Aion VII

Aion VII
永恒纪元

Carl Jung
卡尔 荣格
VII
BACKGROUND TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF
CHRISTIAN ALCHEMICAL SYMBOLISM

基督教炼金术象征主义的心理学的背景

267 “Mater Alchimia” could serve as the name of a whole epoch.
Beginning, roughly, with Christianity, it gave birth in the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries to the age of science, only to
perish, unrecognized and misunderstood, and sink from sight in
the stream of the centuries as an age that had been outlived.

「炼金术物质」能够充当整个时代的名字。大约起源于基督教,炼金术物质在16与17世纪产生科学的时代,结果仅是毁灭,没有受到体认,而且被误解。然后沉落不见在几世纪的洪流里,作为已经被经历过的时代。

But, just as every mother was once a daughter, so too was alchemy.
It owes its real beginnings to the Gnostic systems, which Hippolytus
rightly regarded as philosophic, and which, with the
help of Greek philosophy and the mythologies of the Near and
Middle East, together with Christian dogmatics and Jewish
cabalism, made extremely interesting attempts, from the modern
point of view, to synthetize a unitary vision of the world in
which the physical and the mystical aspects played equal parts.

但是,正如每位母亲都曾经当过女儿,炼金术也是一样。它将它自己真实的开始归功于诺斯提的系统。海普利塔斯则是正确地将他视为哲学的系统。凭借希腊哲学与近东与远东的神话的帮助,以及基督教的教条与犹太教的基本教义派,诺斯提系统从事极端有趣的企图,从现代的观念,综合世界的一致性的幻象。在那里,生理与神秘的各个层面扮演相等的角色。

Had this attempt succeeded, we would not be witnessing today
the curious spectacle of two parallel world-views neither of
which knows, or wishes to know, anything about the other.
Hippolytus was in the enviable position of being able to see
Christian doctrine side by side with its pagan sisters, and similar
comparisons had also been attempted by Justin Martyr.

假如这个企图当时成功,我们今天将不会见证到这个耐人寻味的景象,两个并列的世界观的景象。其中没有一个世界观知道,或希望知道关于另外一个世界观的任何事情。海普利塔斯所处的立场让人羡慕,因为他能够看见基督教的信条,跟它的异教徒的姐妹们相提并论。贾斯丁 马泰尔也曾经企图做这些的比较。

To the honour of Christian thinking it must be said that up till the
time of Kepler there was no lack of praiseworthy attempts to
interpret and understand Nature, in the broadest sense, on the
basis of Christian dogma.

为了尊崇基督教的思想,我们必须说:一直到凯卜勒的时代,以基督教的教条作为基础,想要以广义的意义,解释与理解自然的令人赞赏的企图络绎不绝。

268 These attempts, however, inevitably came to grief for lack
of any adequate knowledge of natural processes. Thus, in the
course of the eighteenth century, there arose that notorious rift
between faith and knowledge.

可是,这些企图无可避免地遭遇挫折,因为欠缺对于自然过程的充分的知识。因此,在18世界的过程,信仰与知识就产生恶名昭著的分裂。

Faith lacked experience and science
missed out the soul. Instead, science believed fervently in
absolute objectivity and assiduously overlooked the fundamental
difficulty that the real vehicle and begetter of all knowledge is
the psyche, the very thing that scientists knew the least about
for the longest time.

信仰欠缺经验,而科学则是失落灵魂。代替地,科学热烈地相信绝对的客观性,并且不知不觉地忽视这个基本的困难:一切知识的真实的工具与产生者是心灵。长久以来,心灵就是科学家最为罕知的东西。

It was regarded as a symptom of chemical
reactions, an epiphenomenon of biological processes in the
brain-cells—indeed, for some time it did not exist at all. Yet all
the while scientists remained totally unaware of the fact that
they were using for their observations a photographic apparatus
of whose nature and structure they knew practically nothing,
and whose very existence many of them were unwilling to admit.

心灵被认为是化学反应的征状,是脑细胞的生物过程的次级现象。的确,有段时间,心灵根本就不存在。可是,科学家始终完全不知道这个事实:他们正在使用一个摄影的仪器,作为他们的观察。而这个摄影仪器的特性与结构,他们几乎一无所知。很多科学家不愿意承认心灵的存在。

It is only quite recently that they have been obliged to take into
their calculations the objective reality of this psychic factor. Significantly
enough, it is microphysics that has come up against
the psyche in the most tangible and unexpected way. Obviously,
we must disregard the psychology of the unconscious in this connection,
since its working hypothesis consists precisely in the
reality of the psyche. What is significant here is the exact opposite,
namely the psyche’s collision with physics. 1

仅有在最近,科学家才被迫将这个心灵的因素的客观的现实,列入他们的考量。非常重要地,微分物理学以非常具体而意外的方式遭遇到心灵。显而易见地,我们必须忽略关于这点的无意识的心理学。因为它的运作的假设确实就是在于心灵的现实。在此,重要的事情是这个确实的相反,也就是,心灵跟物理的冲突。

269 Now for the Gnostics—and this is their real secret—the
psyche existed as a source of knowledge just as much as it did for
the alchemists. Aside from the psychology of the unconscious,
contemporary science and philosophy know only of what is outside,
while faith knows only of the inside, and then only in the
Christian form imparted to it by the passage of the centuries,
beginning with St. Paul and the gospel of St. John. Faith, quite
as much as science with its traditional objectivity, is absolute,
which is why faith and knowledge can no more agree than
Christians can with one another.

