Aion XIV 241

Aion XIV 241

永恒纪元 第14章

THE STRUCTURE AND
DYNAMICS OF THE SELF

自性的结构与动力

5
The quaternity is an organizing schema par excellence,
something like the crossed threads in a telescope. It is a system
of co-ordinates that is used almost instinctively for dividing up
and arranging a chaotic multiplicity, as when we divide up the
visible surface of the earth, the course of the year, or a collection
of individuals into groups,67 the phases of the moon, the
temperaments, elements, alchemical colours, and so on.

这个四方图是一种非常优秀的组织的基模,像是望远镜的交叉的脉络的东西。这是一个协调的系统,它几乎本能地被使用,区分而且安排混沌的多重性。如同当我们区分地球的可见的表面,每年的过程,或将许多个人收集成为团体,月亮的圆缺。气候,元素,炼金术的颜色,等等。

Thus, we come upon a quaternio among the Gnostics, we find in
it an attempt, more or less conscious, to organize the chaotic
medley of numinous images that poured in upon them. As we
have seen, the arrangement took a form that derives from the
primitive cross-cousin marriage, namely the marriage quaternio.

因此,我们在诺斯教派里遇到一个四方体。我们在它里面发现一个企图,相当有意识的企图,要组织倾注于他们身上的各色各样的神性的意像。如同我们曾经看出,这个安排具有一种形式,从原初的表亲通婚而来的形式,也就是,四方体的婚姻。

68 This differs from the primitive form in that the sister exchange
marriage has sloughed off its biological character, the
sister’s husband no longer being the wife’s brother but another
close relative (such as the wife’s father in the Moses Quaternio),
or even a stranger. The loss of the cousin- and brother-attribute
is compensated as a rule by magical qualities, such as more
exalted rank, magical powers, and the like, both in the case of
the husband’s sister and the wife’s brother.

这不同于原初的形式,因为以姐妹作为交换的婚姻,已经抛弃它的生物的特性,姐妹的丈夫不再是妻子的兄弟,而是另外一个近亲(譬如,在摩西的四方体里的妻子的父亲),或甚至是陌生人。表亲与兄弟的属性的丧失通常被补偿,用魔力的特质,譬如更加崇高的地位,魔力的力量,等等,在丈夫的姐妹与妻子的兄弟的情况。
That is to say, an
anima-animus projection takes place. This modification brings
with it a great cultural advance, for the very fact of projection
points to a constellation of the unconscious in the husband-wife
relationship, which means that the marriage has become psychologically
complicated. It is no longer a state of mere biological and social coexistence, but is beginning to turn into a conscious relationship.

换句话说,阿尼玛-阿尼玛斯的投射发生。这个修正随之带来一个重大的文化的进展。因为投射的这个事实指向无意识的情结,在丈夫与妻子的关系。那意味着,婚姻在心理方面已经变得复杂。那不再仅是生物与社会共同存在的状态。而是它逐渐开始转变成为意识的关系。

This happens when the original crosscousin
marriage becomes obsolete as a result of the further differentiation
of marriage classes into a six-, eight-, or twelve-class
system. The cause of the activation of the unconscious that goes
hand in hand with this development is the regression of the
endogamous tendency the “kinship libido” which can no
longer find adequate satisfaction owing to the increasing
strangeness of the marriage partner.

这发生在原初的表亲的婚姻变得过时,由于婚姻阶级的更进一步的差异化成为六个,八个,或十二个阶级制度。无意识的被触动的原因,跟这个发展齐头并进。那就是近亲通婚的退化。“亲属的力比多”不再能够找到充分的满足,由于婚姻伴侣的逐渐增加的陌生感。
69
38* Besides the marriage quaternio, the Gnostics also used the
quaternity of the rivers of Paradise as a means of organizing
their numerous symbols. There are thus two (compensatory)
attempts, in the symbols we have listed, to organize the apparently
disconnected images. This accords with our experience of
the series of pictures produced during active imagination and in
chaotic psychic states. In both cases quaternity symbols appear
from time to time.70 They signify stabilization through order as
opposed to the Instability caused by chaos, and have a compensatory
meaning.

