Identification 76

Identification 76


Jacques Lacan
雅克 拉康

7.3.62 XII 140

But why not see that in the structure of class itself as such a
new beginning is presented to us, if, for the relationship of
inclusion, we substitute a relationship of exclusion as the
radical support? In other words, if we consider as logically
original as regards the subject something that I am not
discovering, which is within the range of an average logician,
the fact is that the true foundation of class is neither its
extension nor its intension, that class always supposes
classification. In other words: mammals, for example to throw
some light immediately on what I mean are what are excluded from
vertebrates by the unary trait “mamma”.


What does that mean? That means that the primal fact is that the
unary trait can be lacking, that there is first of all the
absence of the mamma and that one says: it cannot be that the
mamma is missing, here is what constitutes the mammal class.


Look carefully at things when you really push them, namely open
the treatises and go through these thousand little aporias that
formal logic puts before you and you will see that it is the only
(12) possible definition of a class, if you really want to
guarantee it its universal status in so far as it constitutes
also from one side the possibility of its possible inexistence
with this class.


For you can just as validly, lacking from the
universal, define the class which includes no individual, this
will be nonetheless a class universally constituted with the
conciliation I am saying, of this extreme possibility with the
normative value of every universal judgement in so far as it
cannot but transcend every inductive inference namely drawn from


This is the meaning of the little dial that I represented for you
in connection with the class to be constituted among the others,
namely the vertical trait.


The subject at first constitutes the absence of such traits, as
such he is himself the top quarter on the right. The zoologist
if you will allow me to go this far, does not carve out the
mammal class in the assumed totality of the maternal mamma; it is
because he detaches the mamma that he can identify the absence of


The subject as such is minus one. It is starting from
(13) there, from the unary trait qua excluded that he decrees
that there is a class in which universally there cannot be the
absence of the mamma: minus minus one: -(-1). And it is starting
from there that everything is specifically ordered in particular
cases: in anything whatsoever (le tout venant), there is one or
there is not one ( 2 – 3 ) . A contradictory opposition is
established diagonally, and this is the only true contradiction
which subsists at the level of the establishment of the
universal/ affirmative, particular/negative dialectic, by the
unary trait.

主体的自身是负一(- 1)。从那里开始,从这个作为被排除的独异性开始,他决定,有一个类别。在这个类别里,普遍地,不可能存在着妈妈的缺席:负负一:-(-1). 就是从那里开始,每样东西明确地被规范秩序,在特殊的类别里:无论在任何东西,会有一个一,或并没有一个一(2-3)。一个悖论的对立斜角线地被建立。这是唯一的真实的悖论,存在于普遍性/肯定,特殊性/否定的辨证法的建立的层面,由于这个独异性的特征。


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