,在重复关系的自动机制里。为什么不将这个纺织轮轴推到结束呢?直到这个纺织轮轴被研究,作为存在的精神分析家,存在于琼斯先生的著作里的精神分析家。

What happens at the end of this circuit? It closes itself off;
we find here moreover the possibility of reconciling what is
supposed, implicated and the final return to meaning of
Natiirwissenschaft with what I underline concerning the
necessarily unary function of the circuit.

这个循环的结束时,发生什么事情?它封闭它的自身。而且,我们在此发现有可能协调所被认为,被牵涉的东西。最后回到Natiirssenschaft自然科学的意义,用我所强调的东西,关于这个循环的必然是独异性的功能。

This does not appear to you here in the way I am representing it
for you. But already there at the beginning and in so far as
the subject goes through the sequence of circuits he has
necessarily made a mistake of one in his count and we see
reappearing here the unconscious minus one in its constitutive
function.

在此你们看见的,似乎并不是我正在再现给你们的方式。但是它一开始就已经在那里。当主体经历各种循环的系列,他必然曾经犯下错误,他的计算的这一个循环。我们看见,在形成它的功能里,这个无意识的负一(-1)重新出现。

This for the simple reason that the circuit that he
cannot count is the one that he made in making a circuit of the
torus and I am going to illustrate it for you in an important
fashion, because it is of a nature to introduce you to the
function that we are going to give to two types of irreducible
act, those which are full circles and those which are empty
circles, regarding which you will guess that the second must have
some relationships with the function of desire.

理由很简单,他无法计算的这个循环,就是他形成的这个循环,当他将这个圆环面形成一个循环。我将要跟你们解释它,用一个重要的方式。因为这是相同的特性,跟你们介绍这个功能。我们将这个功能给予两种无法化简的行动,完整圆圈的行动与空洞圆圈的行动。关于它们,你们将会猜测到:第二个行动跟欲望的功能,一定有某种的关系。

Since, as compared to these circles which succeed one another, the
succession of full circles, you ought to notice that the empty
circles, which are in a way caught in the rings of these buckles
and which unify all the circles of demand among themselves, there
must be something which is related to the little object of
metonymy in so far as it is this object. I did not say that it
is desire that is symbolised by these circles, but the object as
such which is opposed to desire.

因为,跟互相接续的这些圆圈比较起来,完整圆圈的接续,你们应该注意到,这些空洞的圆圈,它们某方面被套陷在这些环扣的环圈里。完整的环圈统合所有的要求的圆圈,在它们当中。那一定会有某件东西跟换喻的这个小客体息息相关,因为它就是这个小客体。我并没有说,就是欲望,被这些圆圈所象征。而是说,被这些圆圈象征的这个客体,跟欲望对立。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

Identification 79

February 5, 2015

Identification 79

认同

Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

7.3.62 XII 145
You are going to see the core, the spice, the savour of these
topological properties. They consist essentially in a supportword
that I allowed myself to introduce in the form of a riddle
at the lecture of which I spoke earlier; and this word which
could not have appeared to you at that time with its real
meaning, is the loop (lacs).

你们将会看见这个核心,这个香料,这些拓扑图形的特性的品味。 它们基本上在于这个支撑的字。我容许我自己介绍这个支撑的字,以谜团的形式,在我早先谈论到底那个演讲。在当时,这个字本来不可能出现在你们面前,带着它的真实的意义。这个字就是圈套。

You see that in the measure that advances are made I reign over
my words for some time. I deafened your ears for a while with
(20) lacuna, now lacuna is reduced to lacs.

你们看见,随着进展的发展,我有时掌控我的用词。有一阵子,我用“lacuna”这个字词让你们震耳欲聋,现在,“lucuna”空白这个字词,则是化简成为“lacs”

The torus has this considerable advantage over a surface, which
is nevertheless a good one to savour which is called the sphere
or quite simply the plane, of not being at all Umwelt with
respect to the loops whatever they may be – lacs is lacis – that
you may trace on its surface.

这个圆环面拥有这个相当的优势,胜过表面。可是,表面是一个很好的表明,被称为球形,或仅是平面,根本不是无意识的球形或平面,关于这些圈套—无论它们是什么—空白就是空白—你们可能在空白的表面,追踪这些圈套。

In other words, on a torus as on any other surface you can make a
little ring; and then as they say, by progressive shrinkages you
reduce it to nothing, to a point.