除了婚姻的四方体外,诺斯替教派也使用天堂的河流的四方体,作为组织他们的神性的象征的工具。因此,有两个(补偿的)企图,在我们列出的象征里,为了组织这个显而易见的中断的意象。这符合我们这一系列的图画的经验1,在积极想像与混沌的心灵的状态期间产生的图画系列。它们象征通过秩序的稳定化,作为跟混沌所引起的不稳定作为对立,并且拥有补偿的意义。

383 The four quaternios depicted above are first and foremost an
attempt to arrange systematically the almost limitless wealth of
symbols in Gnosticism and its continuation, alchemy. But such
an arrangement of principles also proves useful for understanding
the individual symbolism of modern dreams.

以上被描述的四个四方体,最重要的是一种企图,要系统地安排几乎是无限量的象征,在诺斯替教派与它的延伸物,炼金术。但是各种原则的这样的安排也证明是有用的,对于理解现代的梦的个人的象征。

The images we
encounter in this field are even more varied, and so confusing
in their complexity that some kind of organizing schema is absolutely
essential. As it is advisable to proceed historically, I have
taken the Moses Quaternio as a starting point, because it derives
directly from the primitive schema of the cross-cousin marriage.
Naturally this quaternio has only a paradigmatic significance.

在这个领域,我们遭遇的各种意象甚至更加千变万化。它们的错综复杂令人混淆,以致于某种的组织基模绝对是必要的。因为最好从历史方式前进,我就以摩西的四方体作为开端。因为它直觉从表近亲通婚的原始的基模演化而来。当然,这种四方体仅是具有典范的意义。

One could base the system just as easily on any other marriage
quaternio, but not on any other quaternity, such as, for instance,
Horus and his four sons. This quaternity is not aboriginal
enough, for it misses out the antagonistic, feminine element.71

我们能够同样容易地将这个系统的基础,放置在任何其他的婚姻的四方体。但是并不是任何的四方体都通用。譬如,何拉斯与他的四个儿子。这种四方体并不是足够原住民,因为它失落具有敌意的,女性的元素。

It is most important that just the extreme opposites, masculine-feminine
and so on, should appear linked together. That is why
the alchemical pairs of opposites are linked together in quaternities,
e.g., warm-cold, dry-moist. Applied to the Moses
Quaternio, the following schema of relationships would result:

重要的是,光就是这些极端的对立,男性与女性的对立,等灯,就会联接一块地出现。那就是为什么炼金术的对立配对,在四方体中联接一块。譬如,温暖-寒冷,乾燥-潮湿。当它被运用到摩西的四方体时,就会形成以下的关系的基模:

JETHRO Father 杰斯罗 父亲
MOSES Brother 摩西 兄弟
MIRIAM Sister 密力姆 姐妹
ZIPPORAH Daughter 基普拉 女儿

384 Whereas the first double pyramid, the Anthropos Quaternio,
corresponds to the Gnostic model, the second one is a construction
derived psychologically from the first, but based on the data
contained in the Biblical text used by the Gnostics. The psychological
reasons for constructing a second quaternio have already
been discussed.

虽然第一个双重金字塔,神性人形的四方体,对应于诺斯替教派的模式。第二个双重金字塔则是一种建构,心理上从第一个双重金字塔演变而来的建构。但是它的基础被包含在诺斯替教派使用的圣经的文本里。作为建构第二个四方体的心理的理由,已经被讨论过了。

That the second must be the “shadow” of the
first is due to the fact that the lower Adam, the mortal man,
possesses a chthonic psyche and is therefore not adequately expressed
by a quaternity supraordinate to him. If he were, he
would be an unsymmetrical figure, just as the higher Adam is
unsymmetrical and has to be complemented by a subordinate
quaternity related to him like his shadow or his darker reflection.