现在,对于诺斯提教派,这是他们的秘密—心灵存在,作为知识的来源。正如它存在,对于炼金术师。除了无意识的心理学外,当代科学与哲学仅是知道外在的东西,而信仰则仅是知道内在的东西。因此仅有以几世纪的经过赐予它的基督教的形态,从圣保罗与圣约翰福音书开始。信仰与科学一样,都具有它的传统的客观性,它是绝对的。那就是为什么信仰与知识不再互相同意,如同基督教徒与它无法互相同意。

27° Our Christian doctrine is a highly differentiated symbol that
expresses the transcendent psychic—the God-image and its properties,
to speak with Dorn. The Creed is a “symbolum.”

我们的基督教的教条是一个高度差异化的象征,表达超验的心灵—上帝的意象与上帝的属性。用敦恩的话说,这个信念是一种「象征主义」。

This comprises practically everything of importance that can be ascertained
about the manifestations of the psyche in the field of
inner experience, but it does not include Nature, at least not in
any recognizable form.

这几乎包括每样重要的东西。它们能够被确定,关于心灵的证明,在内在经验的领域。但是它并没有包括自然,至少不是以可被体认的形式。

Consequently, at every period of Christianity
there have been subsidiary currents or undercurrents
that have sought to investigate the empirical aspect of Nature
not only from the outside but also from the inside.

结果,在基督教的每个时期,总是有些支流或暗流曾经尝试探索自然的经验的层面,不但从外在,而且从内在。

27 1 Although dogma, like mythology in general, expresses the
quintessence of inner experience and thus formulates the operative
principles of the objective psyche, i.e., the collective uncon-
scious, it does so by making use of a language and outlook that
have become alien to our present way of thinking.

虽然信条,就像一般的神话,表达内在经验的本质,因此阐明客观的心灵的运作的原理,也就是,集体无意识。可是,它这样做,是凭借使用语言与外观。那是我们目前的思维方式感到陌生的语言与外观。

The word “dogma” has even acquired a somewhat unpleasant sound and
frequently serves merely to emphasize the rigidity of a prejudice.
For most people living in the West, it has lost its meaning as a
symbol for a virtually unknowable and yet “actual”—i.e., operative—
fact.

「教条」这个字词甚至已经获得相当令人不愉快的声音,并且经常充当仅是强调偏见的僵化。对于生活于西方的大部分的人们,教条这个字词已经丧失它作为象征的意义,象征几乎无法知道可是又「实际」,也就是,运作的事实。

Even in theological circles any real discussion of
dogma had as good as ceased until the recent papal declarations,
a sign that the symbol has begun to fade, if it is not already
withered.

即使在神学的圈子里,任何真正的讨论信条几乎都停止,直到最近的教皇的宣告。这是象征已经开始衰微的迹象,即使它还没有已经枯萎。

This is a dangerous development for our psychic
health, as we know of no other symbol that better expresses the
world of the unconscious. More and more people then begin
looking round for exotic ideas in the hope of finding a substitute,
for example in India.

对于我们的心灵的健康,这是一个危险的发展。因为我们并不知道有任何其他的象征,更加贴切地表达无意识的世界。越来越多的人们因此开始环首四顾,寻找外来的观念,希望找到一个替代品,譬如,在印度。

This hope is delusory, for though
the Indian symbols formulate the unconscious just as well as
the Christian ones do, they each exemplify their own spiritual
past. The Indian teachings constitute the essence of several
thousand years of experience of Indian life.

这个希望是欺骗性。因为虽然印度的象征阐释无意识,跟基督教的象征阐释一样详尽,他们各自作为他们自己的精神的过往的典范。印度的教导形成好几千年的印度的生活的经验的本质。

Though we can
learn a lot from Indian thought, it can never express the past
that is stored up within us. The premise we start from is and
remains Christianity, which covers anything from eleven to nineteen
centuries of Western life. Before that, there was for most
Western peoples a considerably longer period of polytheism and
polydemonism.

虽然我们能够从印度的思想学习,它永远无法表达被储存在我们内在的过去。我们用来开始的假设是基督教,也始终是基督教。基督教涵盖从11世纪到19世纪的西方的生活的一切。在那之前,对于大部分的西方的民族,有更加漫长的时期,是多神教与多重恶魔教。

In certain parts of Europe Christianity goes back
not much more than five hundred years—a mere sixteen generations.
The last witch was burnt in Europe the year my grandfather
was born, and barbarism with its degradation of human
nature has broken out again in the twentieth century.

在欧洲的某些部分,基督教回溯不到五百年前—那仅是16个世代。就在我的祖父诞生那年,欧洲最后的女巫被烧死。野蛮主义跟它的人性的堕落在20世纪再次爆发。

雄伯译
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw
https://springhero.wordpress.com

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