换句话说,在圆环面,如同在任何其他的表面,你们能够形成一个小环圈。然后如同他们所说,凭借逐渐形成的萎缩,你们将它化简成为空无,成为一个点。
Observe that whatever may be
the loop that you situate in this way on a plane or on the
surface of a sphere it will always be possible to reduce it to a
point; and if it is the case, as Kant tells us, that there is a
transcendental aesthetic, I believe in it: simply I believe that
his is not the right one because precisely it is the
transcendental aesthetic of a space which first of all is not
one, and in the second place where everything depends on the
possibility of the reduction of anything whatsoever that is
traced on the surface which characterises this aesthetic so that
it can be reduced to a point, so that the totality of inclusion
which defines a circle can be reduced to the vanishing unity of
any point whatsoever around which it gathers itself, of a world
whose aesthetic is such that everything can be folded back on
everything, one always believes that one can have the all in the
hollow of one’s hand; in other words that whatever one draws on
it, one is able to produce in it this sort of collapse which when
(21) significance is involved will be called tautology.

请你们观察一下。以这种方式,无论你们定位的这个圈套是什么,在表面,或是在球形的表面,它将总是可能,将它化简成为一个点。假如它是这个情况,如同康德告诉我们,有一个超验的美学。我信仰它。仅是我相信,他的超验美学并非是合适的超验美学。因其确实就是一个空间的超验美学,这个空间首先就不是一个超验美学。其次,在那里,每件东西都依靠任何东西的化简的可能性,任何在表面被追踪的东西。它表现这种美学的特征,这样,它才能够被化简成为一个点。这样,定义圆圈的包容的整体性才能够被化简成为一个世界的任何点的逐渐消失的统一性。它聚集它自己,环绕着这个点。这个世界的美学是如此巨大,以致每样东西都能够折叠回到每样东西之上。我们总是相信,我们能够拥有这个“全部”,在一隻手段空洞里。换句话说,无论我们在它那里获得什么,我们能够在它那里产生这种的崩塌。当意义被牵涉时,这个崩塌被称为同义反复。

Everything entering into everything, consequently the problem is
posed: how it can happen that with purely analytic constructions
one can manage to develop an edifice which rivals the real as
well as mathematics?

进入每样东西的每样东西,结果,这个难题被提出:这是如何能够发生的?带着纯粹分析的结构,我们能够成功地发展一个建构,匹敌这个“实在界”,如同在数学那里。

I am proposing that one should admit in a fashion which no doubt
involves a concealment, something hidden which is going to have
to be carried forward, rediscovered where it is, one should pose
that there is a topological structure regarding which it is going
to be a question of showing how it is necessarily that of the
subject, which means that there are certain of its loops which
cannot be reduced. This is the whole interest of the model of my
torus.

我正在建议,我们应该承认,用无可置疑牵涉到隐藏的方式,某件被隐藏的东西。它将必须被扱带向前,在它所在地地方重新被发现。我们应该提出:有一个拓扑图形的结构。关于这个拓扑图形结构,问题将是要显示,它如何必然就是主体的拓扑图形的结构。这意味着,有某些它的圈套,无法被化简。这就是我的拓扑图形的模式的优点。

The fact is, as you can see, just by looking at it, there are a
certain number of circles traceable on this torus; this one, in
so far as it closes on itself I would call, it is simply a
question of a name, a full circle. No hypothesis about its
inside, it is a simple tag which I believe, by God, no worse than
any other, taking everything into consideration. I wavered for a
long time in speaking about it with my son – why not name him.
One might call it the engendering circle, but God knows where
that would lead us!

事实是,如同你们能够看见,仅是凭借观看它,有某些数目的圈圈在这个拓扑图形能够被追踪。这一个拓扑图形,因为它针对它自己封闭起来,我不妨这样说,那仅是一个名字的问题,一个完整的圆圈。关于它的内部,没有一个假设,那是我相信的一个简单的标签,我的天,它更任何其他的标签没有什么两样,当我们将每样事情考虑在内。很长一段时间,我摇摆不定,当我跟我的儿子谈论到它—为什么不命名他?我们可以称它为产生的圆圈,但是天晓得,那将会引导我们到哪里?