第二个双重金字塔一定是第一个双重金字塔的阴影,这是由于这个事实:地面的亚当,有限生命的人,拥有闪灵的心理,因此并没有充分地被表达,被早先于他被规范的四方体。假如他充分地被表达,他将会是一个不均称的人物。正如天堂的亚当是不均称,并且必须由跟他息息相关的隶属的四方体,作为辅助,像是他的阴影,或是他的较黑暗的反思。

S85 Now just as the Anthropos Quaternio finds its symmetrical
complement in the lower Adam, so the lower Adam is balanced
by the subordinate Shadow Quaternio, constructed after the
pattern of the upper one. The symmetrical complement of the
lower Adam is the serpent. The choice of this symbol is justified
firstly by the well-known association of Adam with the snake:
it is his chthonic daemon, his familiar spirit. Secondly, the snake
is the commonest symbol for the dark, chthonic world of instinct.
It may–as frequently happens– be replaced by an equivalent
cold-blooded animal, such as a dragon, crocodile, or fish.

现在,正如神性人形的四方体,在地面的亚当找到它的均称的辅助。地面的亚当也从隶属的阴影四方体获得平衡,模拟天堂的亚当的模式建构的阴影四方体。地面亚当地均称的辅助就是蛇。象征的选择能够自圆其说,首先根据这个著名的联想,将亚当跟蛇联想一块:这是一个闪灵的恶魔,他的熟悉的精神。其次,蛇就是最普遍的象征,对于黑暗,闪灵的本能的世界。如同经常发生的事,它可能会被冷血的动物的相等物所取代,譬如,龙,鳄鱼,或鱼取代。

But the snake is not just a nefarious, chthonic being; it is also,
as we have already mentioned, a symbol of wisdom, and hence
of light, goodness, and healing.72 Even in the New Testament
it is simultaneously an allegory of Christ and of the devil, just
as we have seen that the fish was. Similarly the dragon, which
for us has only a negative meaning, has a positive significance
in China, and sometimes in Western alchemy too.

但是蛇并不仅是极端邪恶,闪灵的生物。如同我们已经提到,它也是智慧的象征。因此,也是光,善良,与治疗的象征。即使在新约,蛇既是是基督,也是恶魔的寓言。正如我们已经看见,鱼也是一样。同样地,对于我们,龙仅有一个负面的意义,在中国,龙也具有正面的意义,在西方的炼金术,龙有时也具有正面的意义。

The inner polarity of the snake-symbol far exceeds that of man. It is overt,
whereas man’s is partly latent or potential. The serpent surpassed
Adam in cleverness and knowledge and can outwit him.
She is older than he, and is evidently equipped by God with a
superhuman intelligence, like that son of God who took over
the role of Satan.73

蛇的象征的内部的极端,远超过人的象征的内部的极端。这个内部的极端是显而易见的,尽管人有部分是潜在或潜能。在精明与知识方面,蛇超越亚当,并且机智胜过他。蛇比亚当更加早先存在,显而易见,由上帝予以装备超人的智慧。就像接替魔鬼的角色的上帝的那位儿子。

386 Just as man culminates above in the idea of a “light” and
good God, so he rests below on a dark and evil principle, traditionally
described as the devil or as the serpent that personifies
Adam’s disobedience.

正如人在光与良善上帝的观念的天堂,最为崇高。人在地面则是依靠黑暗与邪恶的原则。这个原则传统上被描述为恶魔,或作为亚当的不服从的具体化身的蛇。

And just as we symmetrized man by the
serpent, so the serpent has its complement in the second Naassene
quaternio, or Paradise Quaternio. Paradise takes us into
the world of plants and animals. It is, in fact, a plantation or
garden enlivened by animals, the epitome of all the growing
things that sprout out of the earth. As serpens mercurialis, the
snake is not only related to the god of revelation, Hermes, but,
as a vegetation numen, calls forth the “blessed greenness/
all the budding and blossoming of plant life.74 Indeed, this serpent
dwells even in the interior of the earth and is the pneuma that
lies hidden in the stone

正如我们用蛇让人保持均衡,蛇也具有它的辅助,在拿森尼的四方体,或天堂的四方体。天堂带领我们进入植物与动物的这个世界,从大地生长出来的一切成长的东西的轮廓。作为蛇的墨丘利神,蛇不但跟启示的赫密斯神息息相关。而且,作为植物的精神,它召唤「幸福的绿意」,植物生命的萌芽与开花。的确,这个蛇甚至驻居在大地的内部,它是隐藏于石头里的空气。

The symmetrical complement of the serpent, then, is the
stone as representative of the earth. Here we enter a later developmental
stage of the symbolism, the alchemical stage, whose
central idea is the lapis. Just as the serpent forms the lower
opposite of man, so the lapis complements the serpent.