7.3.62 XII 146

But let us suppose therefore that any enunciating of the methods
which are called synthetic – because one is surprised especially
by this: even though one can enounce them a priori, they seem,
one does not know where, one does not know what, to contain
something, and this is what is called intuition, and one seeks
out its aesthetic, transcendental foundation – let us suppose
therefore that every synthetic enunciating – there are a certain
number of them at the origin of the subject, and to constitute it
– well then, unfolds according to one of these circles, called
the full circle and this is what images best for us what in the
completion of this enunciating is an irreducible series.

但是因此让我们假定,这些所谓的综合的方法的任何表述—因为我们对于这点特别惊奇:即使我们能够表述它们为先验,我们不知道哪里,我们不知道什么,它们似乎包容某件东西。这就是所谓的直觉。我们寻找出它的美学的,超验的基础。让我们因此假设,每件综合的表述—在主体的起源,总是有某些数码的综合的表述。形成每个综合的表述,呵呵,就是依照其中的一个圆圈来展开,它被称为是完整的圈圈。这就是对于我们,最具意象的东西。在完成这个表述时,属于无法化简的系列。

I am not going to limit myself to this simple little banter,
because I could have been content to take an infinite cylinder
because if it depended on that this would not take us very far.
An intuitive, geometrical metaphor let us say. Everyone knows
the importance that every battle between mathematicians has, it
is only around elements like this that it rages. Poincaré and
others maintain that there is an irreducible intuitive element
and the whole school of axiomaticists claim that we can entirely
formalize, starting from axioms of definition and from elements,
the whole development of mathematics, namely tear it away from
any topological intuition. Luckily M Poincaré understands very
well that it is indeed in topology that one finds the essence of
the intuitive element, and that one cannot resolve it and that I
would even say further: without intuition one cannot do this
science which is called topology, one cannot begin to articulate
it because it is a great science.

我并没有要限制我自己于这个小小的揶揄。因为我本来能够满足于採用一个无限的圆筒。因为假如它依靠那个圆筒,这将引导我们走不了多远。容我们说,这是一个直觉的,几何学的隐喻。众所周知这个重要性,数学家之间的战斗具有的重要性。它咆哮着,仅是环绕像这个的各种因素。博因凯尔与其他数学家主张:有一个无法化简的直觉的因素存在。整个的公理学派数学家宣称:我们能够完全地给予公式,从定义的公理开始,从基本因素开始,数学的整个发展,也就是,将它从任何拓扑图形的直觉撕裂开。幸运地,博因凯尔清楚地理解到,确实就是在拓普图形里,我们找到直觉的因素的本质。我们无法解决它。我甚至进一步说:假如没有直觉,我们无法从事所谓的拓扑图形的这门科学。我们无法开始表达它,因为它是一门伟大的科学。

There are big primary truths attached around this construction of
the torus and I am going to make you put your finger on
something: on a sphere or on a plane, you know that one can draw
(23) what is called any geographical map whatsoever however
complicated it may be and that in order to colour its domains in
a way which does not allow any one of them to be confused with
its neighbour four colours are enough.

环绕这个拓扑图形的这个建构,连系着巨大的原初的真理。我将要让你们理解某件东西:在球形或在平面,你们知道,我们能够画出所谓的任何的地理的地图,无论它是多么的复杂。为了替它的各个领域染色,这样它才不会跟它的邻近地区混淆,四个颜色就足够了。

If you find a very good demonstration of this really primary
truth, you can bring it to the right quarter because you will be
awarded a prize, since up to now the proof has not yet been
found.

假如你们找到这个确实的原初的真理的美好展示,你们能够将它带到右边的四分之一。因为你们将会给予奖金。因为直到现在,证据还没有被找到。

On this torus, you will not see it experimentally, but it can be
proved: in order to resolve the same problem, seven colours are
necessary, in other words on the torus with the tip of a pencil
you can define up to seven domains but not one more, these
domains being defined each one as having a common frontier with
the others. This to tell you that if you have a bit of
imagination, in order to see them altogether clearly, you will
draw hexagonal domains.

在这个圆环面,你们将不是根据试验看见它。但是它无法被证明:为了解决这个相同的难题,七种颜色是必要的。换句话说,用这个铅笔的尖端,在这个圆环面上。你们能够定义直到七个领域,但是不能再多。这些领域每一个被定义,作为拥有共同的边界,。跟其他的领域。这是为了告诉你们,假如你们拥有一点想像,为了完全清楚地看见它们,你们将会画出六角形的领域。

雄伯译
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