蛇具有这种均衡的辅助,因此就是石头作为大地的代表。在此,我们进入象征主义的一个晚期发展的阶段,炼金术的阶段。它的中心观念是石头。正如蛇形成人的地面的对立,石头也作为蛇的辅助。

It corresponds,
on the other hand, to man, for it is not only represented
in human form but even has “body, soul, and spirit,” is an
homunculus and, as the texts show, a symbol of the self. It is,
however, not a human ego but a collective entity, a collective
soul, like the Indian hiranyagarbha, ‘golden seed/ The stone is
the “father-mother” of the metals, an hermaphrodite. Though
it is an ultimate unity, it is not an elementary but a composite
unity that has evolved.

另一方面,石头对应于人。因为石头不仅以人的形式被代表,而且甚至拥有「身体,灵魂,与精神」。它是何蒙丘鲁斯这个圆融生命,如同文本显示,它是自性的象征。可是,它并不是人的自我,而是集体的实体,集体的灵魂。就像印度的「黄金种子」。石头金属的「父亲与母亲」,阴阳同体。虽然它是一个最后的实体,它并不是已经进化的基本实体,而是组合实体。

For the stone we could substitute all
those “thousand names” which the alchemists devised for their
central symbol, but nothing different or more fitting would have
been said.

我们能够用所有那些「上千的名字」,来替换这个石头。炼金术师设计上千的名字,来作为他们的中心的象征。但是并没有说出任何不同或更加贴切的东西。

388 This choice of symbol, too, is not arbitrary, but is documented
by alchemical literature from the first to the eighteenth
century. The lapis is produced, as we have already seen, from
the splitting and putting together of the four elements, from
the rotundum. The rotundum is a highly abstract, transcendent
idea, which by reason of its roundness 76 and wholeness refers to
the Original Man, the Anthropos.

象征的选择也并不是任意的,而是由炼金术的文献列入记录,从第一世纪到第十八世纪的文献。石头被产生,如同我们已经看见,从这四个元素的分裂与组合,从圆原素产生。这个圆原素是非常抽象,超验的观念。由于它的圆与完整性,它提到原初的人,人的原型。

389 Accordingly our four double pyramids would arrange themselves
in a circle and form the well-known uroboros. As the
fifth stage, the rotundum would then be identical with the first;
that is to say, the heavy darkness of the earth, metal, has a secret
relationship to the Anthropos. That is obvious in alchemy, but
occurs also in the history of religion, where the metals grow
from Gayomart’s blood.77

因此,我们的四个双重金字塔将会安排它们自己成为一个圆圈,并且形成这个著名的「乌洛伯洛斯咬尾蛇」。作为第五阶段,圆原素将因此被认同是第一的双重金字塔。换句话说,大地的沉重的黑暗,金属,具有跟人的原型的关系。在炼金术,那是显而易见。但是也发生在宗教的历史。在那里,金属从加夭马特的血成长出来。

This curious relationship is explained
by the identity of the lowest, most material thing with the highest
and most spiritual, which we have already met in the interpretation
of the serpent as a chthonic and at the same time the
“most spiritual” animal. In Plato the rotundum is the world soul
and a “blessed God.” 78

这个耐人寻味的关系被解释,凭借将最低,最物质的东西,认同为最高,最精神的东西。在将蛇解释为闪灵,同时又是「最具有精神」的动物,我们已经遭遇这种最高,最精髓的东西。在柏拉图,这个圆原素就是世界的灵魂与「幸福的上帝」。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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